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IX INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON

ORIENTAL ASTRONOMY

November 14 to 18, 2016

IISER, Pune, India

Abstracts

Icoa2016.tifr.res.in

TATA INSTITUTE OF FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH
Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005, INDIA

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Contents
Contents .............................................................................. 3
ORAL PRESENTATION .............................................................. 7
Session 1: General Astronomy ................................................ 7
Session review: Introducing Father Antoine Thomas:
Thailand’s First Scientific Astronomer ................................ 7
Jesuit astronomical observations in India during XVIIth and
XVIIIth centuries ................................................................... 7
Astronomy in Pre-modern Georgia: Written Sources from
Four Manuscript Collections ............................................... 8
The first astronomical use of the telescope from India ...... 9
Session 2: Calendrical Astronomy ......................................... 10
Session Review: K Ramasubramanian............................... 10
Sunrise and sunset tables in Yuan and Ming China (A.D.
1271-1644) ........................................................................ 10
On the length of year after Varahamihira's
PanchaSiddhantika ............................................................ 11
Ragoonatha Charry and his 'scientific' pañcāṅga ............. 11
Session 3: Astronomical Calculations.................................... 12
Session Review: Derivation of the inclination of Mars' orbit
in the Almagest ................................................................. 12
Lunar Occultation of stars - Periodicity and circumstancesin historical perspective .................................................... 13
Yogyādivākyas: A simplest and interesting way to obtain
the longitude of Sun.......................................................... 14
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The Solar Theory in Nikolaus Smogulecki and Xue
Fengzuo’s Tianbu zhenyuan (天步眞原) ........................... 14
Session 4: Instrumentation and Architecture ....................... 15
Session Review: Srikumar Menon ..................................... 15
Sukuh Temple in Karanganyar Regency ............................ 15
Internal Spatial Composition of Heumgyeonggaknu ........ 16
Archeoastronomical Study on the Outer City’s East Gate of
Shimao City ....................................................................... 17
Session 5: Instrumentation ................................................... 18
Session Review: Towards the restoration of the Jantar
Mantar observatory instruments at Delhi: I. Calibration and
observations with the Jaiprakas and the Ram Yantra....... 18
Instruments based on descriptions in Indian astronomy
texts .................................................................................. 19
The Structural change of the Sun-and-Stars TimeDetermining Instrument ................................................... 20
Astronomical Instruments of Muslim Period in India:
Celestial Globes and Astrolabes ........................................ 21
Session 6: Observation of Stars............................................. 24
Session Review: M N Vahia ............................................... 24
Tribal astronomy of India .................................................. 24
Observational Records of stars in Indian texts ................. 24
Effect of Modern Sky Charts’ Software on the Names of
Stars .................................................................................. 25
Session 7: Cross Cultural Astronomy .................................... 26
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....... 27 The Developments of Eclipse theory in the Jing chu li: What makes it the Peak of Early calendrical Systems in China .................................................................. 33 Session Review: K............... 33 Astronomical studies in Mughal court culture ................................................................................................................................ 26 The Influence of Indian Astronomy on Medieval Islamic Astronomy.. 32 The Meteorites of Japan: an Historical Perspective ................. 27 Session Review: Transits and Occultation in Indian Astronomy........ the Founder of the First Astrophysical Observatory in India ............................ Jiuzhi-li (九執暦) ........... 31 Astronomical symbols on Indian Punchmarked Coins? ...... 28 Lunar and Solar Eclipse procedures in Indian Astronomy 29 Calculation of Solar Eclipse Times in the Zhongxiu-Daming Calendar .................................................. 35 Mathematical methods of 16th Century Iran ............Session Review: Rajesh Kochhar ......................................................... 36 5 .................. 26 Session 8: Eclipses ............... 26 Analysis of Asu(阿修) and Gaoyue(高月) recorded in the Indian calendar.................................................... Naegamvala.... 31 Session Review: Reliability of the records of observed solar eclipses in India and comparison with contemporaneous eclipse data of other countries .............. 30 Session 9: Interdisciplinary Archaeoastronomy...................................................................................... 32 Session 10: Medieval Period ........................................ D......

............ 41 Ancient Astronomy in Kashmir Context .......... 42 Any Astronomical Alignment in Muaro Jambi Temple Complex.... 39 Our history in our traditions: a reminder ............................ 36 POSTERS ................................................................................................................ 43 6 ....................... 38 Study of ‘Vyaṭīpāta’ from Epigraphical records found in regions. Indonesia? ...........Accuracy of measuring the Northern Celestial Pole in the Joseon dynasty period ............ 42 Comets in ancient India ................... in and around Karnataka ................ Sumatra............................................ 38 Mapping Time Rather Than Mapping Space: Dar al-Funun and the introduction of modern astronomy and photography in Qajar Iran..............................................................................

Father Antoine Thomas in 1681. Chiang Mai. Thailand. who settled the longitude of Goa through a Lunar eclipse 7 . Belgian born in Namur. and we then detail the various astronomical observations that he made while based in Siam (present-day Thailand) before he relocated to China in mid-1682. Brussels. the first astronomer to carry our scientific observations in Siam was the Belgian-born Jesuit missionary. In that year Fr Thomas determined the latitude and longitude of Ayutthaya and the following year he observed an eclipse of the Moon. One of the first Jesuit astronomers who made observations in India before reaching China. Thomas. Jesuit scholars often played a major role. In this paper we draw on archival material located in Paris in May 2016 to provide a biographical profile of Fr. Belgium Throughout XVIIth and XVIIIth centuries. Lars Gislén.ORAL PRESENTATION Session 1: General Astronomy Session review: Introducing Father Antoine Thomas: Thailand’s First Scientific Astronomer Wayne Orchiston. Jesuit astronomical observations in India during XVIIth and XVIIIth centuries Jean Michel Delire University of Brussels. was Antoine Thomas (1644-1709). According to our research on early Thai history. our knowledge of Indian geography and astronomy increased a lot. Darunee Lingling Orchiston. due to several scientific embassies between European and Asiatic courts. Martin George. thanks to their excellent scientific education and their desire to travel all over the world. in order to convert it to the Christian faith actually. his final destination. Boonrucksar Soonthornthum National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand.

that they transmitted. they didn’t work in optimal conditions. Brad Carter4 1 University of Southern Queensland 2 National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand. Wayne Orchiston2. This was the beginning of the astronomers’ taking account of Oriental astronomy in the history of science. F. By so doing. Actually. by instance. and S). Richard Stephenson3. with their astral observations. Q. interested as they were by science. Our study has focused on manuscripts now housed at the National Centre of Manuscripts in Tbilisi. and often had to be very ingenious to be able to collect data sufficiently accurate as to be accepted by the very demanding European professional astronomers. It happened that the Jesuits challenged conclusions expressed by the last ones in their books or tables. initiated in 2009. of premodern written sources relating to astronomical phenomena and cultural astronomy from the Republic of Georgia. we will focus on Jesuits who worked in India. and we will read some very interesting dialogues between these two kinds of observers from distant parts of the world in the Comptes Rendus de l’Académie Royale des Sciences. 3University of Durham. history or simply local languages. but also around them.in 1680. He was followed by many others who looked. 4 University of Southern Queensland We present our findings of a detailed study. about Indian and Chinese astronomy. to the professional astronomers in Paris and other European places. that every Jesuit missionary was supposed to study. In our paper. not only at the sky in order to know their coordinates. H. they collected data. Georgia (Collections A. on their contribution to the geographical and astronomical knowledge of their time and especially on their methods. Out of the 8 . Astronomy in Pre-modern Georgia: Written Sources from Four Manuscript Collections Jefferson Sauter1.

India The year 1618 in astronomy was a unique one in that it presented three bright cometary apparitions in quick succession. were adapted to a Georgian audience. Few of these 200 manuscripts have hitherto been studied in detail. For example. we have identified over 200 of interest and importance for the study of historical and cultural astronomy. From these manuscripts emerges a relatively standard repertoire of texts that permitted a range of astronomical and meteorological phenomena to be interpreted as they occurred. C. 4th ‘B’ Block. albeit imperfectly. This turned into a unique occasion indeed when the same targets of opportunity were followed. Kapoor 31. Moreover. but they allow us to examine. This paper is an account of the observations of two of the three great comets of 1618 made from India.approximately 11. through both a broad survey of manuscripts and in-depth case studies. Bengaluru – 560034. The first astronomical use of the telescope from India R. how astronomy was adapted for. and practiced by. independently. by astronomers of two 9 . Slavic. and Islamic worlds. Koramangala. the numerous less sophisticated ones that do still tell us much about the transmission and circulation of astronomical ideas and beliefs – as well as how Georgians applied such notions in everyday lives. despite being of a relatively nontechnical nature. Although we have found few astronomical works of a technical nature surviving to the present. a society on the edges of the Byzantine. The comets created enough sensation and belong to the era when Galileo‘s telescopic observations had created a paradigm shift in our perception of the heavens and Johannes Kepler was introducing a fundamental change in mathematical astronomy by redefining the orbits around the Sun.500 manuscripts preserved in Georgian in these four collections. we demonstrate how such written sources illustrate the extent to which astronomical ideas and beliefs. a legendary total solar eclipse of the early fourth century AD appears to take on a life of its own in a much later seventeenth century work on celestial prognostication.

With the help of computer-aided analysis and case studies.. a telescope. via Ujjain in the thirteenth year of his accession. the fourth Mughal Emperor of India. Kirwitzer collated and published these observations in 1620 in a short treatise where he states that he viewed the comets with a tubo optico also. while the other one mainly for laymen.H. the capital city of the Empire. 1027 A.D.e. 1271-1644) Liang LI Institute for the History of Sciences This presentation will introduce two types of time tables in the Chinese calendrical systems during the Yuan and Ming period. but too complicated and could bring heavy calculation burdens. i. but not accurate enough. recorded in the Tūzūki Jahāngīrī (Memoirs of Jahāngīr). Session 2: Calendrical Astronomy Session Review: K Ramasubramanian Sunrise and sunset tables in Yuan and Ming China (A. Jahāngīr. From the recorded dates.different streams and observations recorded quantitatively. joined by brother Jesuits. Jahāngīr turns out to be an independent discoverer of two great comets appearing one after the other in November 1618. two methods which were used to calculate these tables are explained. Their first observations also correspond to the discovery dates of the comets. The same comets were followed by Father Antonius Rubinus from Cochin. The official astronomers in the Yuan and Ming dynasty all followed the first method to calculate the sunrise and sunset tables used for their capital Beijing and Nanjing 10 . in an astronomical observation from India. The first type was used for calendrical calculation by experts. The second method named nine domains method is simple and easy. Fr. observed these comets from Goa. The analysis shows that the first method named arc and sagitta method is accurate and more coincident with the theory. The Jesuit Venceslaus Kirwitzer. appearance of two comets during the royal course from the town of Dohad in Gujarat to Agra. That makes it to be the first use of an optical device.

0023 days over about 1500 years. (a) The earth's spinning around it's axis has slowed down. If this was the convention for orbital periods.respectively. thereby decreasing the orbital period by 0. possibly around 550 AD) the position of the aphelion. This could be due to one of the following reasons. hailed as first Indian to make 11 . Varahamihira also documents the correct ayanamsha of about 0. have to be re-examined. nodes (intersection of the orbit with ecliptic) and orbital periods of planets were fairly well determined. Considering this. Mumbai. New Delhi Early of nineteenth century witnessed widespread circulation of printed pañcāṅga (traditional Hindu almanacs) in the Madras presidency. after AryaBhatta. Ragoonatha Charry and his 'scientific' pañcāṅga T V Venkateswaran Vigyan Prasar.2584 days as against our present accepted mean value of 365. it is a surprise that this information is not recorded nor discussion about the origin of the co-ordinate system. Moreover. though we certainly shifted the start of year from a direction near Antares to the current position in Aries. it is strange that the length of the year given was 365. these pañcāṅga were besieged with errors. mandochcham. Computed using the Vākya algorithms. any astronomical calculations based on data for more than 4000 years.256 days for the sidereal year. Chinthamani Ragoonatha Charry.0141 days per year. how these tables were transmitted to Korea and how they were modified and used in Korea capital by Korean astronomers will also be discussed. is important in astrology). such as eclipse circumstances. which might have used earth's spinning period as a unit. or (b) The year might have been determined based on time taken by earth to move from aphelion to aphelion (aphelion. On the length of year after Varahamihira's PanchaSiddhantika D Narasimha Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. India By the Siddhantika period (Varahamihira. Then.

Positing that the engagement during the colonial period has been both 'philosophical and practical'. around 1870s. particularly those which are visible to naked eye. presents the context and an overview of the pañcāṅga reform endeavoured by Ragoonatha Charry. Session 3: Astronomical Calculations Session Review: Derivation of the inclination of Mars' orbit in the Almagest Misturu Sôma National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Tokyo. Japan 12 . but also elaborated on stellar phenomena.modern astronomical discovery and employee of the Madras astronomical observatory advocated reform of the traditional Indian almanacs (pañcāṅga). nākṣatra. in Tamil and Telugu. and gave much accurate predictions for Solar and lunar eclipses. These almanacs confirmed to the ritual demands of the traditional pañcāṅga even while drawing upon elements of the 'almanacs' published by the British settlers in Madras Presidency. occultations and so on. Smārta sect of Kanchi Kamokoti Mutt and the Aiyangar sub-sect owing allegiance to Jeears of Ahobila matt. Hitherto the science in colony scholarship has understood the engagement between Europeans and Indians either as a process of philosophical rationalisation reconciling old and new forms of knowledge or as cross cultural negotiation within Indian response to western science. Displeased with the errors in the traditional pañcāṅga. Convinced by the arguments advocated by Ragoonatha Charry and the accuracy of his predictions. Charry's 'scientific' pañcāṅga not only provided the computation of traditional elements such as tithi. drawing upon the computations of modern astronomy. a contribution to debates on Indian modernity. two principle languages of the presidency. two major religious sects. supported the 'scientific' pañcāṅga. he took upon himself to publish 'scientific' pañcāṅga. yoga and karaṇa. this paper.

The participating bodies in the case of lunar occultation Moon and the star. 13 . which is too small. The procedure for occultation is similar to that of solar eclipse. In the course of the sidereal period of 27. the stars whose latitude is less than 5º 8' are eligible for occultation. Actual circumstances of some occultation of stars cited by earlier authors as also of modern time are worked out. A lunar conjunction with every star turns out to be an occultation only when their latitudes are sufficiently close. Bangalore.5º. (ii) for a star whose latitude lies between 3°56' to 6°21' has only one series of lunar occultation. India In Indian astronomical texts. However since the moon’s orbital plane oscillates. It will be also discussed what mistakes Ptolemy made in deriving the inclination. An occultation occurs when one object passes in front of another as seen by the observer. In this paper a study of the phenomenon of lunar occultation and the periodicity of this phenomenon are discussed. It is shown that a more precise value can be obtained from the same observations that Ptolemy used. (iii) star whose latitude is greater than about 6°21' is never occulted by the Moon.Ptolemy obtained the inclination of Mars' orbit as 1 degree in the Almagest. generally the lunar occultation of some particular visible stars like Makhā (Regulus) and Citrā (Spica) are considered important.Periodicity and circumstances. Since a lunar orbit has a mean inclination of about 5º8' with the ecliptic. It is estimated that (i) a star whose latitude is less than 3°56' has two series of lunar occultation during the sidereal period of the Moon’s node. its inclination with the ecliptic rises to a maximum of about 6. Lunar Occultation of stars .32 days the Moon has conjunction with every star when their longitudes are equal.in historical perspective Rupa K Global Academy of Technology.

the planets. namely ‘māsavākyas’. based on the general principles of Indian astronomy. Rohiṇi (Aldebaran) and Jyesthā (Anteres). In the vākya system of astronomy prevalent in south India. Citrā (Spica). ‘saṅkrāntivākyas’. In this article. SASTRA University. The text Karaṇapaddhati of the Kerala astronomer Putumana Somayāji (approx.Thus the visible stars which are eligible for lunar occultation are Makhā (Regulus). the Moon. the true longitudes of the Sun. Yogyādivākyas: A simplest and interesting way to obtain the longitude of Sun Venketeswara Pai R School of EEE. 1732 CE) describes methods to obtain the set of vākyas. we explain the procedures outlined in Karaṇapaddhati to obtain the sets of vākyas pertaining to the Sun. In particular. Thanjavur – 613401. and ‘yogyādivākyas’. ‘nakṣatrasaṅkramaṇavākyas’. it presents the rationale for obtaining the various vākyas pertaining to the Sun. and associated quantities can be directly found using vākyas or mnemonics. The set of vākyas for a specific physical variable presented at regular intervals is essentially a numerical table. The Solar Theory in Nikolaus Smogulecki and Xue Fengzuo’s Tianbu zhenyuan (天步眞原) Chu Longfei The solar theory in Nikolaus Smogulecki and Xue Fengzuo’s (薛鳳祚 ) Tianbu zhenyuan (天步眞原) was adapted from Belgian 14 . In the famous text of Ptolemy’s Almagest and Copernicus’ De-Revolutionibus we get some interesting references to the occultation of some bright stars observed by the two great astronomers or their predecessors we provide some of these references and also others.

The construction of Sukuh deviates from the construction guidelines stated in the Hindu book of Wastu Widya. As a result. This temple was built in the era of Majapahit with the aim of pengruwatan. but they made many mistakes. characterized by the appearance of terraced punden feature and the positioning of the sacred buildings which is located rearmost in the highest place. Session 4: Instrumentation and Architecture Session Review: Srikumar Menon Sukuh Temple in Karanganyar Regency Al Khansa Rodhiyah Bandung Institute of Technology. his revision could only keep the accuracy of his solar theory at a good level during the first half of the 17 th century.astronomer Philippe van Lansberge’s Tabulae Motvvm Colestium Perpetuae. This west-facing temple has three gates. Bandung. when the value of Hinduism started to weaken and the Islamic Kingdom of Demak started to rise. The construction of Sukuh Temple has more resemblance to pre-Hindu buildings. such as the eccentricity of the sun’s orbit. but he adjusted most parameters in his model. all these mistakes and defects make the solar theory of the Tianbu zhenyuan very obscure and abstruse and hard to understand. to ward off bad powers. which is a critical defect in the whole book. Indonesia Sukuh Temple is a Hindu temple located at Karanganyar Regency in Indonesian province of Central Java. Nikolaus Smogulecki and Xue Fengzuo didn’t change Lansberge’s solar theory. they didn’t exactly explain the mothed how to calculate the time difference between a given time and the epoch. The first gate there is lingga and 15 . an incorrect assumption in Copernicus’ theory. This temple is supposedly constructed after the decline of Majapahit Empire. In the solar part of the Tianbu zhenyuan. Comparing with Nicolaus Copernicus’ theory. Lansberge’s model for the motions of the sun is almost the same to Copernicus’. However. in which a heliocentric system was constructed. like textual errors of the numerical values and illustrations. Moreover. He especially revised the calculating method of the equation of precession.

Inside of the clock. the power system. Sukuh Temple interpreted as a temple belonging to the ascetics (priest). anecdotal pengruwatan performed by Goddess Durga for allegedly cheating. Calculation of declination of celestial bodies that are above Sukuh. and there is a relief that reads gapura butha aban wong (gate giants feed on humans) that have meaning in 1359 Saka or 1437 AD. The second gate has a relief that reads gajah wiku anahut buntut that has meaning in 1378 Saka or 1456 AD. because the relief is a bit vulgar. clepsydra. move. Cheonhyeong (celestial balancing lever). After the third gate of the main building there is a truncated pyramid shaped. The main building is similar to a Mayan temple in Mexico and the Incas of Machu Pichu in Peru. and it made solar movement apparatus and 37 time signal puppets. installed at outside of Heumgyeonggaknu. 3Korea University of Science and Technology Heumgyeonggaknu is water-hammering type astronomical clock made by Jang Yeong-Sil in 1438. we studied Jujeon. Also. the early period of Joseon Dynasty. Taking the declination value corresponding to the declination of the Sun. we studied operation mechanism and scale of clepsydra and water wheel. then the collinear between the Sun and the building at Sukuh knowable. 2Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute. Yong-gi Kim1. Internal Spatial Composition of Heumgyeonggaknu Seon Young Ham1. were systematically operated. We studied the internal spatial composition of Heumgyeonggaknu to realize its operation mechanism as its function. Yong Sam Lee1 1 Chungbuk National University.2.yoni (phallus and vagina) as a means of fertility. water wheel.3. The third gate there is a story ballad Sundamala. Besides relief on Sukuh have little resemblance to the Khajuraho Temples in India. allegedly around October. with the figure Bhima and Shiva. and various gears etc. Jujeon (time signal counting apparatus). Possible collinear between buildings on Sukuh with the Sun. the apparatus to generate the signal 16 . Sang Hyuk Kim2. Especially. Therefore. the Sun rises exactly in the east and in line with the hand of the first gate (lingga and yoni).

archaeoastronomy. try to explore and recreate the astronomy. Archeoastronomical Study on the Outer City’s East Gate of Shimao City Lyu Yufei1. scientifically computed data and empirical measurements. The Outer City’s East Gate is the earliest systematically excavated archaeological site in this early city. water wheel. paleography. Shao Jing3 1 Researcher Institute of Historical and Cultural Resources Studies. Sun Zhouyong2. the ancient city in Shimao is a milestone in the research for the origin of Chinese civilization. Based on these studies.. the sacrificial pit arrangements and human sacrifice rites used in the cornerstone laying ceremony. cosmology and beliefs system of the Shimao people. philology etc. Also. statistical analysis. and secondly. from the disciplinary perspectives of archaeology. we decided the position of clepsydra. and Jujeon in Heumgyeonggaknu. we analyzed the operation mechanism of Jujeon and concretized its shape through 3D modelling. are all very special and mysterious. The structure and alignment of the building. Peking University 2 Researcher Shaanxi Provincial Archaeological Institute 3 Associate Researcher Shaanxi Provincial Archaeological Institute Founded 4200 years ago.toward time signal puppets on the time signal platform. preliminarily verify the profound cultural connotations contained in the Outer City’s East Gate through random measurements. 17 . This paper shall.

Rathnasree. but in this particular case. prior to the planned restoration of the instrument surface markings by the Archeological Survey of India. and arriving at an 18 . Calibration and observations with the Jaiprakas and the Ram Yantra N. is presented here. the current work is the only effort towards giving detailed observations using the instruments. and the one at Delhi in particular. The markings related to the rising and/or culmination of the Zodiac signs. for the drawing/etching of the markings for the measurement of Altitude and Azimuth on the one hand. The purpose of this database collection is to give an overall idea of the state of the instrument at present. Pritpal Sandhu. Pulkit Agarwal. which may have been present originally on the Jaiprakas. In all the existing literature about the Jaiprakas and Ram Yantra instruments built by Jai Singh. The restoration process can utilise the methods outlined here.Session 5: Instrumentation Session Review: Towards the restoration of the Jantar Mantar observatory instruments at Delhi: I. such a restoration would not make any Astronomical sense. The required markings for the same would have shifted with precession of the axis of rotation of Earth. Sonia Munjal and Megha Rajoria A database of Positional Astronomy observations using the Jaiprakas and the Ram Yantra of the Jantar Mantar observatory. have not been undertaken. and Right Ascension and Declination (for the Jaiprakas) on the other. Delhi. Lavanya Nemani. The observations and the related documentation of procedures involved is also aimed at providing templates for the planned restoration of the instrument surface markings. and drawing them according to current positions would be different from the original markings. The time markings along the Equator can also be undertaken with the procedures discussed. Conservation practice requires a restoration to the original design. using these methods.

and hopefully. Amrita University. to assess their feasibility. They find mention in the works of Āryabhata ( 5 th /6th cent. Sripati (11th /12th cent. yaṣṭi (staff) . latitude of a place. Brahmagupta (7th cent. In our presentation.). Chennai 600025.understanding of the actual condition and functioning of the instrument based on these observations. and accuracy. Bhāskara-II (12th cent. nādivalaya (equatorial sundial) for time.). Instruments based on descriptions in Indian astronomy texts S.). we take up the gnomon. for fixing the east-west direction. and so on. Venkatesh1 and M. Various astronomical instruments have been described in the siddhānta (mathematical astronomy) texts in India. and in the popular ‘modern’ Sūryasiddhānta (around 10th cent.). right from the 6th century CE. there would be a chapter on yantrādhyāya (chapter on instruments) in the siddhānta texts.). various kinds of clepsydra and water instruments for time. Often. and nalaka (tube) for locating a celestial object. and time .). 19 . Coimbatore 641 112. of Theoretical Physics. University of Madras. cakra (circle) for the altitude of the Sun and time from that. Lalla (8th /9th cent. The instruments described include : sañku (gnomon). Guindy Campus. In particular. and making measurements using them. the celestial globe. Bhāskara-I (7th cent. we would focus on the actual construction of some instruments. India 2 Dept. India. the phalakayantra. and measuring the zenith distance. Sun’s declination. gola (celestial globe or armillary sphere) for demonstrations. Bhāskara-II devised an instrument called phalakayantra (board-instrument) to measure the hour angle of the Sun.S.). Sriram2 1 Department of Sciences.

2Korea University of Science & Technology. We suggest that the Sun-and-Stars Time-Determining Instrument evolved into the Small Sun-and-Stars Time-Determining Instrument. and then the Small Hundred-Interval Ring Instrument. It can measure the solar time in daytime and the sidereal time in nighttime. 小日星定時儀) stemmed from the Sun-and-Stars Time-Determining Instrument simplifying the graduated scale to ‘du’. 日星定時儀) which was first made the pontification of King Sejong (15th Century) of Joseon Dynasty. Mihn Byeong-Hee1.2. not ‘fen’ in the celestial-circumference degree (that is 365.24 du). 小日影) manufactured at the time of King Sejong is remained nowadays in Korea.The Structural change of the Sun-and-Stars Time-Determining Instrument Kim Sang Hyuk1. 안영숙1. At the same time. 민병희1. Lastly Small Hundred-Interval Ring Instrument (Small HRI. It was dropped out the function of sidereal time measuring by removing the celestial-circumference ring and star-dial hundredinterval ring of the Sun-and-Stars Time-Determining Instrument. 이용삼3 한국천문연구원. 3충북대학교 1 20 . 3Chungbuk National University We will show the structure and usage of the Sun-and-Stars TimeDetermining Instrument (STI.2. a Small Sun-and-Stars TimeDetermining Instrument (Small STI.2.2. Ahn Young-Sook1. This family of the Sun-and-Stars Time-Determining Instrument was used one for the timekeeping tools of a military office and a ritual ceremony. Lee Yong Sam3 1 Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute. It also got rid of the pole-fixing ring (正極環) by which it’s instrument can be aligned to meridian line. 2과학기술연합대학원대학교. 일성정시의류의 구조 변화 연구 김상혁1.

항성시(sidereal 일성정시의는 time)의 원리를 태양시(solar 응용한 time)와 주야겸용 시간측정기기이다. 소정시의는 일성정시의의 극축 정렬 기능을 없애 간소화 하였다. 소일영은 소정시의의 극축 정렬 및 별시계 기능을 탈락시킨 모델이었다. The concept of astrolabe was introduced in India by noted polymath Alberuni through his writings. A small collection of unique medieval scientific instruments are preserved in Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Public Library at Patna. medicine.우리는 조선시대에 제작한 일성정시의(Sun-and-Stars TimeDetermining Instrument. 소일영(Small HundredInterval Ring Instrument: Small HRI)에 대한 구조와 사용법에 대하여 분석했다. Astronomical Instruments of Muslim Period in India: Celestial Globes and Astrolabes Seemin Rubab and Syed Ishtiaq Department of Physics. 기능을 간소화한 소정시의와 소일영을 함께 개발함으로써 천문기관을 비롯한 군영 등지에 활용했다. All these instruments have been catalogued by great Sanskrit scholar R S Sarma. In this paper a brief description of two fascinating medieval astronomical instruments viz. Another collection of instruments are preserved at Rampur Raza Library and yet another collection is at Salar Jung Museum. 세종 당시에 일성정시의를 창제하였지만. Hyderabad. Jammu and Kashmir During the Muslim rule of India considerable work was done in mathematics. STI). 소일성정시의(Small Sun-and-Stars Time-Determining Instrument: Small STI).. celestial globe and astrolabe is outlined. NIT Srinagar. During Mughal period 21 . astronomy and Astrology. The medieval rulers Firoz Shah Tughlaq and Humayun patronized astronomy. Hazratbal.

it was invented in Kashmir by Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman in 998 AH and twenty other such globes were later produced in Lahore and Kashmir during the Mughal Empire. Later on. In the 12th century. The largest globe was made during the reign of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan by Muhammad Salih Tahtawi. A celestial globe shows the night sky with stars and their constellations.some finest astrolabes were manufactured in Lahore. Seamlessly cast globes continued to be made in Lahore up to the mid 19th century until the arrival of the British Empire. Many Islamic astronomers and medieval Europeans have also contributed to the development of the celestial globe. The last was produced in Lahore by astronomer and metallurgist Lala Balhumal Lahuri during Sikh ruler Jagatjit Singh Bahadur’s reign. this invention of the Chinese was further developed by the Koreans. It was being inscribed in both Arabic and Persian. Ali Kashmiri created many masterpieces in Kashmir in the reign of the Mughal Emperor Akbar. These were used primarily for solving problems in celestial astronomy. the Chinese were using these devices to make astronomical calculations. In a celestial globe the positions of the stars are recorded with the use of coordinates in relation to each other. Hollow objects are typically cast in two halves and then joined. Jabir ibn Aflah (Geber) was the first to design a portable celestial sphere to measure and explain the movements of celestial objects. About 4th century BC. The altitude of the Sun and the right ascension and declination of the stars could be calculated with these by inputting the location of the observer on the meridian ring of the globe. and during Akbar’s rule the craft found its way into the city of Lahore. The credit for the invention of the seamless celestial globe goes to the Indians. These Mughal metallurgists pioneered the method of lostwax casting while producing these seamless globes. Considered one of the most remarkable feats in metallurgy. They are pieces of beauty and craftmanship for beholders. 22 . The modern world recognizes the celestial globe invented by the Greek astronomer Eratosthenes as the first authenticated version of the instrument. These globes were used previously in analogue computer devices to record the positions of the stars and study their movements. The invention of the celestial globe is generally attributed to the Chinese.

functions as a star chart. It can also be used to simulate the motion of heavenly bodies at any locality and time. although much larger and smaller ones were made. An astrolabe consists of a disk. It was also used for measuring height and distances in land surveys. Several types of astrolabes have been made since antiquity. A tympan is made for a specific latitude and is engraved with a stereographic projection of circles denoting azimuth and altitude and representing the portion of the celestial sphere above the local horizon. manufacture and applications of astrolabes were improved by Arabs in middle ages. Above the mater and tympan. The rete. representing the sky. In fact it can also be used to measure time. degrees of arc. the alidade can be rotated and the sun or a star sighted along its length. so that its altitude in degrees can be read from the graduated edge of the astrolabe. The design. It was first designed by Greeks to measure the altitude of a heavenly body. the stars and the ecliptic move over the projection of the coordinates on the tympan. but might include curves for time conversions. the rete or ankabut. a framework bearing a projection of the ecliptic plane and several pointers indicating the positions of the brightest stars. or climates. planets and stars in the sky. on which the celestial sphere is projected onto the plane of the equator. The most popular type is the planispheric astrolabe. The alidade is attached to the back face. these vary from designer to designer.The astrolabe is an ancient astronomical instrument/ analogue computer. Moon. On the back of the mater there is often engraved a number of scales that are useful in the astrolabe's various applications. a calendar for converting the day of the month to the sun's position on the ecliptic. It was used to locate the Qibla and to find the times for Salah. trigonometric scales. When it is rotated. called the mater (mother). It was used to ascertain position of celestial bodies like Sun. The rim of the mater is typically graduated into hours of time. Astrolabe is a very versatile instrument. and a graduation of 360 degrees around the back edge. is free to rotate. which is deep enough to hold one or more flat plates called tympans. 23 . When the astrolabe is held vertically. A typical astrolabe was made of brass and was about 6-10 inches in diameter. One complete rotation corresponds to the passage of a day.

moon and the planets have been identified in the sky though there is some ambiguity on the 24 . 1647 AD) Session 6: Observation of Stars Session Review: M N Vahia Tribal astronomy of India Ganesh Halkare and Mayank Vahia Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. their astronomical knowledge is also related to the period of settlement. Mumbai Tribal astronomy is of importance for several reasons.Astrolabe used for astronomical observations was developed and improved upon in India. The inscription on one astrolabe at Adler Astronomy Museum in Chicago goes as 'Amal Ziauddin Muhammad ibn Mulla Humayun asturlabi Lahori 1057 AH. The 27 nakshatra system was used in India for the purpose of fixing the positions of the sun. India We have compiled all the bright stars listed in various texts by Aryabhata onwards up to Chandrashekhara Samantha totalling to about 100. Humayun patronized astrolabe manufacturing. We present data from five different isolated tribes of India and show that apart from their independent nature. One of the astrolabe maker at his court was Allahdad Asturlabi Lahori whose sons and grandsons also made astrolabes. Bengaluru. Lahore seemed to have been a major centre for the manufacture of astronomical instruments. (i. It stores and maintains within it the memory of astronomical observations of early period along with its myths.e. It reveals the depth of observations and the centrality of astronomy in these cultures. Observational Records of stars in Indian texts Shylaja B S Jawaharlal Nehru Planetarium.

the total number of the stars is triple of that of Prof. Mr. controlled. Our study reveals that a scale similar to the magnitude scale of brightness also was in vogue. somehow. not listed in the Sanskrit texts are also included in the compilation. and. On the contrary. The names used by fishermen. Then 25 . a German researcher. Star naming was. do these new names have any effects on the Sky chart. allows one to see how much changes occurred in the names of the stars which are supposed to be holy and untouched even those miswritten ones. In this paper. where around 10 astronomical software are targeted. Any interested person can easily notice that new names are appearing continuously.fainter ones. Before the appearance of modern computer and touchscreen cell phones’ Astronomical software. what is the source of these names? We believe that Allen’s book has the greatest effect on these changes because it is the sole extended “book of stars” written in English. professor Paul Kunitzsch. We. ask: How could many new names appear without the permission and the recognition of IAU. and these names are coming from different languages. and. has counted the stars holding names in the sky charts and traced the origins of these name. Kaunitzch’s. Effect of Modern Sky Charts’ Software on the Names of Stars Hani Dalee Arab Union for Astronomy & Space Science (AUASS) Jordanian Astronomical Society (JAS) Monitoring the sky charts in the few former years. therefore. In his book “A Dictionary of Modern Star Names” . therefore. The coordinates listed along with the stars help in fixing the epoch. we will try to collect all new names been entered recently (after year 2005) to the Sky chart using a statistical method. Richard Allen in his book “Star Names — Their Lore and Meaning” has collected names from different civilizations. the total official number of the stars having names is (250) stars.

Session 7: Cross Cultural Astronomy Session Review: Rajesh Kochhar Analysis of Asu(阿修) and Gaoyue(高月) recorded in the Indian calendar. Moon. I. the term Rahu is mentioned as Asu(阿修) and Ketu is not found in the Jiuzhi-li text. therefore.we will put a list showing star numbers. we can see the term Gaoyue(高月) which means the apogee of the Moon. Instead. their original language and their source software. IRAN Indian astronomy played an important role in the ancient world of western and southern Asia. In China. Persian astronomers were converted to Islam and were 26 . Rahu(羅睺) and Ketu(計都). and various astronomical systems found their way to Iran in the period of Sāsānid dynasty.R. Maragha. Its fundamental elements. it was called as Jiuzhi-li(九執曆) which means the calendar of "Nine Luminaries". five planets and two imaginary stars. namely the Sun. basic parameters. In this paper. With the rise of astronomy in the Middle East in the early Islamic period in the eight and early ninth centuries. Jiuzhi-li (九執暦) Eun Hee Lee Yonsei University Observatory. The Influence of Indian Astronomy on Medieval Islamic Astronomy S. we will examine and discuss on the astronomical meaning and calculations of Asu and Gaoyue recorded in the Jiuzhi-li. Seoul. However. Korea Indian Navagraha calendar was translated into Chinese by Gutama Siddhartha (瞿曇悉達) who was an official astronomer and astrologer of Tang dynasty. Mohammad Muzaffari Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM).

more significantly in the case of the planetary models. Some prominent examples can be: The colours of lunar eclipses. some of them provided a firm theoretical ground and/or mathematical basis for justifying some observed astronomical phenomena which neither are defined. so that as the time passed. India The procedure for transits and occultation are similar to that of solar eclipse. nor can be justified in the framework of Ptolemaic astronomy. the two general reasons behind it are that these topics are often exclusive to Indian astronomy. Nevertheless. the hypotheses about the angular diameters of the Sun and Moon. and hypothetical considerations kept their presence in Islamic astronomy and were amazingly adopted within Ptolemaic tradition. Nearly for each of them. which constitutes a direct link of transmission and diffusion of Indian astronomy to Islamic territory. mathematical tools. the projection of eclipses. some specific topics. not discussed in the Almagest. most of the underlying components of Indian astronomy steadily lost its dominance and prevalence in Islamic astronomy. Session 8: Eclipses Session Review: Transits and Occultation in Indian Astronomy S Balachandra Rao Gandhi Centre of Science and Human Values.brought the fragments of Indian astronomy into Islamic astronomy via media of pre-Islamic Persian astronomy. and the visibility of the planets. The participating bodies in the case of transits will be Sun and the planets (Mercury or Venus) and for occultation Moon and 27 . Bangalore. more importantly. the Indian methods of calculation of lunar parallax. some peculiar factors explaining their permanent survival in Islamic astronomy can be discussed. Furthermore. the astronomical system of the Middle Eastern branch of Islamic astronomy turn into replacing the oriental traditions with Ptolemaic astronomy. and. more contacts were established between the Middle East and the western India in the same period. In the ninth century. optical limitation of eclipses.

in December 2117. Jing chu li has been claimed by Zhu Wenxin 朱文鑫as the peak of the first stage of Chinese calendrical systems. it has to be noted that the transits of Mercury and Venus are not explicitly mentioned. The transits of Mercury and Venus occur when either of them is in conjunction with Sun as observed from the earth. The results of ISP. Beijing This study aims to investigate the methods of solar and lunar eclipse predictions in early imperial China. (ii) the superior conjunctions of Venus and Mercury and (iii) lunar occultation of planets and stars. the subsequent Venus transit will be about 105. compare well with the modern results. subject to the prescribed limits. This is mainly because when either of these inferior planets is close to Sun it is said to be ‘combust’ (asta) and hence not visible to the naked eye.5 years later i. with its simpler procedure sans Besselian elements.While detailed working of planetary conjunctions is discussed in all traditional Indian astronomical texts under the chapter Grahayuti. after the transit of Venus in June 2004 the next occurrence was on June 6. For example. Transit (of Mercury or Venus) is called sankramaņa (of the concerned planet) or . 2012.the planet or the star will be under consideration. In a transit of Mercury or Venus the concerned tiny planet passes across the bright and wide disc of Sun as a small black dot. The transit of Venus is a less frequent phenomenon as compared to that of Mercury. The Developments of Eclipse theory in the Jing chu li: What makes it the Peak of Early calendrical Systems in China Yuzhen Guan Institute of History and Natural Sciences. This study provides evidences 28 .e. In the present paper we explain in detail the procedures for computations of (i) transits. We have made a comparison of the procedures given in classical texts as also by Venkatesh Ketkar with our own Improved Siddhāntic Procedures (ISP). using the eclipse theory in the Jing chu li (Luminous Inception System 景初) as a case study. After that.

from focusing the eclipse itself to the predictions of related topics. From the first century AD to the third century AD. In the present paper the procedures for lunar and solar eclipses in Indian astronomy are discussed. begin predicting the direction of impact. In addition. the great savants of Indian astronomy revised their parameters and if necessary the computational techniques. Bangaluru. The Indian astronomical texts discuss about the phenomenon and computation of eclipses. Jing chu li was adopted by the Kingdom Wei in the three kingdoms period as the official calendrical system in AD 237. eclipse theories developed in various ways. Whether these changes were related to other issues such as political reasons are also fascinating for historians to reveal. including predicting solar eclipses in addition to lunar eclipses. The veracity of the procedures are verified by considering the examples of different 29 . These procedures were put to test on the occasions of eclipses. combine the lunar velocity theory into the eclipse theory. the eclipse theories in the Jing chu li were improved from three perspectives: first. and third. second. Computations using the methods from the Jing chu li will be carried to check the accuracy of the eclipse prediction methods. Then it has been kept using in China for more than 200 years. India Eclipses had significant impact on humans in ancient times as the sudden darkness instilled curiosity amidst the common man. Lunar and Solar Eclipse procedures in Indian Astronomy Padmaja Venugopal SJB Institute of Technology. As and when disagreements occur between the observed and computed positions. further evidence will be drawn from other texts including historical writings to analyse the eclipse theories. Comparing to the theories from the San tong li 三統曆and the Si fen li四分曆. until the end of the Jin dynasty. start calculating the magnitude of eclipses. The latter two perspectives mark significant changes of the theories.and analyzations on possible reasons of why Zhu made such a claim.

It was used in China until 1281. 3Catholic University of Daegu We study calendrical calculations of solar eclipse times in the Zhongxiu-Daming calendar of the Jin Dynasty (A.. Meanwhile. In this study. Ki-Won Lee3. Calculation of Solar Eclipse Times in the Zhongxiu-Daming Calendar Goeun Choi1.2. We also calculate the times at Seoul (the capital of the 30 . since the reign of King Sejong (1418 – 1450) of the Joseon Dynasty (A..e. when the Shoushi calendar was enforced in the Yuan Dynasty (A. For this reason. Byeong-Hee Mihn1. and Youg Sook Ahn1 1 Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute. The circumstance of the eclipses are computed according to Bhaskara II’s Karanakutuhala. which was made in 1127 by Ji Yang of the same dynasty.. particularly solar and lunar eclipses. 1115 – 1234) in China. This calendar was made by Zhi-Wei Zhao in 1180 as an improvement (i. Zhongxiu in Chinese) to the Daming calendar. 1392 – 1910) in Korea. The solar and lunar eclipse dates belonging to various periods are worked out. not only books on each calendar but also series of Jeongmyoyeon-Gyeosik-Garyeong (Example Supplement for the Calculations of Solar and Lunar Eclipses Occurred in 1447) for each calendar are preserved at the Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies.D.2. Grahalāghava and Improved Siddhāntic procedures (ISP). It is very interesting to note that the timings recorded are close to the computed values and the method devised for calculating the circumstances will be valid even for the current period if the necessary parameters are updated. we develop a computer program for calculating solar eclipse times using the Zhongxiu-Daming calendar by referring to the Jeongmyoyeon-Gyeosik-Garyeong for that calendar.periods. the circumstances we obtain by ISP are very close to ephemerides.e.D. 1279 – 1368). Datong calendar) was used as the main calendar with the Zhongxiu-Daming and ChiljeongsanOepyeon (i. the Chiljeongsan-Naepyeon (i. 2Korea University of Science and Technology.e. Huihui calendar) as supplementary calendars for calculating astronomical events. In particular.D.

In the future. Japan In this report. we look for a corresponding solar eclipse for each record. with an average of ~33 min. Here we 31 . We carry out the examination in two steps. and last contact times calculated using the Zhongxiu calendar with the results of modern calculations. We find that the difference in greatest time the smallest among the three calendars at ~1. Tokyo.Joseon dynasty) using the astronomical algorithms of Meeus and the Bessellian elements extracted from a modern ephemeris. Sôma M. There are sometime no corresponding eclipses. we explain some of the reading and interpretation process of inscriptions on stone. There are cases in which eclipses are lunar. We compare first contact. From the Sˆoma diagram. and Vahia M N National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. The second step is for the data survived the first examination. at the time of observations using the contemporaneous eclipse data of India and other countries. where TT is the uniform time and UT is the time measured by the rotation of the Earth. Session 9: Interdisciplinary Archaeoastronomy Session Review: Reliability of the records of observed solar eclipses in India and comparison with contemporaneous eclipse data of other countries Tanikawa K. We should go back to the original inscriptions to see the reason. In the first step. We also discard the data. we examine the reliability of the records of solar eclipses observed in the south-central India kept as inscriptions on stone. We make the so-called ’S ôma diagram’ which determines the range of ΔT = TT− UT values. In this report. we plan to verify the solar eclipse records listed in the Yuanshi (History of the Yuan Dynasty) and to investigate the accuracy of the Zhongxiu calendar for other periods. We incorporate the eclipse data of other countries. We will describe the examination process. we can check the reliability of eclipse records both of India and other countries. In these cases.2 min but the differences in contact times were relatively large. we discard the data. Shylaja B. greatest.

but what do we know about those meteorites found on Japanese soil? The Meteoritical Society’s database lists 66 Japanese meteorites. it is always necessary to examine the reliability of descriptions. Chiang Mai. actually it was nearly total. We discuss the images on punchmark coins of the Janapadas of India (around 6th century BC) and show that many of them have possible astronomical symbolism. However. Thailand. Japan also can boast the earliest-know meteorite from anywhere in the world that was seen to fall. Saotome and Hirahagi irons. but some of these are suspect and the true number is 54. Included among these are examples of relatively rare classes of meteorite. such as the Tanokami Mountain. and their scientific investigation is long overdue. and the Zaisho pallasite. Coins often contain images of relevance to the state which mints them. Sometimes it was only partial. In the case of observed records. that is. Astronomical symbols on Indian Punchmarked Coins? T Hardaker. the Kobe and Sayama chrondrites. a record says that the eclipse was total. which dates from AD 32 . We then discuss these results in the context of other coins from other regions and from later periods. M N Vahia and N Yadav Images have had a central role in representation of nature in a variety of mediums. was recovered and has been preserved. For example. This is tempered by the available technology. Some of these meteorites have been neglected. Some records of solar eclipses have exaggerated expressions even though these are observed records. In the last 40 years Japan has built a remarkable international record researching Antarctic meteorites. exaggeration or not. This is the Togata Meteorite.explain the necessity of the examination of reliability. The Meteorites of Japan: an Historical Perspective Wayne Orchiston National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand.

he was nominated as the Director of the Maharaja of Bhavanagar Takhtasinghji Observatory at Poona. Lafont (Calcutta) and later at a few European observatories: at Rome. In his endeavour. and highlight the important contribution that that Japan can make to the history of meteoritics. Sunspot group of 33 . the precursor of which was the spectroscopic laboratory at the Elphinston College.5% of Japan’s confirmed meteorites were discovered in the nineteenth century or earlier. it is a remarkable statistic that 34. then the most modern in India. and shifted in 1882 to the College of Science (Poona) as a professor of of astrophysics. The account is based on archival records and family papers. I present in brief also his own astrophysical observations. Potsdam. He was educated at Elphinston College (Bombay) from where he passed his M. he was helped by the Astronomer Royal. Session 10: Medieval Period Session Review: K. the spectroscopy of Orion Nebula.A. D. the Founder of the First Astrophysical Observatory in India S. In this paper we examine the historical context of these and other Japanese meteorites. Sir Christie particularly. (in physics and chemistry) with the Chancellor’s Gold medal for the year 1878. Naegamvala. Furthermore. first by Fa. and many of these are historically and/or scientifically important. Razaullah Ansari Kavāsjī Dādābhāi Naegamvālā (1857-1938) belonged to an Illustrious Family of Parsi contractors.861. I relate briefly the tremendous efforts of Naegamvala to educate himself in the “celestial spectroscopy/astronomical physics”. M. South Kensington (UK) before establishing the first astrophysical observatory at Poona and by procuring the equipment. In 1900. He became lecturer for experimental physics in 1882 at his College. namely.

Sir Norman Lockyer in his Report on Indian Observatories (commissioned by India Office.Feb. Hale (USA) and Maunder (Vice-President of RAS). However. 57 (1897). M.1892. his most remarkable work was the meticulously planned expedition to record the Solar chromosphere and corona at the time of the total solar eclipse on Jan.1910. I may stress that the solar spectroscopy was then so important that a Joint Eclipse Committee of the Royal Society and the Royal Astronomical Society was set up. 1891. J. to undertake an expedition to India. 22. H. 34 . MNRAS 51 (1891). 1898. Naegamvala had been in active correspondence with Sir Christie. at Jeur (Western India). 8 (1898). and 61 (1901). Huggins (England). Vogel (Germany). As a matter of fact. where Michie Smith had been acting as the director since 1900. Poona). Nebula NGC 6595 and the transit of Mercury on May 9. all of whom admired Naegamvala’s work. and also with other renowned astrophysicists . He published his observational work in Ap. 52 (1892). the Maharaja Observatory was abolished in 1912 after the retirement of Naegamvala and its instruments were transferred to the Kodaikanal Observatory. Despite all that scenario. Sir Norman Lockyer ( the founder of the first solar observatory in South Kensington (England). Nova in Perseus on Feb. Christie. I present a few photographs from his Report on the Total Solar Eclipse Jan 21–22. headed by the then Astronomer Royal Sir W.London) mentioned also that “Naegamvala’s claim for the appointment of the astrophysical observatory at Kodaikanal should not be neglected”. 1.1898 (Publication of the Maharaja Takhtasinghji Observatory. (Bombay 1902). Vol. I intend to discuss in passing the blatant grudge against Naegamvala on the basis of original records extant in Bombay archives and family papers of Naegamvala.

Persian was utilized to transmit the knowledge of ancient Indian astronomy through the translations of Sanskrit texts into Persian and vice versa thus enriching both the Indian and Persian educational heritage. They patronised astronomers in their royal courts. Another scientist Lutfullah Muhandis translated Abdur Rahman Sufi’s famous book on fixed stars called Kitab suwar al-Kawakib (Book of the figures of the stars) from Arabic into Persian as Sur-i-Sufi Thus.Astronomical studies in Mughal court culture Gulfishan Khan Aligarh Muslim University. Astronomical studies formed part of elite culture.1629). third section dealt with the determination of motions of the planets and their position in the sky. The Zij was translated into Sanskrit under the title of Siddhanta Sindhu by Nityananda as an imperial commission and was distributed throughout the empire for wider dissemination. Translation of scientific works in general and astronomical works in particular was the main strategy in the process. The first section of the table dealt with various calendars second section dealt with spherical astronomy. continuous process of migration from West and Central Asia to India led to infusion of new scientific ideas and crafts. Surely. The works thus produced were mainly zijes astronomical tables and calendars. Aligarh. Many of the scientists-astronomers involved in the great scientific enterprise belonged to the larger world of Islamicate civilization such as the Astronomer-Royal Mulla Fariduddin Masud ibn Ibrahim Dehlawi (d. India The paper would seek to argue that the Science of astronomy as well as astrology were extremely popular and were extensively cultivated in medieval India. the seventeenth century saw a synthesis between Islamic astronomy and Indian astronomy where Islamic observational techniques and instruments were combined with Hindu computational techniques. Accordingly. The work was based upon the earlier tables of Central Asian astronomer Mirza Ulugh Beg. who compiled the new astronomical tables of Shahjahan called Zij-i-Shahjahani. The Mughal emperors took a keen interest in the development of astronomy. The 35 . While there appears to have been little concern for theoretical astronomy Mughal astronomers continued to make advances in observational astronomy and produced nearly a hundred zij treatises.

Accuracy of measuring the Northern Celestial Pole in the Joseon dynasty period Sang-Hyeon Ahn Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute The determination of altitude of the Northern Celestial Pole in the Korean history is investigated. Tehran. Some of Scholars thought during 16th to 19th century astrology and Hay’a books were two separated kind of astronomical books in Islamic era that had many challenges together. In this article this challenge is shown and explained with a mathematical method. Iran The tourists. In the East Asian history there were two method to measure the latitude: one is to observe the pole star by using a sighting tube or the North Pole tube in Gaunui and the 36 . who travelled from Europe to Iran in 17 th and 18th century. had described Iran’s society. in this period has changed and which historical events have caused the increase and decrease of this tendency. We want to understand how the interest of Iranian people in astrology.paper would analyse evidences found in contemporary mainly Persian sources. Tehran University. Mathematical methods of 16th Century Iran Seyedamir Sadatmoosavi Institute of History of Science. Then the number of manuscripts in each 50 years period has been calculated to draw some graphs and analyse the errors. At first all of the astronomical manuscripts in Iran libraries have been sorted in two parts of astrology books and Hay’a books. One of the events that was extremely strange for these people was the particular interest that Iranian people and government showed towards astrology in those years.

37 . I correct the effect of the atmospheric refraction to reduce the disagreements. It was measured to be 37d39m15s. the sunrise and sunset time and so on.other is to observe the altitude of the Sun by using Gnomon. Thus. The importance of determining the altitude of the Northern Celestial Pole in making local calendars will be discussed. the knowledge on European astronomy was introduced into the kingdom to make the calendrical reformation. while the modern observation gives us the latitude of the place 37d35m.8 degree in angule. the accuracy necessary to make practical calendar is merely angle corresponding to one ke. This value is far from the modern value is 37d34m12s. In 1713 CE one Chinese astronomer visited to Seoul Korea to measure the latitude of the Jongro Street with a large quadrant. The latitude of the Ganuidae observatory in Seoul was measured to be 38 and 0ne sixth du or 38d 37m. In the latter period of the Joseon dynasty. However. the latitude of the observing place. when one day was divided into 100 equal parts called ke. This time corresponds to 1. the measurement accuracy in latitude was not necessarily better than 1-2 degree in arc. The eclipse time was also predicted and reported to Kings up to half or 7.2 minutes of time. In the 15th century Korea King Sejong and collaborating scholars developed the astronomical instruments to measure various astronomical constants such as the obliquity of the Earth's rotation axis.

By knowledge the old hearts grow young again. history and geography. and the arts (painting. Germany Mighty is he who has knowledge. Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar's (1831– 1896) first prime minister. precisely during the Qajar Dynasty (1785 – 1925). Founded by Amir Kabir (1807-1852). the initial adoption of modern science.ca. But. technological fields i. Shahnameh. During the nineteenth century and early twenty century. was extremely slow. 1892) was Iran's first secular institution of higher learning. the Dar al-Funun (Polytechnic University. many of them in a quest for modern education and scientific knowledge. the printing press. while hundreds of university educated westerners moved to Iran to become teachers at Dar al-Funun. and professional experiences.POSTERS Mapping Time Rather Than Mapping Space: Dar al-Funun and the introduction of modern astronomy and photography in Qajar Iran Carmen Pérez González Wuppertal University. which is a period critically important for the introduction of modern science in general in Iran. 38 . intellectual. especially astronomy. a decade after the introduction of photography.e. Shaped by similar academic. foreign languages and translation. the natural sciences. even if great efforts were put into introducing modern science in Qajar Iran. The fields of study represented at the Dar al-Funun were: the military and medical sciences. and drama). This poem is written in the upper part of the façade of the main entrance of Dar al-Funun. most of them returned home after a many years abroad.1 Modern astronomy was not introduced in Iran until mid-19th century. Wuppertal. music. photography and telegraph. My paper studies the role that the two leading Iranian astronomers of the time (both students at Dar al-Funun and royal astronomers) played in the introduction of 1 Ferdowsi. 1851. thousands of Iranians traveled west.

one of the last shahs of Iran’s Qajar Dynasty. He eventually became both an amateur photographer and a patron of photography.modern astronomy in Iran: Abdul Ghaffar Najm al Dawleh (who also became teacher at Dar al-Funun) and Mahmood Khan Ghomi (who spent 7 years at the Paris Observatory and at the Belgium Royal Observatory). in a 39 . establishing The Royal Photography Atelier in the Golestan Palace. Naser-al-din Shah Qajar. The camera entered Iran during the reign of the Qajar Dynasty. Study of ‘Vyaṭīpāta’ from Epigraphical records found in regions. My currently area of research is the history of lunar cartography and early photography (19th century). was fascinated by photography. My aim is to explore and unearth unknown images (both drawings and photographs) done by Iranian astronomers during the Qajar Dynasty. who took what seems to be the earliest photographs of the moon taken by an Iranian photographer (two stereographs dated c. Using Inscriptions as sources of astronomical events gives an evidentiary perspective of the existing methods of Astronomical techniques used in that particular time period. which was basically written in the West. as early as 1842. Inscriptions are available all over India numbering in millions.1863). and have worked together as well. and ensuring that Dar-al-Funun (Polytechnic University) offered classes in the science and art of photography. The first Iranian court photographer was Reza Akkasbashi (1843-1889). in and around Karnataka K G Geetha Inscriptions whether they were written on metal leaves or on Stones are invaluable resources of History. It is possible that Reza Akkasbashi and court astronomer Abdul Ghaffar Najm al Dawleh have known each other. They are found to be written in hundreds of languages.

a few more epigraphical volumes have been newly published belonging to those regions that were previously not covered. which have inscriptions amounting to 11236. written mainly in the languages of Kannaḍa and Samskrita. In all of 24 Epigraphical Volumes. the available inscriptions are estimated to be numbered in more than 50000. only 1408 had significant astronomical events mentioned. particularly in and around the region of State of Karnataka. Along with the eclipses and solstices. I have included the new data from these volumes for this paper. Using the data from the 24 epigraphical volumes and the newly published epigraphical volumes. which ended in March 2012.) Not all inscriptions mention the time in which they were made and not all inscription have astronomically significant events such as Eclipse (Grahaṇa). etc. And amongst those a fewer number can be seriously used for calculations. The meaning of the word Vyatīpāta and its importance in the prediction of eclipses are explained in astronomical texts. the number of Kannaḍa inscriptions far exceeds that of any other language. which have been studied in preparation of this paper. Since the study of those 24 epigraphical volumes. In this region. In South India. the moment of Vyatīpāta was also considered as a special occasion. like Siddhānta Śirōmaṇi. The most interesting word called ‘Vyatīpāta’ is seen over and over again in the inscriptions that have been deemed useful from the astronomical perspective. I intend to show the significance of the word ‘Vyatīpāta’ found in the inscriptions and how it’s meaning changed around 13th century onwards. 40 . (The oldest Kannaḍa inscription belongs to about 450 AD.period of more than two thousand years. Solstice (Samkrānti) or planetary conjunctions (Graha-Yuti).

flying lions and other strange animals. There could be flying snakes. Astronomy too has been invoked to date events in Ramayan and Mahabharat but with conflicting results. clinching evidence in support of what existed particularly before say Buddha continues to be elusive.Our history in our traditions: a reminder K Sinha Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational sciences. Nainital 2631002. Taking cue from the fact that we still continue to observe mythology based festivals and traditions also supported by the modern TV serials. insects etc. However. Already there were stories of people with only one eye. The Greeks providing an insight into the reign of Chandragupt. around his birthday for exactly fourteen years and if the citizens of Ayodhya celebrated his return with Deepawali. a dog’s head. and writings on stones were discovered. India. the demise of Bhishm etc. The arrival of the Europeans in the Indian sub-continent. Fahyan. it is felt that a close study of the same with modern perspective and tools additionally in the shape of computer soft wares might lead to new discoveries. also heralded a search to know the region. birds. some without head and some others being too short. why should today there be a difference of 41 . scriptures. Excavations lead to discovery of evidence of lost civilizations. Megathanese and Al Biruni and others. If Sri Ram was exiled around Ram Navami day. What is known today is mainly through the writings of such travelers as Hiuen Tsang.e. yet it had books describing events of true historical importance and these were presented in the form of drama etc. Men and women with huge leaf like legs used the same as umbrella and so on! A conscious effort to study the literature and the people soon yielded the important result that although the Sanskrit language contained nothing that could be called history. Consider the description of the skies at the birth of Sri Ram. i. the British in particular. Several lost manuscripts.

Ancient Astronomy in Kashmir Context Naseer Iqbal Department of Physics. supernova. In Rig Veda (~ 1700 .1500 BC) and Atharva veda. I have been working in the study of old astronomical records of Kashmir India and came to understand that the people of area had such kind of intellectual growth that in very old periods they were fascinating with the study of sky. It is but natural that they would have recounted in the vedic texts about comets. University of Kashmir. falling of heavenly bodies. Emergence of different religious sects at different times often clearly marks epochal changes in Society. These astronomical events seem presently to be of usual phenomena but one needs to give coverage on the efficiency of the intellectual growth of the people who have been instrumental in putting and maintaining records in different ways. 2010). there are references to dhumaketus and ketus. solar and luni-solar calendars were respectively introduced in India. Can we reliably date these societal evolutions through a study of religious practices? In the present study an effort is made towards indicating the possibility with the above in mind. Comets in ancient India Patrick Das Gupta University of Delhi The Indo-aryans of ancient India had to observe stars and constellations for ascertaining times to perform sacrifices ordained by Vedas. In my talk I will discuss all these events very briefly. Srinagar India. seasons.around five and a half months between the two festivals? We do not know when and how the lunar. which stand for comets in Sanskrit. Could it have been inspired by 42 . Rigveda mentions a fig tree with roots held up in the sky (Parpola 2009. solar eclipses and others.

Its surviving temples and other archaeological remains are estimated to date from the eleventh (or probably earlier) to the thirteenth century. Republic Indonesia 3 Astronomy Research Group. Vriddha Garga. I conjecture that an episode narrated in the epic Mahabharata of a radiant king. Sumatra. Ministry of Education and Culture. Institut Teknologi Bandung. General Directorate of Culture. Indonesia? Suhardja D.the hirsute appearance of a comet's tail? Similarly. Wiramihardja1. In this paper. an old Tamil word. The temple complex was built by the Melayu Kingdom. Jambi Province. 43 . Institut Teknologi Bandung. Any Astronomical Alignment in Muaro Jambi Temple Complex. ruling the heavens. Mochammad Irfan4. stretching 7. Indonesia. etc. 1 Astronomy Research Group. Institut Teknologi Bandung. could `Ketu' (the torso or the tail part of Rahu) be a Dravidian loan word. is associated with scorpion's sting and top tuft of hair? Varahamihira in 550 AD and Ballala Sena (~ 1100 . Indonesia 4 Bosscha Observatory.5 km along the Batanghari river. and later turning into a serpent after he had kicked Agastya (the star Canopus). Indonesia 2 Directorate of History. The site cover about 12 square kilometres. since `kottu'. is a mythological retelling of a cometary event. We are now studying the possibility of astronomical alignment of the complex by observing the direction of its cardinal points and other parameters. Garga. Sumatra.1200) have described a large number of comets recorded by ancient seers such as Parashara. Narada. Nahusha. Moedji Raharto3. Indonesia Muaro Jambi Temple Complex (Indonesian: Pusat Percandian Muaro Jambi) is a Buddhist temple complex in Muao Jambi Regency. Agus Widiatmoko2.