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The Effects of Depression on Physical and Emotional

Development

Macalalad, Isham Dominique S.


Miranda, Jerecho James M.
Pascua, John Vincent L.

English Communication 2

Prof. Rizal O. Dapat


(Research Paper)

March 2, 2016

The Effects of Depression on Physical and Emotional Development

Depression is a down swing change in mood. It is characterized by feelings of sadness,


despair, apathy, etc. (Keltner, 1995). Many people become depressed because of these feelings. It
has been an emotional force since the beginning of time. Many tales were told of both
commoners and kings who have struggled with this mood disorder. Even in the bible, numerous
examples exist of what would today be diagnosed as depression. One example was King Saul.
King Saul had deep bouts of depression and could be soothed by the flute playing of the
shepherd boy David. About 4-5 percent of the populati on meet the criteria of being clinically
depressed (Paykel, 1989). Still most of them dont seek treatment. 25 percent recover less than a
month and another 50 percent recovers in less than 3 months. Depression can easily change the
emotion of a person. It can changed his or her behavior, physical appearance, etc. (Williams,
1992).
A major cause of depression is emotional abuse. Emotional abuse is an ongoing process
where one individual causes destruction to the inner self of another individual. According to
Loring (1994), at some time, the victim would start to experience these aspects of the self as
seriously eroded or absent.
In 2007, Burns stated that depression rates increase with age. Although depression occurs
in children younger than 5 years, the true incidence is unknown given the limits of cognitive and
language skills to communicate feelings.

According to some medical professionals, a way to treat depression is to do physical


activity because it helps improve the mood of a person and his/her lifestyle.
On the effects on physical and emotional development on children, the DSM-IV does
indicate that the manifestation of depression with children can be different than with adults.
Some complaints, irritability, and social withdrawal is found more often with children than with
adolescents and adults. Irritability as an expression of depression with children becomes clear in
the anxiety model. Notwithstanding a basic feelings of anxiety, the child when younger may still
on the acting side, but as the child grows older, a shift towards the non-acting side can arise and
the depression becomes cleared. Depressive children are more often irritable, while we tend to
ting of depression causing listlessness, slowness, lack of activity. The first systematic description
of depression within children was the anaclitic depression which spits (1945, 1965) observed
with children who did receive physical care, but no emotional contact. A number of these
children ended up in a depression and died (Deflos, 2004).
On the year 2000, Mary C. Townsend from a study on the effects on physical and
emotional development on teenagers stated that depressive disorders are characterized by
depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities, mostly seen on young
adults/teenagers. It could be further classified or single episode, mild, moderate, or severe. It
could have psychotic, catatonic, melancholic or seasonal features/ patterns.
It has also been proven that Drug addiction and Depression (in teens) is a dangerous
combination. According to a new report by Psych Central news editor, U.S. Teenagers who
attempt to self-medicate through the use of marijuana or other drugs can end up worsening their
depression. Such drug use could also lead a teen toward other serious mental disorders, they
said. The use of marijuana links with depression which could lead to suicidal thoughts and

attempts. Teens think of marijuana as the answer to their problems or more likely as a factor that
would help them forget or escape the problems they are facing. They make bad
decision/situations even worse by thinking that using marijuana could alleviate their symptoms
of depression, based on the statement made by John P. Walters, the director of the National Drug
Control Policy.A new report entitled Teen marijuana use worsen Depression: An analysis of
recent data shows self-medicating could make things worse also found out that the use of
marijuana might lead to depression and other mental illnesses, and that depressed teens are more
prone than non-depressed teens to engage in other risky behaviors such as daily cigarette use and
heavy alcohol use.An addiction expert, Dr. Drew Pinksy, also said that dont get fooled into
thinking that pot (marijuana) is harmless. He also said that teens who are already depressed and
use marijuana may increase their odds of suffering from even more serious mental health
problems.Suicide, schizophrenia, other forms of psychosis, and other mental disorders are one of
the risks associated with recent and long-term use of marijuana. The report was released to
coincide with Mays Mental Health Awareness Month (US National Drug Control Policy, 2008)
Moving on to adults, One of the most common complications of childbirth is depression.
But its still being misinterpreted by professionals and non-professionals alike. A woman named
Beck described it as a serious mood disorder that can cripple a womans first months as a new
mother. She described it as a thief that steals motherhood. She also said that postpartum
depression can have long-ranging implications for both mother and child. Most people
misinterpret it as a common case in new mothers and think of it as one of the stages in being a
mother. People fail to understand that depression that does not end in infanticide can still be
harmful to both mothers and babies. But fewer people believe this myth today due to the Andrea
Yates case. She was the mother in Texas suffering from postpartum depression and psychosis

who drowned her five children in the bathtub. She was convicted of murder, though her
conviction was eventually overturned. Depression can be connected/ related in a wide variety of
symptoms including anhedonia, moods of sadness, low self-esteem, apathy & social withdrawal,
excessive emotional sensitivity, agitation and more. Some could feel mentally foggy, guilty, or
that their lives will never be normal again. It might present with somatic complaints as the
predominant symptom including fatigue and pain. Based on the table from the book about
depression in new mothers, some symptoms that raise concern are:

Rapid weight loss


Ignorance of Basic grooming
Sleep disturbances in two to three days
Inability to get out of bed

According to the American Psychiatric Association, the symptoms listed above should
not be due to psychosis, and the woman should never have a maniac or hypomaniac episode.
They explained further that the womans symptoms should not be due to physical illness,
alcohol, medication or illegal drugs, or normal bereavement. In addition, to these symptoms must
represent a change in previous functioning, and must include at least depressed mood and
anhedonia. These symptoms can be by subjective report or observation of others, and must occur
nearly every day.
Mothers who were depressed or anxious were also more likely to report behavior
problems in their children at 14 years of age (Nasman, 2000)
According to Kendall- Tackett in 2010, there is some debate in the field about whether
mothers depression and/ or stress can physiologically alter babies temperament, either
prenatally or via breastfeeding.

A topic focusing on diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder suggests that while
many mothers may exhibit symptoms of depression, major depression is a more serious
manifestation of depressive symptoms that has specific diagnostic criteria. They also added that
for a diagnosis of major depression, patients must have at least five of the following symptoms
during the same two-week period namely:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Depressive mood most of the day;


Anhedonia most of the day;
Significant weight loss when not dieting, or weight gain, or change in apetite;
Insomnia or hypersomnia; and
Activity disturbance, psychomotor agitation or retardation.

Many celebrities have also experienced depression even those people who seem to have it
all.
Angelina Jolie, The beautiful Academy Award-winning actress, globe-trotting U.N.
Goodwill Ambassador and mother of six may seem to have her act completely together, but
throughout her teens and early 20s, Angelina Jolie suffered bouts of depression. After the death
of her mother in 2007, she began sliding into another depression and couldn't stop dwelling on
negative thoughts. When asked to star in the stunt-packed thriller "Wanted," she jumped at the
chance. "My mother had just passed away, and I wanted to do something physical to get it out of
my head for a while," Contact Music quotes her as saying in July 2008. "I felt I was going into a
very dark place, and I wasn't capable of getting up in the morning, so I signed up for something
that would force me to be active." It was a good decision, says Carol Landau, Ph.D., iVillage
wellness expert and a clinical professor of psychiatry and medicine at Brown University's Alpert
Medical School in Providence, R.I. "The stress and grief that come with the death of a loved one
can easily turn into depression, and it can be really hard to break the pattern of ruminating about

the loss. Distracting activities, especially physical activity, can be helpful in breaking that cycle,"
Landau says.
As a child, Christina Ricci starred in such movies as "Addams Family Values" before
making the transition to darker adult films, including "The Opposite of Sex," "The Ice Storm,"
"Monster" and "Prozac Nation." For the latter film, which depicted a young woman struggling
with depression during her first year at Harvard, the petite actress could draw from personal
experience, having suffered from both anorexia and depression herself. "Statistically, people with
a history of eating disorders are more vulnerable to clinical depression. One of the underlying
foundations for both is perfectionism," Landau says. "Then, when you consider that we're all
preoccupied with body image in this culture, and you add being in a career where looks and
weight are so closely monitored, it's not surprising that actresses develop eating disorders and
depression." Ricci overcame these problems with the help of a psychiatrist. "These are things
you can't always deal with alone, so I went to therapy," she told the Independent in 2008. "Along
the way, I discovered that you can choose to be happy. If you choose to let go of your selfconsciousness and insecurities about physical appearance, then you'll get to a place where you
are present to see the world and enjoy yourself."
Demi Lovato, Unbeknownst to her loyal fans, the actress-singer-songwriter, who became
a teen idol after starring in the "Camp Rock" movies on the Disney Channel, had problems
related to anorexia, bulimia and cutting (self-injury). In November 2010, Lovato ended her tour
with the Jonas Brothers early to enter a three-month treatment program for physical and
emotional issues, where she was diagnosed with bipolar disorder. She admits to having felt
plagued by depression since childhood and says she suffered verbal bullying in middle school -so much so that she chose to be homeschooled and received a high school diploma that way.

"Being bullied is devastating to adolescents," Landau says. "In middle school, social standing is
a top priority, and being humiliated and bullied on a daily basis is incredibly stressful." Landau
feels strongly that teachers and school administrators should see bullying as totally unacceptable.
"Schools need to be safe, and children like Demi Lovato should not have to be homeschooled in
order to escape," she adds. "Otherwise we are exposing our children to unnecessary, serious
stress that can trigger depression."
Zach Braff also suffered depression. In 2007, the "Scrubs" star told Parade magazine that
he suffers from mild depression and resembles the depressed character he played in "Garden
State," the 2004 coming-of-age film that he wrote, directed and acted in. That experience, he
said, helped him cope: "[T]o have millions of people go, 'I watched your movie and related,' was
the ultimate affirmation that I'm not a freak." "As hard as it is to get women to admit to
depression, with men it's even harder," Landau says. "And with low-grade depression [called
dysthymia], people often say, 'Well, I've always been this way,' and it can become a personality
trait or lifestyle. But it's still important to get treatment, because most people with dysthymia will
feel much better. Plus, if untreated, some will go on to develop major depression on top of it,
known as 'double depression.'"
John Brahms rise to fame in the past few years, with "Mad Men," "Bridesmaids" and
frequent SNL appearances, has been stunning. But Jon Hamm told U.K. magazine The Observer
in September 2010 about the deep depression he sank into following his father's death. The actor
was 20 at the time, and his mother had passed away 10 years earlier. "I was ... unmoored by
that," Hamm said. "I struggled with chronic depression. I was in bad shape. I knew I had to get
back in school and back in some kind of structured environment and... continue." Says Kita
Curry, Ph.D., president and CEO of Didi Hirsch Community Mental Health Services in L.A.,

"Losing a parent when you're young, especially the unexpected death of a mother, has been
shown to increase the risk of depression and even suicide." Hamm sought therapy and took
antidepressants, which he credits with giving him a new perspective on his situation. He also
says he found great comfort and camaraderie in the acting community: "The theater department
always seems to be the sort of ... way station for the orphans and all the people who don't fit in
anywhere else. I always swirled back to it."
Abraham Lincoln is one of the most respected U.S. presidents, but Lincoln waged battle
with depression throughout his life. Stress, anxiety and feelings of inadequacy plagued him while
in the Illinois state legislature and reportedly got worse during his years in the White House. "He
had periods where he was so gloomy, his friends had him on suicide watch," Curry says. Lincoln
once announced "I am now the most miserable man living," and reportedly told a colleague in
the Illinois state congress that he didn't let himself carry a knife when he was feeling such intense
depression, according to "Lincoln's Melancholy: How Depression Challenged a President and
Fueled His Greatness" by Joshua Wolf Shenk. Lincoln never completely overcame his depression
but focusing on humor helped him cope with it.
Depression is not just simply a mood disorder, it is not easy to experience depression.
There are major life changes on suffering from depression. Negative or particularly stressful
events can trigger depression especially the death of loved one. Someone suffering from
depression can feel some changes in feelings such as feeling empty, inability to enjoy anything,
hopelessness, loss of sexual desire, feelings of self-blame or guilt, loss of self-esteem, and
inexplicable crying spells, sadness or irritability.

Everybody experiences the highs and lows of life. Depressed people, even those without
disabilities, encounter loss of ability to perform simple physical tasks. Depressed people
frequently lose their apetite and the motivation to cook or even to eat which mostly leads to
malnutrition. We must first Understand our depression. We need to stop blaming ourselves.
Instead, we need to identify what triggers them so that we could seek medical attention from
professionals. Instead of moping around, we need to start working on making ourselves happy
like making small lifestyle changes.

Reference Page

Burns, Catherine E. et al. Pediatric Primary Care, 1600 John F. Kennedy Blvd. STE 1800
Philadelphia, PA; Saunders, Elsevier Inc.
Delfos, Martin F. Children and Behavioural Problems, London, UK; Jessica Kingsley
Pulishers, 2004
Keltner, Norman L. Psychiatric Nursing, St. Louis, Missouri; Nancy L. Coon, 1995
Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A. Depression in New Mothers, 2 Park Square, Milton Park,
Alangdon, Oxon; Routledge, 2010
Loring, Marti Tamm Emotional Abuse, 350 Samsome Street San Francisco, California;
Jossey Bass, Inc., 1994
Townsend, Mary C. Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing, 1915 Arch Street, Philadelphia;
Davis Company
Whitney, Ellie et al. Understanding Nutrition, Singapore; Wadsworth, 2005
Williams, J. Mark G. The Psychological Treatment of Depression, 11 New Fetter Lane,
London; Routledge, Capman and Hall, Inc., 1992
Orphelins Sida. 2006. http://ceped.org
Celebs with depression. August 2011. http://huffingtonpost.com
Drugs + depressed teens = A Dangerous combination. May 2008.
http://www.psychcentral.com