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DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF


A 200W AUDIO POWER AMPLIFIER
WITH TONE CIRCUIT AND
MICROPHONE INPUT
BY

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING


FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE

DECEMBER 2013

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF


A 200W AUDIO POWER AMPLIFIER
WITH TONE CIRCUIT AND
MICROPHONE INPUT
A PROJECT WORK PRESENTED
BY

SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND


ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING, FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE

DECEMBER 2013

CERTIFICATION
I hereby certify that this project was designed and implemented in
partial

fulfillment

of

the

requirements

for

the

in Electrical and Electronic Engineering.


It is entirely a sole effort and has not been submitted to any
institution for award of any certificate. The various source of the
information used in this project are clearly stated in reference of
this work.

Signature_______________________

Date ___________________

..

APPROVAL PAGE

This is to certify that ..with registration


number did this project in partial fulfillment for
the award of ..in Electrical and
Electronic Engineering in
..

_______________________

____________________
Date

Project Supervisor

____________________________

__________________
Date

Head of Department

____________________________

__________________

EXTERNAL EXAMINER

Date

DEDICATION

I dedicated this report to ALMIGHTY GOD who has been my source


of inspiration and fortress

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I wish to express my profound thanks and appreciation to God and


to my beloved parents, brothers and sisters. I acknowledge the
help of my head of department, my project supervisor and the
members of Able Designs & Construction Company) for their
moral contribution, corrections and support.

ABSTRACT

This project presents the design and implementation of a


200watts audio power amplifier with tone circuit and microphone
input. It takes an input signal from a microphone and auxiliary
input and makes it stronger. The input signal may measure only a
few hundred microwatts and an output of tens, hundreds, or
thousands of watts. It is a well designed amplifier with a lot of
power reserve, high fidelity, and low distortion, good signal to
noise (S/N) ratio, high sensitivity and protection. It uses electronic
components such as TDA2003 op-amp, 10uf, 1uf, electrolytic
capacitors, 50k variable resistor, 10k, 1k resistors, IN4001 diodes
and an output transducer to guarantee audible sound production.
A battery supply is used to power the system. With this project
you do not need to stress your voice whenever you want to
address or entertain the public.

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
A 200 watts audio power amplifier with tone circuit and
microphone input channels with auxiliary input is a sound
amplifier that amplifies low-power audio signals to a level
suitable for driving a loudspeaker. It is designed to receive
signal from four input transducers and one auxiliary source
then provide a larger version of the signal to the output
transducer.

1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY


There is a need for a quality sound production system for
public

speaking,

entertainment

and

for

other

devices.

Amplifiers find application in all kinds of electronic devices


designed to perform any number of functions. It is also
important for me to carry out a practical project work in the
partial

fulfillment

of

the

award

of

bachelor

degree

in

engineering. These gave me the opportunity to study and


design audio sound amplifier. The purpose of an electronic

amplifier is to make an electronic signal bigger without


affecting it in any other way. Based on my research, there are
many different types of amplifiers, each with a specific
purpose in mind. For example, a radio transmitter uses an RF
Amplifier (RF stands for Radio Frequency). RF amplifiers are a
kind of an amplifier designed to amplify a signal so that it may
drive an antenna. This project will focus on audio power
amplifiers. Audio power amplifiers are those amplifiers which
are designed to drive loudspeakers.

An audio power amplifier amplifies signals composed primarily


of frequencies between 20 hertz to 20,000 hertz. It is a
frequency that is at the human range of hearing. Its input may
measure only a few hundred microwatts and the amplified
output may be tens hundreds or thousands of watts.

The key design parameters for audio amplifiers are frequency


response,

gain,

noise,

and

distortion.

These

are

interdependent; increasing gain often leads to undesirable


increases in noise and distortion. This project has a negative

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feedback

system

which

actually

reduces

the

gain

and

distortion.

Basic elements of an audio amplifier


Basically, an audio amplifier consists of three primary units: An input transducer, an audio power amplifier and an output
transducer
1. An input transducer.
This

project

accepts

four

transducers

which

is

four

microphones. Microphone is a transducer which converts


sound to voltage. The microphones pick the human voice
and convert the human sound energy into electrical signal
for amplification. A variable resistor is used for volume
controls.

The volume control adjusts the strength of the

audio signal to be amplified.


2. A pre-amplifier.
A pre- amplifier is a small voltage which amplifies the small
audio signal (voltage) from the microphone to an electrical

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voltage suitable to drive the output audio power stage of the


project.
3. Audio power amplifier
The audio power amplifier increases the strength (power) of
the audio signal. The audio power amplifier does the final
amplification and determines the final output power or
maximum amplitude of the audio signal.
4. Output transducer
A loudspeaker is a transducer which converts the audio
signal to sound. The output transducers used in this project
are twitter and woofer speakers. It converts the audio signal
to a treble and bass sound for better sound production.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
The aim and objective of this project are as follows: To take a signal from a source device such as
microphone, CD player or any low-power audio source
and make it suitable for driving a loudspeaker.

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To produce a suitable sound amplifier system for public


speaking, theatrical and concert sound reinforcement.
For home entertainment.
And for lecturing especially in a crowdy environment.
1.4 SCOPE OF STUDY
The scope of the study covers sourcing and assembling of
materials such as a loudspeaker, capacitors, resistors, variable
resistors, sound output integrated circuit (IC), diode, and a
suitable size of speaker box for the actualization of a stereo
audio power amplifier with four microphone input channels and
one input auxiliary.
1.5 CONSTRAINTS
One of the major constraints of this project work is the funding
and also sourcing of some difficult components like the TDA
2004 op- amp.

1.6 The PROJECT REPORT


This project report shall look at design analysis and
construction.

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CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 INVENTION OF AUDIO AMPLIFIER
The audio amplifier was invented in 1906 by Lee De Forest
when he invented the triode vacuum tube. The triode was a
three terminal device with a control grid that can modulate the
flow of electrons from the filament to the plate. The triode
vacuum amplifier was used to make the first AM radio.

2.2 BACKGROUND OF INVENTION


Early audio amplifiers were based on vacuum tubes (also
known as valves), and some of these achieved notably high
quality (e.g., the Williamson amplifier of 1947-9). Most
modern audio amplifiers are based on solid state devices

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(transistors such as BJTs, FETs and MOSFETs), but there are


still some who prefer tube-based amplifiers, due to a
perceived 'warmer' valve sound. Audio amplifiers based on
transistors became practical with the wide availability of
inexpensive transistors in the late 1960s.
2.3 FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS IN AMPLIFIER DESIGN
For some years following the introduction of solid state
amplifiers, their perceived sound did not have the excellent
audio quality of the best valve amplifiers. This led audiophiles
to believe that valve sound had an intrinsic quality due to the
vacuum

tube

technology

itself.

In

1972,

Matti

Otala

demonstrated the origin of a previously unobserved form of


distortion: transitory inter-modulation distortion (TIM), also
called slew rate distortion. TIM distortion was found to occur
during very rapid increases in amplifier output voltage. TIM did
not appear at steady state sine tone measurements, helping to
hide it from design engineers prior to 1972. Problems with TIM
distortion stem from reduced open loop frequency response of
solid state amplifiers. Further works of Otala and other authors
found the solution for TIM distortion, including increasing slew

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rate,

decreasing

preamp

frequency bandwidth,

and

the

insertion of a lag compensation circuit in the input stage of the


amplifier. In high quality modern amplifiers the open loop
response is at least 20 kHz, canceling TIM distortion. However,
TIM distortion is still present in most low price home quality
amplifiers.
The next step in advanced design was the Baxandall Theorem,
created

by

Peter

Baxandall

in

England.

This

theorem

introduced the concept of comparing the ratio between the


input distortion and the output distortion of an audio amplifier.
This new idea helped audio design engineers to better
evaluate the distortion processes within an audio amplifier.
In the early days, audio power amplifiers used devices called
vacuum tubes (referred to simply as "tubes" from here on).
Tubes are seldom used in amplifiers intended for DJ use
(however tube amplifiers have a loyal following with musicians
and hi-fi enthusiasts). The invention of audio amplifier was in
1906 by Lee De Forest when he invented the triode vacuum
tube. The triode was a three terminal device with a control grid
that can modulate the flow of electrons from the filament to

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the plate. The triode vacuum amplifier was used to make the
first AM radio.
Early audio amplifiers were based on vacuum tubes (also
known as valves), and some of these achieved notably high
quality (e.g., the Williamson amplifier of 1947-9).
This project is based on the modern way of build an audio
amplifier. Most modern audio amplifiers are based on solid
state devices (transistors such as BJTs, FETs and MOSFETs).
Audio amplifiers based on transistors became practical with
the wide availability of inexpensive transistors in the late
1960s.
The public address system uses transistors (instead of tubes).
The signal path in a tube amplifier undergoes similar
processing as the signal in a transistor amp; however the
devices and voltages are quite different. Tubes are generally
"high voltage low current" devices, where transistors are the
opposite ("low voltage high current"). Tube amplifiers are
generally not very efficient and tend to generate a lot of heat.
Transistor amplifiers have numerous practical advantages as
compared with tube amplifiers: they tend to be more efficient,

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smaller, more rugged (physically), no audio output transformer


is required, and transistors do not require periodic replacement
(unless you continually abuse them).

CHAPTER THREE
SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODOLOGY
3.1 SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION

The block diagram of this project will be used to analyze the


working principle of the system.

Aux Input
Audio OP- AMP
4 channel
microphone
Inputs

(Power Stage)

DC Power Supply

Output
Speaker

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3.2 OP- AMP


The audio amplifier uses operational amplifier IC or simply op
amp which is the most versatile electronic amplifier. It derives
it name from the fact that it is capable of performing many
mathematical operations such as addition, multiplication,
differentiation, integration, analog-to-digital conversion or vice
versa. It can also be used as a comparator and electronic filter.
It is also the basic block in analog computer design.

Operational amplifiers can operate either a closed-loop or an


open-loop configuration. The operation closed-loop or openloop is determined by whether or not feedback is used.
Without feedback the operational amplifier has an open-loop
configuration. This open-loop configuration is practical only
when the operational amplifier is used as a comparator a
circuit which compares two input signals or compares an input
signal to some fixed level of voltage. As an amplifier, the open-

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loop configuration is not practical because the very high gain


amplifies also electrical noise and other unwanted signals, and
creates poor stability. Accordingly, operational amplifiers
operate in the closed-loop configurations, that is, with
feedback.
Operational amplifiers are used with negative (degenerative)
feedback. Negative feedback has the tendency to oppose
(subtract from) the input signal. Although the negative
feedback reduces the gain of the operational amplifier, it
greatly increases the stability of the circuit. Also, the negative
feedback causes the inverting and non-inverting inputs to the
operational amplifier will be kept at the same potential. All
circuits that we considered in the previous sections of this
chapter operate in the closed loop configuration.
The

gain

of

any

amplifier

varies

with

frequency.

The

specification sheets for operational amplifier state the openloop at DC. At higher frequencies, the gain is much lower and
decreases quite rapidly as frequency increases where both
frequency and gain are in logarithmic scales.

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The hardware stage this project is made up of


1 The aux line control input
2 The pre-amp
3 Treble and bass control ( tone control)
4 The power supply
5 The power amplifier
6 The output transducer.

All power amplifiers have a power supply, an input stage, and an


output stage.
INPUT STAGE
The input in the block diagram labeled M shown a microphone.
The microphone serves as an input to the amplifier. A microphone
is a transducer which converts sound to voltage.

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The next input in the system is the line control input. The input
can accept any other device such as CD player, sound from
personal computer or DVD set.

The signal from these inputs

source went through a pre amplification stage.


The general purpose of the input stage of a power amplifier
(sometimes called the "front end") is to receive and prepare the
input signals for "amplification" by the output stage. Most
professional quality amplifiers have various input connectors;
typically they will have XLR inputs, quarter inch" inputs, and
sometimes a simple terminal strip input (although these tend to
be found on amplifiers intended primarily for public address
systems). XLR and most quarter inch inputs are balanced inputs
(as compared to single ended inputs). Balanced inputs are much
preferred over single ended inputs when interconnection cables
are long and/or subject to noisy electrical environments because
they provide very good noise rejection. The input stage also
contains things like input level controls. Some amplifiers have
facilities for "plug in" modules (such as filters); these too are
grouped into the input stage.

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PRE-AMPLIFIER
The second block in the system is the pre- amp. The preamplifier amplifies the small audio signal (voltage) from the
microphone or from the CD or DVD set. The pre-amplifier strength
the signals from the MIC and line before the tone circuit and
volume control.
TONE AND VOLUME CONTROLS
The tone Circuit and the volume control are to adjust the
nature of the audio signal. The tone control adjusts the balance
of high and low frequencies.

The volume control adjusts the

strength of the signal.


POWER AMPLIFIER
The power amplifier is the final stage in the audio amplifier. It
increases the strength (power) of the audio signal by increasing
its amplitude. It is where the output loudspeaker is connected.
The output stage of an amplifier is the portion which actually
converts the weak input signal into a much more powerful

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"replica" which is capable of driving high power to a speaker. This


portion of the amplifier typically uses a number of "power
transistors" (or MOSFETs) and is also responsible for generating
the most heat in the unit (unless the amplifier happens to have a
very bad power supply design, in which case it too generates a lot
of heat). The output stage of an amplifier interfaces to the
speakers.
LOUDSPEAKER
A loudspeaker is met to be connected to the power amplifier
stage. The Loudspeaker is a transducer which converts the audio
signal to sound.

POWER SUPPLY
The DC power supply is where the entire system receives the
energy to perform the task. The DC supply is a full wave AC to DC
converter. It used a diode to rectify AC signal to DC signal. This is
done after a step down transformer which brings down the
220vac input voltage to a lower voltage suitable for the amplifier.

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The primary purpose of a power supply in a power amplifier


is to take the 220 VAC power from the outlet and convert it to a
DC voltage (VAC is an abbreviation for Volts Alternating Current,
and DC is an abbreviation for Direct Current). Conversion from AC
to

DC

is

necessary

because

the

semiconductor

devices

(transistors, FETs, MOSFETs, etc.) used inside the equipment


require this type of voltage. (By the way, FET stands for Field
Effect

Transistor,

and

MOSFET

stands

for

Metal

Oxide

Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor). Many different types of


power supplies are used in power amplifiers, but in the end they
all basically aim to generate DC voltage for the transistor circuits
of the unit. The very best of amplifiers have two totally
independent power supplies, one for each channel (they do share
a common AC power cord though). Truly excellent amplifiers will
also have a separate (or at least separately regulated) power
supply for the input stage (those circuits that do not actually drive
the speaker).

Under heavy load, the power supply voltage

internal to the amp can sag (and this can lead to distortion). By
having a separate power supply for the signal level signals in the

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amplifier, the distortion added by a sagging power supply is kept


out of all but the final (output) stage.

CHAPTER FOUR
SYSTEM TESTING AND AMPLIFIER ANALYSIS
SCHEMATIC CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

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AMPLIFIER ANALYSIS
Let's step through a simple audio amp with a signal gain of 10 V/V
(20 dB). We'll run it from a +/- 15V supply.
Advanced Audio Amplifier
DC BIAS

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First, what is the bias current of Q1 and Q2? The current


through RE splits into Q1 and Q2, so we calculate
Ic1 = Ic2 = 1/2 Ibias
= 1/2 (VCC - VbeQ1) / RE = 1/2 (15 - 0.7) / 14.3k = 0.5 mA
DIFFERENTIAL INPUT SIGNAL GAIN
The transconductance of Q1 and Q2 is gm = Ic1 / VT = 0.5 mA /
26mV = 0.0192 (A/V). The transconductance of the input stage,
gm1 = Ib(Q3)/V(2,3), is double to that of the basic amplifier
(1/2*gm) thanks to the current doubling of the current mirror Q8,
Q9.
gm1 = 2* (1/2* gm) = gm = 0.0192 (A/V)
CLOSED-LOOP GAIN
The feedback resistors (RF1, RF2) determine the close-loop signal
gain from input (V2) to output (V20).
Acl = RF2 / RF1 +1 = 9k / 1k + 1 = 10 (V/V)
AC SMALL-SIGNAL BANDWIDTH

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The unity gain bandwidth of the open-loop amplifier is determined


by gm1 and CC.
fu = gm1 / ( 2 pi CC) = 0.0192 / ( 2 pi 500 pF) = 6.12 MHz
The bandwidth of the closed gain amplifier is simply
fc = fu / Acl = 6.12 MHz / 10 V/V = 612 kHz
The low frequency bandwidth is set by one of two high pass filter
cutoff frequencies, which ever is higher
fhp1 = 1 / ( 2 pi CIN * RIN) = 15.9 Hz
fhp2 = 1 / ( 2 pi RF1 * CF1) = 15.9 Hz
SLEW-RATE
Finally, for big input signals, how fast can the output change? It's
determined by the max current available Ibias in the differential
amplifier and CC.
Slew = Ibias / CC
= { (VCC - VbeQ1) / RE } / CC
= { (15 - 0.7) / 14.3k } / 500 pF = 2 V / us

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GAIN AND BANDWIDTH


Let's start with the basics. Feed a 1V @ 1kHz signal into the input
and check the amplifier's gain of 10.
CIRCUIT INSIGHT

Run a Transient Analysis. Plot the input V(1)

and output V(20). Does the output swing +/-10V as expected?


CIRCUIT INSIGHT

Let's check the bandwidth. Does it meet the

600kHz calculated above? Run an AC Analysis and plot the output


V(20). What happened to the bandwidth? It seems to have fallen
dismally short of 600 kHz!!! Turns out, the problem lies in the
output stage. Because it's biased class B, the output transistors
are essentially OFF when the output is near 0V.
What's the remedy? I've snuck in a voltage source VOFF at the
base of Q2. A small voltage here will offset the output by the
same voltage. Hopefully, a few tenths of a volt will turn ON the
output stage. Temporarily set VOFF to 0.5V and rerun the
AC analysis. How high is the bandwidth now? Set VOFF back to
0V when finished!

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DISTORTION
With a 10V output at 1kHz, the transient output V(20) looks
undistorted. But let's give it a closer look at a lower amplitude
and higher frequency.
CIRCUIT INSIGHT

Set VS to 0.1V at 10 kHz and shorten the

transient analysis to 0.2 ms. Rerun the Transient Analysis and


check out the output V(20). What happened to our pretty sine
wave? You can see the output struggles to swing through 0V.
That's because the voltage across R10, D1 and D2 is smaller than
the four Vbe junctions output transistors creating a dead-band
when the output transitions from one polarity to another.

HANDS-ON DESIGN

Try increasing R10 from 100 ohms to 200

ohms. This increases the bias voltage across the 4 output stage
transistors. Rerun the simulation and check the distortion. Keep
increasing R10 until the visible output distortion is minimized.

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SLEW-RATE
Why care about slew rate at all? Suppose you need to amplify a
20 kHz sine wave at 10V, this requires a minimum slew rate of
10V*2*pi*10kHz = 1.25 V/us if you want to faithfully pass the
signal. Otherwise, distortion occurs because the output cannot
rise as fast as the sine wave's leading edge.
Let's see how fast the output can swing. To do this, raise the gain
from 10 to 100. This should drive the output from one rail to the
other. You can then measure the rate at which the output rises
and falls.
CIRCUIT INSIGHT

Set VS to 0.1V at 10 kHz with transient

analysis time of 0.2 ms. Then raise the gain to 100 by increasing
RF2 to 99k. Run a Transient Analysis and plot the output V(20).
For the negative slew rate, find the time it takes Vo to fall from
+5V to -5V. It's approximately 5.1 us for a negative slew rate of
Slew- = -10V/5.1us = -1.96 V/us. How fast does Vo rise from -5V
to +5V? We measure 6.1 us for Slew+ = +1.64 V / us. The
equations did a reasonable, but not perfect, job of predicting slew

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rate. Overall, looks like we've got sufficient speed to pass the 10V
sine wave at 20kHz.
HANDS-ON DESIGN

How could you raise the slew rate is

needed? From the equation


Slew = Ibias / CC
you could either raise Ibias (by decreasing RE) or decrease CC. Try
either and rerun the simulation. Did you get a higher slew rate as
expected?

CHAPTER FIVE
SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION

6.1 CONSTRUCTION OF THE PROJECT

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Note: please read this before you start construction.


The construction is made this way much simpler. Start the
construction from the pins and the jumper connections,
continue with the resistors and the capacitors and last solder
in place the semiconductors. Check each resistor before
soldering it, to see if its colors match those in the component
list. Be careful with the electrolytic capacitors because their
polarity should be respected. The polarity of those capacitors
is marked on their bodies.

NOTE: On the p.c. board next to R2, R16 are marked two other
resistors which do not appear in the circuit diagram but are
included in the components. They are of 1 ohm 2 W (brown,
black, gold) and must be included in the circuit. Take care
when you are soldering the semiconductors because if you
overheat them they can be damaged. The output transistors
should be mounted on the heat sink. Take care not to short
circuit them with the heat sink and It is recommend that you
use some HTC between the transistor body and the sink in

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order to improve heat dissipation. Follow the diagram for the


mounting of the power transistors as it shows clearly how to
insert the insulators and the screws. Q7 should be made to
touch the heat sink and is a good idea to use a bit of HTC
between its casing and the surface of the heat sink.

When you finish the construction of your project clean the


board thoroughly with a solvent to remove all flux residues
and make a careful visual inspection to make sure there are
no mistakes, components missing and short circuits across
adjacent tracks on the board. If everything is OK you can
make the following connections: Input: 3 (signal), 5 (common)
Output: 7 (signal), 6 (common) Supply: 1 (-40 VDC), 2 (+40
VDC) 5 (0 VDC)
Connect a milliammeter in series with the power supply, short
the input of the amplifier, turn the power ON and adjust the
trimmer P1 so that the quiescent current is about 50 mA.
When you finish this adjustment remove the shunt from the
input and connect the output of a preamplifier to it. Connect

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the pre amplifier to a suitable source and turn everything ON.


The signal should be heard from the speakers clear and
undistorted. First of all let us consider a few basics in building
electronic circuits on a printed circuit board. The board is
made of a thin insulating material clad with a thin layer of
conductive copper that is shaped in such a way as to form the
necessary conductors between the various components of the
circuit. The use of a properly designed printed circuit board is
very desirable as it speeds construction up considerably and
reduces the possibility of making errors. Smart Kit boards also
come pre-drilled and with the outline of the components and
their identification printed on the component side to make
construction easier. To protect the board during storage from
oxidation and assure it gets to you in perfect condition the
copper is tinned during manufacturing and covered with a
special varnish that protects it from getting oxidised and
makes soldering easier. Soldering the components to the
board is the only way to build your circuit and from the way
you do it depends greatly your success or failure. This work is
not very difficult and if you stick to a few rules you should

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have no problems. The soldering iron that you use must be


light and its power should not exceed the 25 Watts. The tip
should be fine and must be kept clean at all times. For this
purpose come very handy specially made sponges that are
kept wet and from time to time you can wipe the hot tip on
them to remove all the residues that tend to accumulate on it.
DO NOT file or sandpaper a dirty or worn out tip. If the tip
cannot be cleaned, replace it. There are many different types
of solder in the market and you should choose a good quality
one that contains the necessary flux in its core, to assure a
perfect joint every time.
DO NOT use soldering flux apart from that which is already
included in your solder. Too much flux can cause many
problems and is one of the main causes of circuit malfunction.
If nevertheless you have to use extra flux, as it is the case
when you have to tin copper wires, clean it very thoroughly
after you finish your work.

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In order to solder a component correctly you should do the


following:
1 Clean the component leads with a small piece of emery
paper.

- Bend them at the correct distance from the

component body and insert the component in its place on


the board.
2 You may find sometimes a component with heavier gauge
leads than usual, that are too thick to enter in the holes of
the p.c. board. In this case use a mini drill to enlarge the
holes slightly. Do not make the holes too large as this is
going to make soldering difficult afterwards.
3 Take the hot iron and place its tip on the component lead
while holding the end of the solder wire at the point where
the lead emerges from the board. The iron tip must touch
the lead slightly above the p.c. board.
4

When the solder starts to melt and flow, wait till it covers
evenly the area around the hole and the flux boils and gets
out from underneath the solder. The whole operation should
not take more than 5 seconds. Remove the iron and leave

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the solder to cool naturally without blowing on it or moving


the component. If everything was done properly the surface
of the joint must have a bright metallic finish and its edges
should be smoothly ended on the component lead and the
board track. If the solder looks dull, cracked, or has the
shape of a blob then you have made a dry joint and you
should remove the solder (with a pump, or a solder wick) and
redo it.
5 Take care not to overheat the tracks as it is very easy to lift
them from the board and break them.
2 When you are soldering a sensitive component it is good
practice to hold the lead from the component side of the
board with a pair of long-nose pliers to divert any heat that
could possibly damage the component.
3 Make sure that you do not use more solder than it is
necessary as you are running the risk of short-circuiting
adjacent tracks on the board, especially if they are very
close together.
4 When you finish your work cut off the excess of the

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component leads and clean the board thoroughly with a


suitable solvent to remove all flux residues that still remain
on it.

4.2 IF IT DOES NOT WORK


Check your work for possible dry joints, bridges across adjacent
tracks or soldering flux residues that usually cause problems.
Check again all the external connections to and from the circuit to
see if there is a mistake there.
1 See that there are no components missing or inserted in the
wrong places.
2 Make sure that all the polarised components have been
soldered the right way round. - Make sure the supply has the
correct voltage and is connected the right way round to your
circuit.
3 Check your project for faulty or damaged components. If
everything checks and your project still fails to work.

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CHAPTER SIX
RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
6.1 RECOMMENDATION
I recommended that the department should ensure that the
students are properly taught in the practical class to be able to
carry out any practical work given to them

6.2 CONCLUSION
An audio amplifier is very useful to every home and school. It
reduces the stress of shouting and makes people to enjoy
music, herby making life easy.

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APPENDIX A
Technical Specifications - Characteristics

Output power (f=1 KHz, d=0.5 %): 100 W in 8 ohm


Supply voltage: ................ 40 V
Quiescent current: ............. 50 mA
Maximum current: ............... 2.6 A
Sensitivity: . 600 mV
Frequency response: ............ 10-35000 Hz (-1 dB)
Distortion HD: ................. 0.01 %
Intermodulation dist.: ......... 0.02 %
Signal/noise: 83 dB

42

APPENDIX B
COMPONENTS USED IN THE PROJECT

L1 : 10 turns with wire 0,5mm turned on a restistor of 1W If you


use a 4Ohm speaker you will place R3,4,17,23 at the board. If you
use a 8Ohm speaker you will place D7 D8 and R28. For R2 and
R16 if you don't find a 0,47Ohm place two of 1 Ohm parallel. R16
must be 0,47Ohm...the 1Ohm must be a typographical error, take
care of this, i haven't tested it.

43

APPENDIX C
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

44

APPENDIX D
SYSTEM USERS GUIDE
1. Turn on the device
2. connect your loudspeakers and tweeters
3. adjust the volume controls to the lowest
4. connect your microphone or radio set
5. then increase the sound
6. turn off the device after use

REFERENCES
1.
http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/physics/transistor/hi
story/ The Transistor in a Century of Electronics

45

2. "Circuit

Design

Modifications

for

Minimizing

Transient

Intermodulation Distortion in Audio Amplifiers", Matti Otala,


Journal of Audio Engineering Society, Vol 20 # 5, June 1972
3. ^ Distribution of the Phonograph Signal Rate of Change,
Lammasniemi, Jorma; Nieminen, Kari, Journal of Audio
Engineering Society, Vol. 28 # 5, May 1980.
4. ^

"Psychoacoustic

Intermodulation

Detection

Distortion",

Threshold

Petri-Larmi,

of

M.;

Transient
Otala,

M.;

Lammasniemi, J. Journal of Audio Engineering Society, Vol 28


# 3, March 1980
5. ^ Discussion of practical design features that can provoke or
lessen slew-rate limiting and transient intermodulation in
audio amplifiers can also be found for example in chapter 9
in John Linsley Hood's 'The Art of Linear Electronics'
(Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 1993).
6. "Audio power amplifier design", Peter Baxandall. Wireless
World magazine, February 1979 V