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SDH Presentation

-SDH Basics
-Alcatel SDH Systems
-Alcatel 1662SMC Introduction
-SDH Link No.17

SDH Basics

What are SDH & PDH ?

Advantages of SDH over PDH.

SDH Data rates.

SDH Multiplexing Structure.

SDH Basic Frame Structure.

SYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL HIERARCHY

SDH Basics

What are SDH & PDH ?


SDH stands for Synchronous Digital Hiararchy.In SDH each and every signal is synchronized exactly to the
single (container) defined for that particular signal ( like C11,C12,etc).The techniques like bit stuffing and
bit justification are adopted in SDH to achieve the synchronization.
The signal used for SDH transmission is known as Synchronous Transport Module (STM).
The various STM rates are illustrated below
STM-1 (155.52 Mbps)
STM-4 (622.08 Mbps)
STM-16 (2488.32 Mbps)
STM-64 (9953.28 Mbps)
STM-256 (39813.12 Mbps)
STM-1

STM- 4

STM- 16

STM- 64

STM-1

STM- 4

STM- 16

STM- 64

SDH
STM-1 MUX

STM- 4

SDH
STM- 16 MUX

SDH
STM- 64 MUX

STM-1

STM- 4

STM- 16

STM- 64

SDH
MUX

STM- 256

PLESIOCHRONOUS DIGITAL
HIERARCHY

PDH (Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy)

Plesio means = similar


Chronous means= Timing

Plesiochronous almost synchronous,


because the digital signals being multiplexed together are not
at quite the same frequency

SDH Basics

What are SDH & PDH ? (continues)


PDH stands for Pleisynchronuous Digital Hiararchy.The PDH contains the signals having similar data
rate signals (like E1,E 2,E3,T1,T2,etc.) but with slight timing differences as shown below.
E1 2.048 Mbps [32 x 64 kbps (DS0)]
E2 8.448 Mbps [4 x E1]
E3 34.368 Mbps [4 x E2]
E4 139.264 Mbps [4 x E3]

E1(2.047990 Mbps)

E2(8.447997 Mbps)

E3(34.367989Mbps)

E1(2.048001 Mbps)

E2(8.447989 Mbps)

E3(34.367998Mbps)

E1(2.047992 Mbps)
E1(2.048000 Mps)

PDH
MUX

E2(8.447991 Mbps)
E2(8.448000 Mbps)

PDH
MUX

E3(34.367990Mbps)
E3(34.368000Mbps)

E4(139.264000Mbps)
PDH
MUX

SDH Basics

Advantages of SDH over PDH

High Transmission Rates:


The highest data rate that can be achieved with PDH technologies is 140 mbps, whereas the transmission
rates up to 10Gbps (STM-64) can be achieved with SDH technology.
Easy Add & Drop Functionality:
Compared to the older PDH system, low bit rate channels can be easily extracted from and inserted into the
high-speed bit streams in SDH. It is now no longer necessary to apply the complex and costly procedure of
demultiplexing then remultiplexing the plesiosynchronous structure.
High Availability and Capacity matching:
With SDH, network providers can react quickly and easily to the requirements of their customers. For
example, leased lines can be switched in a matter of minutes. The network provider can use standardized
network elements (NE) that can be controlled and monitored from a central location via a
telecommunications management network (TMN) system.
Reliability:
Modern SDH networks include various automatic back-up circuit and repair mechanisms (like Automatic Protection
Switching (APS) and Equipment Protection Switching (EPS) which are designed to cope with system faults and are
monitored by management. As a result, failure of a link or an NE does not lead to failure of the entire network.

Integrated Services:
SDH is the ideal platform for a wide range of services including POTS, ISDN,mobile radio, and data
communications (LAN, WAN, etc.). It is also able to handle more recent services such as video on demand
and digital video broadcasting via ATM.

Disadvantages of PDH
Changing from one hierarchical level to another
requires additional equipment.
For Add/drop of individual channels from the higher
order stream we have to disassemble / reassemble it
Redirection (cross-connection) of channels must be
done by hand on DDFs.
Administrative connections require separate
equipment to support Supervision, EOW and
protection switching.
Compatibility of transmission and administrative
signals between different vendor may give trouble.

SDH Basics

SDH Data rates:


STM-0 (51.84 Mbps)
STM-1 (155.52 Mbps)
STM-4 (622.08 Mbps)
STM-16 (2488.32 Mbps)
STM-64 (9953.28 Mbps)
STM-256 (39813.12 Mbps)

Note: The STM-0 is not widely used in the telecom network except for some Microwave
Links.

SDH Basics

SDH Multiplexing Structure:

STM-N

xN

AUG

x1

AU-4

VC4

C4

E-4(139.264Mbps)
Or
ATM(149.760Mbps)

C3

T-3(44.736Mbps)
Or
E-3(34.368Mbps)
Or
ATM(48.384Mbps)

x3
TUG-3

TU-3

VC3

x7
STM-0

AU-3

VC3

x1
TUG-2
Containers
Virtual Containers (Containers + POH)
Tributary Units/Administrative Units
(Virtual Containers + Pointers)
Tributary Unit Groups/Administrative Unit Groups
(Multiplexed structures of lower signals)

Alignment

Multiplexing

TU-2

VC2

C2

T-2(6.312Mbps)
Or
ATM(6.874Mbps)

TU-12

VC12

C12

E-1(2.048Mbps)
Or
ATM(2.144Mbps)

TU-11

VC11

C11

T-1(1.544Mbps)
Or
ATM(1.6Mbps)

x3
x4

SDH Multiplexing Structure:


KLM DETAILS

K-TUG 3
L-TUG 2
M-TU 12
First KLM combination is 1 1 1
Last KLM combination is 3 7 3
Mapping of 63 E1s into STM1

E1 = 32 bytes/frame
C12 = 34 bytes/frame (E1 +2 stuffed bytes)
VC12 = 35 bytes/frame (C12 + 1 POH byte )
TU12 = 36 bytes/frame (VC12 +1 pointer byte)
M
So, one TU12 occupies 4 columns(36 bytes) in an STM1 frame

TUG-2 = 3 X TU12 = 12 columns /frame


L
TUG-3 = 7 X TUG-2 = 86 columns /frame
K
(7 X 12 + 2 stuffed columns are added)

VC4 = 3 X TUG-3 = 261 columns /frame


(3 X TUG-3 + 2 stuffed columns + 1 POH)

STM1 = VC4 + SOH = 261+ 9 = 270 columns /frame.

1.Container Cn, where C=Container,n=Index of the container(n=11,12,2,3,4)


The rate of the container depends on the signal which is transported.

2.Virtual container VCn,It is made up of Cn and Poh


Vcn=Cn+Poh,where Poh is path over head
Pathover head contain Payload content
3.Tributary unit TUn=VCn+PTR
n=11,12,2,3 lower oder VCn
Where Pointer is an addittional rate used to locate its Vcn with in the TU

4.Tributary unit Group TUG-k=m*TU-n, where k=2,3 n=11,12,2,3


TUG ,the Tug-2/Tug-3 can consist of several types of capacity payloads with
different sizes.

5.Adminitrative Unit(AU),it is made up of higher order VCn(n=3,4) and a pointe


AUn=VCn+PTR
n=3,4
AUG=1*AU-4 or 3*AU-3

SDH Basics

SDH Basic Frame Structure (STM-1):


270 Colomns
9 10

1
1

270

RSOH
(3 x 9 Cells)

3
9 Rows 4

AU-4 POINTER

MSOH
(4 x 9 Cells)

PAYLOAD (261 x 9 Cells )

Each cell represents a single byte indicating a 64 kbps channel.


RSOH :- Regenerator Section Overhead (27 bytes )
MSOH : Multiplexer Section Overhead (45 bytes)
Total Section Overhead (SOH) : RSOH + MSOH
AU-4 Pointer :- 9 bytes
Payload :- 261 x 9 = 2349 bytes
STM -1 Data rate = (270 x 9) bytes
= 2430 bytes
= 2430 x 64 kbps
= 155520 kbps = 155.52 Mbps

SDH Basics

SDH Basic Frame Structure (STM-1) (Continues.):

Section Overhead (SOH )


A1

A1

A1

A2

A2

A2

J0

B1

E1

F1

D1

D2

D3

AU-4 Pointer
B2

B2

B2

K1

K2

D4

D5

D6

D7

D8

D9

D10

D11

D12

S1
X Bytes Reserved for national use.
* - Media Dependant Bytes

M1

E2

SDH Basics

SDH Basic Frame Structure (STM-1) (Continues.):


Overhead Bytes Functions

Overhead Byte

Functions

A1,A2

Frame Alignment

B1,B2

Quality Monitoring , parity bytes

D1,D2,D3

Qecc Network Management

D4,..,D12

Qecc Network Management

E1,E2

Voice Connections

F1

Maintenance

J0

Trace Identifier

K1,K2

Automatic Protection Switching (APS) Control

S1

Clock Quality Indicator

M1

Transmission Error Acknowledgement

Alcatel SDH Systems


Alcatel SDH Systems

1662SMC

1660SM

1642

Version 1(R1)

Version 2(R2)

Supports
Upto STM-4

Supports
Upto STM-16

Supports
Upto STM-1

Version 4(R4)

Supports
Upto STM-16

Version 5(R5)

Supports
Upto STM-64

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction

Features

Shelf View

Commonly used cards

Technical Specifications

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction


Features:

It complies with the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) defined in ITU-T


Recommendation G.707.

Compatible with existing plesiochronous systems as well as with the installed SDH networks,

The 1662SMC is transmission equipment operating at 155.520 Mbit/s (STM-1) , 622.080


Mbit/s (STM-4) and 2488.320 Mbit/s(STM-16).

It can be configured as a Multiple Line Terminal Multiplexers or as a Add/Drop Multiplexers


or as a Mini local cross-connect for applications in linear links, network rings and meshed
networks.

Equipment (EPS) and network (MSP) protection mechanism

Matrix capacity
96*96 stm-1 equivalent matrix(HO)
64*64 stm-1 equivalent matrix(LO)
Network interfaces: Stm-1/4/16
Customer interfaces: 2Mbps,34/45Mbps,140Mbps,ethernet,gigaethernet

ALCATEL SDH LINK-17 PONDY TO TRICHY: STM 4 LINK

26km

50km

49km

PONDICHERRY

CUDDALORE

TANJORE

TRICHY
54km

65km

CHIDAMBARAM

KUMBAKONAM

Total Pondy Trichy

: 244 KMS

Fiber Owner

: BTSOL

Fiber allotted for vsnl/Ttsl : F no 39 F no 48


Fiber used for SDH

: F no 43&44

Link name & no

: SDH LINK No 17

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction

Shelf View:

ACCESS AREA-1

PORT AREA

ACCESSAREA-2

- Total Slots : 20
- Access Area 1: Slot 1-5 ( Hosts Access Cards like A63E1, A4S1, Congi ,etc).
- Access Area 2: Slot 16-20 ( Hosts Access Cards like A63E1, A4S1, Sergi ,etc).
- Port(Basic area)Area: Slot 6-15 (Hosts Port Cards like SYNTH, P4S1, P63E1, etc).

CARDS USED IN THE ALCATEL SDH LINK-17

1. Congi card : It the used to control the whole SDH system. It consists
of power supply&house keeping unit. the congi card is in slot no1
2. Synth4Card: It is card used to insert the optical signals from the
fms.It consists the Optical module it is named as IL- 4.2,IL-1.2,IS1.1.- these are called Optical modules. There are two synth cards its
inserted in slot no 6&15.
3. P4S1N card: P indicates Port ,S1N indicates STM1. card
4. P63E1 card : P indicates port, 63 E1 indcates Electical signals.
5. A63E1-120 : its a card corresponding to P63E1 card.A indicates
access area.
6. LSPORT/HSPROT: Its is a Low Speed/High speed protection Card.
It is used to implement EPS protection.(i.e)it implements the
connection between the access and spare card.These cards receive
the signal coming from the access card via back panel.

7.SERGI CARD: Used as a stand by card for the CONGI CARD


8. IL- It indicates LONG HAL it should in corresponding SYNTH CARD.
9. IS- It indicates SHORT HAL .
Note:
1. For All cards corresponding stand by cards are used.
2. Inserting a port card we have to insert a corresponding acess card in
the particular slot.
3. Port area
: Corresponding Acess area
Slot No-7 : No-2
Slot No-8 : No-3
Slot No-9 : No-4
Slot No-10 : No-5
Slot No-11 : No-16
Slot No-12 : No-17
Slot No-13 : No-18
Slot No-14 : No-19
4. Congi card in Slot no- 1
5. Sergi card in Slot no-20
6. Synth card in slot no:6,15

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction

Commonly Used Cards:


ACRONYM

SLOTS

P63E1N

7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14

P4ES1N

7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14

P3E3T3

7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14

P63E1 processes 63 2Mbits/s signals whose accesses are on the relevant


Access cards A21E1,A63E1
P4ES1N handles four electrical STM-1 Signals.All four accesses are on the
relevant access card(A4ES1).It is one of the board that can be EPS
protected.
P3E3T3 Prt card is a bi-directional interface from/to three PDH streams at
34Mbits/s or at 45Mbits/s Switchable and the STM-4

(1) Multicolor LED:


Red led . local unit alarm
Green led . in service unit
Orange led . unit in stand-by (EPS schema)

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction

Commonly Used Cards ( continues..):


ACRONYM

SLOTS

P4ES1N

7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14

P4E4N

7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14

P4ES1N handles four electrical STM-1 signals.All the four accesses


are on the Relevant Access card(A4ES1).It can be EPS protected.

P4E4N it describes the same features of P4S1N.


Two STM-1 electrical modules(Electricl or optical )can be hosted on the board.
Two further STM-1 modules can be hosted on the Access card A2S1

LEGEND:
(1) Channel #1 (N.B.)
(2) Channel #2 (N.B.)
(3) Bicolor LED:
Red led . local unit alarm
Green led . in service unit

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction

Commonly Used Cards ( continues..):

ACRONYM

SLOTS

CONGI

1, 20

1662SM-C houses two congi card(i.e)congi-A and congi-B


CONGI-A hold the Equip MAC(media access control) address

LEGEND:
(1) Power
(2) Housekeeping and remote alarm
(3) Rack lamp (not used in slot 20)
(4) QMD Q2 (not used in slot 20)
(5) I/O BNC Q3 10base2 (not used in slot 20)
(6) RJ45 Q3 10baseT (not used in slot 20)
(7) Bicolor LED:
Red led . local unit alarm
Green led . in service unit

Alcatel
1662 SMC Introduction
Commonly Used Cards ( continues..):

ACRONYM

SLOTS

SERGI

20

Sergi card Provides reduced combination of congi and service card functions
It has Power interface,Auxillary interface,I/p o/p clock interface for NE synchronization

LEGEND:
(1) Power
(2) Auxiliary channels:
2 channels G.703
2 channels RS232
2 channels V.11
(3) Aux and Sync. 2Mbit/s
J1 . 2MHz Input (T3) or 2Mbit/s Input (T6)
J2 . 2Mbit/s Input channel
J3 . 2MHz output (T4) or 2Mbit/s output (T5)
J4 . 2Mbit/s output channel
(4) Four wire telephone extersion point (RJ11)
(5) Z1-Z4 EOW zone selection LEDs (N.B.1)
(6) L1-L2 LEDs status for selective and multiple
call (N.B.2)
(7) Telephone jack
(8) Line seizure Key
(9) EOW zone selection Key
(10) Reset command Key
(11) Bicolor LED:
Red led . local unit alarm
Green led . in service unit

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction

Commonly Used Cards ( continues..):


ACRONYM

SYNTH16
6,15
SYNTH16 can be EPS 1+1 Protected
Slot no:6 is main card
Slot no:15 is spare card
Synth16 card is equipped with two parts for modules
1*STM-16 signals can be processed by the SYNTH 16 card
Synth 16 card performs several fns like shelf controller,Equip controller,
Performance monitoring collection,remote inventory
Synth 16 cards have a 96*96 stm-1 Matrix capacity.
It is also called as Compact ADM16 Card

LEGEND
(1) Reset command key
(2) Channel #1 (N.B.)
(3) Lamp test pushbutton
(4) Personal Computer Connector (F interface)
(5) Red LED . Urgent Alarm (Critical or Major)
(6) Red LED . Not Urgent Alarm (Minor)
(7) Yellow LED . Alarm storing (Attended)
(8) Yellow LED . Abnormal condition
(9) Yellow LED . Indicative Alarm (Warning)
(10) Green LED . when on it means active unit
when off it means standby unit
(11) Bicolor LED:
Red led . local unit alarm (INT)
Green led . in service unit
(12) Alarm storing pushbutton (Attended)

SLOTS

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction

Commonly Used Cards ( continues..):


ACRONYM

SLOTS

A63E1B (120Ohm)

2,3,4,5,16,17,18,19

A63E1 is the access card for the P63E1

63*2Mbit/s Access card(A63E1)Provides the connections from backpanel


to the external line and vice versa for the 63 PDH signals.

Three different type of connectors available:


A63E1/A:75 ohms unbalanced
A63E1/B:120 ohms balanced
A63E1/C:75 Ohms unbalanced with coax(3 slot wide)
LEGEND
(1) Channel #1-7
(2) Channel #8-14
(3) Channel #15-21
(4) Channel #22-28
(5) Channel #29-35
(6) Channel #36-42
(7) Channel #43-49
(8) Channel #50-56
(9) Channel #57-63

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction

Commonly Used Cards ( continues..):


ACRONYM

SLOTS

A2S1

2,3,4,5,16,17,18,19

A2S1 is the access card for the P4S1N and P4E4N port cards.
A2S1 can host upto 2modules(optical stm-1) in the front panel.

LEGEND
(1) Channel #3 (N.B.)
(2) Channel #4 (N.B.)
(3) Bicolor LED:
Red led . local unit alarm
Green led . in service unit

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction

Commonly Used Cards ( continues..):


ACRONYM

SLOTS

A3E3

2,3,4,5,16,17,18,19

A3T3

2,3,4,5,16,17,18,19

A3E3 Provides 3*34Mbit/s accesses for the P3E3T3


A3T3 Provides 3*45Mbit/s accesses for the P3E3T3
For each P3E3T3 One A3E3,A3T3 is necessary

LEGEND
(1) Channel #1
(2) Channel #2
(3) Channel #3
(4) Bicolor LED:
Red led . local unit alarm
Green led . in service unit

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction

Commonly Used Cards ( continues..):


ACRONYM

SLOTS

A4ES1

2,3,4,5,16,17,18,19

A4ES1 Provides 4 STM-1 Accesses for the P4ES1N.


For each P4ES1N one A4ES1 is Necessary

LEGENDA
(1) Channel #1
(2) Channel #2
(3) Channel #3
(4) Channel #4
(5) Bicolor LED:
Red led . local unit alarm
Green led . in service unit

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction

Commonly Used Cards ( continues..):


MODULE
ACRONYM

EQUIPED
ON PORTS

S-1.1

P4S1N,P4ES1
ATM4X4,A2S1
SYNTH4

L-1.1
L-1.2

S-1.1
S-Stands for short haul
1-stands for stm-1
1-stands for representing 1310nm
L-1.1
L-Stands for Long haul
1-stands for stm-1
1-stands for representing 1310nm
Module types:
Stm-1 and stm-4 Optical module:SC-PC Type and Fc-Pc Type are available
Stm-1 & stm-4 Optical modules are available and it physically different
140Mbit/s-STM-1 Electrical module.

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction

Commonly Used Cards ( continues..):

LEGENDA
(1) Multicolor LED:
Red led . local unit alarm
Orange led . temperature major than 55 C
Green led . in service unit
(2) Battery A connector
(3) Battery B connector
(4) Alarms connector for 1662SMC on the Left side of the Rack
(5) Not used
(6) Alarms connector for 1662SMC on the Right side of the Rack (6)

PSC front view

HWF
+ VBATT (male)

GND (female)

POWER

-VBATT (male)

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction


Technical Specifications:
Safty First

The optical interfaces which have HAZARD LEVEL 3A (see Table A below ) carry the following hazard symbol
label:

Caution : Invisible Laser Radiation may be present inside the optical interfaces carrying the above label ,hence
NEVER directly view into the beam.Doing so may result in the permanent damage to the eyesight.
UNIT/PORT

OPTICAL INTERFACE

HAZARD LEVEL

STM.1

S.1.1 (short haul)

STM.1

L.1.1 (long haul)

3A

STM.1

L.1.2 (long haul)

3A

STM.4

S.4.1 (short haul)

STM.4

L.4.1 (long haul)

3A

STM.4

L.4.2 (long haul)

3A

STM.16

S.4.1 (short haul)

3A

STM.16

L.4.1 (long haul)

3A

STM.16

L.4.2 (long haul)

3A

CLASSIFICATION OF ALARMS

SEVERITY ALARMS SYNTHESIS


1.Critical Alarms
2.Major Alarms
3.Minor Alarms
4.Warning Alarms
5.Intermediate Alarms

DOMAIN ALARMS SYNTHESIS


1.Synchronization Alarms
2.External points(House keeping Alarms)
3.Transmission Alarms
4.Equipment Alarms

MANAGEMENT ALARMS SYNTHESIS


1.Supervision
2.Alignment
3.Local access
4.Operating system
5.Managed by Nm & RM
6.Abnormal condition

Power -48V DC, 6A

MCB Rating used in the TRU unit is 16A

The max current consumed by the Equipment is less than 4Amps

A/C environment with temperature, humidity and dust control

Fire safety by centralised monitoring and automatic operation of extinguisher

LCT access through Q interface for NMS access through the LAN card

Tools: Power source, power meter, OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer)
and OSA (Optical Spectrum Analyser)

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction

Technical Specifications (Continues):

Electrical Interface CharacteristicsInterface

Charaterisitics

P63E1

Bit rate

2048 Kbit/s 50 ppm

No. of channels

63

Line Code

HDB3

Signal amplitude

2.37 Vp on 75 Ohm
unbalance/ 3 Vp on 120
Ohm balance.

Bit Rate

34368 Kbit/s 20 ppm

No. of tributaries

Line Code

HDB3

Signal amplitude

1Vp/75ohms

Bit rate

44.736 Kbit/s 20ppm

No. of tributaries

Line Code

B3ZS

Bit rate

155 520 Kbit/s 20 ppm

Line Code

CMI

Bit rate

139264 Kbit/s 15 ppm

Line Code

CMI

P3E3

P3T3

P4S1E

P4E4

Alcatel 1662 SMC Introduction


Technical Specifications (Continues):
Optical Characteristics

STM-1

S 1.1

L 1.1

L 1.2

-15 to -8dB

0 to - 5dB

0 to 5dB

Receiver
Sensitivity

-28dB

-37dB

-37dB

Receiver Overload

-8dB

-10dB

-10dB

L 4.1

L 4.2

-15 to -8dB

2 to -3dB

2 to 3dB

Receiver
Sensitivity

-28dB

-28dB

-28dB

Receiver Overload

-8dB

-8dB

-8dB

L 16.1

L 16.2

0 to -5dB

2 to -2dB

2 to 2dB

-18dB

-27dB

-28dB

0dB

-8dB

-8dB

Trans Power

Optical Connectors FCPC/SCPC


STM-4
Trans Power

S 4.1

Optical Connectors FCPC/SCPC


STM-16
Trans Power
Receiver
Sensitivity
Receiver Overload

S 16.1

RS232 Pin Assignments (DB9 PC signal set)


Pin 1

Received Line Signal Detector


(Data Carrier Detect)

Pin 2 Received Data


Pin 3 Transmit Data
Pin 4 Data Terminal Ready
Pin 5 Signal Ground
Pin 6 Data Set Ready
Pin 7 Request To Send

Pin 8 Clear To Send


Pin 9 Ring Indicator
The connector on the PC has male pins, therefore the mating
cable needs to terminate in a DB9/F (Female pin) connector

PROTECTION TYPES

EPS
Equipment
Protection
Switching

1:1
1:N

EPS:Protection against the equipment failure

MSP
Multiplex
Section
Protection

MSP-LINEAR
MS-SP RING
SNCP/N
SNCP/I

MSP:Protection against the equipment failure


And the Line Failure

EPS(Equipment Protection Switching)


1+1 Type
EQUIPMENT 1

EQUIPMENT 2

1.The 1+1 EPS Protection type means that one working equip is Protected by One Redundant Equip
2.The mode of 1+1 EPS Protection is Non Revertive.

EPS(Equipment Protection Switching)


1:N Type
LINE 1

EQUIPMENT 1

LINE 2

EQUIPMENT 1

LINE N

EQUIPMENT N

EQUIPMENT P

1)1:N Type protection means that N working Pieces of equip are protected
by just 1 Portecting Equivalent.
2)The mode of 1:N Eps protection is revertive.

MSP(Multiplex Section Protection)


MSP(linear) is also called as APS(Automatic Protection Switching)
NE-A
NE-B
WORKING

1+1Protection

TX
PROTECTION

HIGH PRIORITY LINE WORKING

TX
LOW PRIORITY LINE WORKING

TX

TX

1:1Protection

RX
RX

WORKING
WORKING

TX

RX

PROTECTION

RX
RX
1:N Protection