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You are on page 1of 19

SURFACE

3.1 Geometrical Properties of an Area

3.1.1

The sum of all the area elements over the entire area gives the area A.

y

x

x

dA

C

y

y

x

Thus

A

or

= (A)

= dA

The first moment of the element A with respect to the y-axis is xA. The

sum of the first moment of each element over the entire area, (xA),

represents the first moment of the area A with respect to the y-axis. This

sum must be equal to x A, where x defines the location of the centroid of

the area.

Therefore

&

where

= (xA)

= xdA

= 1st moment of area about y-axis

y A = (yA)

= ydA

= 1st moment of area about x-axis

xA

P.3-1

Fluid Mechanics

3.1.2

For the differential area element dA (i.e. A) in the area as shown in 3.1.1,

the differential moment of the element with respect to an axis is equal to

the second moment of the area with respect to the axis. That is, it is the

product of the area of the element and the square of its perpendicular

distance to the axis.

Thus

dIx = y2dA

and dIy = x2dA

Hence the moment of inertia of the whole area with respect to the axes is

Ix

= y2dA

and

= x2dA

Iy

Worked example:

A rectangle of width b and height h is shown in the following figure. The

x-axis is the horizontal centroidal axis. A horizontal differential strip dA is

chosen as shown.

y

dA

h/2

dy

y

h/2

b

Since all points of the strip are at the same distance from the x-axis, the

moment of inertia of dA with respect to the x-axis is

dIx = y2dA = y2(bdy)

Ix

= dI x

A

y

= h2 by 2 dy = b

2

3 h 2

bh 3

=

12

P.3-2

Fluid Mechanics

3.1.3

y

dA

y

x

C

d

be expressed in terms of the moment of inertia with respect to a parallel

centroidal axis.

Ix

= (y + d)2dA

= (y2 + 2yd + d2) dA

= y2dA + 2d ydA + d2 dA

It is seen that the first integral represents moment of inertia Ix about the

centroidal axis x. The second integral is zero, since ydA = Ay, but y is

zero with respect to the centroidal x-axis. The third integral is simply Ad2.

Thus the expression for Ix becomes

Ix

= I x + Ad2

Thus parallel-axis theorem states that the moment of inertia of an area with

respect to a non-centroidal axis is equal to the moment of inertial of the

area with respect to the parallel centroidal axis plus the product of the area

and the square of the distance between the two axes.

Hence evaluate the Ix of a rectangle about the base and verify it with the

parallel axis theorem.

P.3-3

Fluid Mechanics

Shape

Area, A

Inertia, Ix

bd

bd 3

12

bh

2

bh 3

36

Rectangle

d

x

x

d/2

Triangle

h

x

h/3

x

b

Circle

r 2 or

r

x

d 2

4

r 4

d 4

or

4

64

P.3-4

Fluid Mechanics

force developed by a fluid acting on a plane area. Consider the pressure

distribution along a vertical wall of a tank of width b, which contains a

liquid having a specific weight . Since the pressure must vary linearly

with depth (as p = h), we can represent the variation as shown in the

figure below, where the pressure is equal to zero at the upper surface and

equal to h at the bottom.

p

F

p

F

h/3

h

h

CP

b

The pressure distribution showed above applies across the vertical surface

so we can draw the three-dimensional representation of the pressure

distribution (see above). The base of this volume in pressure area space

is the plane surface of interest, and its altitude at each point is the pressure.

This volume is called the pressure prism, and it is clear that the magnitude

of the resultant force acting on the surface is equal to the volume of the

pressure prism.

FR = volume = 1/2 (h)(bh) = (h/2)A

where bh is the area of the rectangular surface, A.

The resultant force must pass through the centroid of the pressure prism.

For the volume under consideration the centroid is located along the

vertical axis of symmetry of the surface, and at a distance of h/3 above the

base.

P.3-5

Fluid Mechanics

This same graphical approach can be used for plane surfaces that do not

extend up the fluid surface as shown in the figure below.

h1

h1

h2

F1

F

F2

h2

However, the resultant force is still equal in magnitude to the volume of

the pressure prism, and it passes through the centroid of the volume.

For inclined plane surfaces the pressure prism can still be developed, and

the cross section of the prism will generally be trapezoidal as shown in

above. Although it is usually convenient to measure distances along the

inclined surface, the pressures developed depend on the vertical distances.

P.3-6

Fluid Mechanics

liquid, all pressures and forces must act at right angles to the surfaces with

which the liquid is in contact.

The diagram below shows a plane of general shape immersed at any depth.

The objective is to find the resultant force on one side of the plane, FR and

the depth at which its line of action intersects the plane, CP , i.e. the depth

of the centre of pressure.

h

CP

dA

centre of area

centre of pressure

FR

FR

FR = yA

= FR

= A ydA

FR = A ydA

= * 1st moment of area about S-axis (i.e. water surface)

= * Ah

FR * CP = (FR)y

= A y 2 dA

= A y 2 dA

= * 2nd moment of area about S-axis

P.3-7

Fluid Mechanics

1st moment of area about S

I

= S

Ah

CP =

Use the Parallel Axis Theorem and let Ix be the 2nd moment of area of the

plane surface about an axis X-X, passing through its centre of area and

parallel to x-axis.

2

= Ix + A h , and

I

CP = x + h

Ah

IS

Notice that since Ix, A and h are all positive, then CP is always greater

than h , i.e. the centre of pressure must always be at a greater depth than

the centre of area.

The majority of problems arising from liquid pressure are concerned with

the necessary forces or moments which must be applied to balance the

liquid forces. They are therefore problems of static equilibrium in which

the first step is to calculate the values of FR and CP . The second step is to

apply the conditions of static equilibrium,

i.e.

Fv = 0,

FH = 0 and

M = 0.

P.3-8

Fluid Mechanics

Worked example:

2.1m

water

A

2.1m

F1

F2

1.2m

T

o

The gate OA closes an opening 2.1 m deep and 1.6 m wide. What torque

must be applied at O to keep the gate closed?

Answer

Considering the left hand side,

= 9.81 kN/m3

A1 = 2.1 m * 1.6 m

h 1 = 2.1 + 2.1/2 m

F1

= 3.36 m2

= 3.15 m

= A1 h 1

= 9.81 * 3.36 * 3.15 kN

= 103.83 kN

= 1.23 m4

CP 1 =

1.23

+ 3.15

3.36 * 3.15

= 3.27 m

Similarly for right hand side,

A2 = 1.2 m * 1.6 m

h 2 = 1/2 * 1.2 m

= 1.92 m2

= 0.6 m

P.3-9

Fluid Mechanics

F2

= A2 h 2

= 9.81 * 1.92 * 0.6 kN

= 11.3 kN

CP 2 = 2 3 d2 = 2 3 * 1.2 m

= 0.8 m

Hence

F1 acts at

F2 acts at

1.2 0.8 m = 0.4 m from O

F1 = 103.8 kN

F2 = 11.3 kN

0.93m

0.4m

o

T

For equilibrium,

M = 0

T = 92 kNm

P.3-10

Fluid Mechanics

For the more general case in which a submerged plane surface is inclined,

the determination of the resultant force acting on the surface is more

involved.

Let the plane in which the surface lies intersect the free surface at 0 and

make an angle with this surface. The x-y co-ordinate system is defined

so that 0 is the origin and y is directed along the surface as shown.

y

dF

y

yCP

dA

centre of area

centre of pressure

dF = h dA

and is perpendicular to the surface.

Thus, the magnitude of the resultant force can be found by summing these

differential forces over the entire surface. In equation form

FR = h dA = ysin dA

For constant and

where h = ysin.

FR = sin y dA

y dA

= ycA

= 1st moment of area about x-axis

which passes through 0.

P.3-11

Fluid Mechanics

FR = Ayc sin

= A h

or more simply as

where h is the vertical distance from the fluid surface to the centroid of

the area.

Note that the magnitude of the force is independent of the angle and

depends only on the specific weight of the fluid, the total area, and the

depth of the centroid of the area below the surface. The resultant FR must

also be perpendicular to the surface.

The y co-ordinate of the resultant force can be determined by summation

of moments around the x-axis. That is, the moment of the resultant force

must equal to the moment of the distributed pressure force.

= y dFR

= sin y2 dA

= sin y2 dA

= sin IS

FRyR

Since

FR = A h

yR =

therefore

A h *

CP

sin

and

CP

sin

= sin IS

IS

Hence

= Ix + Ayc2

= Ix + A h 2/ sin2

sin 2 I S

CP =

A h

I x sin 2

+h

=

Ah

P.3-12

Fluid Mechanics

Worked examples:

1.

A sliding gate is used to close a culvert. The size of the gate is 1.5 m

* 1.5 m. The summit of the culvert is 4 m below the water surface as

shown below.

4m to water surface

grooves

culvert (empty)

1.5 m

400 kg

The coefficient of friction between the gate and the grooves in which it

slides is 0.5, and the gate has a mass of 400 kg. Find the force required to

open the gate assuming the culvert to be empty.

Answer

Area of the gate, A

= 1.5 * sin

= 1.5 * 1

= 0.67 m

= 4 + * 0.67 m

= 4.335 m

= A h

= 9.81 * 2.25 * 4.335 kN

= 95.7 kN

kN

= 400 * 9.81 / 1000 * 2

5

= 3.5 kN

P.3-13

Fluid Mechanics

= 99.2 kN

Since

frictional force

=*R

= 0.5 * 99.2 kN

= 49.61 kN

kN

= 400 * 9.81 / 1000 * 1

5

= 1.75 kN

Hence

= 49.61 + 1.75 kN

= 51.36 kN

P.3-14

Fluid Mechanics

2.

A culvert draws off water from the base of a reservoir the sides of

which are inclined at 80 to the horizontal. The culvert is closed by a

circular gate 1.25 m in diameter which can be rotated about its

horizontal diameter. Show that the turning moment on the gate is

independent of the depth of the water if the gate is completely

immersed and find the value of this moment.

Answer

A

h

= kN/m3

= d2/4 m2

=h

m

h

= A h

I G sin

+h

Ah

2

CP =

80

Lever arm of F, l = (CP - h )/sin80

I G sin

=

Ah

Moment induced = F*l

I G sin

= A h *

Ah

= *IG*sin (independent of depth)

P.3-15

Fluid Mechanics

A vertical gate is rectangular in shape with width, b and height h. The top

of the gate is level with the surface of the water, where it is supported by a

frictionless hinge H. A weight W hangs to the gate as shown below. The

bottom of the gate rests against a stop. Atmospheric pressure acts

everywhere. By neglecting the weight of the gate and the arm, determine

the minimum weight W required to keep the gate close.

hinge

a

h

h/2

1 3

h b )

3a

P.3-16

Fluid Mechanics

1.5 m long. Calculate

(1) the resultant force FR of the water on the gate AB and

(2) the force FB acting at point B to hold the gate closed.

FB

3m

o

25

water

1.5m

B

P.3-17

Fluid Mechanics

half filled with water and half filled with oil of density 880 kg m-3.

Determine the magnitude and position of the net hydrostatic force on one

end of the tank.

from the bounding diameter,

Given: Centroid of a semi-circle = 2 D

I of a semi-circle

3

D

8

( )4

2 8 9

P.3-18

Fluid Mechanics

1.

Find the value of h for which the gate in the conduit will just open.

30 kPa

water

h

air

1.2m

gate

2.

The gate in the figure below is hinged at point B, and rests against a

smooth wall at A. By considering per metre width of the gate,

compute the fluid force on the gate due to seawater (density of

seawater = 1025 kg/m3) pressure and the horizontal reaction P exerted

by the wall at point A.

seawater

A

3.5m

air

1.5m

B

2m

3.

of the free surface, h, at which the gate will start to rotate. The weight

of the gate can be neglected.

h

0

1.5m

END

P.3-19

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