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RULES

DET NORSKE VERITAS (DNV)


= STRUCTURES =
Aluminium High Speed, Light Craft

PART 3 - CHAPTER 1
High Speed, Light Craft
Design Principles, Design Loads
and

PART 3 - CHAPTER 3
Hull Structural Design, Aluminium Alloy
(DNV) JANUARY 2011

RULES FOR CLASSIFICATION OF

High Speed, Light Craft and


Naval Surface Craft
PART 3 CHAPTER 1

STRUCTURES, EQUIPMENT

Design Principles, Design Loads


JANUARY 2011
This chapter has been amended since the main revision (January 2011), most recently in July 2011.
See Changes on page 3.

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FOREWORD
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Det Norske Veritas AS January 2011
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Amended July 2011, see page 3

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.1 Page 3

General
As of October 2010 all DNV service documents are primarily published electronically.
In order to ensure a practical transition from the print scheme to the electronic scheme, all rule chapters having
incorporated amendments and corrections more recent than the date of the latest printed issue, have been given the date
January 2011.
An overview of DNV service documents, their update status and historical amendments and corrections may be found
through http://www.dnv.com/resources/rules_standards/.
Amendments July 2011

General

The restricted use legal clause found in Pt.1 Ch.1 Sec.4 has been added also on the front page.
Main changes
Since the previous edition (January 2005), this chapter has been amended, most recently in July 2010. All changes
previously found in Pt.0 Ch.1 Sec.3 have been incorporated and a new date (January 2011) has been given as explained
under General.
In addition, the layout has been changed to one column in order to improve electronic readability.

DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.1 Contents Page 4

Amended July 2011, see page 3

CONTENTS
Sec. 1

Design Principles ................................................................................................................................ 5

A.
A
A
A
A

Documentation .............................................................................................................................................................. 5
100 Plans and particulars ............................................................................................................................................. 5
200 Information ........................................................................................................................................................... 5
300 Strength calculations............................................................................................................................................. 5
400 Certificates ............................................................................................................................................................ 5

B.
B
B
B
B
B
B

Subdivision and Arrangement ..................................................................................................................................... 6


100 General.................................................................................................................................................................. 6
200 Transverse watertight bulkheads........................................................................................................................... 6
300 Position of collision bulkhead............................................................................................................................... 6
400 Openings and closing appliances .......................................................................................................................... 6
500 Cofferdams............................................................................................................................................................ 6
600 Steering gear compartment ................................................................................................................................... 7

C.
C
C
C
C
C
C

Scantlings ....................................................................................................................................................................... 7
100 General.................................................................................................................................................................. 7
200 Loading conditions ............................................................................................................................................... 7
300 Hull girder strength ............................................................................................................................................... 7
400 Resistance to slamming ........................................................................................................................................ 7
500 Local vibrations .................................................................................................................................................... 7
600 Miscellaneous strength requirements.................................................................................................................... 7

D. Definitions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 7
D 100 Symbols ................................................................................................................................................................ 7
D 200 Structural terms..................................................................................................................................................... 8

Sec. 2

Design Loads ..................................................................................................................................... 10

A. General ......................................................................................................................................................................... 10
A 100 Introduction......................................................................................................................................................... 10
A 200 Definitions .......................................................................................................................................................... 10
B.
B
B
B

Accelerations................................................................................................................................................................ 11
100 General................................................................................................................................................................ 11
200 Design vertical acceleration................................................................................................................................ 12
300 Horizontal accelerations...................................................................................................................................... 13

C.
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

Pressures and Forces .................................................................................................................................................. 14


100 General................................................................................................................................................................ 14
200 Slamming pressure on bottom ............................................................................................................................ 14
300 Forebody side and bow impact pressure............................................................................................................. 16
400 Slamming pressure on flat cross structures......................................................................................................... 17
500 Sea pressure ........................................................................................................................................................ 18
600 Liquids ................................................................................................................................................................ 19
700 Dry cargo, stores and equipment ........................................................................................................................ 20
800 Heavy units ......................................................................................................................................................... 20

Sec. 3

Hull Girder Loads ............................................................................................................................ 21

A.
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

Longitudinal Bending, Shearing and Axial Loads................................................................................................... 21


100 General................................................................................................................................................................ 21
200 Crest landing ....................................................................................................................................................... 21
300 Hollow landing ................................................................................................................................................... 22
400 Hydrofoils ........................................................................................................................................................... 22
500 Hogging and sagging bending moments............................................................................................................. 22
600 Shear forces from longitudinal bending.............................................................................................................. 23
700 Axial loads .......................................................................................................................................................... 23
800 Combination of hull girder loads ........................................................................................................................ 23

B.
B
B
B
B

Twin Hull Loads.......................................................................................................................................................... 23


100 General................................................................................................................................................................ 23
200 Vertical bending moment and shear force .......................................................................................................... 24
300 Pitch connecting moment.................................................................................................................................... 26
400 Twin hull torsional moment................................................................................................................................ 26

DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Amended July 2011, see page 3

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.1 Page 5

SECTION 1
DESIGN PRINCIPLES
A. Documentation
A 100 Plans and particulars
101

The following plans shall normally be submitted for approval:

midship section including main particulars (L, B, D, T, CB ), maximum service speed V and design wave
height HS. (significant double amplitude)
profile and decks
shell expansion and framing including openings
watertight bulkheads and transom including openings and their closing appliances
tank structures including height of air pipes
engine room structures including tanks and foundations for heavy machinery components
afterpeak structures
forepeak structures
superstructures and deckhouses including openings with sill heights and their closing appliances
hatchways, hatch covers, ports in crafts sides and ends including securing and tightening appliances
propeller shaft brackets with their attachment to the hull
trim flaps or foils with their attachment to the hull
rudder and rudder stock with details of bearings
arrangement and particulars of anchoring and mooring equipment with windlass
drawings of cathodic protection systems, showing anode types, mass, distribution, location and attachment
details (for sacrificial anodes or impressed current anodes with reference electrodes)
selection and combination of materials for exposure to sea water and/or marine atmosphere.
Identical or similar structures in various positions should preferably be covered by the same plan.
102

When relevant an operating manual shall be submitted, see Pt.1 Ch.1 Sec.2 A400.

103

The following plans shall be submitted for information:

104

general arrangement
engine room arrangement
tank arrangement
capacity plan
body plan, hydrostatic curves or tables
specifications for corrosion protection, i.e. for coating, see Ch.3 Sec.2 C301 and for cathodic protection
including calculations, see Ch.3 Sec.2 C403.
Additional documentation required for approval are listed in the appropriate Parts.

A 200 Information
201

Information which may be necessary for longitudinal strength calculations shall be submitted.

202

Information which may be necessary for overall and local strength calculations shall be submitted.

A 300 Strength calculations


301 Strength calculations shall normally be submitted for reference demonstrating that stresses are within
required limits according to the rules.
302 For craft of novel design and for craft with L >50 m, global hull strength analysis demonstrating stresses
and deflections in the hull structure will normally be required.
A 400 Certificates
401

Certificates issued by Det Norske Veritas will be required for the following materials/components:
all materials to be used in hull, superstructure and deckhouses
trim foils or flaps
rudder and rudder stock
steering gear
anchor and chain/wire ropes
windlass.
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.1 Page 6

Amended July 2011, see page 3

B. Subdivision and Arrangement


B 100 General
101 The hull shall be subdivided into watertight compartments as required for the service and type notation
requested.
B 200 Transverse watertight bulkheads
201

At least the following transverse watertight bulkheads shall be fitted in all craft:

a collision bulkhead
a bulkhead at each end of the machinery space(s).
202 The watertight bulkheads are in general to extend to the freeboard deck. Afterpeak bulkheads may,
however, terminate at the first watertight deck above the waterline at draught T.
203

For craft with two continuous decks and a large freeboard to the uppermost deck, the following applies:

when the draught is less than the depth to the second deck, only the collision bulkhead need extend to the
uppermost continuous deck. The remaining bulkheads may terminate at the second deck
when the draught is greater than the depth to the second deck, the machinery bulkheads, with the exception
of afterpeak bulkhead, shall extend watertight to the uppermost continuous deck.
204 In craft with a raised quarter deck, the watertight bulkheads within the quarter deck region shall extend
to this deck.
205 For craft with the additional class notation Yacht and Patrol alternative arrangements may be accepted
based on special considerations.
B 300 Position of collision bulkhead
301 The distance xc from the forward perpendicular to the collision bulkhead shall be taken between the
following limits:
xc(minimum) = 0.05 L (m)
xc(maximum) = 3.0 + 0.05 L (m)
L
= length in m on design waterline.
302 Minor steps or recesses in the collision bulkhead may be accepted, provided the requirements to
minimum and maximum distances from the forward perpendicular are complied with.
303 For craft having complete or long forward superstructures, the collision bulkhead shall extend to the next
deck above freeboard deck. The extension need not be fitted directly over the bulkhead below, provided the
requirements to distances from the forward perpendicular are complied with, and the part of the freeboard deck
forming the step is made watertight.
For craft having particular high freeboard and long bow overhang, the position of the collision bulkhead above
the freeboard deck may be specially considered.
304 For craft with the additional class notation Yacht and Patrol alternative arrangements may be accepted
based on special considerations.
B 400 Openings and closing appliances
401 Openings may be accepted in watertight bulkheads, except in that part of the collision bulkhead which
is situated below the freeboard deck.
402 Openings situated below the freeboard deck shall have watertight doors with signboards fitted at each
door stipulating that the door be kept closed while the craft is at sea. This assumption will be stated in the
Appendix to Classification Certificate.
403 Openings in the collision bulkhead above the freeboard deck shall have weathertight doors or an
equivalent arrangement. The number of openings in the bulkhead shall be reduced to the minimum compatible
with the design and normal operation of the craft.
404

For Yacht and Patrol notation alternative requirements may apply.

B 500 Cofferdams
501 Cofferdams Fuel oil, lubricating oil and fresh water tanks shall be separated from each other by
cofferdams.
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Amended July 2011, see page 3

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.1 Page 7

B 600 Steering gear compartment


601 The steering gear compartment shall be readily accessible and, as far as practicable, separated from
machinery spaces.

C. Scantlings
C 100 General
101

Hull scantlings are in general to be based on the two design aspects, load and strength.

102 The rules have established design loads corresponding to the loads imposed by the sea and the
containment of cargo, passengers, ballast and bunkers. The design loads are applicable in strength formulae
and calculation methods when satisfactory strength level is represented by allowable stress and/or usage
factors.
103 The structure shall be capable of withstanding the static and dynamic loads which can act on the craft
under operating conditions, without such loading resulting in inadmissible deformation and loss of
watertightness or interfering with the safe operation of the craft.
104

Cyclic loads, including those from vibrations which can occur on the craft, shall not:

impair the integrity of structure during the anticipated service life of the craft
hinder normal functioning of machinery and equipment
impair the ability of the crew to carry out its duties.
105

Documentation on the vibration level onboard a craft may be required.

C 200 Loading conditions


201 Static loads are derived from loading conditions submitted by the builder or standard conditions
prescribed in the rules.
202 Wave-induced loads determined according to accepted theories, models tests or full scale measurements
may be accepted as equivalent basis for classification. However, craft will not be classed for operation within
a specific geographical area.
The determination of dynamic loads shall be based on long term distribution of responses that the craft will
experience during its operating life.
C 300 Hull girder strength
301 For craft with length L 50 m the minimum strength standard is normally satisfied for scantlings
obtained from local strength requirements.
C 400 Resistance to slamming
401 Craft shall be strengthened to resist slamming. Requirements for minimum slamming loads and
associated allowable stresses are given.
C 500 Local vibrations
501 The evaluation of structural response to vibrations caused by impulses from engine and propeller blades
is not covered by the classification.
Upon request such evaluation may be undertaken by the Society.
C 600 Miscellaneous strength requirements
601 Requirements for scantlings of foundations, minimum plate thicknesses and other requirements not
relating relevant load and strength parameters may reflect criteria other than those indicated by these
parameters. Such requirements may have been developed from experience or represent simplifications
considered appropriate by the Society.

D. Definitions
D 100 Symbols
101
L

= length of the craft in m defined as the distance between perpendiculars. Amidships is defined as the
middle of L
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.1 Page 8

FP
AP
B
D
T

CB

Amended July 2011, see page 3

= forward perpendicular is the perpendicular at the intersection of the fully loaded waterline (with the
craft at rest) with the foreside of the stem
= after perpendicular is the perpendicular at the intersection of the fully loaded waterline (with the craft
at rest) with the after side of sternpost or transom
= greatest moulded breadth in m
= moulded depth is the vertical distance in m from baseline to moulded deckline at the uppermost
continuous deck measured amidships
= fully loaded draught in m with the craft floating at rest in calm water
= fully loaded displacement in tonnes in salt water (density 1.025t/m3) on draught T
= block coefficient, given by the formula:

= -------------------------------------

1.025L B WL T

BWL = greatest moulded breadth of the hull(s) in m at the fully loaded waterline (with the craft at rest).
For multihull craft BWL is the net sum of the waterline breadths
BWL2 = greatest moulded breadth of the hull(s) in m at the fully loaded waterline (with the craft at rest)
measured at L/2.
For multihull craft BWL2 is the net sum of the waterline breadths
V
= maximum speed in knots
=
=
LCG =
WL =
g0

standard acceleration of gravity.


9.81 m/s2
longitudinal centre of gravity
water line.

D 200 Structural terms


201 Freeboard deck is a deck above waterline, weathertight closed or protected, from which a freeboard is
measured. For details see LL3 (Load Line Convention of 1966, Regulation 3).
202 Superstructure is defined as a decked structure on the freeboard deck, extending from side to side of the
ship or with the side plating not being inboard of the shell plating more than 4% of the breadth (B). See also
LL3.
203 Strength deck is normally defined as the uppermost continuous deck. A superstructure deck which within
0.4L amidships has a continuous length equal to or greater than
B
3 ---- + H (m) for monohull vessels
2

or
L
3 ------ + H (m) for twin hull vessels
15

shall be regarded as the strength deck instead of the covered part of the uppermost continuous deck.
H = height in m between the uppermost continuous deck and the superstructure deck in question.
Another deck may be defined as the strength deck after special consideration of its effectiveness.
An analysis may be required to estimate the effective width of the various decks in the craft, and thereby their
contribution to the hull girder section modulus.
Strength deck requirements may then have to be applied to effective party of all upper decks.
204

Short superstructure deck is a superstructure deck which shall not be regarded as a strength deck.

205

Weather decks are open decks or parts of decks which may be exposed to local sea and weather loads.

206 Bulkhead deck (for passenger vessels and some special purpose vessels) is a deck above flooded
waterline to which the watertight bulkheads are carried.
207 Weathertight is used for external surfaces above freeboard (or bulkhead) deck and means that in any sea
conditions water will not penetrate into the ship.
Flush with and below freeboard (or bulkhead) deck the stronger term watertight is used in the same meaning.
208 Watertight elsewhere is primarily related to the internal subdivision of the ship, and means that in a
flooded condition water will not penetrate from one compartment into the other.
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Amended July 2011, see page 3

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.1 Page 9

A certain permanent set is, however, accepted in this one-accident case, which means that a watertight bulkhead
is inferior to a tank bulkhead and is not accepted as such.
209 Girder is a collective term for primary supporting members, usually supporting stiffeners. Other terms
used are:

210

bottom, side and deck transverses


floor (a bottom transverse)
stringer (a horizontal girder)
web frame
vertical web.
Stiffener is a collective term for a secondary supporting member. Other terms used are:
beam
frame
reversed frame (inner bottom transverse stiffeners)
longitudinal.

211 Flat cross structure is a structure having an exposed, down-facing, horizontal or near-horizontal
surface above the waterline.
212 Supporting structure. Strengthening of the vessel structure, e.g. a deck, in order to accommodate loads
and moments from a heavy or loaded object.
213

Foundation. A device transferring loads from a heavy or loaded object to the vessel structure.

DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.2 Page 10

Amended July 2011, see page 3

SECTION 2
DESIGN LOADS
A. General
A 100 Introduction
101 Design loads given in this section are derived from full scale measurements and statistical analysis of
high speed and light craft designs.
102

Design loads given in this section covers:

High Speed and Light Craft (HSLC) which comply with the speed requirement in Pt.1 Ch.1 Sec.2 A104
and A105; i.e. V 25 knots
Light Craft (LC) according to V < 25 knots.
103 New design concepts may require tank tests, theoretical studies, or full scale measurements to establish
seakeeping properties and design loads.
104 Design pressures caused by sea, liquid cargoes, dry cargoes, ballast and bunkers are based on extreme
conditions, but are modified to equivalent values corresponding to the stress levels stipulated in the rules.
105 The effects of speed reduction in heavy weather are allowed for. Limiting sea state (significant wave
height) to speed reduction may be stipulated. Such restrictions will be stated in the Appendix to Classification
Certificate.
106 A signboard giving the relationship between allowable speed and significant wave height as restricted
shall be posted in the wheelhouse.
107 Significant wave height is the average of the 1/3 highest wave heights within the wave spectrum. Visual
observation of the wave height by an experienced person coincides well with the significant wave height.
108

Installation of an accelerometer at LCG may be required.

A 200 Definitions
201

Symbols:

= design pressure in kN/m 2


= density of liquid or stowage rate of dry cargo in t/m3
Cw = wave coefficient.
For unrestricted service:
Cw = 0.08 L for L 100m
= 6 + 0.02 L for L > 100m.

Reduction of Cw for restricted service is given in Table A1.


Table A1 Reduction of Cw
Class notation
R0
R1
R2
R3
R4
R5-R6

Reduction
0
0
10%
20%
40%
60%

Restricted service class notations are defined in Pt.1 Ch.1 Sec.2.


Variation of wave coefficient Cw is shown in Fig.1.

DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Amended July 2011, see page 3

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.2 Page 11

Fig. 1
Wave coefficient

202 The load point for which the design pressure shall be calculated is defined for various strength members
as follows:
a) For plates: midpoint of horizontally stiffened plate.
Half of the stiffener spacing above the lower support of vertically stiffened plate, or at lower edge of plate
when the thickness is changed within the plate.
b) For stiffeners: midpoint of span.
When the pressure varies other than linearly the design pressure shall be taken as the greater of:
pa + pb
p m and ----------------2

pm pa and pb are calculated pressure at the midpoint and at each end respectively.
c) For girders: midpoint of load area.

B. Accelerations
B 100 General
101 Accelerations in the crafts vertical, transverse and longitudinal axes are in general obtained by assuming
the corresponding linear acceleration and relevant components of angular accelerations as statistically
independent variables. The combined acceleration in each direction may be taken as:
n

ac =

am

m=1

= number of independent variables.

Transverse or longitudinal component of the angular acceleration considered in the above expression shall
include the component of gravity acting simultaneously in the same direction.
102 The combined effects given in the following may deviate from the above general expression due to
practical simplifications applicable to hull structural design or based on experience regarding phasing between
certain basic components.
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.2 Page 12

Amended July 2011, see page 3

B 200 Design vertical acceleration


201 Design vertical acceleration at crafts centre of gravity acg shall be specified by the builder, and is
normally not to be less than:
2
V 3.2
a cg = ------- ------------- f g g 0 ( m s ).
0.76
L L

Minimum acg= 1 g0 for service restriction R0-R4


Minimum acg= 0.5 g0 for service restriction R5
V
------- need not be taken greater than 3,0
L

fg

= acceleration factor (fraction of g0) dependent of type and service notation and service area restriction
notation given in Table B1.

Table B1 Acceleration factor fg


Type and service
notation
R0
Passenger
Car ferry
Cargo
Patrol
Yacht
1)

1)
1)

4
7
1

R1
1
1
3
5
1

Service area restriction notation


R2
R3
R4
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1

R5-R6
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5

Service area restriction R0 is not available for class notations Passenger and Car Ferry.

The design vertical acceleration is an extreme value with a 1% probability of being exceeded, in the worst
intended condition of operation.
202 Unless otherwise established, the design acceleration at different positions along the crafts length shall
not be less than:
a v = k v a cg

kv = longitudinal distribution factor taken from Fig.2.


203 The allowable speed corresponding to the design vertical acceleration acg, may be estimated from the
formulas for the relationship between instantaneous values of acg, V and Hs, given in 204 and 205.
204 When V

L 3:
HS
kh g0
a cg = ------------ -------------- + 0.084 ( 50 cg )

1650 B WL2
2
2
V 2 L B WL2
------------------------------- ( m s )
L

=
=
=
=
BWL2 =
Hs

cg

g0
kh

significant wave height in m


deadrise angle at LCG in degrees
minimum 10
maximum 30
water line breadth at L/2 in m.
For twin- and multi hull vessels the total breadth of the hulls (exclusive tunnels) shall be used
= standard acceleration of gravity = 9.81 m/s2
= hull type factor given in Table B2.

Table B2 Hull type factor


Hull type
Monohull, Catamaran
Wave Piercer
SES, ACV
Foil assisted hull (see 206)
SWATH (see 206)

kh
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.7
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Amended July 2011, see page 3

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.2 Page 13

The hull type factor kh is an estimate for correction of the vertical acceleration depending on the different types
of hull forms.
205

When V L < 3:
HS
2
V
a cg = 6 ------- 0.85 + 0.35 ------- g 0 ( m s )

L
L

206 Unless other values are justified by calculations according to accepted theories, model tests or full scale
measurements, the speed reductions implied by 204 and 205 shall be applied. For SWATH and craft with foil
assisted hull, accelerations shall normally be determined in accordance with the above direct methods.
207 Relationships between allowable speed and significant wave height will be stated in the Appendix to
Classification Certificate.

2.4
kv
2.0

1.6

1.2

0.8

0.4

AP

0.2L

0.4L

0.6L

0.8L

FP

Midship

Fig. 2
Longitudinal distribution factor for vertical design acceleration

B 300 Horizontal accelerations


301

The craft shall be designed for a longitudinal (surge) acceleration not less than
CW
V 2
a l = 2.5 -------- 0.85 + 0.25 ------- g 0
L
L

V
------need not be taken greater than 4
L

Tentative formula for the relation between instantaneous values of al, HS and V:
HS
V 2
a l = ( 1.67 ) ------- 0.85 + 0.35 ------- g 0
L
L

al is intended for calculation of forward directed inertia forces and may have to be increased based on the
overall impact possibilities in crafts front.
al may be simultaneous with downward vertical inertia in forebody.
302 It may be necessary to pay attention to transverse acceleration from forced roll in bow seas.
Period of forced roll to be taken:
L
T R = ---------------------------------------- ( s )
V
1.05 + 0.175 ------L
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.2 Page 14

Amended July 2011, see page 3

V
------- need not be taken greater than 4
L

Maximum roll inclination:


hw
r = ---------- (radians)
2L

Resulting transverse acceleration:


2
2
a t = 2 -------- r r r ( m s )
TR

Static component g0 sin r to be added, when above axis of roll.


hw = maximum wave height in which 70% of maximum service speed will be maintained, minimum 0.6 Cw
rr = height above axis of roll.
Axis of roll to be taken
at waterline for twin hull craft
at D/2 for monohull craft.

C. Pressures and Forces


C 100 General
101
are:

The external and internal pressures and forces considered to influence the scantlings of stiffened panels

static and dynamic sea pressures


static and dynamic pressures from liquids in a tank
static and dynamic loads from dry cargoes, stores and equipment.
102

The design sea pressures are assumed to be acting on the crafts outer panels at full draught.

103 The internal pressures are given for the panel in question irrespectively of possible simultaneous pressure
from the opposite side.
104 The bottom structure, forebody side/bow structure and flat cross structures shall be strengthened to resist
the effects of slamming and impact.
105 The gravity and acceleration forces from heavy units of cargo and equipment may influence the
scantlings of primary strength members.
C 200 Slamming pressure on bottom
201

The design slamming pressure on bottom of craft with speed

L3

shall be taken as:

0.7 50 x
2
0.3
-------------------- a
P sl = 1.3k l -------
TO
( kN m )
nA
50 cg cg

kl
n
A

= longitudinal distribution factor from Fig. 3


= number of hulls, 1 for monohulls, 2 for catamarans. Trimarans and other multihulls will be specially
considered.
= design load area for element considered in m2.

For plating A shall not be taken greater than 2.5 s2.


For stiffener and girder A is taken as the product:
spacing x span

A need not for any structure be taken less than 0.002 --T

TO = draught at L/2 in m at normal operation condition at service speed


= fully loaded displacement in tonnes in salt water on draught T
x = deadrise angle in degrees at transverse section considered (minimum 10, maximum30 )
cg = deadrise angle in degrees at LCG (minimum 10, maximum 30)
acg = design vertical acceleration at LCG from B200 (aV calculated at LCG).
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Amended July 2011, see page 3

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.2 Page 15

For transverse sections with no pronounced deadrise angle, cg and x may be estimated according to Fig.4.
The bottom slamming pressure need not be applied to craft with no significant hydrodynamic or air cushion lift
in normal operating condition; i.e. SWATH hull forms.
202 Bottom slamming pressure shall be applied on elements within the area extending from the keel line to
chine, upper turn of bilge or pronounced sprayrail.

Fig. 3
Longitudinal slamming pressure distribution factor for high speed mode slamming

Fig. 4
Deadrise angle for round bottom section

203

All craft shall be designed for a pitching slamming pressure on bottom as given below:
20T L
2
21
P sl = ------------------- k a k b C W 1 ------------- ( kN m )

tan ( x )
L

x as in 201
ka = 1 for plating
= 1.1 20 lA/L; maximum 1.0, minimum 0.35 for stiffeners and girders
lA= longitudinal extent in m of load area
k b = 1 for plating and longitudinal stiffeners and girders
= L/40l + 0.5 (maximum 1.0) for transverse stiffeners and girders (l = span in m of stiffener or girder)
TL = lowest service speed draft in m at FP measured vertically from waterline to keel line or extended keel
line.
Above pressure shall extend within a length from FP:
V
0.1 + 0.15 ------L

L
V L need not to be taken greater than 3. psl may be gradually reduced to zero at 0.175 L aft of the above
length.
Pitching slamming pressure shall be exposed on elements within the area extending from the keel line to chine,
upper turn of bilge or pronounced sprayrail.
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.2 Page 16

204

Amended July 2011, see page 3

Pressure on bottom structure shall not be less than given in 500.

C 300 Forebody side and bow impact pressure


301

Forebody side and bow impact pressure shall be taken as, in kN/m2:
0.7 LC L C H
V
P sl = --------------------------- 0.6 + 0.4 ------- sin cos ( 90 ) +
0.3
L
A
2.1 a 0
2
V
x
--------------- 0.4 ------- + 0.6 sin ( 90 ) --- 0.4
L

CB
L

V L need not be taken greater than 3.

= design load area for element considered in m2


For plating A shall not be taken greater than = 2.5 s2 (m2)
For stiffeners and girders A need not be taken smaller than e2 (m2)

e
x
CL

In general A need not be taken smaller than L Bwl/1000 (m2)


= vertical extent of load area, measured along shell perpendicular to the waterline
= distance in m from AP to position considered
= correction factor for length of craft
2

250L L
= ------------------------- , L not be taken greater than 100m
15000

CH = correction factor for height above waterline to load point


0.5
-------- h 0
= 1 C
W

CW may be reduced according to A201

a0

h0 = vertical distance in m from the waterline at draught T to the load point


= flare angle taken as the angle between the side plating and a horizontal line, measured at the point
considered. See Fig.5
= angle between the waterline and a longitudinal line measured at the point considered. See Fig.6
= acceleration parameter:
CW
V
a 0 = 3 -------- + C V ------L
L
L
C V = ------- , maximum 0.2
50

C
Fig. 5
Flare angle
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Amended July 2011, see page 3

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.2 Page 17

Fig. 6
Waterline angle

302

Forebody side and bow pressure shall not be taken less than according to 500.

303

The impact pressure according to 301 is be calculated for longitudinal positions between 0.4 L and bow.

304 In vertical direction the impact pressure shall extend from bottom chine or upper turn of bilge to main
deck or vertical part of craft side.
Upper turn of bilge shall be taken at a position where deadrise angle reaches 70, but not higher than the
waterline.
If no pronounced bottom chine or upper turn of bilge is given (V-shape), the impact pressure shall extend from
keel to main deck or vertical part of craft side.
C 400 Slamming pressure on flat cross structures
401

The design slamming pressure on flat cross structures (catamaran tunnel top, etc.), shall be taken as:

P sl = 2.6 k t ----
A

A
HC
kt
HL
kc

=
=
=
=

0.3

HC
2
a cg 1 ------- ( kN m )

H L

design load area for element considered. See 201


minimum vertical distance in m from WL to load point in operating condition
longitudinal pressure distribution factor according to Fig.7
necessary vertical clearance in m from WL to load point to avoid slamming
0.8

= 0.22 L k c ------------ L
1000
= hull type clearance factor
0.3 for catamaran, wave piercer
0.3 for SES, ACV
0.3 for hydrofoil, foilcatamaran
0.5 for SWATH.

DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.2 Page 18

Amended July 2011, see page 3

kt
1.5

SWATH

CATAMARAN
WAVE PIERCER
SES
ACV

1.0

HYDROFOIL
FOILCAT

0.5

AP

0.5L

FP

Fig. 7
Flat cross structure slamming distribution factor kt

402

Slamming pressure shall not be less than the sea pressure according to 500 (side above WL).

C 500 Sea pressure


501 Pressure acting on the crafts bottom, side (including superstructure side) and weather decks shall be
taken as:
for load point below design waterline:
h0
2
p = 10h 0 + k s 1.5 ----- C W ( kN m )

for load point above design waterline:


2

p = a k s ( C W 0.67 h 0 ) ( kN m )

Minimum sea pressures are given in Table C1.


Table C1 Minimum sea pressures
Notation
R0, R1, R2, R3
R4
R5-R6

Sides
6.5
5
4

Weather
decks
5
4
3

Roofs higher than 0.1 L


above WL
3
3
3

h0 = vertical distance in m from the waterline at draught T to the load point


ks = 7.5 aft of amidships
= 5/CB forward of FP.
Between specified areas ks shall be varied linearly, see Fig.8
a = 1.0 for crafts sides and open freeboard deck
= 0.8 for weather decks above freeboard deck
CW = wave coefficient according to A200.

DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Amended July 2011, see page 3

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.2 Page 19

Fig. 8
Sea load distribution factor

502

The design pressure on superstructure end bulkheads and deckhouses shall not be taken less than:
2

p = a k s ( C W 0.67 h 0 ) ( kN m )

Pmin= 5 + (5 + 0.05 L) sin (kN/m2)


for lowest tier of unprotected front
Pmin= 5 (kN/m2) for aft end bulkheads
Pmin= 5 + 0.025 L sin (kN/m2) elsewhere
where is the angle between the bulkhead/side and deck.
ho, CW and ks as given in 501.
a

503

=
=
=
=

2.0 for lowest tier of unprotected fronts


1.5 for deckhouse fronts
1.0 for deckhouse sides
0.8 elsewhere.
The design pressure on watertight bulkheads (compartment flooded) shall be taken as:
p = 10 hb (kN/2)

hb = vertical distance in m from the load point to the top of bulkhead or to flooded waterline, if deeper.
504 The design pressure on deck or inner bottom forming part of watertight bulkhead shall not be less than
for the bulkhead at same level.
C 600 Liquids
601 Tanks for bunkers and tank bulkheads shall normally be designed for liquids of density equal to that of
sea water, taken as = 1.025 t/m3 (i.e. g0 10).
602

The pressure in tanks shall be taken as the greater of:


p = (g0 + 0.5 av) hs (kN/m2)
p = 0.67 g0 hp (kN/m 2)
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.2 Page 20

Amended July 2011, see page 3

p = g0 hs + 10 (kN/m2) for L 50m


p = g0 hs + 0.3 L 5 (kN/m2) for L > 50m
a v = as given in B200
hs = vertical distance in m from the load point to the top of tank
hp = vertical distance in m from the load point to the top of air pipe or filling station.
For tanks which may be filled to top of air pipe or filling station and subsequently subjected to accelerations,
the pressure shall be modified accordingly.
603
lt

The design pressure on wash bulkheads is given by:


p = 3.5 lt (kN/m2)
= the greater distance in m to the next bulkhead forward or aft.

For wash bulkhead plating, requirement to thicknesses may have to be based on the reaction forces imposed on
the bulkhead by boundary structures.
C 700 Dry cargo, stores and equipment
701

The pressure on inner bottom, decks or hatch covers shall be taken as:
p = H (g0 + 0.5 av) (kN/m2)

av = as given in B200
H = stowage height in m.
Standard values of and H are given in Table C2.
If decks (excluding inner bottom) or hatch covers are designed for cargo loads heavier than the standard loads
given in Table C2, the notation dk (+) or ha (+), respectively, will be entered in the Register of Ships. The
design cargo load in t/m2 will be given for each individual cargo space in the Appendix to Classification
Certificate.
702 When the weather deck or weather deck hatch covers are designed to carry deck cargo, the pressure is in
general to be taken as the greater of p according to 500 and 700.
703 For transverse bulkheads in way of general cargo holds, the design loads given for watertight bulkheads
apply.
Table C2 Standard load parameters
Decks
Weather deck and weather deck hatch
covers intended for cargo
Sheltered deck, sheltered hatch covers
and inner bottom for cargo or stores
Platform deck in machinery space
Accommodation decks

Parameters

H = 1.0 t/m2
= 0.7 t/m3
H = vertical distance in m from the load point to the deck above. For load
points below hatchways H shall be measured to the top of coaming
H = 1.6 t/m2
H = 0.35 t/m2, when not directly calculated, including the deck's own mass.
Minimum 0.25 t/m2.

C 800 Heavy units


801 Heavy units The vertical force acting on supporting structures from rigid units of cargo, equipment or
other structural components shall normally be taken as:
Pv = (g0 + 0.5 av) M (kN)
M = mass of unit in tonnes
av = as given in B200.

DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Amended July 2011, see page 3

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.3 Page 21

SECTION 3
HULL GIRDER LOADS
A. Longitudinal Bending, Shearing and Axial Loads
A 100 General
101 For craft of ordinary hull form with L/D less than 12 and with length less than 50 m, the minimum
strength standard is normally satisfied for scantlings obtained from local strength requirements.
102 For other types of craft, craft with L/D greater than 12 and for craft with length greater than 50 m, the
longitudinal strength shall be calculated as described in the following.
A 200 Crest landing
201 For craft with V L 3 a slamming pressure is acting on an area equal to the reference area, AR,
given below. The area shall be situated with the load point at LCG of the craft. The weight distribution of the
hull girder shall be increased by the acceleration at LCG. The hull girder shall be considered out of water.
a cg
1 + 0.2 ------

g0
A R = k ------------------------------T

(m )

where:
k

= 0.7 for crest landing


= 0.6 for hollow landing.

202 The load combination which is illustrated in Fig.1 may be required analysed with actual weight
distribution along the hull beam.
203

The longitudinal midship bending moment may be assumed to be:


ls

M B = --- ( g 0 + a cg ) e w --- ( kNm )

2
4

acg
ew
ls

=
=
=
=
=

displacement in tonnes
vertical design acceleration at LCG
one half of the distance from LCG of the fore half body to the LCG of the aft half body of the vessel, in m
0.25 L if not known (0.2 L for hollow landing)
longitudinal extension of slamming reference area:
AR
l s = ------bs

where bs is the breadth of the slamming reference area. See Fig.2.


(ew - ls/4) shall not be taken less than 0.04 L.
204

The reduction of MB towards ends will be determined by the weight distribution and the extent of AR.

Fig. 1
Crest landing

Fig. 2
Breadth of midship slamming reference area
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.3 Page 22

Amended July 2011, see page 3

Fig. 3
Hollow landing

A 300 Hollow landing


301 Hollow landing is similar to crest landing except that the reference area AR is situated towards AP and
FP as shown in Fig.3.
302

The load combination may be required analysed with actual weight distribution along the hull beam.

303

The longitudinal midship bending moment may be assumed to be:

M B = --- ( g 0 + a cg ) ( e r e w )
2

er

= mean distance from the centre of the AR/2 end areas to the vessels LCG in m.
(er ew) not to be taken less than 0.04 L

A 400 Hydrofoils
401 The calculation of longitudinal strength of hydrofoils shall be effected for the most severe condition. As
a rule this will be considering the craft sustained above the water surface by the foils and supposing it to be
stationary in the navigation condition, taking into account vertical acceleration as well as the vertical
components of the hydrodynamic action of the water on the foils.
A 500 Hogging and sagging bending moments
501 For all craft an investigation of hogging and sagging bending moments taking into account any
immersed/ emerged structures may be required.
502 The investigation is in its simplest form to be based on a predicted phasing between pitch/heave and the
passage of a meeting design wave, and shall include the pitch angle and the inertia forces to be expected in the
hogging and sagging conditions.
503 Tentative formulae for bending moments (still water + wave) for high speed light craft:
For monohull craft (in kNm):
Mtot hog = Msw + 0.19 CW L2 B CB
Mtot sag = Msw + 0.14 CW L2 B (CB + 0.7)
Msw = still water moment in the most unfavourable loading condition in kNm1)
= 0.11 Cw L2 B CB (kNm) in hogging if not known
= 0 in sagging if not known. 2)
For twin hull craft (in kNm):
Mtot hog = Msw + 0.19 CW L 2 (BWL2 + k2 Btn) CB
Mtot sag = Msw + 0.14 CW L2 (BWL2 + k3 Btn) (CB + 0.7)
Msw = still water moment in the most unfavourable loading condition in kNm 1)
= 0.5 L (kNm) in hogging if not known
= 0 in sagging if not known. 2).
Additional correction of 20% to be added to the wave sagging moment for craft with large flare in the foreship.
1)
2)

Documentation of the most unfavourable still water conditions shall normally be submitted for information.
If the still water moment is a hogging moment, 50% of this moment can be deducted where the design sagging moment Mtotsag is
calculated.

Btn
= breadth in m of cross structures (tunnel breadth)
k2 and k3 = empirical factors for the effect of cross structure immersion in hogging and sagging waves. If no
other value available:
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Amended July 2011, see page 3

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.3 Page 23

z 0.5 T
k 2 = 1 --------------------------------- , minimum 0
0.5 T + 2 C W
z 0.5 T
k 3 = 1 -------------------------------------- , minimum 0
0.5 T + 2.5 C W

k4 = 0.25 in general, when V is maximum speed of craft,


= 0.35 when V is taken as the slowed down speed
z = height in m from base line to wet deck (top of tunnel).
A 600 Shear forces from longitudinal bending
601 A vertical hull girder shear force may be related to the hull girder bending moments from 200, 300, and
500 as follows:
MB
Q b = ----------------- (kN)
0.25 L

MB = bending moment in kNm.


A 700 Axial loads
701

Axial loads from

surge = al
thrust and
sea end pressures
may have to be estimated and added together in most exposed areas (forebody buckling control).
al

= maximum surge acceleration, not to be taken less than:


V
0.4 g 0 for ------- 5
L
V
( 0.2 ) g 0 for ------- 3
L

with linear interpolation for intermediate V L .


A 800 Combination of hull girder loads
801 The hull girder loads vertical bending, vertical shear and torsion (B400) shall be considered according
to the following combinations:
80% longitudinal bending and shear + 60% torsion
60%% longitudinal bending and shear + 80% torsion.
802 The hull girder loads transverse vertical bending moment (B200) and pitch connecting moment (B300)
shall be considered according to the following combinations:
70% transverse bending + 100% pitch connecting
100% transverse bending + 70% pitch connecting.

B. Twin Hull Loads


B 100 General
101 The transverse strength of twin hull connecting structure may be analysed for moments and forces
specified below.
102 Design forces and moments given in 200, 300 and 400 shall be used unless other values are verified by
model tests or full scale measurements or if similar structures have proved to be satisfactory in service.
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.3 Page 24

Amended July 2011, see page 3

B 200 Vertical bending moment and shear force


201

For craft with ( V L 3 ) and L < 50 m, the twin hull transverse bending moment may be assumed to be:
a cg b
M S = ----------------- (kNm)
s

b
s

= transverse distance between the centrelines of the two hulls


= factor given in Table B1.

Fig. 4
Transverse vertical bending moment and shear force

202

For craft with L 50 m the twin hull transverse bending moment shall be assumed to be the greater of:
a cg
M S = M S0 1 + ------- (kNm)

g0
M S = M S0 + F y ( z 0.5T ) (kNm)

MS0
Fy

= still water transverse bending moment in kNm


= horizontal split force on immersed hull
0.146
V 1.05 1.30
= 3.25 1 + 0.0172 ------- L
T
( 0.5 B WL)

L
L BMAX L BMAX B MAX 2.10
1 ------------------- + ------------------- ----------------
H 1 (kN)
B WL
L
L

H1

0.143B

= min
H S, MAX

= maximum width (m) in water line (sum of both hulls)


BWL
BMAX = maximum width (m) of submerged part (sum of both hulls)
LBMAX = length in metres where BMAX/BWL > 1
HS,MAX = maximum significant wave height in which the vessel is allowed to operate (m)
B
= beam over all (m)
z
= height from base line to neutral axis of cross structure (m).
V
------L

need not be taken greater than 3

See Fig.5 for explanation of symbols. The expression should not be used for Surface Effect Ships (SES) in
cushion borne mode, but shall be applied to SES in a survival condition with cushion air pressure equal to zero.
A reduction factor of 0.8 is then to be applied to the dynamic split moment.

DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Amended July 2011, see page 3

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.3 Page 25

0.5BWL=0.5BMAX

0.5BWL

0.5BWL

0.5BMAX

0.5BMAX

LB MAX

Fig. 5
Definition of parameters in case of different sectional shapes

203

The vertical shear force in centreline between twin hull may be assumed to be:
a cg
S = -------------- (kN)
q

= factor given in Table B1.

Table B1 Factors s and q


Service restriction
R4-R6
R3
R2
R1
R0

204

s
8.0
7.5
6.5
5.5
4.0

q
6.0
5.5
5.0
4.0
3.0

For craft with length L 50 m the twin hull still water transverse bending moment shall be assumed to be:
M S0 = 4.91 ( y b 0.4 B

MS0
D
yb
B

=
=
=
=

0.88

) (kNm)

still water transverse bending moment


displacement in tonnes
distance in m from centre line to local centre line of one hull (see Fig.6 for definition)
width over all in m.

yb
Fig. 6
Definition of local geometry for one hull on twin hull craft
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.3 Page 26

Amended July 2011, see page 3

The expression shall not be used for Surface Effect Ships (SES) or for twin hulls with significant weight along
the centre line.
B 300 Pitch connecting moment
301

The twin hull pitch connection moment (see Fig.7) may be assumed to be:
a cg L
M P = ------------------ (kNm)
8

Fig. 7
Pitch connecting moment and torsion moment on twin hull connection

B 400 Twin hull torsional moment


401

Hull torsional moment of twin hull may be assumed to be:


a cg b
M t = ----------------- (kNm)
4

= distance in m between the two hull centerlines.

DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

RULES FOR CLASSIFICATION OF

High Speed, Light Craft and Naval


Surface Craft
PART 3 CHAPTER 3

STRUCTURES, EQUIPMENT

Hull Structural Design,


Aluminium Alloy
JANUARY 2011
This chapter has been amended since the main revision (January), most recently in July 2011.
See Changes on page 3.

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FOREWORD
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Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Changes Page 3

CHANGES
General
As of October 2010 all DNV service documents are primarily published electronically.
In order to ensure a practical transition from the print scheme to the electronic scheme, all rule chapters having
incorporated amendments and corrections more recent than the date of the latest printed issue, have been given the date
January 2011.
An overview of DNV service documents, their update status and historical amendments and corrections may be found
through http://www.dnv.com/resources/rules_standards/.
Amendments July 2011

General

The restricted use legal clause found in Pt.1 Ch.1 Sec.4 has been added also on the front page.
Main changes
Since the previous edition (July 2000), this chapter has been amended, most recently in January 2006. All changes
previously found in Pt.0 Ch.1 Sec.3 have been incorporated and a new date (January 2011) has been given as explained
under General.
In addition, the layout has been changed to one column in order to improve electronic readability.

DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Contents Page 4

Amended July 2011, see page 3

CONTENTS
Sec. 1

Structural Principles .......................................................................................................................... 8

A. General ........................................................................................................................................................................... 8
A 100 The scantling reduction......................................................................................................................................... 8
A 200 Aluminium alloys ................................................................................................................................................. 8
B.
B
B
B
B
B

Bottom Structures ......................................................................................................................................................... 8


100 Longitudinal stiffeners .......................................................................................................................................... 8
200 Web frames ........................................................................................................................................................... 8
300 Longitudinal girders.............................................................................................................................................. 8
400 Engine girders ....................................................................................................................................................... 8
500 Double bottom, if fitted ........................................................................................................................................ 9

C. Side Structure ................................................................................................................................................................ 9


C 100 Stiffeners ............................................................................................................................................................... 9
D. Deck Structure............................................................................................................................................................... 9
D 100 Longitudinal stiffeners .......................................................................................................................................... 9
D 200 Bulwarks ............................................................................................................................................................... 9
E. Flat Cross Structure...................................................................................................................................................... 9
E 100 Definition .............................................................................................................................................................. 9
E 200 Longitudinal stiffeners .......................................................................................................................................... 9
F. Bulkhead Structures ................................................................................................................................................... 10
F 100 Transverse bulkheads.......................................................................................................................................... 10
F 200 Corrugated bulkheads ......................................................................................................................................... 10
G. Superstructures and Deckhouses............................................................................................................................... 10
G 100 Definitions .......................................................................................................................................................... 10
G 200 Structural continuity ........................................................................................................................................... 10
H. Structural Design in General ..................................................................................................................................... 11
H 100 Craft arrangement ............................................................................................................................................... 11
H 200 Soft local transitions ........................................................................................................................................... 11
H 300 Impact strength ................................................................................................................................................... 11
I.
I
I
I

Some Common Local Design Rules ........................................................................................................................... 11


100 Definition of span ............................................................................................................................................... 11
200 Effective girder flange ........................................................................................................................................ 12
300 Sniped stiffeners ................................................................................................................................................. 13

J. Support of Equipment and Outfitting Details .......................................................................................................... 13


J 100 Heavy equipment, appendages etc...................................................................................................................... 13
J 200 Minor outfitting details ....................................................................................................................................... 13
K. Structural Aspects not Covered by Rules ................................................................................................................. 13
K 100 Deflections .......................................................................................................................................................... 13
K 200 Local vibrations .................................................................................................................................................. 14

Sec. 2

Materials and Material Protection ................................................................................................. 15

A. General ......................................................................................................................................................................... 15
A 100 Application.......................................................................................................................................................... 15
A 200 Material certificates ............................................................................................................................................ 15
B.
B
B
B
B

Structural Aluminium Alloy ...................................................................................................................................... 15


100 General................................................................................................................................................................ 15
200 Aluminium grades............................................................................................................................................... 15
300 Chemical composition ........................................................................................................................................ 15
400 Mechanical properties......................................................................................................................................... 15

C.
C
C
C
C
C

Corrosion Protection................................................................................................................................................... 17
100 General................................................................................................................................................................ 17
200 For information and approval ............................................................................................................................. 17
300 Coating................................................................................................................................................................ 17
400 Cathodic protection............................................................................................................................................. 18
500 Other materials in contact with aluminium......................................................................................................... 19

D. Other Materials ........................................................................................................................................................... 19


D 100 Steel .................................................................................................................................................................... 19
D 200 Connections between steel and aluminium......................................................................................................... 19
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Amended July 2011, see page 3

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Contents Page 5

D 300

Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP)........................................................................................................................... 19

Sec. 3

Manufacturing .................................................................................................................................. 20

A. General ......................................................................................................................................................................... 20
A 100 Basic requirements.............................................................................................................................................. 20
B.
B
B
B
B

Inspection ..................................................................................................................................................................... 20
100 General................................................................................................................................................................ 20
200 Penetrant testing.................................................................................................................................................. 20
300 Radiographic testing ........................................................................................................................................... 20
400 Ultrasonic examination ....................................................................................................................................... 20

C. Extent of Examination ................................................................................................................................................ 20


C 100 General................................................................................................................................................................ 20
D. Acceptance Criteria for NDT..................................................................................................................................... 20
D 100 Acceptance criteria.............................................................................................................................................. 20
E. Testing .......................................................................................................................................................................... 21
E 100 Tanks................................................................................................................................................................... 21
E 200 Closing appliances .............................................................................................................................................. 21

Sec. 4

Hull Girder Strength........................................................................................................................ 22

A. General ......................................................................................................................................................................... 22
A 100 Introduction......................................................................................................................................................... 22
A 200 Definitions .......................................................................................................................................................... 22
B.
B
B
B
B
B

Vertical Bending Strength.......................................................................................................................................... 22


100 Hull section modulus requirement ...................................................................................................................... 22
200 Effective section modulus................................................................................................................................... 22
300 Hydrofoil on foils................................................................................................................................................ 23
400 Longitudinal structural continuity ...................................................................................................................... 23
500 Openings ............................................................................................................................................................. 23

C. Shear Strength............................................................................................................................................................. 24
C 100 Cases to be investigated ...................................................................................................................................... 24
D. Cases to be Investigated.............................................................................................................................................. 24
D 100 Inertia induced loads ........................................................................................................................................... 24
E. Transverse Strength of Twin Hull Craft................................................................................................................... 24
E 100 Transverse strength ............................................................................................................................................. 24
E 200 Allowable stresses .............................................................................................................................................. 25

Sec. 5

Plating and Stiffeners....................................................................................................................... 26

A.
A
A
A

General ......................................................................................................................................................................... 26
100 Introduction......................................................................................................................................................... 26
200 Definitions .......................................................................................................................................................... 26
300 Allowable stresses............................................................................................................................................... 26

B.
B
B
B

Plating .......................................................................................................................................................................... 26
100 Minimum thicknesses ......................................................................................................................................... 26
200 Bending ............................................................................................................................................................... 27
300 Slamming ............................................................................................................................................................ 27

C. Stiffeners ...................................................................................................................................................................... 28
C 100 Bending ............................................................................................................................................................... 28
C 200 Slamming ............................................................................................................................................................ 29

Sec. 6

Web Frames and Girder Systems ................................................................................................... 30

A.
A
A
A
A
A

General ......................................................................................................................................................................... 30
100 Introduction......................................................................................................................................................... 30
200 Definitions .......................................................................................................................................................... 30
300 Minimum thicknesses ......................................................................................................................................... 30
400 Allowable stresses............................................................................................................................................... 31
500 Continuity of strength members ......................................................................................................................... 31

B.
B
B
B
B

Web Frames and Girders ........................................................................................................................................... 31


100 General................................................................................................................................................................ 31
200 Effective flange................................................................................................................................................... 31
300 Effective web ...................................................................................................................................................... 32
400 Strength requirements ......................................................................................................................................... 32
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Contents Page 6

Amended July 2011, see page 3

B 500
B 600

Girder tripping brackets ...................................................................................................................................... 33


Girder web stiffeners........................................................................................................................................... 34

Sec. 7

Pillars and Pillar Bulkheads............................................................................................................ 35

A. General ......................................................................................................................................................................... 35
A 100 Introduction......................................................................................................................................................... 35
A 200 Definitions .......................................................................................................................................................... 35
B.
B
B
B
B

Pillars............................................................................................................................................................................ 35
100 Arrangement of pillars ........................................................................................................................................ 35
200 Cross-section particulars..................................................................................................................................... 35
300 Pillar scantlings................................................................................................................................................... 35
400 Pillars in tanks..................................................................................................................................................... 36

C. Supporting Bulkheads ................................................................................................................................................ 37


C 100 General................................................................................................................................................................ 37

Sec. 8

Weld Connections............................................................................................................................. 38

A. General ......................................................................................................................................................................... 38
A 100 Introduction......................................................................................................................................................... 38
A 200 Welding particulars............................................................................................................................................. 38
B. Types of Welded Joints............................................................................................................................................... 38
B 100 Butt joints............................................................................................................................................................ 38
B 200 Tee or cross joints ............................................................................................................................................... 38
C.
C
C
C
C

Size of Connections ..................................................................................................................................................... 39


100 Fillet welds, general ............................................................................................................................................ 39
200 Fillet welds and penetration welds subject to high tensile stresses .................................................................... 39
300 End connections of girders, pillars and cross ties ............................................................................................... 40
400 End connections of stiffeners.............................................................................................................................. 40

Sec. 9

Direct Strength Calculations ........................................................................................................... 43

A. General ......................................................................................................................................................................... 43
A 100 Introduction......................................................................................................................................................... 43
A 200 Application.......................................................................................................................................................... 43
B.
B
B
B

Plating .......................................................................................................................................................................... 43
100 General................................................................................................................................................................ 43
200 Calculation procedure ......................................................................................................................................... 43
300 Allowable stresses............................................................................................................................................... 43

C.
C
C
C
C

Stiffeners ...................................................................................................................................................................... 43
100 General................................................................................................................................................................ 43
200 Calculation procedure ......................................................................................................................................... 44
300 Loads................................................................................................................................................................... 44
400 Allowable stresses............................................................................................................................................... 44

D.
D
D
D
D

Girders ......................................................................................................................................................................... 44
100 General................................................................................................................................................................ 44
200 Calculation methods ........................................................................................................................................... 44
300 Design load conditions........................................................................................................................................ 44
400 Allowable stresses............................................................................................................................................... 45

Sec. 10 Buckling Control .............................................................................................................................. 46


A. General ......................................................................................................................................................................... 46
A 100 Definitions .......................................................................................................................................................... 46
B. Longitudinal Buckling Load ...................................................................................................................................... 47
B 100 Longitudinal stresses........................................................................................................................................... 47
C. Transverse Buckling Load ......................................................................................................................................... 47
C 100 Transverse stresses.............................................................................................................................................. 47
D.
D
D
D

Plating .......................................................................................................................................................................... 47
100 Plate panel in uni-axial compression .................................................................................................................. 47
200 Plate panel in shear ............................................................................................................................................. 49
300 Plate panel in bi-axial compression and shear .................................................................................................... 49

E. Stiffeners in Direction of Compression ..................................................................................................................... 50


E 100 Lateral buckling mode ........................................................................................................................................ 50
E 200 Torsional buckling mode .................................................................................................................................... 51
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Amended July 2011, see page 3

E 300

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Contents Page 7

Web and flange buckling .................................................................................................................................... 52

F. Stiffeners Perpendicular to Direction of Compression............................................................................................ 52


F 100 Moment of inertia of stiffeners ........................................................................................................................... 52
G. Elastic Buckling of Stiffened Panels .......................................................................................................................... 53
G 100 Elastic buckling as a design basis ....................................................................................................................... 53
G 200 Allowable compression....................................................................................................................................... 53
H. Girders ......................................................................................................................................................................... 54
H 100 Axial load buckling............................................................................................................................................. 54
H 200 Girders perpendicular to direction of compression............................................................................................. 54
H 300 Buckling of effective flange................................................................................................................................ 54
H 400 Shear buckling of web ........................................................................................................................................ 55

DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.1 Page 8

Amended July 2011, see page 3

SECTION 1
STRUCTURAL PRINCIPLES
A. General
A 100 The scantling reduction
101 The scantling reductions for high speed and light craft structures compared with Rules for Classification
of Ships are based on:
s
a certain stiffener spacing reduction ratio ---sr
s = chosen spacing in m
2 ( 100 + L )
sr = basic spacing = --------------------------- m in general
1000
longitudinal framing in bottom and strength deck
extended longitudinal and local buckling control
a sea and weather service restriction.
A 200 Aluminium alloys
201

The alloy grades are listed in Sec.2 Tables B1 to B4.

202

The various formulae and expressions involving the factor f1 may be applied when:
f
f 1 = --------240

f = yield stress is not to be taken greater than 70% of the ultimate tensile strength.
The material factor f1 included in the various formulae and expressions is given in Sec.2 Tables B1 to B3 for
the un-welded condition and in Table B4 for the welded condition.

B. Bottom Structures
B 100 Longitudinal stiffeners
101

Single bottoms as well as double bottoms are normally to be longitudinally stiffened.

102 The longitudinals should preferably be continuous through transverse members. If they are to be cut at
transverse members, i.e. watertight bulkheads, continuous brackets connecting the ends of the longitudinals are
to be fitted or welds are to be dimensioned accordingly.
103

Longitudinal stiffeners are to be supported by bulkheads and web frames.

104

Longitudinal stiffeners in slamming areas should have a shear connection to transverse members.

B 200 Web frames


201 Web frames are to be continuous around the cross section i.e. floors side webs and deck beams are to be
connected. Intermediate floors may be used.
202 In the engine room plate floors are to be fitted at every frame. In way of thrust bearings additional
strengthening is to be provided.
B 300 Longitudinal girders
301

Web plates of longitudinal girders are to be continuous in way of transverse bulkheads.

302

A centre girder is normally to be fitted for docking purposes.

303 Manholes or other openings should not be positioned at ends of girders without due consideration being
taken of shear loadings.
B 400 Engine girders
401 Under the main engine, girders extending from the bottom to the top plate of the engine seating are to be
fitted.
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Amended July 2011, see page 3

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.1 Page 9

402

Engine holdingdown bolts are to be arranged as near as practicable to floors and longitudinal girders.

403

In way of thrust bearing and below pillars additional strengthening is to be provided.

B 500 Double bottom, if fitted


501 Manholes are to be cut in the inner bottom, floors and longitudinal girders to provide access to all parts
of the double bottom. The vertical extension of lightening holes is not to exceed one half of the girder height.
The edges of the manholes are to be smooth. Manholes in the inner bottom plating are to have reinforcement
rings. Manholes are not to be cut in the floors or girders in way of pillars.
502 In double bottoms with transverse stiffening, longitudinal girders are to be stiffened at every transverse
frame.
503

The longitudinal girders are to be satisfactorily stiffened against buckling.

C. Side Structure
C 100 Stiffeners
101

The craft's sides may be longitudinally or vertically stiffened.


Guidance note:
It is advised that longitudinal stiffeners are used near bottom and strength deck.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

102

The continuity of the longitudinals is to be as required for bottom and deck longitudinals respectively.

D. Deck Structure
D 100 Longitudinal stiffeners
101

Decks are normally to be longitudinally stiffened.

102 The longitudinals should preferably be continuous through transverse members. If they are to be cut at
transverse members, i.e. watertight bulkheads, continuous brackets connecting the ends of the longitudinals are
to be fitted.
103 The plate thickness is to be such that the necessary transverse buckling strength is achieved, or transverse
buckling stiffeners may have to be fitted intercostally.
D 200 Bulwarks
201 The thickness of bulwark plates is not to be less than required for side plating in a superstructure in the
same position.
202 A strong bulb section or similar is to be continuously welded to the upper edge of the bulwark. Bulwark
stays are to be in line with transverse beams or local transverse stiffening. The stays are to have sufficient width
at deck level. The deck beam is to be continuously welded to the deck in way of the stay. Bulwarks on forecastle
decks are to have stays fitted at every frame.
Stays of increased strength are to be fitted at ends of bulwark openings. Openings in bulwarks should not be
situated near the ends of superstructures.
203 Where bulwarks on exposed decks form wells, ample provision is to be made to freeing the decks for
water.

E. Flat Cross Structure


E 100 Definition
101 Flat cross structure is horizontal structure above waterline like bridge connecting structure between twin
hulls, etc.
E 200 Longitudinal stiffeners
201

Flat cross structures are normally to be longitudinally stiffened.

202 The longitudinals should preferably be continuous through transverse members. If they are to be cut at
transverse members, i.e. watertight bulkheads, continuous brackets connecting the ends of the longitudinals are
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.1 Page 10

Amended July 2011, see page 3

to be fitted or welds are to be dimensioned accordingly.


203

Longitudinal stiffeners are to be supported by bulkheads and web frames.

F. Bulkhead Structures
F 100 Transverse bulkheads
101 Number and location of transverse watertight bulkheads are to be in accordance with the requirements
given in Ch.1 Sec.1 B200.
102 The stiffening of the upper part of a plane transverse bulkhead is to be such that the necessary transverse
buckling strength is achieved.
F 200 Corrugated bulkheads
201

Longitudinal and transverse bulkheads may be corrugated.

202

For corrugated bulkheads the following definition of spacing applies (see Fig. 1):

= s1 for section modulus calculations


= 1.05 s2 or 1.05 s3 for plate thickness calculations.

Fig. 1
Corrugated bulkhead

G. Superstructures and Deckhouses


G 100 Definitions
101 Superstructure is defined as a decked structure on the freeboard deck, extending from side to side of the
ship or with the side plating not inboard of the shell plating more than 4% of the breadth (B).
102 Deckhouse is defined as a decked structure above the strength deck with the side plating being inboard
of the shell plating more than 4% of the breadth (B).
Long deckhouse - deckhouse having more than 0.2 L of its length within 0.4 L amidships.
Short deckhouse - deckhouse not defined as a long deckhouse.
G 200 Structural continuity
201 In superstructures and deckhouses, the front bulkhead is to be in line with a transverse bulkhead in the
hull below or be supported by a combination of girders and pillars. The after end bulkhead is also to be
effectively supported. As far as practicable, exposed sides and internal longitudinal and transverse bulkheads
are to be located above girders and frames in the hull structure and are to be in line in the various tiers of
accommodation. Where such structural arrangement in line is not possible, there is to be other effective support.
202

Sufficient transverse strength is to be provided by means of transverse bulkheads or girder structures.

203 At the break of superstructures, which have no set-in from the ship's side, the side plating is to extend
beyond the ends of the superstructure, and is to be gradually reduced in height down to the deck or bulwark.
The transition is to be smooth and without local discontinuities. A substantial stiffener is to be fitted at the upper
edge of plating. The plating is also to be additionally stiffened.
204 In long deckhouses, openings in the sides are to have well rounded corners. Horizontal stiffeners are to
be fitted at the upper and lower edge of large openings for windows.
Openings for doors in the sides are to be substantially stiffened along the edges. The connection area between
deckhouse corners and deck plating is to be increased locally.
Deck girders are to be fitted below long deckhouses in line with deckhouse sides.
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Amended July 2011, see page 3

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.1 Page 11

205 Deck beams under front and aft ends of deckhouses are not to be scalloped for a distance of 0.5 m from
each side of the deckhouse corners.
206 For deckhouse side stiffeners the scantlings need not be greater than required for tween deck frames with
equivalent end connections.
207

Casings supporting one or more decks above are to be adequately strengthened.

H. Structural Design in General


H 100 Craft arrangement
101

Attention is drawn to the importance of structural continuity in general.

102

The craft arrangement is to take into account:

continuity of longitudinal strength, including horizontal shear area to carry a strength deck along
transverse bulkheads or strongwebs
web or pillar rings in engine room
twin hull connections
access for inspection
superstructures and deckhouses:
direct support
transitions

deck equipment support


multi-deck pillars in line, as practicable
external attachments, inboard connections.
103 Structural details in spaces that will be coated are to be designed in such way that a sound layer of coating
can be achieved everywhere.
H 200 Soft local transitions
201

Gradual taper or soft transition is specially important in high speed aluminium vessels, to avoid:

stress corrosion and fatigue in heavy stressed members


impact fatigue in impact loaded members.
202 End brackets, tripping brackets etc. are not to terminate on unsupported plating.
Brackets are to extend to the nearest stiffener, or local plating reinforcement is to be provided at the toe of the
bracket.
H 300 Impact strength
301 The slamming pressure in Ch.1 is (contrary to the Rules for Classification of Ships) expressed as an
equivalent static load, and is to be compared with ordinary allowable stresses.

I. Some Common Local Design Rules


I 100

Definition of span

101 The effective span of a stiffener (l) or girder (S) depends on the design of the end connections in relation
to adjacent structures. Unless otherwise stated the span points at each end of the member, between which the
span is measured, is to be determined as shown on Fig.1. It is assumed that brackets are effectively supported
by the adjacent structure. For stiffeners, see also Fig. 2 or Sec.5.

DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.1 Page 12

Amended July 2011, see page 3

R
2 b
3

2
R
3

2
b
3

STIFFENERS

GIRDERS

Fig. 2
Span points

I 200
201

Effective girder flange


For girders with curved face plate, e.g. web frames, the effective area of the flange is given by:
Ae= k tf bf (mm2)

bf = total face plate breadth in mm


k = flange efficiency coefficient, see also Fig. 3
rt

= k 1 ----------f
b

= 1.0 maximum
k1 =

0.643 ( sinh cosh + sin cos )-----------------------------------------------------------------------------2


2
sin h + sin

for symmetrical and unsymmetrical free flange


=

0.78
( sinh + sin ) ( cosh cos -)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2
2
sin h + sin

for girder flange with two webs


1.56 ( cosh cos )
= ------------------------------------------------sinh + sin

for box girder flange with multiple webs

1.285b
= ----------------- (rad)

= 0.5 (bf tw) for symmetrical free flanges

rt f

DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Amended July 2011, see page 3

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.1 Page 13

= bf for unsymmetrical free flanges


s
tf
tw
r

=
=
=
=
=
=

s tw for box girder flanges


spacing of supporting webs for box girder (nun)
face plate thickness in general (mm)
tw (maximum) for unsymmetrical free flanges
web plate thickness (mm)
radius of curved face plate (mm)

Fig. 3
Effective width of curved face plates for alternative boundary conditions

202 The effective width of curved plate flanges, or effective width of plate at knuckles, is to be specially
considered.
I 300

Sniped stiffeners

301 Stiffeners with sniped ends may be allowed where dynamic loads are small and vibrations considered to
be of small importance.

J. Support of Equipment and Outfitting Details


J 100

Heavy equipment, appendages etc.

101 Whether the unit to be supported is covered by classification or not, the forces and moments at points of
attachment have to be estimated and followed through hull reinforcements in line, through craft girder and
pillar system (taking into account hull stresses already existing) until forces are safely carried to craft's side or
bulkheads.
102
J 200

Doublers should be avoided normal to a tensile force.


Minor outfitting details

201 Generally connections of outfitting details to the hull are to be such that stress-concentrations are
minimized and welding to high stressed parts are avoided wherever possible.
Connections are to be designed with smooth transitions and proper alignment with the hull structure elements.
Terminations are to be supported.
202 Connections to topflange of girders and stiffeners are to be avoided if not well smoothened. Preferably
supporting of outfittings are to be welded to the stiffener web.

K. Structural Aspects not Covered by Rules


K 100 Deflections
101 Requirements for minimum moment of inertia or maximum deflection under load are limited to structure
in way of hatches and doors and some other special cases.
102

Deflection problems in general are left to designer's consideration.


DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.1 Page 14

Amended July 2011, see page 3

K 200 Local vibrations


201 The evaluation of structural response to vibrations caused by impulses from engine and propeller blades
and jet units are not covered by the classification, but the builder is to provide relevant documentation.
Guidance note:
HSC Code 3.4:
Cyclic loads, including those from vibrations which can occur on the craft should not:
a) impair the integrity of structure during the anticipated service life of the craft or the service life agreed
with the Administration;
b) hinder normal functioning of machinery and equipment; and
c) impair the ability of the crew to carry out its duties.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

Upon request such evaluation may be undertaken by the Society.

DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Amended July 2011, see page 3

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.2 Page 15

SECTION 2
MATERIALS AND MATERIAL PROTECTION
A. General
A 100 Application
101 The rules in this chapter apply to wrought aluminium alloys for objects classified or intended for
classification with the Society.
A 200 Material certificates
201 Rolled and extruded wrought aluminium alloys, glass reinforced plastic and core materials for hull
structures and rolled steel are normally to be supplied with DNV material certificates.
202 For class certificate requirement for chemical composition, mechanical properties, heat treatment and
repair of defects, see Pt.2 Ch.2.
203

Particular attention is to be given to aluminium hull materials specification in Pt.2 Ch.2.

204 Requirements for material certificates for forgings, castings and other materials for special parts and
equipment are stated in connection with the rule requirements for each individual part.

B. Structural Aluminium Alloy


B 100 General
101 Aluminium alloy for marine use may be applied in hulls, superstructures, deckhouses, hatch covers and
sundry items.
B 200 Aluminium grades
201 Aluminium alloys are to have a satisfactory resistance to corrosion in marine environments. Grades for
welded structures are to be weldable, applying one of the welding methods approved by the Society.
202 For major hull structural components, alloys with temper H116/H321 for rolled products, and alloys with
temper T5/T6 for extruded products, are normally to be used. The use of 0- or F temper must be agreed with
the Society.
203 The use of 6000 series aluminium alloys in direct contact with sea water may be restricted depending on
application and corrosion protection system. The use of these alloys are to be agreed with the Society.
204 In weld zones (HAZ) of rolled or extruded products, the factor f1 given in Table B4 may in general be
used as basis for the scantling requirements.
205 Welding consumables are to be chosen according to Table C2 in Pt.2 Ch.3 Sec.2. The consumable chosen
are to have minimum mechanical properties not less than specified for the parent alloy in the welded condition.
B 300 Chemical composition
301 The chemical composition is to satisfy the requirements in Pt.2 Ch.2. Other alloys or alloys which do not
fully comply with Pt.2 Ch.2, may be accepted by the Society after consideration in each particular case. Special
tests and/or other relevant information, e.g. which confirm a satisfactory corrosion resistance and weldability,
may be required.
B 400 Mechanical properties
401 Requirements to mechanical properties for different delivery conditions are given in Tables B1 and B2
for wrought products, extruded products and rivet bars/-rivets, respectively. Other delivery conditions with
related mechanical properties may be accepted by the Society after consideration in each particular case.
Table B1 Factor f1 for wrought aluminium alloy sheets, strips and plates, t: 2 mm t 40 mm
DNV Designation
Temper
NV-5052
H32
H34
NV-5154A
0, H111
NV-5754
H24
NV-5454
H32
H34
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

f1
0.61
0.69
0.35
0.69
0.73
0.79

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.2 Page 16

Amended July 2011, see page 3

Table B1 Factor f1 for wrought aluminium alloy sheets, strips and plates, t: 2 mm t 40 mm (Continued)
DNV Designation
Temper
f1
V-5086
H116, H32
0.80
H34
0.88
NV-5083
H116, H321
0.89
NV-5383
H116, H34
0.89
Note: For tempers 0 and H111, the factor f1 is to be taken from Table B4.
Table B2 Factor f1 for extruded aluminium alloy profiles, rods and tubes, t: 2 mm t 25 mm
DNV
Temper
f1
Designation
NV-6060
T5
0.55
NV-6061
T4
0.46
T5/T6
0.76
NV-6063
T5
0.44
T6
0.60
NV-6005A
T5/T6
0.76
NV-6082
T4
0.46
T5/T6
0.90
Note: Table B2 only applies when the main loading direction is logitudinal to the extrusion, see also Table B3.
Table B3 Factor f1 for extruded aluminium alloy profiles, rods and tubes, t: 2 mm t 25 mm, transverse to
extruding direction
DNV
Temper
f1
Designation
NV-6060
T5
0.51
NV-6061
T4
0.46
T5/T6
0.71
NV-6005A
T5/T6
6 < t < 10
0.76
10 < t < 25
0.67
NV-6082
T5 / T6
0.85
Note: Table B2 only applies when the main loading direction is logitudinal to the extrusion
Table B4 Factor f1 in the welded condition
DNV
Temper
Filler
f1
Designation
NV-5052
0, H111, H32, H34
5356
0.27
NV-5154A
0, H111
5356-5183
0.35
NV 5754
0, H111, H24
5356-5183
0.33
NV 5454
0, H111, H32, H34
5356-5183
0.35
NV-5086
0, H111, H116, H32, H34
5356-5183
0.42
NV-5083
H116, H321
5356
0.531)
H116, H321
5183
0.601)
NV-5383
H116, H34
5183
0.642)
NV-6060
T5
5356-5183
0.27
NV-6061
T4
5356-5183
0.48
T5/T6
0.48
NV-6063
T5
5356-5183
0.27
T6
NV-6005A
T5/T6
5356-5183
0.48
NV-6082
T4
5356-5183
0.46
T5/T6
0.48
1) The utilisation of the material is higher than given by the f1 factor as given in Sec. 1 A. This is due to extended
utilisation in Rules for HS, LC and NSC, f1=(1/240) x 1.10
2) The utilisation of the material is higher than given by the f1 factor as given in Sec. 1 A. This is due to extended
utilisation in Rules for HS, LC and NSC, f1=(1/240) x 1.10

DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Amended July 2011, see page 3

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.2 Page 17

C. Corrosion Protection
C 100 General
101

Loss of structural strength due to corrosion is not acceptable.

102 All surfaces that are not recognised as inherently resistant to the actual marine environment are to be
adequately protected against corrosion.
Guidance note:
In these rules, corrosion is defined as degradation of material due to environmental influence.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

C 200 For information and approval


201 Specifications for corrosion protection, i.e. for coating, if applied, see 301, and for cathodic protection
(including calculations), see 403, are to be submitted for information. The specifications are basis for approval
of drawings of the cathodic protection system.
202 Drawings of cathodic protection system, e.g. fastening, numbers and distribution of anodes and reference
electrodes (if impressed current), are subject to approval.
203 Selection and combination of materials for exposure to sea water and/or marine atmosphere are subject
to approval.
C 300 Coating
301

If coating is applied, the specification is to be submitted for information.


Guidance note:
Coating of aluminium hulls is normally not required (see B200). However, hulls normally need to be coated for antifouling purposes. When coating is applied, it will influence the corrosion resistance of the hull, and constitute a basis
for cathodic protection design. The coating system including surface preparation before coating should therefore be
submitted for information.
The following is normally included in a specification for coating:
metal surface cleaning and preparation before application of the primer coat, including treatment of edges and
welds
build-up and application of coating system with individual coats
curing times and over-coating intervals
acceptable temperatures of air and metal surface and dryness or humidity conditions during the above mentioned
operations (normally, the metal surface is minimum 3 C above the dew point and the relative humidity is below
85%)
thickness of individual coats and final coating system
resistance to cathodic disbonding (for coatings to be used in connection with impressed current).
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302 A sound anti-corrosion coating should always be combined with the anti-fouling coating on the external
hull.
303 Anti-corrosion coating is not to contain copper or other constituents that may cause galvanic corrosion
on the aluminium hull.
304 Hull integrated water ballast tanks and other tanks holding corrosive liquids are to be coated. All
stiffeners and frames in these tanks are to be welded to plating with double continuous welding, see Sec.8 B202.
305 In other internal compartments of the hull where corrosive water is likely to occur, the lower 0.5 m of
the internal bottom surface, measured along the plate on each side of the keel, and the corresponding section
of the bulkheads, is normally to be coated. The preparation of surfaces including welds and edges shall be such
that the coating can be properly applied.
Guidance note:
The use of 6000 alloys containing more than 0.15% Cu in internal compartments without coating may be restricted.
Stagnant, chloride-containing water in internal compartments, e.g. condensation water, may cause corrosion on
aluminium alloy plates and structures. Corrosion attacks will usually be of localised type, e.g. in the form of pitting.
Corrosion attacks of galvanic type may also occur, see also 500, e.g. if equipment made of other metal alloy remains
in electrical contact with aluminium alloy material.
Corrosion attacks of the above mentioned types can be reduced by means of e.g.:

coating applied as described above


regular cleaning, drying and inspection of the actual compartment
electrical isolation of any other metallic part from aluminium alloy plates and structures
use of dehumidifying equipment in a closed compartment
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.2 Page 18

Amended July 2011, see page 3

ventilation holes (minimum 2)


drainage holes
hot air fans.
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C 400 Cathodic protection


401 Cathodic protection of aluminium hulls can be obtained with aluminium or zinc sacrificial anodes or
impressed current. Magnesium based sacrificial anodes are not to be used, and impressed current is not to be
used in internal hull compartments.
402 Cathodic protection is normally to be applied to aluminium hull craft due to electrical connection of the
aluminium with another metals (in propeller, water jet, etc.), which may initiate galvanic corrosion, and to
protect the hull against local corrosion and damage that normally will occur in protective coatings.
403

The following is normally to be included in a cathodic protection specification:

areas to be protected (m2) for hull and attached metallic components such as water jet unit and water jet duct
stipulated protective current density demand (mA/m2) for coated and not coated surfaces of hull and
attached components, respectively
total current demand (A)
target design life of cathodic protection system
anode material and manufacturer
for sacrificial anodes; calculation of anode mass, distribution, total number
for impressed current systems; current capacity of rectifiers and anodes
for impressed current systems; reference electrodes, system control and monitoring arrangement, cabling
and procedures for exchange or renewal of components
target protective potential difference to be obtained
drawings of cathodic protection systems, showing anode types, mass, distribution, location and attachment
details (for sacrificial anodes or impressed current anodes with reference electrodes)
cathodic protection system drawings shall be in compliance with the specification and calculations for the
same.
Guidance note:
The current density demand will vary dependent upon the speed of hull, the speed of propeller, and the type of metallic
material to be protected (aluminium, stainless steel, etc.).
The target protective potential difference for aluminium alloy surfaces may be minus 950 mV versus the Ag/AgCl/
seawater reference electrode, with an acceptable potential difference range of minus 800 mV to minus 1150 mV, i.e.
approximately as for carbon steel and stainless steel. Due concern must be given to the possibility of detrimental
overprotection of aluminium.
Stainless steel surfaces in water jet units of high speed craft may need a current density of up to about 300 mA/m2 to
be protected, while values as high as 500 mA/m2 may give overprotection problems.
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404
For documentation of instrumentation and automation, including computer based control and
monitoring, see Pt.4 Ch.9 Sec.1.
405 The designed (target) service life of a cathodic protection system is normally to be at least as long as the
expected time interval between dockings.
406

With impressed current cathodic protection systems, precautions are to be taken to avoid:

1) overprotection or excessive negative potential differences locally, especially on aluminium surfaces


(implying transpassive corrosion) as well as
2) loss of protection,
by means of anode screens, automatic voltage control, overprotection alarm, or similar. The protective potential
difference is to be kept within a specified and agreed range, see Guidance note to 403.
407 Direct voltage stray currents may impose rapid electrolytic corrosion damage to hulls and is to be
avoided.
Guidance note:
Stray D.C. sources may be shore connections (e.g. ramps, cranes, cables, etc.), not properly grounded welding
machines, etc. Special precautions should be taken if welding is carried out with the craft afloat, or if the craft is
connected to electrical power in port.
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Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.2 Page 19

C 500 Other materials in contact with aluminium


501 If other metallic materials are used in propellers or impellers, piping, pumps, valves, etc. and are in
contact with the aluminium hull, provisions are to be made to avoid galvanic corrosion. Acceptable provisions
are either one of or a combination of:
coating of water or moisture exposed surfaces
electrical isolation of different materials from each other
cathodic protection.
Guidance note:
Full electrical isolation of e.g. propeller or impeller from hull is usually difficult. Contact will be established when the
propeller is idle.
Wooden material, cloth, debris, non-adherent coating or other organic material remaining in durable contact with
aluminium may cause under-deposit corrosion on aluminium due to local oxygen deficiency at the surface.
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D. Other Materials
D 100 Steel
101

Structural steel may be used in sundry items such as rudders, foils, propeller shaft brackets, etc.

102 For requirements for chemical composition, mechanical properties, heat treatment, testing and repair of
defects, see Pt.2.
103

The material factor f1 = 1 for ordinary ship quality steel.

104 All steel surfaces are to be protected against corrosion by paint of suitable composition or other effective
coating.
105 Shop primers applied over areas which will subsequently be welded, are to be of a quality accepted by
the Society as having no detrimental effect on the finished weld.
See Register of Approved Manufacturers and Register of Type Approved Products.
106 Coating systems are to be suitable for use on any previously applied shop primer.
The coating and the assumed application conditions must have been approved by the Society. Such approval
will normally be given as a Type approval.
The shipbuilders are to present a written declaration stating that the coating has been applied as specified.
Guidance note:
Upon request approval programs for coating systems may be obtained from the Society.
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D 200 Connections between steel and aluminium


201

If there is risk of galvanic corrosion, provisions are to be made, see C500.

202 Aluminium plating connected to a steel boundary bar is wherever possible to be arranged on the side
exposed to moisture.
203

Direct contact between exposed wooden materials, e.g. deck planking, and aluminium is to be avoided.

204 Bolts with nuts and washers are either to be of stainless steel or hot galvanized steel. The bolts are in
general to be fitted with sleeves of insulating material.
D 300 Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP)
301

FRP materials, core materials and fillers are to be approved according to Sec. 3.

302 Other reinforcement and plastic materials may be approved on the basis of relevant documentation and
testing in each individual case.

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Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.3 Page 20

Amended July 2011, see page 3

SECTION 3
MANUFACTURING
A. General
A 100 Basic requirements
101 Welding of hull structures, machinery installations and equipment are to be carried out by approved
welders, with approved welding consumables and at welding shops recognised by the Society. See Sec.2.
102 Shot blasting, priming and coating are to be carried out under indoor conditions. For coating
specification and documentation, see Sec.2.
103

For vessels longer than 50 m, a plan for non-destructive testing (NDT) is to be submitted for approval.

B. Inspection
B 100 General
101 Welds are to be subject to visual survey and inspection as fabrication proceed. NDT is to be performed
according to established procedures and if required, qualified for the work.
102 All examinations are to be carried out by competent personnel. The NDT operators are to be qualified
according to a recognised certification scheme accepted by the Society. The certificate is clearly to state the
qualifications as to which examination method and within which category the operator is qualified.
B 200 Penetrant testing
201

Penetrant testing is to be carried out as specified in the approved procedures.

B 300 Radiographic testing


301

Radiographic testing is to be carried out as specified in the approved procedures.

302 Processing and storage are to be such that the films maintain their quality throughout the agreed storage
time. The radiographs are to be free from imperfections due to development processing.
B 400 Ultrasonic examination
401 Ultrasonic testing is to be carried out as specified in the approved procedures. Ultrasonic examination
procedures are to contain sketches for each type of joint and dimensional range of joints which clearly show
scanning pattern and probes to be used.
402 The examination record is to include the imperfection position, the echo height, the dimensions (length),
the depth below the surface and, if possible, the defect type.

C. Extent of Examination
C 100 General
101 All welds are to be subject to visual examination. In addition to the visual examination, at least 2 to 5%
of total welded length are to be examined by penetrant examination and/or radiographic examination. For
highly stressed areas the extent of examination may be increased.
102

If defects are detected, the extent of examination is to be increased to the surveyors satisfaction.

D. Acceptance Criteria for NDT


D 100 Acceptance criteria
101 All welds are to show evidence of good workmanship. The quality is normally to comply with ISO 10042
quality level C, intermediate. For highly stressed areas more stringent requirements, such as ISO level B, may
be applied.
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Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.3 Page 21

E. Testing
E 100 Tanks
101 Protective coating systems may be applied before water testing.
All pipe connections to tanks are to be fitted before testing. If engine bed plates are bolted directly on the inner
bottom plating, the testing of the double bottom tank is to be carried out with the engine installed.
102 Unless otherwise agreed, all tanks are to be tested with a water head equal to the maximum pressure to
which the compartment may be exposed. The water is in no case to be less than to the top of the air pipe or to
a level h0 above the top of the tank except where partial filling alone is prescribed.
h0 = 0.03 L - 0.5 (m), minimum 1, generally
= pressure valve opening pressure when exceeding the general value.
E 200 Closing appliances
201

Inner and outer doors below the waterline are to be hydraulically tested.

202 Weathertight and watertight closing appliances not subjected to pressure testing are to be hose tested.
The nozzle inside diameter is to be 12.5 mm and the pressure at least 250 kN/m2. The nozzle should be held at
a distance of maximum 1.5 m from the item during the test.
Alternative methods of tightness testing may be considered.
203

All weathertight or watertight doors and hatches are to be function tested.

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Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.4 Page 22

Amended July 2011, see page 3

SECTION 4
HULL GIRDER STRENGTH
A. General
A 100 Introduction
101 In this section requirements for longitudinal and transverse hull girder strength is given. In addition,
buckling control according to Sec. 10 may be required.
102 Longitudinal strength has generally to be checked for the craft types and sizes mentioned in the
introduction to Ch.1 Sec.3.
103 For new designs (prototypes) of large and structurally complicated craft (e.g. multi-hull types) a
complete 3-dimensional global analysis of the transverse strength, in combination with longitudinal stresses, is
to be carried out.
104

Buckling strength in bottom and deck may, however, have to be checked also for the other craft.

A 200 Definitions
201

Moulded deck line, Rounded sheer strake, Sheer strake and Stringer plate are as defined in Fig.1.

Fig. 1
Deck corners

B. Vertical Bending Strength


B 100 Hull section modulus requirement
101

3
M
Z = ----- 10

( cm )

M =
=
=
=

the longitudinal midship bending moment in kNm from Ch.1 Sec. 3


sagging or hogging bending moment
hollow landing or crest landing bending moment
maximum still water + wave bending moment for high speed displacement craft and semi-planing craft
in the displacement mode
= maximum total moment for hydrofoil on foils
= 175 f1 N/mm2 in general.

Guidance note:
Simultaneous end impacts over a hollow are considered less frequent and giving lower moments than the crest
landing.
Need not be investigated if deck buckling resistance force is comparable to that of the bottom.
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B 200 Effective section modulus


201 Where calculating the moment of inertia and section modulus of the midship section, the effective
sectional area of continuous longitudinal strength members is in general the net area after deduction of
openings.
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Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.4 Page 23

Superstructures which do not form a strength deck are not to be included in the net section. This applies also
to deckhouses and bulwarks.
202 The effect of openings are assumed to have longitudinal extensions as shown by the shaded areas in
Fig.2, i.e. inside tangents at an angle of 30 to each other. Example for transverse section III:
bIII = b' + b + b
203 For twin hull vessels the effective breadth of wide decks without longitudinal bulkhead support will be
considered separately.
B 300 Hydrofoil on foils
301 For hydrofoils in addition to the calculation for the midship section, the sections in way of the foils are
required to be checked.
B 400 Longitudinal structural continuity
401 The scantling distribution of structures participating in the hull girder strength in the various zones of the
hull is to be carefully worked out so as to avoid structural discontinuities resulting in abrupt variations of
stresses.
402 At ends of effective continuous longitudinal strength members in deck and bottom region large transition
brackets are to be fitted.

Fig. 2
Effect of openings

B 500 Openings
501 A keel plate for docking is normally not to have openings. In the bilge plate, within 0.5 L amidships,
openings are to be avoided wherever practicable. Any necessary openings in the bilge plate are to be kept clear
of a bilge keel.
502 Openings in strength deck are wherever practicable to be located well clear of the crafts side and hatch
corners.
503 Openings in strength members should generally have an elliptical form. Larger openings in deck may be
accepted with well rounded corners and are to be situated as near to the craft's centreline as practicable.
504

For corners with rounded shape the radius is not to be less than:
r = 0.025 Bdk (m)

Bdk = breadth of strength deck.


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Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.4 Page 24

Amended July 2011, see page 3

r need not be taken greater than 0.1 b (m) where b = breadth of opening in m. For local reinforcement of deck
plating at circular corners, see Sec. 5 B.
505 Edges of openings are to be smooth. Machine flame cut openings with smooth edges may be accepted.
Small holes are to be drilled.
506 Studs for securing small hatch covers are to be fastened to the top of a coaming or a ring of suitable
thickness welded to the deck. The studs are not to penetrate the deck plating.

C. Shear Strength
C 100 Cases to be investigated
101 If doors are arranged in the craft's side, the required sectional area of the remaining side plating will be
specially considered.
102 If rows of windows are arranged below strength deck, sufficient horizontal shear area must be arranged
to carry down the midship tension and compression.
103

In these and other locations with doubtful shear areas, allowable shear stress may be taken as:
allowable bending stress
= ----------------------------------------------------------3

D. Cases to be Investigated
D 100 Inertia induced loads
101 Transversely framed parts of forebody are to be checked for the axial inertia force given in Ch.1 Sec.3
A700:
FL= al (kN)
al

= maximum surge acceleration, not to be taken less than:


V
0.4 g for ------- 5
L
V
0.2 g for ------- 3
L
V
linear interpolaton of a l for 3 < ----- < 5
l

The distribution of stresses will depend on instantaneous forward immersion and on location of cargo.
102 Bottom structure in way of thrust bearings may need a check for the increased thrust when vessel is
retarded by a crest in front.
103 Allowable axial stress and associated shear stresses will be related to the stresses already existing in the
region.
104 For passenger craft, a separate analysis is to be performed to investigate the structural consequence when
subject to the collision load as given in the International Code of Safety for High-Speed Craft, paragraph 4.3.3
(see Ch.7 Sec.1 B300).
Guidance note:
Inertia forces from the collision deceleration should be considered for shear and buckling in the foreship area, and for
the forces acting on the supporting structure for cargo.
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E. Transverse Strength of Twin Hull Craft


E 100 Transverse strength
101 The twin hull connecting structure is to have adequate transverse strength related to the design loads and
moments given in Ch.1.
102

When calculating the moment of inertia, and section modulus of the longitudinal section of the
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Amended July 2011, see page 3

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.4 Page 25

connecting structure, the effective sectional area of transverse strength members is in general to be taken as the
net area with effective flange after deduction of openings.
The effective shear area of transverse strength members is in general to be taken as the net web area after
deduction of openings.
E 200 Allowable stresses
201

The equivalent stress is defined as:


c =

x2 + y2 x y + 3

x = total normal stress in x-direction


y = total normal stress in y-direction
= total shear stress in the xy-plane.
By total stress is meant the arithmetic sum of stresses from hull girder and local forces and moments.
202

The following total stresses are normally acceptable:

normal stress:
= 160 f1 (N/mm2)
mean shear stress:
= 90 f1 (N/mm2)
equivalent stress:
e = 180 f1 (N/mm2).

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Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.5 Page 26

Amended July 2011, see page 3

SECTION 5
PLATING AND STIFFENERS
A. General
A 100 Introduction
101 In this section the general requirements for plate thicknesses and local strength of panels of aluminium
alloy are given.
102 Buckling strength requirements are related to longitudinal hull girder stresses. Panels subjected to other
compressive, shear or biaxial stresses will be specially considered.
Table A1 Allowable bending stresses
Item

Plate

Stiffener
(N/mm2)

Bottom, slamming load


Bottom, sea load
Side
Deck
Flat cross structure, slamming load
Flat cross structure, sea load
Bulkhead, collision
Superstructure/deckhouse front
Superstructure/deckhouse side/deck
Bulkhead, watertight
Tank bulkhead

200 f1
180 f1
180 f1
180 f1
200 f1
180 f1
180 f1
160 f1
180 f1
220 f1
180 f1

180 f1
160 f1
160 f1
160 f1
180 f1
160 f1
160 f1
140 f1
160 f1
200 f1
160 f1

A 200 Definitions
201

Symbols:

t
Z
s
l

=
=
=
=

=
=
=
=

f1

rule thickness of plating in mm


rule section modulus of stiffener in cm3
stiffener spacing in m, measured along the plating
stiffener span in m, measured along the top flange of the member.
The depth of stiffener on crossing panel may be deducted when deciding the span.
For curved stiffeners l may be taken as the chord length
design pressure in kN/m2 as given in Ch.1 Sec.2
nominal allowable bending stress in N/mm2 due to lateral pressure (see Table A1)
see Sec.l A202
nominal allowable shear stress in N/mm2.

A 300 Allowable stresses


301

Maximum allowable bending stresses in plates and stiffeners are to be according to Table A1.

B. Plating
B 100 Minimum thicknesses
101

The thickness of structures is in general not to be less than:


t 0 + kL s
t = ----------------- ----sR
f

(mm)

f
= -------240

= yield stress in N/mm2 at 0.2% offset for unwelded alloy.


f is not to be taken greater than 70% of the ultimate tensile strength
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Amended July 2011, see page 3

s
sR

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.5 Page 27

= actual stiffener spacing (m)


= basic stiffener spacing (m)
2 ( 100 + L )
= --------------------------1000

s
------ is not to be taken less than 0.5 or greater than 1.0.
sR
t0 and k according to Table B1.
Table B1 Values of t0 and k
Item
Bottom, bilge and side to loaded water line
Shell plating
Side above loaded water line
Bottom aft in way of rudder, shaft brackets etc.
Strength deck weather part forward of amidships
Strength deck weather part aft of amidships
Inner bottom
Deck and inner bottom
Car deck
plating
Accommodation deck
Deck for cargo
Superstructure and deckhouse decks
Collision bulkhead
Tank bulkhead
Other watertight bulkheads
Bulkhead plating
Superstructure and deckhouse front
Superstructure and deckhouse sides and aft
Foundations
Other structures
Structures not mentioned above

t0
4.0
3.5
10.0
3.0
2.5
3.0
4.0
2.0
4.0
1.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
2.5
3.0
3.0

k
0.03
0.02
0.10
0.03
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.03
0.01
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.08
0

B 200 Bending
201

The general requirement for thickness of plating subject to lateral pressure is given by:
s Cp
t = -------------- (mm)

C
202

= correction factor for aspect ratio (= s/l) of plate field and degree of fixation of plate edges given in Table
B2.
The thickness requirement for a plate field clamped along all edges and with an aspect ratio 0.5:
22.4s p
t = --------------------- (mm).

B 300 Slamming
301

The bottom plating is to be strengthened according to the requirements given in 302 to 303.

302

The thickness of the bottom plating is not to be less than:


22.4k r s P sl
t = ------------------------------ (mm)

sl

kr

= correction factor for curved plates


=

r
Psl

1 0.5 s-

= radius of curvature in m
= as given in Ch.1 Sec.2
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Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.5 Page 28

sl

Amended July 2011, see page 3

= 200 f1 (N/mm2).

303 Above the slamming area the thickness may be gradually reduced to the ordinary requirement at side.
For craft with rise of floor, however, reduction will not be accepted below the bilge curvature or chine.
Table B2 Values of C
Degree of fixation of plate edges

Aspect ratio < 0.5

Aspect ratio = 1.0

Clamped along all edges


500
342
Longest edge clamped, shortest
500
0
edge simply supported
l = stress at midpoint of longest edge.
s = stress at midpoint of shortest edge.
x = maximum field stress parallel to longest edge.
y = maximum field stress parallel to shortest edge.

75
75

250
250

310
425

310
0

130
140

130
200

C. Stiffeners
C 100 Bending
101 The section modulus of longitudinals, beams, frames and other stiffeners subjected to lateral pressure is
not to be less than:
2

3
m l sp
Z = ---------------- ( cm )

= bending moment factor depending on degree of end constraints and type of loading, see also Sec. 6
Table B2.

The m-values are normally to be as given in Table C 1.


The m-values may have to be increased after special consideration of rotation/deflection at supports or variation
in lateral pressure.
The m-values may be reduced, provided acceptable stress levels are demonstrated by direct calculations.
102 The requirement in 101 is to be regarded as a requirement about an axis parallel to the plating. As an
approximation, the requirement for standard section modulus for stiffeners at an oblique angle with the plating
may be obtained if the formula in 101 is multiplied by the factor:
1
-----------cos

= angle between the stiffener web plane and the plane perpendicular to the plating.

For -values less than 12 corrections are normally not necessary.


103 When several members are equal, the section modulus requirement may be taken as the average
requirement for each individual member in the group. However, the requirement for the group is not to be taken
less than 90% of the largest individual requirement.
104 Front stiffeners of superstructures and deckhouses are to be connected to deck at both ends with a
connection area not less than:
0.07
a = ----------- lsp
f1

( cm )

Side and after end stiffeners in the lowest tier of erections are to have end connections.
Table C1 Values of m
Item
Continuous longitudinal members
Non-continuous longitudinal members
Transverse members
Vertical members, ends fixed
Vertical members, simply supported
Bottom longitudinal members

m
85
100
100
100
135
85
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Amended July 2011, see page 3

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.5 Page 29

Table C1 Values of m (Continued)


Item
Bottom transverse members
Side longitudinal members
Side vertical members
Deck longitudinal members
Deck transverse members
Watertight bulkhead stiffeners, fixed ends
Watertight bulkhead stiffeners, fixed one end (lower)
Watertight bulkhead stiffeners, simply supported ends
Watertight bulkhead horizontal stiffeners, fixed ends
Watertight bulkhead stiffeners, fixed one end (upper)
Watertight bulkhead horizontal stiffeners, simply supported
Tank cargo bulkhead, fixed ends
Tank cargo bulkhead, simply supported
Deckhouse stiffeners
Casing stiffeners

m
100
85
100
85
100
65
85
125
85
75
125
100
135
100
100

C 200 Slamming
201 The section modulus of longitudinals or transverse stiffeners supporting the bottom plating is not to be
less than:
2

m l s p sl
Z = ----------------------

sl

m
psl

sl

=
=
=
=

( cm )

85 for continuous longitudinals


100 for transverse stiffeners
slamming pressure as given in Ch.1 Sec. 2
180 f1 (N/mm2).

The shear area is not to be less than:


6.7 ( l s )s p sl
A S = -----------------------------------

sl

( cm )

sl = 90 f1 (N/mm2).

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Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.6 Page 30

Amended July 2011, see page 3

SECTION 6
WEB FRAMES AND GIRDER SYSTEMS
A. General
A 100 Introduction
101 In this section the general requirements for simple girders and procedures for the calculations of complex
girder systems are given.
A 200 Definitions
201
s
b
p
P

c
el

Z
AW
A
tw
hw
bf

Symbols:
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

girder span in m. The web height of in-plane girders may be deducted


breadth of load area in m (plate flange) b may be determined from Table A1
design pressure in kN/m2 according to Ch. 1 Sec.2
design axial force in kN
nominal allowable bending stress in N/mm2 due to lateral pressure
nominal allowable shear stress in N/mm2
critical buckling stress in N/mm2
ideal elastic buckling stress in N/mm2
rule section modulus in cm3
rule web area in cm2
rule cross-sectional area in cm2
web thickness in mm
web height in mm
flange breadth in mm.

A 300 Minimum thicknesses


301

The thickness of structures are in general not to be less than:


t 0 + kL s
t = ----------------- ----- ( mm )
sR
f

f
s
sR

f
= -------240

= yield stress in N/mm2 at 0.2% offset for unwelded alloy. f is not to be taken greater than 70% of the
ultimate tensile strength. For unwelded material, f may be taken as f1 in Sec.2 Tables B1 to B3.
= actual stiffener spacing in m
= basic stiffener spacing in m
2 ( 100 + L )
= --------------------------1000

s
------ is not to be taken less than 0.5 or greater than 1.0.
sR
t0 and k according to Table A2.
Table A1 Breadth of load area
For ordinary girders
b = 0.5 (l1 + l2 (m)
l1 and l2 are the spans in m of the supported stiffeners
For hatch side coamings
b = 0.2 (B1 - b2) (m)
B1 = breadth of craft in m measured at the middle of the hatchway
b2 = breadth of hatch in m measured at the middle of the hatchway
For hatch end beams
b = 0.4 b3 (m)
b3 = distance in m between hatch end beam and nearest deep transverse girder or transverse
bulkhead
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Amended July 2011, see page 3

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.6 Page 31

Table A2 Values of t0 and k


Item
Bottom centre girder
Bottom side girders, floors, brackets and stiffeners
Side, deck and bulkhead longitudinals girders and stiffeners outside the peaks
Girders and
stiffeners
Peak girders and stiffeners
Longitudinals
Double bottom floors and girders
Foundations
Other structures
Structures not mentioned above

t0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0

k
0.05
0.03
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.08
0

A 400 Allowable stresses


401 Maximum allowable bending stresses and shear stresses in web frames and girders are to be according
to Table A3.
Table A3 Allowable stresses
Item
Web frames and girders
Bending stress Shear stress
Equivalent stress
(N/mm2)
(N/mm2)
(N/mm2)
Dynamic load
180 f1
90 f1
200 f1
Sea/static load
160 f1
90 f1
180 f1

For watertight bulkheads (excluding the collision bulkhead), allowable stresses may be increased to 200 f1, 100
f1 and 220 f1 for bending, shear and equivalent stresses, respectively.
A 500 Continuity of strength members
501 Structural continuity is to be maintained at the junction of primary supporting members of unequal
stiffness by fitting well rounded brackets.
Brackets are to extend to the nearest stiffener, or local plating reinforcement is to be provided at the toe of the
bracket.
502

Where practicable, deck pillars are to be located in line with pillars above or below.

503 Below decks and platforms, strong transverses are to be fitted between verticals and pillars, so that rigid
continuous frame structures are formed.

B. Web Frames and Girders


B 100 General
101 The requirements for section modulus and web area given in 400 are applicable to simple girders
supporting stiffeners or other girders exposed to linearly distributed lateral pressure. It is assumed that the
girder satisfies the basic assumptions of simple beam theory and that the supported members are approximately
evenly spaced and similarly supported at both ends. Other loads will have to be specially considered.
102 When boundary conditions for individual girders are not predictable due to dependence of adjacent
structures, direct calculations according to the procedures given in Sec. 9 D will be required.
103 The section modulus and web area of the girder are to be taken in accordance with requirements as given
in the following. Structural modelling in connection with direct stress analysis is to be based on the same
requirements when applicable. Note that such structural modelling will not reflect the stress distribution at local
flange cutouts or at supports with variable stiffness over the flange width. The local effective flange which may
be applied in stress analysis is indicated for construction details in various Classification Notes on strength
analysis of hull structures).
B 200 Effective flange
201 The effective plate flange area is defined as the cross-sectional area of plating within the effective flange
width. Continuous stiffeners may be included with 50% of their cross-sectional area. The effective flange width
be is determined by the following formula:
be = C b (m)
C

= as given in Table B1 for various numbers of evenly spaced point loads (r) on the span.
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.6 Page 32

Amended July 2011, see page 3

If the above method of calculation is used for strength members which support corrugations perpendicular to
the span of the strength member, C is to be reduced by 90%.
Table B1 Values of C
a/b
0
C (r 6)
0.00
C (r = 5)
0.00
C (r = 4)
0.00
C (r 3)
0.00

1
0.38
0.33
0.27
0.22

2
0.67
0.58
0.49
0.40

3
0.84
0.73
0.63
0.52

4
0.93
0.84
0.74
0.65

5
0.97
0.89
0.81
0.73

6
0.99
0.92
0.85
0.78

7
1.00
0.93
0.87
0.80

= distance between points of zero bending moments


= S for simply supported girders
= 0.6 S for girders fixed at both ends.

202 The effective plate area is not to be less than the effective area of the free flange within the following
regions:
ordinary girders: total span
continuous hatch side coamings and hatch end beams: length and breadth of the hatch, respectively, and an
additional length of 1 m at each end of the hatch corners.
B 300 Effective web
301 Holes in girders will generally be accepted, provided the shear stress level is acceptable and the buckling
strength is sufficient. Holes are to be kept well clear of end of brackets and locations where shear stresses are
high.
B 400 Strength requirements
401

The section modulus for girders subjected to lateral pressure is not to be less than:
2

3
mS bp
Z = ----------------- ( cm )

m
402

= 160 f1 (maximum)
= bending moment factor, m-values in accordance with 403 may be applied.
The effective web area of girders subjected to lateral pressure is not to be less than:
10 ( k s Sbp ar )
A W = -------------------------------------

( cm )

ks = shear force factor.


ks-values in accordance with 403 may be applied
a = number of stiffeners between considered section and nearest support
r = average point load in kN from stiffeners between considered section and nearest support
= 90 f1 (maximum).
n+1
The a-value is in no case to be taken greater than -----------4

= number of supported stiffeners on the girder span. The web area at the middle of the span is not to be
less than 0.5 AW.

403 The m- and ks-values referred to in 401 and 402 may be calculated according to general beam theory. In
Table B2 m- and ks-values are given for some defined load and boundary conditions. Note that the greatest mvalue is to be applied to simple girders. For girders where brackets are fitted or the flange area has been partly
increased due to large bending moment, a smaller m-value may be accepted outside the strengthened region.

DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Amended July 2011, see page 3

Table B2 Values of m and ks


Load and boundary conditions
Positions
1
2
3
Support
Field
Support

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.6 Page 33

Bending moment and shear force factors


1
2
3
m1
m2
m3
ks1

ks3
85
0.50

42

85
0.50

0.38

70

1.25
0.63

0.50

125

0.50

65
0.30

43

100
0.70

0.20

60

135
0.80

0.33

130

0.67

404 The m- and ks-values referred to in 401 and 402 are normally to be as given in Table B3 for the various
structural items.
Table B3 Values of m and ks for various structural items
Item
m
Web frames
100
Bottom:
Floors
100
Longitudinal girders
100
Longitudinal girders
100
Web frames, upper end
100
Side:
Web frames, lower end
100
Deck girders
100
Horizontal girders
100
Bulkhead:
Vertical girders, upper end
100
Vertical girders, lower end
100

405

ks
0.63
0.63
0.63
0.54
0.54
0.72
0.63
0.54
0.54
0.72

The equivalent stress is not to exceed 180 f1 N/mm2.

B 500 Girder tripping brackets


501 The spacing ST of tripping brackets is normally not to exceed the values given in Table B4 valid for
girders with symmetrical face plates. For others the spacing will be specially considered.
Tripping brackets are further to be fitted near the toe of bracket, near rounded corner of girder frames and in
line with any cross ties.
502 The tripping brackets are to be fitted in line with longitudinals or stiffeners, and are to extend the whole
height of the web plate. The arm length of the brackets along the longitudinals or stiffeners, is not to be less
than 40% of the depth of the web plate, the depth of the longitudinal or stiffener deducted. The requirement
may be modified for deep transverses.
503

Tripping brackets on girders are to be stiffened by a flange or stiffener along the free edge if the length
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.6 Page 34

Amended July 2011, see page 3

of the edge exceeds:


0.06 tt (m)
tt

= thickness in mm of tripping bracket.

The area of the stiffening is not to be less than:


10 lt (cm2)
lt

= length in m of free edge.

The tripping brackets are to have a smooth transition to adjoining longitudinals or stiffeners exposed to large
longitudinal stresses.
Table B4 Spacing between tripping brackets
Girder type
ST (m)
Bottom and deck transverses
0.02 bf
Stringers and vertical webs in general
maximum 6
Longitudinal girders in general
Longitudinal girders in bottom and strength deck for L > 50m within 0.5 L amidships
0.014 bf
Stringers and vertical webs in tanks and machinery spaces
maximum 4
Vertical webs supporting single bottom girders and transverses
If the web of a strength member forms an angle with the perpendicular to the ships side of more than 10,
ST is not to exceed 0.007 bf.
bf
S

= flange breadth in mm
= distance between transverse girders in m.

B 600 Girder web stiffeners


601

The web plate of transverse and vertical girders are to be stiffened where:
hw > 75 tw (mm)

tw = web thickness in mm,


with stiffeners of maximum spacing:
s = 60 tw (mm)
within 20% of the span from each end of the girder and where high shear stresses.
Elsewhere stiffeners are required when:
hw > 90 tw (mm)
with stiffeners of maximum spacing:
s = 90 tw (mm)
For girders supporting other girders, the end requirements may have to be applied all over the span.
602 Stiffeners are to be fitted along free edges of the openings parallel to the vertical and horizontal axis of
the opening. Stiffeners may be omitted in one direction if the shortest axis is less than 400 mm and in both
directions if length of both axes is less than 300 mm. Edge reinforcement may be used as an alternative to
stiffeners.

DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Amended July 2011, see page 3

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.7 Page 35

SECTION 7
PILLARS AND PILLAR BULKHEADS
A. General
A 100 Introduction
101

In this section requirements for pillars and for bulkhead stiffeners substituting pillars are given.

A 200 Definitions
201 Symbols:
L, B, D, T, CB, see Ch.1.
t
s
l
I
A
p

=
=
=
=
=
=

thickness of plating in mm
stiffener spacing in m, measured along plate
length of pillars, cross ties, bulkhead stiffeners etc. between effective supports normal to their axis in m
smallest moment of inertia in cm4, including 40 x plate thickness as flange for bulkhead stiffener
cross-sectional area in cm2, including 40 x plate thickness for bulkhead stiffener
design pressure as given in Ch.1.

B. Pillars
B 100 Arrangement of pillars
101 Where practicable, deck pillars are to be located in line with pillars above or below.
If arrangement with pillars in line is not possible, deck beams or girders will have to be reinforced.
102 Pillars or equivalent supports are to be arranged below deckhouses, windlasses, winches and other heavy
weights.
103

The engine room casing is to be supported.

104 Doubters are to be fitted on deck and inner bottom, except in tanks where doublers are not allowed.
Brackets may be used instead of doublers. Where pillar tension may occur, brackets are required.
105

Structural reinforcement below pillars will be considered in the individual cases.

B 200 Cross-section particulars


201

The radius of gyration of a member is to be taken as:


i =

I
-----aAa

( cm )

Ia = moment of inertia as built in cm4 about the axis perpendicular to the expected direction of buckling
Aa = cross-sectional area as built in cm2.
If the end conditions are different with respect to the principle axes of the member, the i-value may have to be
checked for both axes.
B 300 Pillar scantlings
301

The cross-sectional area of members subjected to compressive loads is not to be less than:
2
10 P
A = ----------- ( cm )

k
= ---------------- minimum 0,3

= axial load in kN as given for various strength members in 302 and 303. Alternatively, P may be
obtained from direct stress analysis. See Sec.9 D
= length of member in m
= radius of gyration in cm
= 0.7 in general

l
i
k

1 + -l

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Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.7 Page 36

Amended July 2011, see page 3

= 0.6 when design loads are primarily dynamic

= E when E < -----F2

F
- when E > -----F= F 1 --------
4 E
2
i

= E ------------ (N mm )
100 l

= minimum upper yield stress of material in N/mm2


= modulus of elasticity for aluminium = 69 000 N/mm2.

The formula given for E is based on hinged ends and axial force only.
If, in special cases, it is verified that one end can be regarded as fixed, the value of E may be multiplied by 2.
If it is verified that both ends can be regarded as fixed, the value of E may be multiplied by 4.
In case of eccentric force additional end moments or additional lateral pressure, the strength member is to be
reinforced to withstand bending stresses.
302
n
F

The nominal axial force in pillars is normally to be taken as:


P=nF
= number of decks above pillar. In case of a large number of decks (n > 3), a reduction in P will be
considered based upon a special evaluation of load redistribution
= the force contribution in kN from each deck above and supported by the pillar in question given by:
F = p AD (kN)

p = design pressure on deck as given in Ch.1 Sec.2


AD = deck area in m2 supported by the pillar, normally taken as half the sum of span of girders supported,
multiplied by their loading breadth.
For centre line pillars supporting hatch end beams (see Fig.1 and Fig.2):
b

AD = 4 ( A 1 + A 2 ) ----1- when transverse beams


B

= 4 ( A 3 + A 4 + A 5 ) ----1- when longitudinals


B

b1 = distance from hatch side to craft's side.


303
e
b
p

The nominal axial force in cross ties and panting beams is normally to be taken as:
P = e b p (kN)
= mean value of spans in m on both sides of the cross tie
= load breadth in m
= the larger of the pressures in kN/m2 on either side of the cross tie (e.g. for a side tank cross tie, the
pressure head on the craft's side may be different from that on the longitudinal bulkhead).

B 400 Pillars in tanks


401

Hollow pillars are not accepted.

402 Where the hydrostatic pressure may give tensile stresses in the pillars and cross members, their sectional
area is not to be less than:
A = 0.07 Adkpt (cm2)
Adk = deck or side area in m2 supported by the pillar or cross member
pt = design pressure, p in kN/m2 giving tensile stress in the pillar.
The formula may be used also tension control of panting beams and cross ties in tanks.
Doubling plates at ends are not allowed.
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Amended July 2011, see page 3

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.7 Page 37

C. Supporting Bulkheads
C 100 General
101 Bulkheads supporting decks are to be regarded as pillars. Compressive loads are to be calculated based
on supported deck area and deck design loading.
102 Buckling strength of stiffeners are to be calculated as indicated in Sec.10 E101, assuming a plate flange
equal to 40 x the plate thickness when calculating IA, A and i.
Local buckling strength of adjoining plate and torsional buckling strength of stiffeners are to be checked.

Fig. 1
Deck with transverse beams

Fig. 2
Deck with longitudinals

DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.8 Page 38

Amended July 2011, see page 3

SECTION 8
WELD CONNECTIONS
A. General
A 100 Introduction
101

In this section requirements for welding of aluminium alloys and various connection details are given.

102

For general requirements for approval of welding of wrought aluminium alloys, see Pt.2 Ch.3 Sec.2.

A 200 Welding particulars


201

Welding at ambient air temperature of 5C or below is only to take place after special agreement.

202 The welding sequence is to be such that the parts may as far as possible contract freely in order to avoid
cracks in already deposited runs of weld. Where a butt meets a seam, the welding of the seam is to be
interrupted well clear of the junction and not be continued until the butt is completed. Welding of butt is to
continue past the open seam and the weld be chipped out for the seam to be welded straight through.
203 Welding procedures and welding consumables approved for the type of connection and parent material
in question, are to be used. See Register of Approved Manufac-turers and Register of Type Approved
Products.

B. Types of Welded Joints


B 100 Butt joints
101

For panels with plates of equal thickness, the joints are normally to be butt welded with prepared edges.

102 For butt welded joints of plates with thickness difference exceeding 2 mm, the thicker plate is normally
to be tapered. The taper is generally not to exceed 1:3.
103 Welding against permanent or temporary backing is to be specially considered with respect to fatigue,
non-destructive examination and any risk of crevice corrosion.
B 200 Tee or cross joints
201 The connection of girder and stiffener webs to plate panels, including plating abutting to other plate
panels, is normally to be made by fillet welds as indicated in Fig.1.

Fig. 1
Tee or cross joints

Where the connection is highly stressed, the edge of the abutting plate may have to be bevelled to give deep or
full penetration welding. Where the connection is moderately stressed, intermittent welds may be used. With
reference to Fig.2, the various types of intermittent welds are as follows:
chain weld
staggered weld
scallop weld (closed).
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Amended July 2011, see page 3

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.8 Page 39

Fig. 2
Intermittent welds

202

Double continuous welds are required in the following connections irrespective of the stress level:
oiltight and watertight connections
connections in foundations and supporting structures for machinery
all connections in way of the steering gear arrangement
connections in rudders, except where access difficulties necessitate slot welds
all connections in a region above the propeller extending a radius of minimum 1.5 x the propeller diameter
connections at supports and ends of stiffeners, pillars, cross ties and girders
centreline girder to keel plate
all structures in ballast tanks and other tanks holding corrosive liquids.

C. Size of Connections
C 100 Fillet welds, general
101 Unless otherwise stated, the requirements for throat thicknesses are given for double continuous fillet
welds. It is assumed that the welding consumables used will give weld de posits with yield strength according
to Pt.2 Ch.3 Sec.2 Table C2.
102
t0

The throat thickness of double continuous fillet weld is not to be less than:
t = 0.42 t0(mm)
= thickness in mm of thinner of the plates.

The throat thickness is not to be less than 2 mm.


The throat thickness may have to be increased when considered necessary due to a high stress level.
103 The throat thickness of intermittent welds is to be as required in 102 for double continuous welds
provided the welded length is not less than:
80% of total length in the slamming area forward of amidships
60% of total length for connections in tanks and bottom aft of amidships
45% of total length for connections elsewhere.
t0

= as given in 102.

Total length means total length of double continuous welds.


104

Double continuous welds may be required in:

slamming area
engine room area
adjacent to tanks.
C 200 Fillet welds and penetration welds subject to high tensile stresses
201

In structural parts where high tensile stresses (> 50 N/mm2) act through an intermediate plate (see Fig.1)
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.8 Page 40

Amended July 2011, see page 3

increased fillet welds or penetration welds are to be used. Examples of such structures are:
transverse bulkhead connection to the double bottom
structural elements in double bottoms below bulkheads
transverse girders to longitudinal bulkheads.
202

The throat thickness of double continuous weld is not to be less than:


- ---r-
----t = 0.35

r
t0

=
=
=
=

55

t0

1 t 0 (mm)

calculated maximum tensile stress in abutting plate in N/mm2


minimum 50 N/mm2
root face in mm
thickness in mm of thinner of the plates.

C 300 End connections of girders, pillars and cross ties


301 The weld connection area of bracket to adjoining girders or other structural parts is to be based on the
calculated normal and shear stresses. Double continuous welding is to be used. Where high tensile stresses are
expected, welding according to 200 is to be applied.
302 The end connections of simple girders are to satisfy the requirements for section modulus given for the
girder in question.
Where shear stresses in web plates exceed 35 fw N/mm2, double continuous boundary fillet welds are to have
throat thickness not less than:
t0
t = ------------- (mm)
80 f w

t0
fw

fw

=
=
=
=
=

303

calculated shear stress in N/mm2


thickness of abutting plate.
material factor for weld deposit
fw/240
yield strength in N/mm2 of weld deposit.
End connections of pillars and cross ties are to have a weld area not less than:
2
0.14Ap
a = ------------------- (cm )
fw

A = load area in m2 for pillar or cross tie


p = design pressure in kN/m2 as given in Ch.1
fw = as given in 302.
C 400 End connections of stiffeners
401

Stiffeners may be connected to the web plate of girders in the following ways:
welded directly to the web plate on one or both sides of the frame
connected by single- or double-sided lugs
with stiffener or bracket welded on top of frame
a combination of the above mentioned connections.

In locations with great shear stresses in the web plate, a double-sided connection or a stiffening of the
unconnected web plate edge is normally required. A double-sided connection may be taken into account when
calculating the effective web area.
402

The connection area at supports of stiffeners is normally not to be less than:


2
c k ( l 0.5s ) s p
a 0 = --------------------------------------- (cm )
fw

c
k
l

=
=
=
=

factor as given in Table C 1


0.125 for pressure acting on stiffener side
0.1 for pressure acting on opposite side
span of stiffener in m
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Amended July 2011, see page 3

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.8 Page 41

s = spacing between stiffeners in m


p = design pressure in kN/m2 as given in Ch.1
fw = as given in 302.
Table C1 c-factors
Type of connection
(see Fig. 3)

Stiffener or bracket on top of stiffener


None
1.00
0.90
0.80

a
b
c

Single-sided
1.25
1.15
1.00

Double-sided
1.00
0.90
0.80

403 Various standard types of connections are shown in Fig.3.


Other types of connection will be considered in each case.
STIFFNER OR
BRACKET

THIS DISTANCE SHOULD BE


AS SHORT AS POSSIBLE

STIFFNER OR
BRACKET
b

LUG
STIFFNER OR
BRACKET
c

Fig. 3
End connections

404

Connection lugs are to have a thickness not less than the web plate thickness.

405

Lower ends of peak frames are to be connected to the floors by a weld area not less than:
2
0.105 l s p
a = ------------------------- (cm )
fw

l, s p and fw = as given in 402.


406

Bracketed end connections as mentioned in 407 and 408 are to have a weld area not less than:
2
kZ
a = --------- (cm )
fw h

Z
h
k

fw

= section modulus of stiffener in cm3


= stiffener height in mm
= 24 for connections between supporting plates in double bottoms and transverse bottom frames or
reversed frames
= 25 for connections between the lower end of main frames and brackets
= 15 for brackets fitted at lower end of tween deck frames, and for brackets on stiffeners
= 10 for brackets on tween deck frames carried through the deck and overlapping the underlying bracket
= as given in 302.
DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.8 Page 42

Amended July 2011, see page 3

407 Brackets between transverse deck beams and frames or bulkhead stiffeners are to have a weld area not
less than:
2

a = 0.41 Z t b (cm )

tb
Z

= thickness in mm of bracket
= as defined in 406.

408 The weld area of brackets to longitudinals is not to be less than the sectional area of the longitudinal.
Brackets are to be connected to bulkhead by a double continuous weld.

DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Amended July 2011, see page 3

Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.9 Page 43

SECTION 9
DIRECT STRENGTH CALCULATIONS
A. General
A 100 Introduction
101 In the preceding sections the scantlings of the various primary and secondary hull structures (girder
systems, stiffeners, plating) have been given explicitly, based on the design principles outlined in Ch.1 Sec.l.
In some cases direct strength or stress calculations have been referred to in the text. The background and
assumptions for carrying out such calculations in addition to or as a substitute to the specific requirements are
given in this section. Load conditions, allowable stresses and applicable calculation methods are specified.
A 200 Application
201

The application of direct stress analysis is governed by:

a) Required as part of rule scantling determination. In such cases where simplified formulations are not able
to take into account special stress distributions, boundary conditions or structural arrangements with
sufficient accuracy, direct stress analysis has been required in the rules.
b) As alternative basis for the scantlings. In some cases direct stress calculations may give reduced scantlings,
especially when optimisation routines are incorporated.

B. Plating
B 100 General
101 Normally direct strength analysis of laterally loaded plating is not required as part of rule scantling
estimation.
102

Buckling control of plating subjected to large in-plane compressive stresses is specified in Sec. 4.

B 200 Calculation procedure


201 Laterally loaded local plate fields may be subject to direct stress analysis applying general 3-dimensional
plate theory or finite element calculations. The calculations should take into account the boundary conditions
of the plate field as well as membrane stresses developed during deflection of the plate.
B 300 Allowable stresses
301 When combining the calculated local bending stress with in-plane stresses the equivalent stress e in the
middle of a local plate field is not to exceed 240 f1 N/mm2. The local bending stress in the same point is in no
case to exceed 160 f1 N/mm2.
e

x2 + y2 x y + 3

x = aritmetic sum of local bending stress and in-plane stresses in the x-direction
y = aritmetic sum of local bending stress and in-plane stresses in the y-direction
= shear stress in the xy-plane.
302 The final thickness is not, however, to be less than the minimum thickness given in Sec.1 for the structure
in question.

C. Stiffeners
C 100 General
101

Direct strength analysis of stiffeners may be requested in the following cases:

stiffeners on supports with different deflection characteristics


stiffeners subjected to large bending moments transferred from adjacent structures at supports.
102

Buckling control of stiffeners subjected to large axial, compressive stresses is specified in Sec.4.
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Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.9 Page 44

Amended July 2011, see page 3

C 200 Calculation procedure


201 The calculations are to reflect the structural response of the 2- or 3-dimensional structure considered.
Calculations based on elastic beam theory may normally be applied, with due attention to:

boundary conditions
shear area and moment of inertia variations
effective flange
effects of bending, shear and axial deformations
influence of end brackets.

C 300 Loads
301

The local lateral loads are to be taken as specified in Ch.1 for the structure in question.

C 400 Allowable stresses


401

The allowable stress level is given in Table C1.

Table C1 Allowable stress levels


Nominal local bending stress
Combined local bending stress or girder stress or longitudinal stress
Nominal shear stress

= 160 f1 N/mm2
= 220 f1 N/mm2
= 90 f1 N/mm2

D. Girders
D 100 General
101 For girders which are parts of a complex 2- or 3-dimensional structural system, a complete structural
analysis may have to be carried out to demonstrate that the stresses are acceptable when the structure is loaded
as described in 300.
102

Calculations as mentioned in 101 may be requested to be carried out for:


bottom structures
side structures
deck structures
bulkhead structures
transverse frame structures
other structures when deemed necessary by the Society.

103 In addition to the complex structures indicated above, direct strength calculations may also be performed
on more simple girders in order to optimise scantlings.
D 200 Calculation methods
201 Calculation methods or computer programs applied are to take into account the effects of bending, shear,
axial and torsional deformations.
The calculations are to reflect the structural response of the 2- or 3-dimensional structure considered, with due
attention to boundary conditions.
For systems consisting of slender girders, calculations based on beam theory (frame work analysis) may be
applied, with due attention to:
shear area variation
moment of inertia variation
effective flange.
202 For deep girders, bulkhead panels, etc. where results obtained by applying the beam theory are
unreliable, finite element analysis or equivalent methods are to be applied.
D 300 Design load conditions
301 The calculations are to be based on loads at design level as given in Ch.1. For sea-going conditions
realistic combinations of external and internal dynamic loads are to be considered.
The mass of deck structures may be neglected when less than 5% of the applied loads.
302

For transverse web frame beam element analysis, the following combinations of load apply:

sea pressure on all elements


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Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.9 Page 45

slamming pressure on bottom.


If twin hull, the following three conditions are to be added:
slamming pressure on bottom from outside and sea pressure on hull outer side
slamming pressure on bottom from inside and sea pressure on tunnel side and tunnel top
slamming pressure on tunnel top and sea pressure on tunnel side and bottom from inside
For all load cases, deck load pressure from cargo, passengers etc. is to be added.
D 400 Allowable stresses
401
e

The equivalent stress is defined as:


=

x2 + y2 x y + 3

x = normal stress in x-direction


y = normal stress in y-direction
= shear stress in the xy-plane.
402 The longitudinal combined stress taken as the sum of hull girder and longitudinal bottom, side or deck
girder bending stresses, is normally not to exceed 190 f1 N/mm2.
403 For girders in general, the following stresses are normally acceptable:
Normal stress:

= 160 f1 N/mm2.

Mean shear stress:

= 90 f1 N/mm2 for girders with one plate flange


= 100 f1 N/mm2 for girders with two plate flanges.

Equivalent stress:

e = 180 f1 N/mm2.

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Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.10 Page 46

Amended July 2011, see page 3

SECTION 10
BUCKLING CONTROL
A. General
A 100 Definitions
101
t
s
l
E

el
f
el
f

Symbols:
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

thickness in mm of plating
shortest side of plate panel in m
longest side of plate panel in m
length in m of stiffener, pillar etc.
modulus of elasticity of the material
0.69 105 N/mm2 for aluminium
the ideal elastic (Euler) compressive buckling stress in N/mm2
minimum upper yield stress of material in N/mm2. Usually base material properties are used, but critical
or extensive weld zones may have to be taken into account
= the ideal elastic (Euler) shear buckling stress in N/mm2
= minimum shear yield stress of material in N/mm2

= ------f3

the critical compressive buckling stress in N/mm2


the critical shear stress in N/mm2
calculated actual compressive stress in N/mm2
calculated actual shear stress in N/mm2

c
c
a
a

=
=
=
=

= stability (usage) factor = -----a = ----a


c c

Zn = vertical distance in m from the baseline or deckline to the neutral axis of the hull girder, whichever is
relevant
Za = vertical distance in m from the baseline or deckline to the point in question below or above the neutral
axis, respectively.
102

Relationships:

c = el when el < -----f


2

f
- when el > -----f
= f 1 ---------4 el
2

c = el when el < ----f


2

f
- when el > ----f
= f 1 --------4 el
2

Guidance note:
When the required c or c is known, the necessary el or el will from the above expressions of the Johnson-Ostenfeld
relationship be
c
c
el = ------------- and el = ------------KJ 0
KJ 0

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Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.10 Page 47

KJ 0 from Fig.1 or from formula


KJ 0

2
c or c
= 1 -------------------------------- 1
0.5 ( f or f )

Fig. 1

c
For ----- < 0.5, K J 1 = 1

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B. Longitudinal Buckling Load


B 100 Longitudinal stresses
101

See Ch.l Sec.3 A700.

C. Transverse Buckling Load


C 100 Transverse stresses
101

Transverse hull stresses in compression may occur from:

transverse loads and moments in twin hull craft, see Sec. 4 E


supports of craft's side structure, see Sec. 6.

D. Plating
D 100 Plate panel in uni-axial compression
101

The ideal elastic buckling stress may be taken as:


2
2
t
el = 0.9 k E -------------- (N/mm )
1000s

For plating with longitudinal stiffeners (in direction of compressive stress):


8.4
k = k l = ------------------ for (0 1)
+ 1.1

For plating with transverse stiffeners (perpendicular to compressive stress):


s 2 2
2.1
------------------ for (0 1)
k = ks = c 1 + -
l
+ 1.1

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Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.10 Page 48

Amended July 2011, see page 3

= 2.50 when stiffeners are hollow profiles with s/l <0.5 and the enclosed area of the hollow profile is larger
than 20 s t
= 1.21 when stiffeners are angles or T-sections
= 1.10 when stiffeners are bulb flats
= 1.05 when stiffeners are flat bars.

For double bottom panels the c-values may be multiplied by 1.1.


is the ratio between the smaller and the larger compressive stress assuming linear variation, see Fig. 2.
The above correction factors are not valid for negative values of .
The critical buckling stress is found from A102.

Fig. 2
Buckling stress correction factor

102

The critical buckling stress is to be related to the actual compressive stresses as follows:

c -----a

a = calculated compressive stress in plate panels. With linearly varying stress across the plate panel, a is

=
=
=
=

to be taken as the largest stress


1.0 for deck, side, single bottom and longitudinal bulkhead plating
0.9 for bottom and inner bottom plating in double bottoms
1.0 for locally loaded plate panels where an extreme load level is applied
G for locally loaded plate panels where a normal load level is applied (e.g. plating acting as effective
flange for girders)

p + 0.5p

s
d
G = ------------------------

ps + pd

ps and pd = static and dynamic parts of p.


103

Guidance note:
The resulting thickness requirement (before elastic buckling) will be:
with stiffeners in direction of compressive stress:

c
t = 2s ------------ (mm)
KJ 0

c according to 102

KJ - 0 from Fig. l
with stiffeners perpendicular to compressive stress:

c
s
t = 4 -------------------- --------------- (mm)
2
cK J 0
s
1 + -
l
c according to 101.
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104

For elastic buckling, see G.


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Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.10 Page 49

D 200 Plate panel in shear


201

The ideal elastic buckling stress may be taken as:


t

el = 0.9k t E --------------
1000s
s
k t = 5.34 + 4 -
l

(N/mm )

The critical shear buckling stress is found from A102.


202

The critical shear stress is to be related to the actual shear stresses as follows:

c ----a

= 0.90 for craft's side and longitudinal bulkhead subject to hull girder shear forces
= 0.95 G for local panels in girder webs when nominal shear stresses are calculated (a = Q/A)
= G for local panels in girder webs when shear stresses are determined by finite element calculations or
similar
= according to 102.
Guidance note:
The resulting thickness requirement will be:

c
t = 4s ----------------- (mm)
kt KJ 0

c according to 202
KJ - 0 from Fig.1.
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D 300 Plate panel in bi-axial compression and shear


301 For plate panels subject to bi-axial compression the interaction between the longitudinal and transverse
buckling strength ratios is given by:

ax
ax ay
ay
- 1
----------------- K --------------------------------- + ---------------- x cx q
x y cx cy q y cy q

ax = compressive stress in longitudinal direction (perpendicular to stiffener spacing s)


ay = compressive stress in transverse direction (perpendicular to the longer side l of the plate panel)
cx = critical buckling stress in longitudinal direction as calculated in 100
cy = critical buckling stress in transverse direction as calculated in 100
a and c are as given in 200
x, y = 1.0 for plate panels where the longitudinal stress a (as given in Ch.1 Sec.3 A700) or other extreme
stress is incorporated and constitutes a major part in ax or ay
= 0.95 G other cases
G = according to 102
K
= c a
c and a are factors given in Table B1
s
= 1000 t

f
----E

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Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.10 Page 50

Amended July 2011, see page 3

= factor given in Table B1

Table B1 Factors for buckling strength


c
a
1.0 < l/s < 1.5
0.78
0.12
1.5 l/s < 8
0.80
0.04

n
1.0
1.2

a
q = 1 -----------
c

= as given in 200.
Only stress components acting simultaneously are to be inserted in the formula.
For plate panels in structures subject to longitudinal stresses, such stresses are to be directly combined with
local stresses to the extent they are acting simultaneously and for relevant load conditions. Otherwise
combinations based on statistics may be applied.
Guidance note:
For shear in combination with:
uni-axial compression:
may be written:

ax ay
-------- or -------- ( x or y )q
cx cy
and with:
bi-axial compression, approximately:

ax
ay
0, 8 ax-
ay
-------q
-------------- + 1.1 -------------- ------------ ------ x cx

y cy x y cx cy

For bi-axial compression alone q = 1.


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E. Stiffeners in Direction of Compression


E 100 Lateral buckling mode
101

The ideal elastic lateral buckling stress may be taken as:


E

el = 10 --------------------2- (N/mm )
100 -l

i =

IA
----A

IA = moment of inertia in cm4 about the axis perpendicular to the expected direction of buckling
A = cross-sectional area in cm2.
When calculating IA and A, a plate flange equal to 0.8 times the spacing is included for stiffeners.
The critical buckling stress is found from A102.
The formula given for el is based on hinged ends and axial force only.
Continuous stiffeners supported by equally spaced girders are regarded as having hinged ends when considered
for buckling.
In case of eccentric force, additional end moments or additional lateral pressure, the strength member is to be
reinforced to withstand bending stresses.
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Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.10 Page 51

102 For longitudinals and other stiffeners in the direction of compressive stresses, the critical buckling stress
calculated in 101 is to be related to the actual compressive stress as follows:

c -----a

a = calculated extreme compressive stress, or ordinary local load stress divided by G from D100
= 0.85 for continuous stiffeners.
= 1 b, maximum 0.85 for single-span stiffeners
simultaneous bending moment at midspan
b = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------bending moment capacity

Guidance note:
The resulting maximum allowable slenderness will be:
KJ 0
l
100 - = 830 -----------i
c

c = -----a

KJ-0 from Fig. 1.

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E 200 Torsional buckling mode


201 For longitudinals and other stiffeners in the direction of compressive stresses, the ideal elastic buckling
stress for the torsional mode may in general be calculated from formulae in Rules for Classification of Ships
Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.14.
202

The critical buckling stress as found from 201 and A102 is not to be less than:

c -----a

a = calculated extreme compressive stress, or ordinary local load stress divided by G from D100
= 0.85 in general
= 0.8 when the adjacent plating is allowed to buckle in the elastic mode, according to G.

Guidance note:
To avoid torsional buckling the height of flats should not exceed:
140
h w = t w ------------------ (mm)
c
-----------KJ 0

tw = thickness of web in mm

c = -----a

KJ - 0 from Fig.1.
hw
For flanged profiles, 1 < ------ < 3:
bf
Minimum flange breadth may be taken as:
For symmetrical flanges:

c
b f = 5l ------------ (mm)
KJ 0

For unsymmetrical flanges:


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Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.10 Page 52

Amended July 2011, see page 3

c
b f = 3.5 l ------------ (mm)
KJ 0

c = -----a

KJ 0 = according to Fig.1
hw
= height of web in mm.
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E 300 Web and flange buckling


301

The el -value required for the web buckling mode may be taken as:
t

w
el = 3.8 E ----h w

( N mm )

tw, hw = web thickness and height in mm.


302 The ideal elastic buckling stress of flange of angle and tee stiffeners may be calculated from the
following formula:
t 2

el = 0.38 E ----f
bf

tf
bf
303

( N mm )

= flange thickness in mm
= flange width in mm for angles, half the flange width for T-sections.
The critical buckling stress c found from A102 is not to be less than as given in 202.
Guidance note:
Web thickness, see plating with stiffener in direction of compression stress, D103.
Flange width from web:
140
b f < t f ------------------ (mm)

c
-----------KJ 0

= according to 202
KJ 0 = according to Fig.1
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F. Stiffeners Perpendicular to Direction of Compression


F 100 Moment of inertia of stiffeners
101 For stiffeners supporting plating subject to compressive stresses perpendicular to the stiffener direction
the moment of inertia of the stiffener section (including effective plate flange) is not to be less than:
4

0.81 a el l s
4
I = --------------------------------- ( cm )
t

l = span in m of stiffener
s = spacing in m of stiffeners
t = plate thickness in mm

c
el = ------------

KJ 0

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Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.10 Page 53

a
c = ----------

0.85

a = calculated extreme compressive stress, or ordinary local load stress divided by G from D100

KJ 0=according to Fig.1.

G. Elastic Buckling of Stiffened Panels


G 100 Elastic buckling as a design basis
101

Elastic buckling may be accepted for plating between stiffeners when:

plating

el < ----- , i.e. el = c


2

c of stiffener in direction of compression > el of plating.


c from E and A102. To be multiplied by G for ordinary local load.
el from D and A102
there are no functional requirements prohibiting the deflections
extreme loads are used in the calculations.
Guidance note:
For the torsional buckling mode of flats may be taken
t

w
el = 0.385E ----h w

( N mm )

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G 200 Allowable compression


201

The allowable compressive force in the panel may be increased from:


PA = 0.l p el (Ap + As) (kN)

to:
PA = 0.l p el (Ap + As) +
be
0.1 ( s c p el ) ----- A p + A s (kN)
b

p, s = for plating and stiffener from D and E. s to be multiplied by G for ordinary local load
el, c= for plating and stiffener, respectively, from D and E. Ordinary effective flange is to be used for
stiffeners
Ap, As= area of plating and stiffener in cm2
be
----b

= fraction of Ap participating in the post-buckling stress increase

= ultimate average stress of plating

u el
= ------------------ f el

= el 1 + 0.375 ------f- 2
el

202

For transversely stiffened plating (compressive stress perpendicular to longest side l of plate panel) is

u = el 1 + c ------f- 2
el

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Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.10 Page 54

Amended July 2011, see page 3

0.75
c = -----------l + 1
s

As = 0
resulting in:
PA = 0.l p u Ap (kN).
203

u may be substituted for el when calculating uniaxial compression and shear in D300.

H. Girders
H 100 Axial load buckling
101

For lateral, torsional, web and flange buckling, see E, Stiffeners in direction of compression.

H 200 Girders perpendicular to direction of compression


201 For transverse girders supporting longitudinals or stiffeners subject to axial compression stresses, the
ideal elastic buckling stress may be taken as:
2
- Ia Ib
-------- el = 1.38 ---------------------2

S ( t + ta )

S
l
s
Ia
Ib
t
ta

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

sl

span of girder in m
distance between girders in m
spacing of stiffeners in m
moment of inertia of stiffener in cm4
moment of inertia of transverse girder in cm4
plate thickness in mm
equivalent plate thickness of stiffener area in mm
stiffener area
--------------------------------------stiffener spacing

The critical buckling stress c is found from A102.


202

The critical buckling stress found from 201 and A102 is not to be less than:

c -----a

a = calculated compressive stress


= 0.75.
H 300 Buckling of effective flange
301 Plating acting as effective flange for girders which support crossing stiffeners is to have a satisfactory
buckling strength.
302 Compressive stresses arising in the plating due to local loading of girders are to be less than G x the
critical buckling strength, see 303. When calculating the compressive stress the section modulus of the girder
may be based on a plate flange breadth equal to the distance between girders (100% effective flange).
G: see D100.
303 The critical buckling strength is given in D101 and A102, when l = span of stiffener or distance from
girder to eventual buckling stiffener parallel to the girder.
304 Elastic buckling of deck plating may be accepted after special consideration.
Reference is made to G.
The additional PA, and the corresponding additional moment capacity, will, however, refer to a girder section
with effective width of deck plating = be.
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Rules for High Speed, Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft, January 2011
Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.10 Page 55

H 400 Shear buckling of web


401

See D200, for constant shear force over l.


Guidance note:
For variable shear force over l of panel, a reduced l may be considered in formula.
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Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.10 Page 56

DET NORSKE VERITAS AS

Amended July 2011, see page 3