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A Micromechanics-based Continuum
Theory and Analysis of Localization
Phenomena.
ARTICLE JANUARY 1994
DOI: 10.2208/jscej.1994.501_55

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3 AUTHORS, INCLUDING:
Yoshiaki Okui
Saitama University
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Hideyuki Horii
The University of Tokyo
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Retrieved on: 29 December 2015

No.

501/1-29,

pp. 5564,

1994.

10

* **

***

.
,
. ,
.
.
Key

Words: micromechanics, localization of deformation, interaction effect of rnicrocracks

1.


.
,
,
.
,


. Shi and Horii3)
,
.
, ,
,
.
,

,
,

4),
5) .

. , ,

. ,
.


, .


.
Hilland Hutchinson1)

,
.
,
. ,
Rudnicki and Rice2)

. ,
,
?

.
, ,
*

(338

255)
** Ph. D

***

2.

(1)

,

. , 1970 ,
, , , ,
. Brace
6)Westerly granite,
(
/) ,
,
,
( )
. , Brace
,
55

,
. , x
%(x)

(3)
, ,
.
.
a)

(a)

(b)

, .

Fig. 1 Microdefects of rock under compression; (a)Original


model, (b)Simplified model
,
, '
.
, Westerly

granite Hadley7)

Hallbauer8) .

Fig. 1(a) 9).
2c0
,

=0

(4)

=ab+(ai)T)

(5)

, "", "x"
()
b)

1
/Xj .


10).
=De:

(AA*E-E)

(6)

=1/v1(u+ab

(7)

. , (11/2)

, De , *

, (x2 )

=u+-u-

. ,


, Fig. 1(a)
,
,
. , (a) Fig. 1(b)

, AV

.
,
(7)
*=C*:b

(8)

9). , X2
21 ,
JP .
,
P7=2c0(-7-*+

, .
=Del(-E)

(9)

,
*)sin=-c0(122-211) (1)

, T*, *
, j
.
1=si11{sil12-(1-cos2)}
2=siI1{si112+(1+cos2)}

E=(1+C*:
, 14

De)-1:

C*: De

(10)

, - ,

(2)

, (7)

(8) . ,

C*

(2)
Fig. 1(b)

, , -

. ,

56

N0.

501/1-29.

Fig.

Decomposition

of the original

problem

, (7)
.

into

10

(d)

(c)

(b)

1994.

Subproblem-2

Subproblem-1

(a)

DD. 5564.

a homogeneous

problem

and subproblems

(PP
22,12)
. ,

2 , ,
={11,

22,12}T, ={11, 22,212}T

, De, 1, E

33

P={Pa_Pa_Pa11,
22, 12}T
.
P=

(
+P), (,=1, 2, , ) (12)

Fig. 1(b) , E
,


, ={11,22,
12}T

(b)

(j=1, 2)
El=0

.
,

(11b)

, (
),

, .

Jl F=E/(1-v)E, v

, .
c)

bla1

-b2al

a4

bla2

-b2a2

a5

bla3

-b2a3

a6

1=2cos2

2=6=cos4

3=4=sil12

-si114

5=si112

,
.
, - ,

.

.

,
.
pseudotraction

, Fig. 2(a)

(13)

pseudotraction

(11a)

-cos4

2=21co/7rZ

si114

, (13)

1 d

d, ,1 Fig.
(12)

61=1+22c0/1

, (= ) .
,
(12)
(x)=1(1){

(12)

.
()+F()}d

(14)

, 7(xI)

(13)

d,
d=lx-1

=tan-12-2)/(x1-

1)+/2 , IIuIl

(b),

. , 1 -

()
. ,

(c, d,) .

P , P (14)

, (d)

. P

, (14)

(b) (,

S7


. ,

microdefect-a

K1

. ,


.
fu-q=o

(17a)

(1-1)-P-Aa=0

(17b)

f(u, Z, A)=o

(17c)

microdefect-R

, (a) ,

(b) (c)
Fig.

3 Definition

of d, dap and lp


3M2N

, .
,

. N, M

, T, A 3M3M,
, .

r=2=2-a+b/da

ab-1d

(18a)

.
,
Kf Kc
.

A=j5j

(18b)

, Vjxi j i
, Sjj -

f=1-c=0;

10

f=f-fc<o;

61=0

(15)

Newton-Raphson

,
,
.

5) ,
, .
,
,

=vl(111+P111)

(16)

. ,
.

(15), (16),

,
, 1


, 0=c/Vc0 10%

, (4),
(5),
(14),

- (9),

(15)

, ,


.,

, 1, P

. , P

.
(3)

3.

Kranz12),
13)

, ,

f(a, P, 1)=0
.
1 ,

. ,
,

. , 3

, , , .KraIlz

, 1

, -

, (15)

, ,
,

58

, .
,

No.

501/1-29,

pp. 5564,

1994. 10

,

- ,

. ,

Fig. 1(b)
.

,
.
Fig.

(1)


Table

Finite

Model
creep

element

mesh

parameters
test

for creep

test of rocks

used in numerical

of Barre

calculation

fo

granite

(subcritical

crack growth)

(static fatigue) ,

( ,
pH,

) ,

.
Atkinson14) 2
,
dl/d 1 f
. ,
, .
dlw
dtj

=A(h)n

(19)

. ,

(16)

, A-, ,

. [m/s]

. (19)

, [MPam1/2]-

, ,

granite)

(17-a) , ,

(Westerly

30-46 .
, A-
10-3-10-12 .

(19)
. ,
, -

=f0

. ,

,
, (19)
.
1 (19)

1=A-(P )t

P .
, 13M3M

, M

.
t+at

, ,

(21)

.
(2)

. ,
(-1)P=1

, (15)

(3)

Kranz

Barre gran-

ite . Fig. A
, Table

1 . ,

, , 12) , Barre
grante
. ,
14) 0-74-1. 5MPan11/2

20)

, Table

1 ,

59

(b) p=100

(a) p=53 MPa

MPa

Fig. 6 Failure time vs normalized stress difference at confining pressures (a)pp=53 and (b)100 MPa for Barre granite
,
,
(19) .
, Fig. 1(b)
,
2

,
,
3 ,
,
,

Fig. 5 Evolution of normalized crack length as a function


of time for A=10-6, (o'1-pc)/(&1-pc)max=0.91

Fig. 6 . (a) 53MPa


, (b)100MPa

. 53MPa

,
, (19)

, ,

-A10-6

. , 100MPa

( ) 12)

A-=10-5

Fig. 5
. p=100MPa,

, A

(1-1c)

. A

(1-1c)max

0. 91 .

, (1 ),

, . ,

.2

, ,
,
3

4.

. ,

(1)

3).

. , 1 2

6o

No.

501/1-29,

pp. 5564,

1994.

10

( )
.
a)

, (6) .
, ,
. ,

, * .
*=C*: a+**

(24)

, e**
, .
(24)
Fig.

Microslip

(6) , -

model

=Dep=e+b'*

(25)

, (Fig. 7)

Dep=(+D8:

*=-DP:

. ,
,
. 2 , 1
2

C*)-1:

**

(26a)
(26b)

(25) 3
,
2 , C*, **
. , ,
a={b11, b22,

12}T, E={11, 22,212}T .

xy=(
+4)tan0, (-xl<)

(22a)

x=(xx+d)tanc, (<-xI<c)

(22b)

(x1, x2)

, xy,
yy

, ,
(c>o).
, ,
,

*1II
*ff2 . , *2
,
.
*=RT(f)a*P-+PT(

-
)*ff

(27)

. ,

, *={xxll, 2x}T, (=f,

(22) d

1=- =/4-0/2

.
,
.
d=-

o(c/-1)z

, d, m

.
, (, y),(=f, ff)

={AAA
XX,a, xy}T , *
(24)

(23)
0 ,

.
(2)

ff) , R


*=C*()()+a**, (-f, E)
. , o
. (28)C*

(28)

**

(5) .

. ,

, 2 0=
(/4+c/2)

, , 1,

II . ,

6I

<

e1+

(33)

e2-bat

le3-ba3

microslip-a

a1=sin(4ap-29a

p)+sin 2ap

a2=sln(4q ap-29ap)-sin

2ap

a3=cos (41ap-29)p)
e1=-cos(4q ap-23) 3)+cos(2ap-29)9)
-cos 2q
e2=cos(4ql ap-2Bap)-cos(2ap-2Bap)-sin
e3=-sin(4q ap-29ap)+sin(2qap-29) p)

microslip-R
Fig.

Discrete

system

2ap

b=tan-4a

of two microslips

(tan c-tan

o)

ircp

(31)

, 2

, .
,
, II ,

.
Pj(x)=ab{cdj(xi)efj()+1
dj(xab)cd()}d,(j,j=1,
, aj(xI),

j(xI)

II) (34)

(32), (33)

,
.
, 0

. c, (=1, ff)
d-d=1-x-1-,

, 3
, (22)

c c .

ab =tan-1-j, ca=cj

, j,j=f,
(29)

, (28)
C*e**

)C*R(),**=RT( )6**

(30)

. (31)

,
,
pseudotraction

r .


c)

. 2

'

(31)

={ba, ac,ac}T, P={adxxz}T

(Fig. 8 )

P-

E , r

. (31)

C*=RT(
b)

(27)

()

, c()

,
=R( )

j-j

,
. ,
- , 1II
,

, 7,
,

. ,

c , .

62

bat

-a1

-bat

a2

-bag

CLg

. ,

(32)

,
.

N0.

Fig.

Table

Finite

Model

element

mesh

parameters

for granular

used

in numerical

501/1-29,

materials

pp. 5564,

1994. 10

(a)

calculation

(b)

Fig. 10(a)

(b)Distributions of inaxiinuin shear strains

, 1 .
, , (=1,

E)

Evolution of normalized microsliplengths;

II ,
.

Table

2 .


Fig. 10(a) . Fig. 9 15

f=eca{ae+av(cad+da+3)tan0}

, 6

II

. ,

II ,

, , O,

(35)

. ,

. ,

- ,

. , fH=0

(c10)

. ,

. ,

. A, B, C

C{Axy+ab(ad+ac+er2)tan0}

Fig. 10(b) .

(36)

. 1,II

, .

, .

2
, .
(3)

, C

, Fig. 9

2 .

63

.
5.



.
,
.

.

.

.
, ,
, ,

. ,
( ,
(13)) ,
. ,
,
- ,

, ( )
,
.,
( , )
,

.

2) Rudnicki, J. W. and Rice, J. R.:


Conditions for the
localization of deformation in pressure-sensitive dilatant
materials, J. Mech. Phis. Solids, Vol.23, pp. 371-394,
1975.
3) Shi, Z.-H. and Horii, H.: Microslip model of strain localization in sand deformation, Mech. Mater., Vol.8,
pp. 89-102, 1989.
4)

:
, , Vo1.38A, pp. 351-359,
1992.

5) Okui, Y., Horii, H. and Akiyama, N.: A continuum


theoryfor solidscontainingmicrodefects,Int. J. Engng.
Sci., Vol. 31, No. S, pp. 735-749, 1993.
6) Sprunt, Eve S. and Brace,W. F.: Direct observation
of microcavities in crystalline rocks, Int. J. Rock Mech.
Min. Sci. Geomech.Abstr., Vol.ll, pp.139-150,1974.
7) Hadley, K.: Comparisonof calculatedand observed
crack densities and seismic velocities in Westerly
granite,
J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 81, No. 20, pp. 3484-3494, 1975.
8) Hallbauer,D. K., Wagner,H. and Cook, N. G. W.
Some observations concerning the microscopic and mechanicalbehaviourof quartzite specimensin stiff, triaxial compressiontests, Int. J. Rock Mech.Min. Sci.
Geomech. Abstr., Vo1. 10, pp. 713-726, 1973.
9) Horii, H. and Nemat-Nasser, S.: Brittle failure in coinpression: splitting, faulting and brittlr-ductile transition, Phil.Trans. R. Soc.Lond.,Vol.A, No.319,pp.337374,1986.
10) Horii, H. and Nemat-Nasser,S.: Overall moduli of
solids with microcracks: load-inducedanisotropy, J.
Mech.Phys. Solids, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 155-177, 1983.
11) Horii, H. and Nemat-Nasser, S.: Elastic fields of interacting inhomogeneities, Int. J. Solids Structures, Vol. 21,
No.7, pp.731-745,1985.
12) Kranz, R. L.: The effectsof confiningpressure and
stress differenceon static fatigueof granite, J. Geophys.
Res.,Vol.85, No.B4,pp. 1854-1866,1980.
13) Kranz, R. L.: Crack growth and developmentduring
creep of Barre granite, Int. J. Rock Mech.Min. Sci.
Geomech. Abstr., Vol. 16, pp. 23-35, 1979.
14) Atkinson,B. K.: Subcriticalcrackgrowth in geological
materials, J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 89, No. B6, pp. 40774114,1984.


1) Hill, R. and Hutchinson, J. W.: Bifurcation phenomena
in the plane tension test, J. Mech. Phis. Solids, Vol.23,
pp. 239-264, 1975.

A MICROMECHANICS-BASED
TION

CONTINUUM

(1994.

THORY

AND

ANALYSIS

2. 2A

OF LOCALIZA-

PHENOMENA
Yoshiaki OKUI, Hideyuki HORII and Narioki AKIYAMA
A continuum theory recently proposed by the authors is applied to creep failure of
hard rocks and short-term failure of granular materials. The governing equations of
the proposed theory are formulated through the homogenization of an elastic body with
many microdefcts. The constitutive relation of the present theory consists of the average
stress-strain relation and the evolution equation of microdefects. The main feature of
the theory is that the effect of interaction between microdefects is taken into account
in the evolution equation. A new field variable is introduced to take into account the
interaction effect and a governing equation for the new variable, which is an integral
equation, is derived. Numerical results presented here confirm that the theory reproduces
macroscopic failures induced by the localization of microdefects.

64