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Orange juice

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Orange juice (disambiguation).

Orange juice

A glass of pulp-free orange juice







Orange juice

Nutritional value per 248 g (1 cup)


468.6 kJ (112.0 kcal)





Dietary fiber












Vitamin A equiv.

25 g

Vitamin A

496 IU

Thiamine (B1)

0.223 mg

Riboflavin (B2)

0.074 mg

Niacin (B3)

0.992 mg

Vitamin B6

0.099 mg

Folate (B9)

74 g

Vitamin B12

0.00 g

Vitamin C

124.0 mg

Vitamin D

0.0 IU

Vitamin E

0.10 mg

Vitamin K

0.2 g


27 mg


0.50 mg


27 mg


42 mg


496 mg


2 mg


0.12 mg

Other constituents


Link to USDA Database entry


g = micrograms mg = milligrams

IU = International units

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for

Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Orange juice is the liquid extract of the fruit of the orange tree, extracted by squeezing oranges. It
comes in several different varieties, including blood orange. In American English, the beverage
name may be abbreviated as "OJ".
Due to the importance of oranges to the economy of the state of Florida, "the juice obtained from
mature oranges of the species Citrus sinensis and hybrids thereof" was adopted as the official
beverage of Florida[1] in 1967.[2]Orange juice (along with grapefruit juice) is offered to every visitor at
each of the state's five Florida Welcome Centers. Commercial orange juice with a long shelf life is
made by drying and later rehydrating the juice, or by concentrating the juice and later adding water
to the concentrate. Prior to drying, the juice may also be pasteurized and oxygen removed from it,
necessitating the later addition of a flavor pack, generally made from orange products.
The health value of orange juice is debatable. It has a high concentration of vitamin C, but also a
very high concentration of simple sugars, comparable to soft drinks such as colas.[3][4][5] As a result,
some government nutritional advice has been adjusted to encourage substitution of orange juice
with raw fruit, which is digested more slowly, and limit daily consumption.[6][7]


2Commercial orange juice and concentrate


2.1Frozen concentrated orange juice

2.2Not from concentrate

2.3Canned orange juice

2.4Freshly squeezed, unpasteurized juice

2.5Major orange juice brands


2.7Types of orange

3See also


5Further reading

6External links


A glass of orange juice with pulp

A cup serving of raw, fresh orange juice, amounting to 248 grams or 8 ounces, has 124 mg of
vitamin C (>100% RDI).[8] It has 20.8 g of sugars and has 112 Calories. It also
supplies potassium, thiamin, and folate.
Citrus juices contain flavonoids (especially in the pulp) that may have health benefits. Orange juice is
also a source of the antioxidant hesperidin. Because of its citric acidcontent, orange juice is acidic,
with a typical pH of around 3.5.[9]

UV 280 nm chromatogram after UHPLC separation of commercial orange juice, showing, amongst other
peaks, narirutin and hesperidin.

Commercial orange juice and concentrate[edit]

Frozen concentrated orange juice[edit]

Film clip showing the production and packaging of frozen orange juice concentrate.

Commercial squeezed orange juice is pasteurized and filtered before being evaporated under
vacuum and heat. After removal of most of the water, this concentrated juice, about 65% sugar by
weight, is then stored at about 10 F (12 C). Essences, Vitamin C, and oils extracted during the
vacuum concentration process may be added back to restore flavor and nutrition (see below).
When water is added to freshly thawed concentrated orange juice, it is said to be reconstituted.[10]
The product was developed in 1948 at the University of Florida's Citrus Research and Education
Center. Since, it has emerged as a commodity product, and futures contracts have traded in New
York since 1966. Options on FCOJ were introduced in 1985. From the late 1950s to the mid-1980s,
the product had the greatest orange juice market share, but not-from-concentrate juices surpassed
FCOJ in the 1980s.[11]

Not from concentrate[edit]

Orange juice that is pasteurized and then sold to consumers without having been concentrated is
labeled as "not from concentrate". Just as "from concentrate" processing, most "not from
concentrate" processing reduces the natural flavor from the juice. The largest producers of "not from
concentrate" use a production process where the juice is placed in aseptic storage, with the oxygen
stripped from it, for up to a year.
Removing the oxygen also strips out flavor-providing compounds, and so manufactures add a flavor
pack in the final step,[12] which Cooks Illustrated magazine describes as containing "highly
engineered additives." Flavor pack formulas vary by region, because consumers in different parts of
the world have different preferences related to sweetness, freshness and acidity.[13] According to the
citrus industry, the Food and Drug Administration does not require the contents of flavor packs to be
detailed on a product's packaging.[14]
One common component of flavor packs is ethyl butyrate, a natural aroma that people associate
with freshness, and which is removed from juice during pasteurization and storage. Cooks Illustrated
sent juice samples to independent laboratories, and found that while fresh-squeezed juice naturally
contained about 1.19 milligrams of ethyl butyrate per liter, juice that had been commercially
processed had levels as high as 8.53 milligrams per liter.[13]

Canned orange juice[edit]

A small fraction of fresh orange juice is canned. Canned orange juice retains Vitamin C much better
than bottled juice.[15] The canned product loses flavor, however, when stored at room temperature for
more than 12 weeks.[16] In the early years of canned orange juice, the acidity of the juice caused the
juice to have a metallic taste. In 1931, Dr. Philip Phillips developed a flash pasteurization process
that eliminated this problem and significantly increased the market for canned orange juice. [17]

Freshly squeezed, unpasteurized juice[edit]

Mexico City merchant with his freshly squeezed orange juice, March 2010

Fresh-squeezed, unpasteurized juice is the closest to consuming the orange itself. This version of
the juice consists of oranges that are squeezed and then bottled without having any additives or
flavor packs inserted. The juice is not subjected to pasteurization. Fresh squeezed orange juice has
a typical shelf life of 12 days.[citation needed]

Major orange juice brands[edit]

In the U.S., the major orange juice brand is Tropicana Products (owned by PepsiCo Inc.), which
possesses nearly 65%[citation needed] of the market share. Tropicana also has a large presence in Latin
America, Europe, and Central Asia. Competing products include Minute Maid (of The Coca-Cola
Company) and Florida's Natural (a Florida-based agricultural cooperative that differentiates itself
from the competition by being locally owned and using only Florida grown oranges; Tropicana
and Simply Orange use a mixture of domestic and foreign stock). In Australia, Daily Juice (owned
by National Foods) is a major brand of partially fresh, partially preserved, [18] orange juice.
In the United Kingdom, major orange juice brands include Del Monte and Princes.

Some producers add citric acid or ascorbic acid to juice beyond what is naturally found in the
orange. Some also include other nutrients. Often, additional vitamin C is added to replace that
destroyed in pasteurization. Additional calcium may be added. Vitamin D, not found naturally in
oranges, may be added as well. Sometimes Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oils are added to orange
juice.[19] Low-acid varieties of orange juice also are available.
FCOJ producers generally use evaporators to remove much of the water from the juice in order to
decrease its weight and decrease transportation costs.[20]Other juice producers
generally deaerate the juice so that it can be sold much later in the year.[21]
Because such processes remove the distinct aroma compounds that give OJ a fresh-squeezed
taste, producers later add back these compounds in a proprietary mixture, called a "flavor pack", in
order to improve the taste and to ensure a consistent year-round taste. [20][22] The compounds in the
flavor packs are derived from orange peels.[22] Producers do not mention the addition of flavor packs
on the label of the orange juice.[22]

Types of orange[edit]

A glass of blood orangejuice

Common orange juice is made from the sweet orange. Different cultivars (e.g., Valencia, Hamlin)
have different properties, and a producer may mix cultivar juices to get a desired taste. Orange juice
usually varies between shades of orange and yellow, although some ruby red or blood orange
varieties are a reddish-orange or even pinkish. This is due to different pigmentation in ruby red

The blood orange is a mutant of the sweet orange. Blood orange juice is popular in Italy, but may be
hard to find elsewhere. The Mandarin orange and varieties clementine and tangerine, are good for
juice, and are often used for sparkling juice drinks.
Recently, many brands of organic orange juices have become available on the market.

See also[edit]

Drink portal

List of juices


Jump up^ "2012 Florida Statutes, Chapter 15.032". The Florida Senate. Retrieved 26
August 2012.


Jump up^ "Florida Memory, State beverage of Florida". Florida Department of State, Division
of Library and Information Services. Retrieved 26 August 2012.


Jump up^ Saner, Emine. "How fruit juice went from health food to junk food". The Guardian.
Retrieved 25 September 2016.


Jump up^ Walter, Peter. "Fruit juice should not be part of your five a day, says government
adviser". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 September 2016.


Jump up^ Quinn, Sue. "Should I still drink fruit juice?". BBC Good Food. BBC. Retrieved 25
September 2016.


Jump up^ Philipson, Alice. "Wean yourself off orange juice, says government health
tsar". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 25 September 2016.


Jump up^ "Water, drinks and your health". NHS Choices. National Health Service.
Retrieved 25 September 2016.


Jump up^ "Nutrition Facts and Analysis for Orange juice, raw".
Retrieved 11 November 2012.


Jump up^ "Acids". British Soft Drinks Association. Archived from the original on 26 August
2006. Retrieved 12 September 2006.


Jump up^ To prevent off-flavor, distilled or reverse osmosis filtered water should be used
when reconstituting frozen juice, devoid of minerals, chlorine, etc.


Jump up^ "Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice" (PDF). ICE Futures US. 2012. Retrieved 11
November 2012.


Jump up^ Walker, Andrea (14 May 2009). "Ask an Academic: Orange Juice". The New
Yorker. Retrieved 29 July 2011.


^ Jump up to:a b "Taste Test: Orange Juice". Cooks Illustrated. MarchApril 2014. Retrieved 23
November 2014.


Jump up^ Donaldson James, Susan. "California Woman Sues OJ Giant Tropicana Over
Flavor Packs". ABC News. Retrieved 30 January 2012.


Jump up^ Journal of Food Science and Technology - Google Boeken. 1
January 2004. Retrieved 11 November 2012.


Jump up^ Yiu H. Hu, Jzsef Barta Handbook of Fruits and Fruit Processing. Blackwell
Publishing, 2006. p. 327.


Jump up^ Dickinson, Joy (7 January 2007). "Doc Phillips: The Real Deal". Orlando Sentinel.
Retrieved 15 January 2014.


Jump up^ "Statement from National Foods". 5 July 2010.

Retrieved 13 November 2012.


Jump up^ "New York Times Article on Orange Juice Additives". 17
September 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2012.


^ Jump up to:a b Flores, Alfredo (15 September 2004). "Making Orange Juice Taste Even
Better". Agricultural Research Service. United States Department of Agriculture.





^ Jump up to:a b c Kay, Liz F (17 October 2010). "Don't Get Squeezed When Shopping for
Juice". The Baltimore Sun.