# 88-324—Mid-Term Test– Summer 2007

Name: 1.(30) Given a diﬀerential equation y + 3y + 2y = r(t), y(0) = a, y(0) = b, ¨ ˙ ˙ where a and b are constants,

Student Number:

a)(10). Assuming that the input signal is a unit step signal: r(t) = 1(t), ﬁnd the expression of the output signal y(t). Note that s2 Y (s) − as − b + 3sY (s) − 3a + 2Y (s) = R(s), Y (s) = If r(t) = 1(t), then R(s) = 1/s, so Y (s) = So 1 1 y(t) = (2a + b − 1)e−t + (a + b + )e−2t + . 2 2 b)(10). Find the ﬁnal value of lim y(t) when r(t) = δ(t), i.e., a unit impulse signal.
t→∞

1 as + b + 3a − 2 R(s) 2 + 3s + 2 s s + 3s + 2

1 2a + b a + b 1 1 1 as + b + 3a + = + + − + s2 + 3s + 2 s(s2 + 3s + 2) s+1 s + 2 2s s + 1 2(s + 2)

If r(t) = δ(t), then we have R(s) = 1. So Y (s) = 1 as + b + 3a + , s2 + 3s + 2 s2 + 3s + 2
t→∞

lim y(t) = lim sY (s) = 0
s→0

c)(10). Assuming that a = b = 0, show that the unit-impulse response in (b) is the derivative of the unit-step response in (a). Note that in this case, for r(t) = δ(t), we have Y (s) = s2 1 1 1 = − y(t) = e−t − e−2t + 3s + 2 s+1 s+2

and for r(t) = 1(t), we can obtain from (a) that 1 1 y(t) = −e−t + e−2t + 2 2 Obviously, 1 1 d (−e−t + e−2t + ) = e−t − e−2t . dt 2 2

2.(30) Given an electric network shown in the following Figure:

The equations describing this network are stated as follows: R1 i1 + L d(i1 − i2 ) = v, dt d(i2 − i1 ) =0 dt

R2 i2 + vc + L dvc , dt

i2 = C

where v(t) is a voltage source. a)(15). Derive transfer functions from v(s) to i1 (s). Applying Laplace transformation to the equations above, we obtain R1 i1 (s) + sL(i1 (s) − i2 (s)) = v(s), So
i1 (s) v(s)

R2 i2 (s) + vc (s) + sL(i2 (s) − i1 (s)) = 0, i2 (s) = sCvc (s)

can be solved as

LCs2 + R2 Cs + 1 i1 (s) = v(s) (R1 + R2 )LCs2 + (R1 R2 C + L)s + R1 b)(15). Let v(s) = 1/s. Find the steady state current limt→∞ i1 (t) and limt→∞ i2 (t). Now if v(s) = 1/s, i.e., v(t) = 1(t), then i1 (s) = So
t→∞

LCs2 + R2 Cs + 1 s [(R1 + R2 )LCs2 + (R1 R2 C + L)s + R1 ] 1 R1

lim i1 (t) = lim si1 (s) =
s→0 1 R1 ,

Note that, if i1 (∞) = limt→∞ i2 (t) = 0.

then vR1 (∞) = 1 = v(t). Therefore vL (∞) = 0 and hence

3.(40) A armature-controlled dc servomotor system is shown in the following ﬁgure

where Ra = 1Ω, La ≈ 0, ke = kt = 0.5, n = N1 = 20, JL = 100kg − m2 , and DL = 100N − m − N2 s/rad. This system can be described by following equations: 1 ˙ ¨ ˙ ea = Ra ia + ke θm , Tm = kt ia , θL = nθm, Tm = JL θL + DL θL n where Tm is the torque generated by the motor. ˙ a)(20). Find transfer function model for this electro-mechanical system from ea to θL and θL . Note that, after implementing the values given, the Laplace transformed equations are ea (s) = ia (s) + 0.5sθm (s), Tm = 0.5ia (s), θL (s) = 20θm (s), Therefore,
θL (s) ea (s)

1 Tm = 100s2 θL (s) + 100sθL (s) 20

and

˙ θL (s) ea (s)

can be solved as

˙ 1 θL (s) 1 θL (s) = , = ea (s) s(4000s + 4000.025) ea (s) 4000s + 4000.025 b)(20). Let ea (t) = 1(t)v be a unit-step testing signal. Find the motor shaft angle θL (t). If ea (t) = 1(t)v, then ea (s) = 1/s. Note that 4000.025/4000 ≈ 1. So θL (s) = and θL (t) = 1 1 −t 1 t− + e . 4000 4000 4000 s2 (4000s 1 1 1 1 = + − 2 + 4000.025) 4000s 4000s 4000(s + 1)