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Sociology Examination Review

Unit 1: Introduction to Anthropology, Psychology, and Sociology

1.Social Sciences:

Anthropology: examines the development of the human species and

cultures throughout the world. A human culture consists of the ways of
living in a group of people including their traditions, inventions, and
conventions. Many anthropologists try to live with the cultural group
they are studying.

Sociology: looks at the development and structure of human society

and how it works. Sociology examines how people act in social

Psychology: study of peoples feelings, thoughts, and personality

development. The goal is to discover the underlying triggers or causes
of human behavior. Many psychologists look at past experiences or try
to link animal behavior to the human mind.

2.Methodological Approaches:

Positivist: predicts and tests theories of behavior by testing

hypothesis. Quantitative research through experiments and surveys.

Interpretive: tests ground theories to provide an adequate reflection

of peoples experience of the social world.

Critical: to improve the social conditions of the oppressed. Tends to

study society more than individuals.

3. Definitions:

Hawthorne Effect: subject changes behavior when researcher is

Pygmalion Effect: gearing your study for a predetermined outcome.
Kafkaesque Effect: social subject is endangered.
Anecdotal Evidence: research based on one or a few peoples story.

4. Schools of thought in Anthropology:

Functionalism: looks at the social function of institutions (school,
health care, etc.). Anthropologist-functionalists look to explain the role
but not judge the customs.

Structuralism: human mind works according to binary opposites.

Anthropologists look to explain rules about what items are good and

Cultural Materialism: technological and economic factors are the

most important in molding society.

5. 3 Levels of Society According to Cultural Materialists:

L3: Superstructure (music, art, recreation) - Members behavior and

mental processes
L2: Structure (social classes, distribution of wealth) Domestic
economy and political mechanisms.
L1: Infrastructure (material factors) Methods to ensure human
reproduction and to produce goods and services to survive and

6. Parts of the mind according to Psychoanalytic Theory (the

unconscious mind has more influence than the conscious on our
personality and behavior):

Id encourages us to seek physical satisfaction

Superego prompts us to do moral thing
Ego referee between the two, deal with external reality

7. Elements of Schools of Thought in Psychology:

Psychoanalytic Theory: the unconscious mind has more influence

than the conscious on our personality and behavior.

Behaviorism: By identifying factors that motivate human behavior,

psychologists can predict, control and treat people with problems.

Learning Theory: When humans observe behavior they are more

likely to practice it.
8. Elements of Schools of Thought in Sociology:

Symbolic Interactionism: brain intervenes between what we see and

how we act (attach meanings to actions).

Functionalism: to understand society we must know how society

works to meet its members needs.

Neo-Marxism: economic power which is the basis of political power

and key to understanding societies.

Inconclusionism: Sociologists must recognize the ethnic minorities

within societies by studying the experiences of all ethnic groups and
rejecting the urge to judge through the eyes of the mainstream
culture and society.

9.Nature: an inherited ability or personality trait.

Nurture: taught through experience.

10. The correlation between learning and tension is that a certain

amount of stress is needed in order to be productive.

11. The Stanford Prison Study of 1971 revealed that living in an

environment with no clocks, no view of the outside world and minimal
sensory stimulation results in disorganized thinking, acute emotional
disturbance, uncontrollable crying and rage, etc. The psychological
consequences of stripping, delousing and shaving heads made the
prisoners feel humiliated and emasculated. The guards got used to
having power and didnt want to give it up. The superintendent
became too involved and did not want to end the study.

12. By-stander Effect: when people want to maintain self preservation.

They do this because they dont want to move outside of their comfort

13. 4 Types of Neuroses:

Anxiety Neuroses fear that dreadful things will happen, usually

accompanied by anxiety attacks, pounding heart, faintness,
numbness, etc.
Hysterical Neuroses helps people escape form their anxiety caused
by their inner conflict.

Phobias extreme fears of certain objects or situations (out of

proportion to the dangers involved) that interfere with a persons life.

Obsession and Compulsion persistent, unwanted, thought that

comes from some sort of anxiety. Person may know fear is
unreasonable, but cant get rid of it.

14. 3 Types of Psychoses:

Organic Psychoses result of damage to the brain tissue from injury,

untreated syphilis, long-term heavy use of drugs and alcohol.

Manic Depression experience extreme mood changes far beyond

normal, confused and aggressive behavior.

Schizophrenia multiple personalities. Some withdraw themselves

completely; lose interest in the world and experience hallucinations,
delusions and sometimes bizarre behavior.

15. Social Scientists *


Franz Boaz: Pioneer of Cultural Anthropological Culture, not biology

determines human nature.
Louis and Mary Leakey: Pioneers of physical anthropology.
Margaret Mead: Asserted that gender roles are not universal.


Sigmund Freud: Father of psychology and psycho-analysis.

Harry Harlow: Importance of comfort and contact more important
than food.
Ivan Pavlov: Studied relationship between stimuli and response.


Karl Marx: Wrote Communist Manifesto. Conflict theorist.

Emilie Durkheim: Wrote Suicide. Functionalist.
Max Weber: Wrote Politics as Vocation. Warned about powers of
charismatic leadership and the shackles of the iron cage of

Unit 2: Approaches to Wellness in Society

1. Methods whereby you could assess the wellness of society:

Information records

2. Definitions:

Social Cohesion: the togetherness of a society.

Social Mores: the behaviors regarded as essential to the welfare and
survival of a society.
Social Folkways: customs and conventional behaviors.
Caregiver burden: stresses associated with care giving.
Burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced
personal accomplishment caused largely by work-related stress.
Morbidity: illness rate.

3.Mentalities Surrounding Approaches to Canadian Healthcare System:

Intervention Model: says we dont need to worry about our health

because doctors will be able to fix us.
Promotion Model: we must adopt healthy lifestyles.
Cult of Liberty:
2-Tier System: In US only elderly and very poor have access to free

4.Approaches to Wellness:


Look at domestic-scale cultures, declining social cohesion and growing

stress which lead to disease. When the gap between rich and poor
becomes wider, social cohesion breaks down and morbidity increases.
Anthropologists look at health of industrialized societies. Tribal
cultures tend to be in excellent physical condition and have high-fiber
low-fat diets as well as low population densities. They are isolated
from viruses of the outside world.


Sociologists examine the ways in which social structures, allocation of

resources and social practices influence overall health. Canadians lead
physically inactive lives with no cardio, steady intake of fast food and
use tobacco and alcohol. 50% of all premature deaths in Canada are
caused by unhealthy lifestyles. (Models of wellness)


Clinical psychology looks at wellness in terms of society and assumes

that individual factors rather than larger societal factors contribute to
why people become ill. Frequently work in association with hospitals
and mental hospitals.

5. 5 Barriers to Health Care:

Cost: The cost of health care in Canada is rising. In 1960, it was only
5% of the GDP; in 2000, it was 9.1% of the GDP. This will continue to
rise due to the boomers and rising obesity rates.
Health Literacy: Basic reading and comprehension skills to
understand and treat diagnosis. Professionals believe many do not
have a high health literacy rate. Some people do not want to go to the
doctor for fear that they appear unintelligent.
Facilities for People with Disabilities: different treatment/healthcare,
attitude barrier.
Income: Lower income benefit less from education and healthcare.
People in higher income tend to be healthier. People in higher income
tend to be healthier. People in bottom 5% in years before retirement
are twice as likely to die before 70. High income individuals live an
extra 12 years.
2-Tier System: In US only elderly and very poor have access to free

6. 3 Ethical Issues Around Modern Medicine:

Blood Supply: Canadian Red Cross agency most responsible for
collecting, storing, and distributing blood products. In mid 1980s, 1200
Canadians contracted HIV from blood supplies and more contracted
Hepatitis C. Canadian Blood Services took over CRC in 1998 funded by
the government but independent of them.
Organ Harvesting: In Ontario, can sign Multiple Organ Retrieval and
Exchange card which gives consent to doctors to harvest tissues and
organs upon death. Who owns organs upon death?
Medical Research: A private company cloned (asexual reproduction)
a human embryo in hopes to rid the world of illness and pain. What
constitutes a live human?

7. Changing Social Mores in Canada:

Tolerance for Violence: Social Commentators worry that there is a

growing tolerance for violence and provides poor role models for
youth. By the time children are 12, they have seen 12 000 violent
deaths on TV. Laval University Study suggests that children TV shows
have 68% more violent scenes that adult shows. Defenders say
violence is fake. Psychologists suggest that violence is a learned
Attitude towards Recreational Drugs: Current drug policies based on
3 misconceptions: Drug use leads to criminal behavior, addiction, and
adolescents are pressured to use drugs.
Work-Related Stress: Conservatives (right wing) believe that the
government should be less involved with the economy and should be
privatized. Social mores have suggested that people are to work
longer and harder than 20 years ago. Stress is caused by persistent
mental pressure and lack of personal control. People are getting sick
often, less time with family, and cause concern for the healthcare
Aboriginal Health Initiatives: Western views see human body as a
machine and illness as a breakdown and are to fix this part of the
machine. First nations suggest that all parts of human life must be
healed in an illness (physical, emotional, social, and spiritual).

8. 5 Factors that Influence Parenthood:

Marriage: leads people to want children

Family values: many siblings want more kids
Divorce: doesnt influence want for children (will affect people in
their 20s if divorce of parents happened when they were older than
Religion: religious beliefs happiness = marriage + family
Education: women: more educated, less children (opposite for men)

9. Eriksons 8 Stages of Development:

10. Aging has been re-defined by:

People are retiring earlier

People are living longer, therefore retirement is longer
People need more money to retire, therefore may take on another
People are more active (doing more activities) after retirement

Unit 3: Canadian Societal Change

1. Definitions:

Dependency Load: a measure of the portion of the national

population that is not actively employed (frequently including children,
youth, and seniors).
Hyperculture: Refers to the staggering rate of change in modern
technological studies.
Alienation: A feeling that one does not share in the major values and
goals of society.
Future Shock: Disorientation brought on by technological
advancement, creating a sense that the future has arrived
Conformity: Pressures in society to have people accept dominant
beliefs (ex. democracy in Canada).
Technosis: An overblown attachment to or dependency on
Cognitive Consistency: The desire to avoid attitudes that conflict
with each other, which generally results in the ability to live more
satisfying lives.
Informational Influence: The human desire to accept information
that another admired person tells us is valid.
Cognitive Dissonance: People try to avoid conflicts between what
they think and what they do.
Normative Influence: The pressure to conform to the positive
expectations of others.
Acculturation: Prolonged contact between two cultures, during which
time they interchange symbols, beliefs, and customs.
LICO: The poverty line.
Diffusion: The spreading of ideas, methods, symbols, and tools from
one culture to another.
Human Capital Theory: The more you invest in yourself, the more
you will get in return.
Inertia: Resistance to change.
Cultural Lag: The view, that while some members of society adapt to
technological innovation, others lag behind the new discovery.

2. 3 Conditions for Social Change:

Leadership: Webers term to describe a leader characterized by

large vision, magnetic style, having strong support and extraordinary
Role of the Elites: Group of power and influential people who create
A Population Ready for Change: Vision of leaders must be the same
as the general population and values learned in adolescence/early
adulthood usually stick with us.

3. 6 Stages of Behavior Modification:

Pre-contemplation: denial and refusal

Contemplation: questioning
Preparation: investigation
Action: commitment
Maintenance (6 months after action): transition
Termination (only 20% of changes reach this stage): completion

4. 3 Impediments for Social Change:

Traditional Cultural values: Move toward modernity vs. a traditional

worldview (adhere to old practices).
The Expense: Governments can only support programs that the
general population is willing to pay for.
Social Science Inquiry: Often we use participant observation
technique where researcher is submerged into culture and feels
compassion for sample group and is therefore biased.
5. Alienation and Conformity Promotes Social Change by:

Alienation can motivate people to inspire social change (ex.

womens movement)
Conformity suggests that people accept practices that individuals
know are wrong due to their desire to fit in

6. Wage Gap Between Men and Women:

Women take pregnancy leave

Men tend to do more strenuous work that likely pays more
Men may have a higher education
Women are home more and tend to family and home

7. Ideas Surrounding Welfare and Social Assistance in Canada:

Government believes social assistance is a disincentive

In 1999, welfare families only received 46% of amount needed to
avoid poverty

8. Systemic Racism: An existing system that favors one or some

groups over others in terms of hiring, benefits, and promotions.

Overt Racism: Slap in your face discrimination: ex. not hiring someone
because they are African American.

9. Dominant Paradigm: Belief that humans have a duty to create

material wealth to make this and future generations richer, and a right
to dominate, change, or even corrupt the natural world in order to do

Alternative Environmental Paradigm: Belief that society must place a

higher importance on non-material values, encourage stronger
communities built on better personal relationships, and act with a
greater respect for nature.

10.Social Transformation of Society and how we reached the Post-

Industrialized Era:

First Revolution: Domestication (of plants and animals)

Horticultural Society Pastoral Society

Second Revolution: Agricultural (invention of plough)

Agricultural Society
Third Revolution: Industrial (invention of steam engines)

Industrial Society
Fourth Revolution: Information (invention of microchip)

Postindustrial Society

11. Costs and Benefits of Biotechnology and GM crops:

Industrialization led to more mechanization of farming industry
Decreases small family farms and large corporate farms took over
Farming has become increasingly computerized
New methods of food production are needed to feed the growing
global population
42 GM crops have been approved by health Canada
No conclusive evidence has been done to study the long-term
effects of these foods on human health

12. Rise of Suburbia and Implications:

Limited construction during the depression and WWII resulted in

major construction outside urban areas
Bungalows, curved streets, land set aside for parks and schools
Some grew out of control and police had trouble policing
Car became necessity, fast food, malls, drive-in movies
Women would meet during the day, night card parties or bowling,
Brownies and Scouts became popular
60% attended religious services, provincial laws forbade commercial
activity on Sunday

13. Impact of Retiring Boomers:

Echo kids will dominate the professional world

High dependency load makes it difficult for working population to
meet the needs of seniors and children, resulting in high taxes or
heavy borrowing
Many boomers depositing as much as 10% of their income into
pension plans. Feds want to see fewer people dependent upon
government pensions because people are now living 15-20 years
passed retirement.
Increased emphasis on healthier living and embarking on second
Young retired will begin to travel and participate in ecotourism and
soft outdoor activities.
Foote believes that main street shopping will be revived

Unit 4: Global Challenges of Change

1. Definitions:

Fertility: actual reproduction

Fecundity: ability to reproduce
Purdah: practice of confining women to their homes (for example in
Muslim countries)
Infertility: the inability of a couple to achieve a pregnancy after one
year of unprotected sexual intercourse
Stratification: the separation of a sample population into non-
overlapping groups based on a habitat or population characteristics
that can be divided into multiple levels
Proximate Detriments: the biological and behavioral factors through
which social, economic, and environmental variables affect fertility
Menarche: first menstrual cycle
Social Cognitive Theory of Prejudice: The process by which children
first learn race awareness, then either reject or form racial prejudices.
Relativism: relationship between self and society
Constancy: our perceptual world tends to remain the same despite
information which is contrary to our beliefs
Disembedding: people put their faith in systems, such as financial
and medical institutions
Unconscious Inference: term coined by German social scientist
Hermann von Helmholtz for the phenomenon of constancy
Selective Attention: the ability to focus on certain physical stimuli
and exclude others

2. Social Scientists:

Theodore Aldorno Identified characteristics of the opposite to the

tolerant personality, the authoritarian personality such people are
quick to judge things as either right or wrong, good or bad. They have
a low tolerance for ambiguity, are more prejudicial and are formed
during childhood, as a result of bigoted parenting.
Robert Cave
Jean Piaget Swiss philosopher, natural scientist, and
developmental psychologist known for his work studying children and
his theory of cognitive development.
John Ogbu Focuses on subordinate cultures, which he believes are
required to follow the norms of the white majority culture. Known for
his work on the relationship between language and identity among
African-Americans, known as Ebonics.
Lawrence Kohlberg American psychologist, famous for research in
moral education, reasoning, and development. He developed the
stages of moral development and extended Jean Piagets theory of
cognitive development.
Beverly Tatum Believes that it is important for people to engage in
conversation about race, even though it can seem to be an awkward
subject. We must strive to affirm our racial identity. Believes whites
must become aware that they enjoy subtle rewards and advantages
in society based on their visible identity.
Peggy MacIntosh Suggests that people of Anglo-European descent,
like her, carry an invisible, weightless knapsack of skin-colour
privileges that the bearer takes for granted. She made an
autobiographical list of 46 daily ways in which she experiences
unearned advantage because of her skin colour.
3. Variety of menstruation period across cultures:
In pre-industrialized societies, women have less protein in their diets
and lower calorie proteins in their diets than westerners do. Women
travel 12k or more on foot. This lifestyle results in menarche between
16 and 18 years of age.
Women then breast feed on demand, children born every 4 or 5
years until she reaches menopause at around 45.
Women in developed countries eat diet high in fat, protein in
calories, and experience very little physical stress from exercise and
exposure to elements. This has lowered age of menarche to 12 or 13
and delayed menopause to 50 or 55.
Women in western societies do not have the long period of infertility
associated with breast-feeding therefore the average women will
ovulate around 450 times over her lifetime which is 300 times more
than women in developing societies.
4. The 4 Types of Reproductive Technologies

Intrauterine Insemination: women are given fertility drugs for super

ovulation- increases risk for twins, etc.
In Virto Fertilization: in glass combining
Artificial Insemination by Donor: sperm bank
Surrogate Mothers: substitute women lends uterus

5. 5 Elements of Racism:

Stereotype False or generalized beliefs about a group of people that

result in categorizing members without regard for individual
difference. i.e. That black people are faster runners.

Prejudice A set of opinions, attitudes, and feelings that unfairly cast

a group and its members in a negative light without legitimate
reasons. i.e. In the book To Kill a Mockingbird, a man is wrongly tried
and convicted because of his race.

Discrimination Inequitable treatment of people based on their race,

gender, nationality, language, faith, or sexual orientation.

Systemic Discrimination Describes a system that favors one or some

groups over others in terms on hiring, benefits, promotions, and pay
increases. i.e. An individual isnt considered for hiring because of their

Genocide The most extreme form of systemic discrimination, by

which deliberate attempts are made by authorities at mass murder of
any national, ethnic, racial, or religious group. i.e. Holocaust, Ethnic

6. The 4 Characteristics of Hate Crime:

Hatred is intense and personal

Hate is based on prejudice and power
Hatred is directed at scapegoats for other frustrations
Genocide is an expression of national hatred

7. Approaches to Globalization:

Primarily, globalization is an economic force as products and

services are sold around the world thereby diffusion of cultural
elements occurs.
Because of the American Economic Juggernaut, globalization can be
synonymous with Americanization.
Culture of some peoples can be sidetracked by the heavy influence
of American popular culture E.G. Use of language, and trashy shows
and movies like Baywatch which introduces sleazy values,
consumerism, easy sex, etc. (making Islamic cultures resentful)


1950s introduced ideas of convergence: if all or most countries

became capitalist and industrial, differences would be eliminated. At
this time, sociologists assumed the shift toward capitalism would
benefit everyone.
Has created an element the global village connected by
telecommunications. With this we can gain a sense of global
awareness and global values.


Perception plays a major role on how we see ourselves as a nation.

Study of perception: what we perceive is not uniquely determined by
physical stimulation that we experience.
Humans use constancy, unconscious inference, and select of

8. Approaches to theories of globalization:

5 Anthropological Theories:

o Herbert Spencers work
o Regarded the colonial relationship between the west and what he
called backward region of the world as beneficial.
o This colonial relationship could benefit from capitalist and
entrepreneurial skills
Dependency Theory
o Says that lack of economic development in many developing
countries is because of the destructive nature of colonial relationship
that Spencer applauded.
World-system Theory
o Brought up by Immanuel Wallerstein
o Says that the basic relationship between West and Developing World
was established during economic times
o Rare from a country to move from exploited to dominant position
Neo-Marxian Theory
o Capitalism puts humans in direct competition with one another
therefore neo-Marxists suggest it is a negative force.
Globalization Theory
o Western Transnational corporations have gained control of global
trade therefore profits tend to flow from poor countries to rich

3 Sociological Theories:

Richard Robertson
o Introduced idea of relativism
o As world system changes, outlooks of both our society and ourselves
Anthony Giddens
o Feels that modern technologies unleashed globalization at
enormously fast rate
o Concept of disembedding: process where people put faith in
abstract, largely anonymous systems such as banks, Web Browsers
Martin Albrow
o Suggests that the end of the Cold War/communism was a huge
victory for capitalism that was the crucial catalyst in globalization