Problem 1
(a) Considering the following transport equation:
x R = (, +)
(1)
(2)
=x
x(t = 0) = x0
1
dx =
x
Z
dt
(3)
Further:
ln(x) = t + C
x(t) = et+C
x(t) = C1 et
(4)
C1 = x 0
x(t) = x0 e
(5)
(6)
Further:
u
(t) = u(x(t), t)
= ux
d
u(t)
= u(x(t), t)
dt
t
dx(t)
+ ut = 0
dt
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
For t > 0:
ut = 0 xet
xet = xet 0 xet
ux = 0 xet et = et 0 xet
ut + xux = xet 0 xet + xet 0 xet = 0
OK!
(12)
(13)
(14)
(b) We now consider (1), with q(x, t) = x. The characteristics are the
same as in (a), which is x(t) = x0 et .
u (x(t), t)
dx(t)
= ux
+ ut = x = x0 et
t
dt
(15)
Further:
u (x(t), t)
= x0 et
t
Z u(x(t),t)
Z t
du =
x0 et dt
u(x(0),0)
(16)
(17)
u (x(t), t) (x0 ) = x0 et 1
u (x(t), t) = (x0 ) + x0 et 1
u(x, t) = xet + x xet
(18)
(19)
(20)
OK!
(21)
For t > 0:
ux = 0 (xet ) et + 1 et
ut = 0 (xet ) xet + xet
t 0
ut + xux = xe (xe ) + xe
(22)
(23)
t 0
+ xe (xe ) + x xe
=x
OK!
(24)
(25)
(26)
Further:
u (x(t), t)
= x0
t
Z t
Z u(x(t),t)
du =
x0 dt
u(x(0),0)
(27)
(28)
u (x(t), t) = (x0 ) + x0 t
u(x, t) = xet + xet t
(29)
(30)
OK!
(31)
For t > 0:
ux = 0 (xet ) et + et t
ut = 0 (xet ) xet + xet t + xet
t 0
t xe
t 0
t = xet
ut + xux = xe (xe ) xe
+ xe (xe ) + xe
(32)
(33)
(34)
OK!
(35)
with
(36)
(37)
(38)
(39)
(40)
x
in (40)
(41)
(42)
Initial state, t = 0
Solution at t = 1
u(x, t)
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
e
2
e 3
d
dt
Then note
R5
0
u dx =
u2 dx
(44)
dV
=V
dt
Z V (x,t)
dV
= dt
V
Z t
dV
=
dt
V (x,0) V
0
V (x, t)
ln
=t
V (x, 0)
(45)
(46)
V (x, t) = et V (x, 0)
(47)
(x)2 dx
q.e.d
(48)
Which is valid for 0 t 1 (or as long as the solution does not cross
the right boundary at x = 5).
un
n j+1/2
xj
unj1/2
=0
(49)
By using an upwind scheme with flow from left towards right, we get
for the interior part, j = 2, ..., M 1:
unj+1/2 = unj
unj1/2
(50)
unj1
(51)
un+1
=unj xnj unj unj1 ,
j
t
x
(52)
(53)
un11/2
(54)
=0
t
x
(55)
(56)
(57)
n
n
n
un+1
M =uM + xM uM 1 ,
t
x
(58)
Note that this scheme only is valid as long as the solution does not
interfer with the right boundary at x = 5 (as unM +1/2 is set equal to
zero).
Problem 2
(a) We have:
(
() =
t + (u)x = qw
(u)t + (u2 )x + P ()x = ku g,
x [0, L]
(59)
Set the term (u)t + (u2 )x = 0, and rewrite the equation with regards
to u. This gives:
g 1
(60)
u = P ()x
k
k
Then insert (60) in the first equation, which gives:
g 1
t + P ()x
= qw
(61)
k
k
x
g2
=
P ()x + qw
(62)
t +
k x
k
x
As we see, this can be rewritten as:
t + f ()x = (d()P ()x )x + qw
Where:
f () =
g2
k
d() =
(63)
(64)
(b) Discrete scheme of (63) for the interior domain (j = 2, ..., M 1):
n+1
nj
j
n
n
Fj+1/2
Fj1/2
1
n
[dPx ]nj+1/2 [dPx ]nj1/2 + qw,j
t
x
x
(65)
For the transport term, we we use an upwind scheme with flow from
right towards left:
+
n
Fj+1/2
= f ()nj+1/2 f (nj+1/2 ) = f (nj+1 )
n
Fj1/2
= f ()nj1/2 f (nj1/2 ) = f (nj )
2
x
n
n
n
d(j ) + d(j1 )
P (j ) P (nj1 )
n
[dPx ]j1/2 =
2
x
The full scheme for the interior domain will then be:
n+1
= nj f (nj+1 ) f (nj )
j
P (nj+1 ) P (nj )
d(nj+1 ) + d(nj )
+
2
x
P (nj ) P (nj1 )
d(nj ) + d(nj1 )
n
+ t qw,j
2
x
Where: =
t
x
(c) We look at the equation P ()x = ku g, where P ()x is the pressure gradient, ku is the friction term, and g is the hydrostatic
contribution. We note that the term g has a more or less constant
contribution to the pressure gradient, while the friction term is the one
that changes when we change the pump rate/fluid velocity.
1st case: We see that u is increasing with time. This gives P ()x a
more negative value. With a fixed pressure on top, a more negative
pressure gradient will give a higher bottom hole pressure.
2nd case: Here we see that u is increasing even more than in the first
case, thus making the value of P ()x even more negative. With a fixed
pressure on top, this gives an even higher bottom hole pressure than
in the first case.
3rd case: Here we see that u is decreasing with time. Fluid is taken
out at bottom. This gives P ()x a less negative value, and with a fixed
pressure on top, we get a lower bottom hole pressure than before.
(d) The effect of sound velocity, al on convergence towards a stationary
solution:
As al increases, pressure waves will propagate faster, thus making the
system reach a stationary state more quickly. A lower value of al will
decrease the speed of the pressure waves, thus it will take more time
to reach a stationary state. We can say that a high value for al is the
same as a little compressible fluid, while a fluid with low al is more
compressible. As we know, we will reach a stationary solution more
quickly the less compressible the fluid is.
(e) First we find an expression for P ()x by deriving the linear pressure
law:
dP () d
P ()x =
= a2l x
(66)
d
dx
By inserting this term for P ()x into ( ) and rewrite for x , we get:
x =
g2 qL k
a2l
8
(67)
By defining a =
ql k
a2l
and b =
g
a2l
we get:
(a + b2 )
x =
(68)
dx
=
d
(a + b2 )
(69)
(70)
a+b
a+b2
(71)
du
u 2b
(72)
dx =
Z
du
2b
d =
1
dx =
2b
a+b
a+b2
du
u
(73)
(74)
(75)