You are on page 1of 15

Lab #4

Ventilatory Responses to Exercise and Lactate Accumulation during Exercise

Samantha C. Munoz
Kin 4312
Lab Section: Friday 2-4 pm
Fall 2016

INTRODUCTION
Homeostasis is known as the ability of the body or a cell to seek and maintain a
condition of equilibrium within its internal environment when dealing with external changes
(Biology-Online,2016). To achieve homeostasis during exercise, a number of variables are taken
into account. During exercise Ventilatory threshold (VT) and Lactate threshold (LT) are a key
component in keeping homeostasis and allowing the body to properly function without causing
damage to bodily functions and organs.
King states that ventilation is a way in which acid load is stimulated, and a component in
allowing the body to decrease the acid load (2016). The decrease in acid load is more commonly
known as the buffer system and allows for respiratory compensation when oxygen consumption
is increased dramatically. Different systems are necessary to accomplish a low insanity and high
intensity exercise. During a low intensity exercise the body is able to naturally buffer the
buildup of hydrogen to a sufficient homeostatic level (King,2016).
During a high intensity exercise, the body needs and uses a different combination of ways
to keep homeostasis. The production of H+ becomes greater then what the body can buffer and
causes a ventilatory threshold. The Ventilation threshold is better described as a time in which a
nonlinear shift is made in ventilation rate, and can also be known as Lactate threshold
(King,2016). Ventilation rate is increased to compensate for the change in pH and blood gases
such as partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2). With this
increase, the body is supplied with an increased amount of oxygen to alveoli and an increase
removal of CO2 from the body (King, 2016).
To conduct an examination of tidal volume, frequency of breathing, and pulmonary
ventilation during an incremental exercise test and submaximal constant-load test, two subjects
where obtained and observed. To increase the accuracy and understanding of lactate and the

affect it has on the body during exercise, a third subject was obtained to complete an incremental
protocol to measure lactate accumulation. Blood pressure, Heart rate, oxygen consumption
(VO2), Tidal Volume (TD), and Borgs Rate of Perceived Exertion Scale (RPE) where recorded
during each test. The purpose of the study was to grasp an understanding in how the body would
compensate during moderate to light phases of progressive testing, as well as how the ventilitory
drive would work during a test involving a quick change from rest to exercise. It was
hypothesized that LT and VT would happen at or around the same time if the power output was
consistent.

EQUIPMENT
Monark cycle ergometer
Heart Watch
Clock or Stopwatch
Breathing valve
Tubing
Nose-clips
Headpiece
Hand Tally-counter
Weather Watch
Borgs Rate of Perceived Exertion Scale (RPE scale)
EQUIPMENT PART 2
Monark Cycle Ergometer
2-way breathing valve
Hose
Nose Clips
Mouthpiece
Automated metabolic measurement system
Heart Watch
Micro centrifuge tubes
Autoject lactate analyzer
Gauze pads
Gloves
Weather Watch
Borgs Rate of Perceived Exertion Scale (RPE scale)
PROCEDURES
Progressive Test
1. Each group member was assigned responsibilities such as: subject, counting, respiration
rate, load on the cycle ergometer, recorder, time keeper, and safety.
2. Subject was connected to a breathing valve, headgear was used to support the weight of
the valve, mouthpiece and tubing. Nose clips where placed on the subject.
3. Subject rested for three minutes.
4. After the resting period was completed progressive test protocol began with the subject
pedaling at 50 RPM at a workload of 0.5 kp.
5. Each stage lasting only one minute and the workload increased by .5 kp each stage, until
subject reached volitional exhaustion.
6. Automated metabolic system measured VE, VO2, VCO2, and R. Ventilation rate also
known as respiratory frequency was calculated manually. Group member in charge of
counting, counted the number of times the expiratory flap moved
7. Measurement of ventilation (V) and frequency (f) where measured each minute of work
and recorded.

Constant-load Test
1. Each group member was assigned responsibilities such as: subject, counting, respiration
rate, load on the cycle ergometer, recorder, time keeper, and safety.
2. Subject was connected to a breathing valve, headgear was used to support the weight of
the valve, mouthpiece and tubing. Nose clips where placed on the subject.
3. Subject rested for three minutes.
4. After resting period was completed the constant load test began with the subject pedaling
at 900 kpm/min for six minutes.
5. Automated metabolic system measured VE, VO2, VCO2, and R. Ventilation rate also
known as respiratory frequency was calculated manually. Group member in charge of
counting, counted the number of times the expiratory flap moved
6. Following the six-minute period a three-minute recovery period was evaluated.
7. Gas collection, pulmonary ventilation, and frequency where measured each minute and
recorded.
PROCEDURES PART 2
1. Ambient temperature, relative humidity, and barometric pressure where measured and
recorded before testing began.
2. Subjects height and weight where obtained and recorded, and Monark cycle seat height
was corrected depending on the height of the subject.
3. An expired hose was attached to the metabolic system.
4. Expired tube was attached to a breathing valve fitted with a mouthpiece.
5. Prior to beginning cycle protocol, lab instructor obtained resting lactate sample from the
fingertip punctured with a lancet.
6. Subject began pedaling at 50 rpm throughout test.
7. Initial resistance was set at .5 kg.
8. Pedal output was changed ever three minutes by a resistance of .5 following, with heart
rate, lactate, VO2, and RPE being measured at the end of each stage.

RESULTS PART 2

Table 1. Male
Age:23
Room Temp: 22 C

Height (cm): 173


Weight (kg): 100
Barometric Temp: (mmHg): 667

Humidity (%): 24

Table 1 gives measurements recorded for subject one during the Progressive test.
310
66719.8
BTPS Correction Factor: 27322 X 66747
Ta:22
Barometric Temperature: 667
PH2O:19.8
TV: V E / F
VE(BTPS)= VE(ATPS) x BTPS Correction Factor
1 lb=.45 Kg
1 ft.=30.48 cm
Table 2. Male
Age:25
Room Temp: 23 C

Height (cm): 177.8


Weight (kg): 105
Barometric Temp: (mmHg): 667

Humidity (%): 25

Table 2 gives measurements recorded for subject one during the constant-load test.
310
66719.8
BTPS Correction Factor: 27323 X 66747
Ta:23
Barometric Temperature: 667
PH2O:19.8
TV: V E / F
VE(BTPS)= VE(ATPS) x BTPS Correction Factor

1 lb=.45 Kg
1 ft.=30.48 cm
RESULTS PART 2
Table 3. Male
Ambient Temperature: 22
Resting Lactate:7.5

Age:22
Height:177.8
Weight:127
Barometric Temperature:668 Relative Humidity:36

Table 3 gives measurements recorded for subject three during lactate accumulation during
exercise test.
310
66719.8
BTPS Correction Factor: 27323 X 66747
Ta:23
Barometric Temperature: 667
PH2O:19.8
R= VCO2/VO2
VE(BTPS)= VE(ATPS) x BTPS Correction Factor
Resistance ( KP ) x 50 rpm x 6 m
Power (Watts) =
6.12
1 lb=.45 Kg
1 ft.=30.48 cm

FIGURES PART 1

VT

Figure 1. Displays correlation between ventilation and work rate during the progressive testing.

Figure 2. Depicts the correlation between frequency and work rate during progressive testing.

Figure 3. Displays the correlation between Tidal volume and work rate during progressive
testing.

Rest

Figure 4. Depicts the correlation between frequency and time during the constant load test for
subject two.

Frequency vs. Work Rate for Constant-Load test


40
35
30
25

Frequency (br/min)

20

Subject 2

15
10
5
0

Rest
period
8

10

12

Time (min)

Figure 5. Displays the correlation between frequency and time during the constant load test for
subject two.

Rest
period

Figure 6. Displays the correlation between tidal volume and time during the constant-load test
for subject two.
FIGURES PART 2

LT

Figure 7. Depicts the correlation of power output and lactate for subject three as well as the
Lactate Threshold.

V
T

Figure 8. Depicts the correlation between power output and ventilation for subject three as well
as ventilatory threshold
DISCUSSION
The purpose of the study was to grasp an understanding in how the body would
compensate during moderate to light phases of progressive testing, as well as how the ventilation
drive would work during a test involving a quick change from rest to exercise. It was
hypothesized that LT and VT would happen at or around the same time if the power output was
consistent. To accurately see if LT and VT would occur at or around the same time, graphs were
made to get a visual of the differences. Frequency, tidal volume, and lactate were also graphed to
see the comparison between each when measured with power and time.
Subject one showed a normal steady increase in ventilation which should be seen when
the exercise test is progressive. During a progressive test, the bodys natural buffering system
allows for a smooth increase in ventilation rate, because the body is able to keep up with the rate
of H+ production. Through a low intensity exercise, the onset of oxygen deficit increases
gradually, decreasing the chances of a nonlinear shift in ventilation at an early part of testing.
(Powers & Howley, 2012).

Subject two on the other hand had a different reaction with the constant-load test.
Ventilation rate increased dramatically following the onset of exercise. King explains the
reasoning for this by saying a high intensity exercise causes pH levels, PO2, and PCO2 levels to
decrease rapidly and using ventilation to balance the acid in the body to allow for homeostasis
(2016) Subject three gives a representation of why VT and LT are commonly associated, this is
because VT and LT usually happen around the same time. This is because LT accumulates at the
same rate as oxygen consumption and VT is a direct representation of oxygen consumption.
In summary, Subject one and two showed why ventilation rates during different exercise
would be drastically different associated to power. Subject three proved the hypothesis that LT
and VT would happen at the same due to oxygen consumption being a common factor. The study
also went to prove that LT and VT is a good measurement of how the body is doing in keep
homeostasis during exercise.

QUESTION
1. Plot Ventilation vs. work rate, frequency vs. work rate, and tidal volume vs. work rate for the
progressive test.
Refer to Figures 1, 2, and 3
2. Locate the Ventilatory Threshold on your graph. Label.
Refer to Figure 1
3. Plot ventilation, frequency and tidal volume vs. time for the constant-load test, including the
recovery period.
Refer to Figures 4, 5, and 6
4. If the Ph, PO2. AND PCO2 of arterial blood do not change during the light to moderate phase
of the progressive test, what are the signals to the respiration center that drive breathing in
proportion to the work load?
The signals that would be necessary to complete the correct actions would be the
efferent and afferent receptors which would allow the body to increase the rate
of ventilation compared to that of the work load.
5. The ventilation changed quickly from rest to exercise and again, from exercise to recovery
in the constant-load test. What kind of ventilatory drive could explain these quick
changes?
Feedback receptors are the reason the body is able to quickly change
ventilation between rest and exercise. It allows to go from no power output to a
whole lot in a matter of seconds and gives the body the necessary ventilatory
drive.
QUESTIONS PART 2
1. Graph power output and lactate, label LT.
Refer to figure 7
2. Graph power output and ventilation, label VT.
Refer to figure 8
3. At what power output did LT occur?
Lactate threshold occurred at 100 Watts of power output.

4. What was the oxygen consumption at LT?


Lactate Threshold occurred at 7.88mM of oxygen consumption.
5. At what power output did the ventilator threshold occur?
Ventilatory Threshold occurred at 100 Watts of power output.
6. Compare the power output at LT and the power output at VT. Were these values similar?
Explain your findings/
The values where at a similar power output, this is a response that is normal
since lactate and ventilation threshold should be happening at the same time. This is
due to LT accumulating at the same rate as oxygen consumption. Since LT was
compared to oxygen consumption it gave comparable results.

References
Biology-Online. (2016, September 24). Homeostasis - biology-online dictionary. Retrieved
November 11, 2016, from biology online, http://www.biologyCaterini, J. E., Duffin, J., & Wells, G. D. (2016). Limb movement frequency is a significant
modulator of the ventilatory response during submaximal cycling exercise in
humans. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 220, 10-16.

King, G. A. (2016). Kinesiology 4312 exercise physiology laboratory Manuel (Fall 2016).
El Paso, TX: Paper Chase.

Powers, S.K., & Howley, E.T. (2012). Exercise physiology: Theory and application to fitness
and performance (8th ed.). New York; McGraw-Hill Education- Europe.