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Gap Analysis of Kandla Site with respect to Vopak standard on Fire Protection and Control

Document Number 0101-000-11-002Version 2.1, Date June 2016
Standard requirements /Questions

Compliance status

Control of Flammable Atmosphere
Vopak defines the following approach as the most appropriate response:
 N2 blanketing: if required by local regulations or firefighting requirements,
or if required by product/customer (product quality reasons);
 Prevent static electricity (main potential ignition source within a tank) from
occurring: competent and trained people, adequate infrastructural design;
 Prevent static electricity: grounding and bonding, proper system
maintenance and regular testing of systems to prevent static electricity

Survey Flammability of Products

Where very toxic (according to GHS) or highly flammable products (GHS Class 1)
are stored, intermediate bunding should be installed in line with NFPA. Else, Vopak
policy is NOT to install intermediate bunding, unless required by local legislation.
Alternatively drainage channels in between tanks could be considered as indicated



Areas of

Vopak prefers: - Fixed foam system for tanks with remote control from the central control room (CCR) plus manual activation locally. Fire Water Supply . Heat Radiation Contours Off Site Provision The fire water capacity shall provide sufficient redundancy / overcapacity for future upgrades of the NFPA 30 in section 22. - Fixed cooling systems within the 10 kW/m2 heat radiation contour for tanks with remote control from CCR plus manual activation locally. Any bund drains or channels to remote containment basins should have “fire traps” to prevent flame spread.6 Intermediate bunding results in a decrease of surface to apply foam.2. These can be relatively simple devices consisting of a water filled trap preventing continuous contact between liquid surface and air. For large tank pits this is a considerable cost reduction and should be considered As per the Vopak Standard on Secondary Containment. bund and bund drainage capacity philosophy should take into consideration the quantity and flow rate of firewater and foam solution that may be applied during a prolonged fire incident.11.

The firewater ring main shall preferably be installed underground to protect against frost and mechanical damage with fixed connections to tank cooling system. cement lined cast iron. or underground).Underground firewater ring main: The material of construction shall be either GRE (Glass fibre Reinforced Epoxy). . Firewater pumps diesel storage in use for diesel driven fire fighting pumps shall be designed for this scenario. The ring main shall be equipped with sectional block valves with post indicator valves to allow for continuous operation during maintenance shutdown and/or mechanical failures . GRE is vulnerable to stresses due to misalignment and should therefore not be .International codes such as NFPA require only 6 hours of continuous firewater supply for the maximum design use. or high density polyethylene (HDPE). For other terminals 6 hours firewater supply. the Vopak policy shall be more stringent than NFPA: . cement lined ductile iron.For terminals having large product storage tanks (typically above 10k m3) containing flammable products. sea. is deemed sufficient Minimum design requirements of the fire water supply shall be: . or water extracted from external sources (river. The capacity can be built from a combination of water stored at site. Based on discussions in recent projects. as per NFPA. water which can be re-supplied by pipeline during the event. unlimited water supply is a must because these tanks could burn for days.A fire water ring main shall transport and distribute the fire water supply. The ring main shall be designed to allow the maximum demand of water flow from each direction. At least two directions for each credible fire scenario are required. Unlimited water supply can be arranged in various ways ranging from fixed connections extracting from rivers and / or sea or through mutual aid agreements with neighbours / local fire brigade.

This is not an NFPA requirement but a General Industry .1.- - - - used where settlement is expected (e. Fire mains shall preferably not cross drainage ditches into which flammable liquids may be discharged. . as per NFPA 24 Section 10. else the fire water mains should be fireproofed. Vopak minimum performance requirements for firewater hydraulics are: .5. reclaimed land). The fire water main system shall be painted red (See Painting Standard) when above ground.. and a maximum of 16 barg (General Industry Practice and also pipe class for most fire protection systems). GRE is not compatible with possible styrene contaminations.Standby pressure shall be 10 barg (150 psig). The firewater distribution ring main lines shall be located outside the bund walls. this is not an NFPA requirement but a General Industry Practice. Aboveground firewater ring mains should not be made of GRE. If the pressure in the fire water system drops below a fixed setting. .g.Fire water system shall be designed for a minimum system pressure rating of 10 barg (150 psig).A minimum of 7 barg (105 psig) shall be guaranteed for the worst credible fire scenario at the hydraulically most unfavourable location of the firewater distribution network when extracting water from the network. as this is vulnerable to mechanical damage. a low-pressure cut-in shall start the first fire pump and give an alarm to a permanently manned CCR. Use of HDPE is not recommended at locations with historical pollution in view of the limited resistance to chemicals. Hose connections shall be provided at the jetty for fire boats to pump water into the terminal main. The fire water ring main system shall be kept under standby pressure by 2 jockey pumps (one redundant). In addition.

. e. the fire water pumps should start automatic on fire system pressure drop or fire alarm activation. potential vapour cloud explosion overpressure and vapour dispersion extent. Protection may be by fire walls. or at a remote location. This can be achieved by using diesel driven pumps or by having a diesel generator backup power supply enabling the pumps to run.The firewater pumps shall be capable of providing the water required to fight the worst credible fire scenario. .If river / lake / sea water is used.In some cases fire pumps may need to be located at an appropriate (greater than 30m) distance for survivability purposes and this distance will depend on the results of fire risk assessment including assessment of radiant heat. Firewater pump selection: . . building or other construction as appropriate in line with NFPA 20. . CCR.The firewater pump stations shall be in a protected area or at least 30 meters from the nearest fire risk. In addition. .Practice. pump inlet suction screens shall be provided which can be cleaned while the pump is in service.Quantity of firewater pumps shall be according the n+1 principle (1 spare) to allow for maintenance or pump failure while maintaining the required supply.It shall be possible to start the fire water pumps locally at the pumps. These shall be located such that the likelihood of the power supply to the fire pumps being interrupted is minimized. .g.Firewater pumps shall continue to operate in the absence of main electrical power. .

.Wind stiffeners form obstruction to even the water distribution. open swamp etc. These pumps are not designed to take water from a supply below ground (well. lakes.Even distribution of water shall be guaranteed. unless required otherwise by local legislation / authorities. either of which can seriously affect the operation of the pump NFPA does not list specific requirements for tank cooling. water stream. carry-over of product to other areas and excessive discharge of contaminated water offsite". . Requirements for tank cooling depend upon multiple factors. Extra spray nozzles below stiffeners are recommended.Vertical turbine pumps shall be applied where water sources are located below ground (such as drilled wells.). Vopak's policy on tank cooling is: . The basic requirements for applying cooling water to storage tanks are: . and "Rates higher than 2 l/min/m2 do not provide a proportional increase in protection.Fixed cooling systems for tanks which can receive radiant heat above 10 kW/m2 or more stringent when required by . leading to bund flooding. IP19 states that "Lessons learned from incidents include many cases where water has been over-applied for cooling adjacent tanks. stream. harbours." - Tank cooling rates shall therefore be 2 l/min/m2 (IP19 based). Uneven cooling can cause the tank to deform and eventually collapse.Horizontal split-case fire pumps shall take suction from a water supply under positive head (tank or reservoir). lake. harbour.It is not recommended to use other types of fire water pumps. and other subsurface sources). Suction pipe shall be properly designed to avoid air leaks and air pockets. This can be achieved by the application of cooling rings. therefore cooling rates shall be based on IP19. .

g. .Tank cooling rings shall be applied for cooling of shell and roof.In case of non-segmented cooling.External heat detection combined with automated activation of the cooling system shall not be installed on tanks. If the shell is fitted with cooling systems then the tank roof shall also be equipped with a cooling water system. Other systems are not permitted (e. preserving the steel containment for the tank shell. Vopak prefers to install a single riser supplied via a single deluge valve to supply fire .Deluge valves shall be housed in a cabinet or building for physical protection and winterizing purposes (when required). A central drenching point is NOT allowed for tank roof cooling as this may lead to uneven water distribution over the tank roof. . . and limits firewater runoff in the bund. The product can accumulate lots of radiant energy.Fixed cooling (deluge systems) systems shall be activated manually locally and remotely controlled (from CCR). . . The roofs are normally less resistant to radiant heat since they are not in full contact with the stored product. This also reduces cooling water supply rates.- local codes and standards. Design requirements in case tank cooling is required: . no central spray nozzles with firewater running down from the roof alongside the tank walls or single ring header at the top of the tank wall (rim dome principle)).For larger tanks (typically > Ø40m) the cooling rings should be segmented into 2 or 4 sections to enable only cooling of the parts actually subjected to the heat radiation. cooling water supply line sizing. Where the radiant heat level is lower than 10 kW/m2. no fixed cooling systems are required.

In critical areas such as pump platforms and manifolds. See also the Vopak Standard on secondary containment for details of general bund requirements. Carbon steel is not permitted because of corrosion and scale potentially blocking sprinklers. hydrants or monitors shall be provided to enable fire attack under all wind conditions. Tanks bunds. Fixed hydrant shall be installed at regulated intervals of maximum 60 meters throughout the site. Portable monitors are intended to provide water cooling screens or to apply foam to . threaded) or GRE. Fire monitors are not intended for tank cooling.- - water to the fixed tank cooling systems.g. pump pits. as they typically cannot provide sufficient capacity and might cause uneven tank cooling with potential catastrophic tank failure. These shall minimally consist of a pipeline of an appropriate diameter based on the bund size and rain / fire water to be expected and shall be routed to a remote safe area where a pump can be readily connected without the need to put persons in danger. manifold areas and process unit areas shall be provided with fixed or mobile fire fighting equipment (in accordance with NFPA 24) and must be accessible for deployment by the local fire brigade. Tank roof cooling for geodesic dome roofs might be required based on heat radiation contours. The number of hydrants to be installed shall be based on risk assessment and calculated based on NFPA 14. Tank cooling systems and fixed connections: material of construction should be galvanized carbon steel (e. Bunds shall be equiped with emergency pump out facilities.

. The required foam volume capacity shall be based on the worst credible fire scenario. like NFPA 13 and 15. Foam is applied for fire extinguishing.spills at locations where no fixed system need to be installed. Reference is made to NFPA 11 for further guidance. Fixed cooling water systems shall be designed in accordance with recognized codes of practice. Any equipment other than storage tanks. The foam solution volume shall be determined by scenario and by calculations based on the application rate and multiplied by the duration. or when damage could lead to incident escalation or significant loss of operational capability should be provided with fixed cooling water systems. which may be exposed to more than 32 kW/m2 radiant heat. All foam system designs shall be based on NFPA 11.

.3% (for hydrocarbons) or 3% .6% (for chemicals) depending upon stored products.1. - The selected foam type shall be checked for compatibility with available fire water sources. - If portable or mobile response to spill fires cannot be guaranteed within 15 minutes.. fixed systems shall be provided. - Foam solution (pre-mix of foam concentrate and water) can be either 1% .2.Minimum foam stock requirement depends on the situation and stored products in line with NFPA 11.1 Foam Supply Foam system requirements: .. Resupply shall be within 24 hours based on the worst credible fire scenario. - Typically for larger terminals multiple smaller systems are more beneficial: - Foam storage shall be via either bladder tank(s) or concentrate tank(s) with pump(s).

.g. See also the Vopak Standard . Tanks bunds.. Where automatic activation is required by local legislation. .The installation of foam generators on the roof is NOT allowed because there is a high chance that they will be blown away during an explosion.Wall mounted foam generators in tanks are preferred because of better maintainability and testing requirements.. The number and sizes of monitors to be installed shall be based on risk assessment and calculated based on NFPA 11.Foam systems shall be installed on tanks which store class I and II products according to NFPA. pump pits and manifold areas shall be provided with fixed or mobile foam fire fighting equipment (in accordance with NFPA 11 & 24) and must be accessible for deployment by the local fire brigade. double signals shall be installed. hydrants or monitors shall be provided to enable fire attack under all wind conditions. a reliable system with e..The foam generators shall be positioned as high as possible on the tank shell to optimize the effective volume of the tank. Foam monitors can be both fixed and mobile systems. i. If mobile foam trailers with deck monitors are used. products with flash point lower than 60°C.e. . The foam system installation requirements are: . In critical areas such as pump platforms and manifolds.Vopak does not recommend automatic activation in view of false alarms risks. this will normally imply two monitors at least and in some circumstances 4 monitors to enable a safe approach.. these shall be positioned at strategic locations.

on secondary containment for details of general bund requirements Structures One method by which the radiant heat effect on steel structures can be reduced is by the use of passive fire protection or insulation. PFP in the form of fire rated enclosures shall be provided for control rooms. Passive fire protection (PFP) is defined as any system (usually coatings. The fit analysis should identify . UPS.g. Applications that could be considered include protection of specific critical items of equipment (e.. A common industry practice is to apply fire proofing in these cases up to 9 meters height maximum. valves and actuators) and critical metal structures such as loading racks or pipe rack supports.g. accommodation. offices and safety critical equipment rooms e. The fit analysis of this standard to existing terminals should follow the design approach as highlighted in section 4. cladding or insulation) that does not require manual activation to protect against heat radiation. Reference is made to API 2218 "Fireproofing Practices in Petroleum and Petrochemical processing Plants" for further guidance and details.

The fire protection and control sub plan should than be reviewed and approved as part of the yearly sustaining capex budget update cycle . Typically.improvement areas related to infrastructure. and maintenance. Based on the results of the fit analysis. a phased implementation approach is followed. organisation (both onsite and offsite). a detailed risk assessment should be conducted in order to arrive at an agreed fire protection and control sub plan for the location in which the identified gaps are addressed.