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404th CDC, 4th RCDG, ARESCOM
Lucban, Quezon

Prepared by:
C/CPT Jonathan A Abrugar
Ex-O/ G3, 1CL


LESSON PLAN---------------------------------------------------------------A
LESSON OUTLINE---------------------------------------------------------B
LESSON MANUSCRIPT---------------------------------------------------C
STUDENT HANDOUTS--------------------------------------------------- D
ADVANCE SHEET----------------------------------------------------------E

A. SUMMARY/CLOSURE-----------------------------------F
QUESTIONNAIRE/ANSWER KEY-------------------------------------G
ANSWER KEY----------------------------------------------------------------H

404th CDC, 4th RCDG, ARESCOM
Lucban, Quezon


II. LESSON OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson , the students must be able:
a. To understand the entire scope of the subject matter.
b. To interpret and explain the leadership traits and principles of leadership as
well as the indicators of leaders.
TASK: At the end of the presentation, the students must be able to:

Define Military Leadership

Define Leadership traits
Discuss the principles of Military Leadership
Discuss Leadership indicators


Discussion type of presentation on the Military History.


In accordance with the lecture given.


SLSU Lucban Cadets


One (1) Hour




As prescribe in the training schedule


Handouts and Related References

a a. Additional Personnel: NONE
b b. Classroom Requirements: White board, black board, white board
c. Instructional Aids: Slide/Transparencies.
IX. Training Equipments:

Overhead Projector.

404th CDC, 4th RCDG, ARESCOM
Lucban, Quezon

Introduction of lesson
Background of the subject
Motivation/ Objectives
Scope of the subject

III. BODY: (10 min)

A. Explanation (35min)
1. Definition of Terms
2. Important aspects that described Military Leadership
3. Theories of Leadership
4. Role of a Military Leader
5. Values of Military Professional Ethics
6. Basic Style of Leadership
7. Leadership Traits
8. Principle of Military Leadership
9. Leadership Indicators
10. Techniques of a Good Leader
B. Application (5 min)
Call one or more students and ask.
C. Examination (see annex F)
IV. Review and Critique: (5 min)
a. Summary/ Recapitulation
b. Clarification of doubts
c. Concluding statements



404th CDC, 4th RCDG, ARESCOM
Lucban, Quezon


Pre-Spanish Occupation
The first recorded organized resistance against foreign aggressor took place in the
Visayas during the Battle of Mactan on 27 April 1521 when the native chieftain named
Lapu-Lapu, the acknowledge father of the AFP fought against the Spaniards led by
Magellan in the latters effort to subdue the former. Lapu-Lapu refused to pay homage to
the King of the Spain. Under estimating the capability of the natives, the foreigners lost
in the battle and Magellan was killed.
Spanish Occupation
Some islands of the archipelago were successfully occupied by the Spaniards. In 1570,
they tried to land in Manila, however, the Muslim leader, Raja Soliman resisted their
effort. In 1571, Legaspi conquered Manila and made it as the capital of the Philippines.
Pockets of rebellion took place. Notable to which was the uprising led by Diego Silang
where he displayed his exemplary Military Leadership style and tactics in defeating the
The Filipino soldiers were also organized to fight for Spain and to support some
expeditions. Filipino forces were also sent to reinforce Spaniards troops during the
Chinese revolt in 1603.
General Jose Prim dethroned Queen Isabela II of Spain in 1868. The latter espoused
liberal principles of democracy. This paved the way for the exposure of the Filipinos in
foreign culture leading to the development of strong sense of nationalism among
Filipinos. The works of famous propagandists Marcelo h Del Pilar, Graceano Lopez
Jaena and Jose Rizal further nurtured the national spirit Andres Bonifacio, who is
considered as the Father of the Philippine Army, founded a more radical group called
the Katipunan on 07 July 1892. In August 23, 1896, the Cry of Pugad Lawin signaled
the start of the Philippine Revolution against Spain. This was followed by pockets of
rebellion which inflicted so much loss to Spaniards. While Katipunan was gaining
strength, two factions emerged the Magdalo led by Aguinaldo and the Magdiwang led
by Bonifacio. On 22 March 1897, the Tejeros Convention was called to resolve the
conflict between the two factions. As a result, Aguinaldo won the presidency. The
occasion also gave birth to the Philippine Army.
American Influence

As the war broke out between the United States and Spain on April 23, 1898, the
Americans convinced the Filipinos to cooperate with the Americans against Spain with
the promise that the United States will grant independence to the Philippines. Aguinaldo
declared war against Spain. In 12 June 1898, the Philippine Independence from Spain
was declared in Kawit, Cavite. Later on, the Philippine Navy was created 22 June 1898
by the Revolutionary Army.
The occupation of the American forces did not gain much acceptance from the Filipinos
because of many restrictions imposed to the Filipino forces as to access to some areas.
The harse treatment by the Americans ignited the conflict between them and the
Filipinos. The latter were defeated which led to the fall of the Malolos Republic.
With the Treaty of Paris, Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States. Finding the
archipelago as a lucrative place for some economic activities, the United States
strengthened their presence in the Philippines. This prompted the Filipinos to again
unite and fight for the freedom they have just won. Significant battles followed suit
exemplifying the fighting spirit and skills of the Filipino soldiers against formidable
opponents. The capture of General Aguinaldo by the Americans in Palanan, Isabela in
23 March 1901 and the laying down of arms of General Malvar in 16 April 1902 ended
the organized resistance against the American forces.
To hasten the Philippine campaign and to establish peace and order, an insular police
known as the Philippine Constabulary was organized on 8 August 1901 followed byu the
establishment of the Philippine Military Academy on 7 February 1905.
On 21 December 1935, the National Defense Act was enacted which officially created
the Armed Forces of the Philippines. The Philippine Air Force was later established on
01 July 1947.
The Japanese Occupation
Consequent to the declaration of war by Japan with the United States, the invading the
Japanese Force3s landed in Vigan and Aparri in Luzon on 10 December 1945. Unable
to withstand the very strong adversary and to save more lives and properties from
destruction, the combined military forces of the United States and the Filipinos withdrew
to Bataan for the implementation of War Plan Orange. Unabated Japanese strikes
caused the fall of Bataan on 09 April 1942 and Corregidor on 06 May 1942. These
events ended the organize resistance against in Japanese invasion.
The defeat of the Fil-Am forces did not end the armed struggle in the Philippines. Those
who refused to surrender went underground and waged a Guerilla against the
Japanese. The activities of the guerrilla forces were very instrumental in the successful
come back of the liberating US Forces under General Douglas McArthur who landed in
Leyte on 20 October 1944.

International Peace Keeping Operations

It is also noteworthy that the AFP had participated in international peace keeping efforts
as its commitment to the United Nations such as the Philippine Expeditionary Forces to
Korea (PEFTOK) in the early 50s, the Philippine Air Force Contingent in Congo, Africa
in the early 60s and the Philippine Civic Action Group (PHILCAG) in South Vietnam in
the 60s. Philippine contingents were also sent to East Timor, Iraq and Liberia to
participate in UN peace keeping operations.
The Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) program has gone a long way in the
Philippine history. The Commonwealth Act Number 1 otherwise known as the National
Defense Act provided the legal basis for the conduct of ROTC instruction, the need for a
citizen reserve force had been realized as early as before the American occupation of
the Philippines. In fact, it was utilized even during the long and arduous Spanish
colonial rule in the archipelago. A military training course, that time, became inevitable in
the light of the constant marauding by the both local foreign forces severely opposing
and constantly resisting the Spanish control of the colony.
As the result of the so called Seven Years War in Europe between France and Great
British, a British flotilla of thirteen ships, headed on 22 September 1762. The Philippines
got entangled in this European power struggle because the monarchs of Spain and
France both belonged to the Bourbon Dynasty. On the one side where the combined
French and Spanish forces together with their colonies; on the other hand, the rising
tide of British colonialism in Asia. In retaliation for this entanglement, a military
expedition from Madras was sent to India, then a British colony.
Spanish authorities in the colony were ill- prepared for such kind of international assault.
During this tumultuous period, the Philippines was headed by Archbishop Manuel Rojo,
a situation clearly indicative of the unstable political situation in the archipelago. Father
Domingo Collantes, OP Rector and chancellor of the University of Sto. Thomas,
organized a group of around two hundred (200) students from UST and Colegio de San
Juan de Letran who underwent military training at Sto. Thomas Plaza in Intramuros,
Manila. Father Collantes was assisted by a sergeant in the Royal Spanish Army in
setting up a battalion of young students for military instruction.
These students were immediately sent to action together with 500 Hispano-Filipino
regulars (in the Kings Regiment) and 80 Filipinos to counter the 7000 strong British
Regiment. Though obviously mismatched against the British force, the ragtag force
assembled by Spanish authorities was able to somehow temporarily ward- off the
advancing enemies. Their skirmish lasted for five days, and the defenders suffered
much in terms of the number of casualties and injuries. Realizing the futility of
continuous fighting, Governor-Archbishop Rojo surrendered Manila and Cavite to
Lieutenant General Dawsonne Drake on 6 October 1762. Though not so well known in
the Philippine History, our country did become a British colony for a while until June

1764. With the signing of the Treaty of Paris on 10 February 1763, the Seven Years
War ended and the British consequently left the archipelago for good.
Despite this debacle, the Spanish king duly recognized the courage and bravery these
students exhibited in the battlefield. Henceforth, he granted the prestigious titles Muy
Leal (very loyal) to these young defenders and regalia (royal) to the institution to which
most of them belonged. Up until this day, the muy leal emblem remains part of the UST
ROTC seal. A testament to the unwavering valor and the commendable spirit once
shown in the face of seemingly insurmountable adversity.
Exactly one hundred fifty years later after 1762, various colleges and universities in the
Philippines would offer military training for their students. According to Brigadier General
Jose Syjuco, author of the Military Education in the Philippines, most military historians
marked the year 1912 as the beginning of the genuine ROTC instruction in the country.
In that year, the Philippine Constabulary (PC) started conducting military instructions at
the Universities of the Philippines (UP) on the old Padre Faura Campus. All able bodied
male students in all colleges, institutes, and school of the university were required to
undergo military training that focused initially on infantry and use of rifles. Appointed as
the first military instructor was Captain Silvino Gallardo, who assumed office in the first
semester of 1912. The need for reserve officer was further realized with the advent of
the First World War in Europe, even though the Philippines had no direct military
participation in that international squabble.
In 1912. During the American regime, UP and Ateneo de Manila started to offer military
training. But their graduates could not find a career in military unless they joined the PC
or the Philippine Scouts (PS). Governor General Leonard Wood encouraged the
development of ROTC units, which were quite similar to those he had organized in the
United States, in the Philippines. With representation from the UP Board of Regents to
the US War Department, the services of an American Army officer was obtained. This
officer was later appointed as professor of Military Science.
On 17 March 1922, the Department of Military Science and Tactics (DMST) was
formally organized in UP. Among the departments objectives were to : 1). Develop
patriotic, physically sound, upright and disciplined citizens; 2). Create a corps of trained
officers for the reserve force; and 3) take the lead in fostering the university spirit. On 3
July 1992, with the first ROTC unit in the country having been organized, formal military
instruction began in UP. Since then, basic course in infantry became compulsory and a
pre-requisite for graduation from the university. On 26 October 1929, the field artillery
unit of UP was organized with the issuance of 75mm field guns. In 1935, a mounted
battery unit, equipped with 2.95-inch guns was also put in place.
As a result of these encouraging events, other colleges and universities in Manila
followed suit. Ateneo de Manila, National University, Liceo de Manila, and San Juan De
Letran later formed their ROTC units. These units remained independent from one
another until 1936, when Office of the Superintendent (of ROTC units) of the Philippine
Army was activated to supervise all ROTC units in the country.

Under the American tutelage, Commonwealth Act Number 1 provided the legal basis for
the mandatory citizen military training in the Philippines. The countrys national defense
plan was put into motion by the combined efforts of General Douglas McArthur and
Manuel Quezon. The defense plan envisioned an organization on citizen army
consisting of two major components: 1.) a regular force of about 10,000 men (including)
and 2.) a reserve force to number 400,000 by end of ten year period. The second
component was to be accomplished by way of continuing program to train 21-year old
able bodied men for a period of more than five months. Quezon personally handpicked
Gen McArhur to become the military adviser of the Commonwealth, with the
responsibility of formulating the Philippine Defense System. (Quezon later conferred the
status of Field Marshal, the highest military rank known in international usage, on
McArthur). At the opening session of the National Assembly on 26 November 1935,
Quezon reiterated the need for a defense plan. According to him Self-defense is the
supreme right of mankind no more sacred to the individual than to the nation, the
interests of which are immeasurably of greater significance and extent. In my opinion,
the plan reflects the lessons of history, the conclusion of the acknowledge masters of
warfare and statesmanship, and the sentiments and aspirations of the Filipino people. It
is founded upon enduring principles that are fundamental to any plan applicable to our
On 21 December 1935, the National Assembly approved the plan amid criticisms it
received and the strict opposition mounted by several lawmakers namely Juan
Sumulong and Camilo Osias, and former President Emilio Aguinaldo. One important
provision of the plan stated the at such universities and colleges as the President may
designate, there shall be established and maintain ROTC units of such arm and service
as he shall specify, where every physically fit student shall be required to pursue a
course of military instruction. ROTC units in various universities and colleges, therefore
became source of reserve officers. However, a major concern was that these units had
yet to be standardized (although most were yet to be formally recognized)_. UPs ROTC
was the first to be officially recognized; the ROTC units of Letran, UST, De la Salle,
Adamson, Philippine Normal School, the Philippine School of Arts and Trades, San
Beda and Siliman were likewise given recognized. By 1937, the Philippine government
had established and recognized seventeen ROTC, most of them infantry units. UP had
a field artillery unit aside from an infantry unit; Adamson and the Quisumbing schools
had chemical warfare units. Furthermore, UP also served as the training ground for
ROTC instructors and a source of basic ROTC training policies.
Under the system, male students had to take basic two-year course and attend training
on weekends. Those students desiring reserve commission could attend two more
years of advanced weekend training. Completion of the advanced course made one
eligible for a reserve officer commission. However, mandatory training was not instituted
in all colleges. As result, students who did not want to undergo military training simply
opted to transfer to schools who did not have ROTC units. To resolve the issue,
President Quezon issued Executive Order No. 207. By virtue of this directive, ROTC
became compulsory in all colleges and universities with enrollment of a hundred

students or more. This action taken by Quezon was partly in response to the protest
launched by some schools that their enrollment had dropped due to the institution of
ROTC units. By 1941, there were around thirty three colleges and universities
throughout the country that maintained ROTC units. However, all of these schools
closed down during the Japanese incursion in the Philippines.
Japans misadventure in the Philippines had ended, but the service rendered to the
nation by the heroic men of ROTC has turned into a life-long commitment. Even during
the post war era, UP ROTC graduates exhibited here and abroad meritorious deeds in
the service of the Filipino people. On the one hand, they became part of the
governments effort to solve the problem of insurgency in the country; on the other, they
manned the contingency forces that were sent at the height of the Korean (1950) and
Vietnam (1964) wars.
Less than seventy years have passed since the inception of student military training in
various colleges and universities throughout the country. Times have changed and the
ROTC program has been placed in constant scrutiny, especially in terms of significance
to the importance in todays reality.
It drew a number of problems and subsequent protests not only from the student sector
but also from the school administration and the strongest clamor for its abolition
occurred in March 2001 as a consequently of the death of University of Sto. Thomas
ROTC Cadet Mark Chua who was allegedly hazed by senior ROTC cadets for his
expose of several malpractices in the ROTC program. This incident was exploited by
some leftist organizations who staged rallies demanding the abolition of the ROTC. This
Clamor prompted both representatives field House Bill Number 3593 and the Senate
field Senate Bill Number 1824 which led to the enactment of Republic Act 9163
otherwise known as the National Service Training program (NSTP) Act of 2011, making
the ROTC as just one of the three components of the NSTP where the students can
choose from. The ROTC training period was also reduced from two years to one year.
Students can also select ant component of the NSTP, thus making ROTC optional.
Female students are also required to undergo NSTP as a pre-requisite for graduation
for a baccalaureate degree or two-year vocational courses.
The NSTP has three (3) components namely: the ROTC which is designed to provide
military training to students to prepare for national defense, the Department of National
Defense (DND) is the lead agency in the implementation of the ROTC component, the
Literacy Training Service (LTS), which is designed to train students to becom teachers
to school children, out of school youth and other segments of the society who are in in
dire need of their service, the commission on Higher Education (CHED) is the lead
agency in the implementation of the LTS component and the Civic Welfare Training
Service (CWTS), which will involve the students to activities to contribute to general
welfare and betterment of life, the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority
(TESDA) is the lead agency in the implementation of the CWTS component. The
student can select any of the three (3) components as a requirement for their
baccalaureate degree or two-year vocational course.

Prior to the implementation of the NSTP, the ROTC was a two year mandatory training
for male college students and also a requisite for graduation in college. Through the
years the enrollment had gone down tremendously. The program also experienced
steady deterioration essentially due to issues and concerns which include among others
graft and corruption, lack of competent, dedicated and committed instructors and higher
student-instructor ratio. Moreover, students do not appreciate the Program as shown by
the high rate of students dropping out or deferring the ROTC training while many have
decided to enroll in the other two components. This has significantly reduced the
number of our reserve force pool who is not only to be readily available in case of war or
national emergency but also to perform relief and rescue tasks when needed.
As of today, many concerned citizens and school administrators and legislators a like
are advocating for the enhancement of the ROTC program by making the same
compulsory to state colleges and universities. The Armed Forces of the Philippines is
fully supporting this effort. The advocacy is based on the perceived decline in the
appreciation of the youth on the value of patriotism and good citizenship.