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Global Positioning System

What is GPS ?
A very precise positioning system
Developed and maintained by the
US Department of Defense (DOD)
Satellite Based
* 24 satellites
* 20,200 km high orbit

BUT!
Although it is a very precise
geographic positioning system
It is very easy to get youself into trouble
Why?
Because you (probably) dont understand
how it works
And that leads to garbage

Characteristics of GPS
Free

Precise
Almost!
Reliable
All weather
Anytime & anywhere
Unlimited user capacity

Segments of GPS
1. Space Segment
A constellation of 24 satellites

2. Monitor Station
A network of earth-based facilities

3. Users & Equipment

Source:Trimble

Segments of GPS
1. Space Segment
A constellation
of 24 satellites

Source:Trimble

GPS Monitoring Station

How GPS Works


Uses measurements from 4+ satellites
Distance = travel time x speed of light

Source:Trimble

Determining GPS Position

How accurate is GPS?


Depends on some variables

Time spent on measurement


Design of receiver
Postprocessing
Relative positions of satellites,
technically known as PDOP (Position
dilution of precision)

GPS Receivers

Methods of data collection


Three methods of positioning
Autonomous
10-20 meters

Differential
2-5 meters

Phase Differential
centimeter

10-20 m

2-5m

cm

How accurate is GPS?


Depends on some variables

Time spent on measurement


Design of receiver
Postprocessing
Relative positions of satellites,
often known as DOP (Dilution of
Precision)

WAAS
Wide Area Augmentation System.
It provides FREE GPS differential correction data for
visible satellites
Developed & operated by the FAA (Federal Aviation
Administration) for flight navigation but its available
free to GPS users
WAAS-enabled receivers can provide sub-meter level
accuracy anywhere in most locations of the US and
southern Canada.

WAAS
Differential corrections are computed from
ground stations and then uploaded to
geostationary satellites for broadcasting
WAAS-enabled GPS receiver automatically
uses such correction data to enhance the
positional accuracy

Sources of error
Multipath

PDOP

SNR

Source:Trimble

Multipath

When GPS signals arrive at the receiver


having traveled different paths

What is a PDOP?
Position Dilution of Precision

Good PDOP

Poor PDOP

SNR (signal-to-noise ratio)

SNR determines the signal strength


relative to noise

GPS position is degraded if the SNR of


one or more satellites in the
constellation falls below certain range
Signal Strength
Indicators

Common use of GPS


A. GIS data collection & mapping
B. Navigation
C. Recreation

GPS for Navigation

GPS for Navigation


GPS in PDA
Are getting popular
in car
Comes with voice
guidance

Global Navigation Satellite System


A. GPS in USA
B. GLONASS program from Russia

C. GALILEO from European countries


D. Beidu from China