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Respiratory system

Asthma
Triggered by allergens like pollen, mites, pet dander and molds. Also called
seasonal asthma, as it worsens in spring or early autumn.
TREATMENT

Long acting beta agonist-contains adrenalin that keeps breathing passages


open for 12 hours or more typically inhaled.
Inhaled corticosteroids
Leukotriene-inhibits the chemical substances that promote inflammation
response durin an attack
Methylxanthiness

Relation to dentistry
Ensure pt has their asthma pump close. Inquire about last attack.
Muscular system
Cerebral palsy
A ter used to define a group of chronic conditions affecting body movements and
muscle coordination. Cerebral palsy is caused by a damage to one or more specific
areas of the brain, usually occurring during fetal development or infancy. It can also
occur before, during or shortly following the birth of a baby.
Symptoms

Muscle spasm
Involuntary movements
Disturbance in gait and mobility
Impairment of sight, hearig and speech

Treatment
No treatment
Importance to dentistry
Keep their asthma pump nearby.We need to treat these patients with a lot of care
and be careful to keep sharp instruments far from the patient. Ensure we keep
patient relaxed and reassure the patient as they have involuntary movements by
ensuring that the patient is not anxious we prevent unnecessary injury. Dental
procedures should atraumatic as possible.

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Skeletal system
1. Arthritis
Is a form of joint disorder that involves inflammation of one or more joints.
2. Trismus
Chronic contraction of the muscles of mastication
Cause

Infection, inflammation in or near joint


Acute pericorinitiswith associated muscle spasm
Mumps
Trauma

Treatment

control of symptoms with pain medication (NSAIDS)


muscle relaxants
warm compresses may be used
joint replacement

Importance to dentistry
Complication of trismus after local anesthetic injection is rare and may be
prevented by the use of short needles for maxillary posterior injections and by the
avoidance of multiple injections in a short period of time.
Nervous system
Facial nerve
Its the seventh nerve. It emerges from the brainstem between the pons and the
medulla and controls the muscles of the facial expressions and functions in the
convergence of taste sensations from the ant two thirds of the tongue and oral
cavity
Acute facial nerve paralysis
Signs and Symptoms

Unilateral facial weakness


Loss of taste
Decreasedsalivatin
Decreased tear secretion

Causes
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Bells palsy
Infection
Trauma
Stroke
tumors

Treatment

Reassure patient transient last for few hours resolve without residual
effect.
Explain it is produced by the LA action on the facial nerve
Eye-patch or manual closing of eye to prevent drying out of cornea
Contact lense should be removed until muscle movement returns
Record

Relative to dentistry
Clinician should know the landmarks when administering local anesthetic to prevent
facial paralysis.
Digestive system
Inflammatory bowel syndrome
Inflammatory bowel syndrome is a general term that includes several diseases that
cause recurring inflammation of large or small intestines can lead to formation of
ulcers.
Symptoms

Irritable bowel syndrome


Celiac disease
Diarrhea
Vomiting
Abdominal pain

Treatment

Not curable but change of lifestyle is vital. Avoid spicy foods


Nutritional supplements maybe required if the pt has problems
Maintaining weight

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Excretory system
Nephritis
It is the inflammation of one or both kidneys
Causes

Inflammation of the glomerulus which is the part of the first part of the
nephron
Symptoms
Smelly urine
Blood in urine
Lower abdominal pain

Treatment

Antibiotics
Sometimes steroids
Circulatory system

1. Angina
It is pain or discomfort in the chest which occurs due to a blockage in the blood
vessel leading to the heart.
Causes
Reduced blood flow and not enough oxygen
2. Arryhythmia
When one has irregular heartbeat rhythm, it can be fast or slow
Causes

Coronary artery disease


Electrolyte imbalances in the blood
Changes in heart muscle
Injury from a heart attack
Healing process after heart surgery

Symptoms

Palpitations
Pounding in the chest

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Fainting
Dizziness
Shortness of breathe
Chest discomfort

Treatment

Depends on the type and seriousness of the disease. Some require no


treatment
Beta blockers

Importance to dentistry
Keep the TNT within reach. These patients, the clinician will need to consider the
type of local anaesthetic used, monitor patients vital signs during procedure due to
the fact that it slows down their heart rate. Give the patient a rest by relaxing their
jaws every few minutes because they get tired easily.
Cardiovascular system
Heart attack
Occurs when the blood flow to a part of the heart is blocked by a blood clot. If the
clot cuts off the blood flow completely, the part of the heart muscle supplied by that
artery begins to die.
Causes

Coronary heart disease

Treatment and medications

Decrease the clotting (coagulating) ability of the blood


By-pass
Graft surgery
Aspirin
Heparin
Warfarin

Importance to dentistry
Ensure heart attack was no in the last 6months. Pt should be advised not take blood
thinners for 2/3 days before dental procedure and consult with physician. Dental
procedure should be as atraumatic as possible because these pts tend to bleed a
lot because of their medication specifically blood thinners.

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Immune system
Lupus
Is an autoimmune disease where the bodys systems becomes hyperactive and
attacks normal healthy tissue.
Symptoms

Inflammation and damage to joints, skin, kidneys, the heart and the lungs
Sweeling of the hands

Causes

Genetic and environmental stimuli

Treatment

Corticosteroids
Endocrine system

Hyperthyroidism
Means the thyroid makes too much thyroid hormone. The thyroid controls your
metabolism which is how the body turns food into energy. Too much thyroid
hormone can cause a lot of things in the body to speed up. You may lose weight
quickly, fast heartbeat, sweat a lot or feel nervous n moody.
Causes

Graves disease
Nodular thyroid disease
Inflammation of the thyroid gland-thyroiditis

Symptoms

Rapid heartbeat
Extreme tiredness
Excessive sweating
Inability to sleep
Nervousness and irritability

Treatment

Anti-thyroid drugs
Radioactive iodine

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Lymphatic system
Lynphadenopathy
Is a disease which is characterized by the inflammation of he lymph nodes. Can be
localized or generalized. Inflammation to lymph nodes is due to infection, foreign
particles or other diseases of organs that are situated close to them. Lymph nodes
inflamed due to infection tend to be painful, but those inflamed from cancers are
usually painless.
Causes

Hepatitis A
Hepatitis B
Leukemia
Arthritis

Treatment

Antibiotics

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