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International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy

Relationship between organizational commitments and organizational citizenship


behaviour in a sample of private banking employees
Mara Zayas-Ortiz Ernesto Rosario Eulalia Marquez Pablo Coln Grueiro

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Mara Zayas-Ortiz Ernesto Rosario Eulalia Marquez Pablo Coln Grueiro , (2015),"Relationship
between organizational commitments and organizational citizenship behaviour in a sample of private
banking employees", International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, Vol. 35 Iss 1/2 pp. 91 - 106
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Ajay K. Jain, (2015),"Volunteerism and organisational culture: Relationship to organizational
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Journal, Vol. 22 Iss 1 pp. 116-144 http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/CCM-11-2013-0167
Melody P.M. Chong, (2014),"Influence behaviors and organizational commitment: a comparative
study", Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 35 Iss 1 pp. 54-78 http://
dx.doi.org/10.1108/LODJ-03-2012-0035
Elfi Furtmueller, Rolf van Dick, Celeste P.M. Wilderom, (2011),"On the illusion of organizational
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Relationship between
organizational commitments and
organizational citizenship
behaviour in a sample of private
banking employees

Private
banking
employees
91
Received 6 February 2014
Revised 27 March 2014
Accepted 28 March 2014

Mara Zayas-Ortiz
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School of Business and Entrepreneurship, Universidad del Turabo,


Gurabo, Puerto Rico

Ernesto Rosario
Clinical Psychology Program, Ponce School of Medicine and Health Sciences,
Ponce, Puerto Rico, and

Eulalia Marquez and Pablo Coln Grueiro


School of Business and Entrepreneurship, Universidad del Turabo,
Gurabo, Puerto Rico
Abstract
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether there was a relationship between
commitment and the behaviour of organizational citizenship among bank employees.
Design/methodology/approach This paper is based on the outcomes of a doctoral dissertation,
which was a case study combining a mix methodology. The results validated the conceptual model
proposed by the researcher and answered the research questions. Measurement instruments used
include the organizational citizenship scale and the organizational commitment scale, developed and
validated by Rosario et al. (2004).
Findings The paper finds that there is a positive correlation between the organizational
commitment and the indicators of organizational citizenship behaviour and civic virtue, courtesy and
altruism dimensions shown by the employees. The dimensions of affective and moral commitment had
the strongest correlation with the civic virtue dimension of organizational citizenship.
Research limitations/implications Sample consist only of private banking employees.
Practical implications The organizations should support the affective and moral commitment in
their personnel in order to develop strong citizenship behaviour.
Social implications The organizational commitment with demonstrations of citizenship behaviour,
civic virtue, and courtesy and altruism dimensions may impact the organization and the community
creating a good base to improve the quality of life.
Originality/value This is the first attempt to study the relationship between organizational
commitments and organizational citizenship behaviour in a sample of private banking employees in
Puerto Rico.
Keywords Competitiveness, Commitment, Productivity, Organizational citizenship
Paper type Research paper

Introduction
The human resource attributes constitute a factor that significantly distinguishes one
company from another. It is a key element in achieving the goals of a company.
According to Ivancevich et al. (2006) human capital is the key to organizational success.
These authors add that the quality of human resources is becoming one of the most

International Journal of Sociology


and Social Policy
Vol. 35 No. 1/2, 2015
pp. 91-106
Emerald Group Publishing Limited
0144-333X
DOI 10.1108/IJSSP-02-2014-0010

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92

important aspects that provide staff enthusiasm, and impulse to achieve the
organization objectives with the highest effectiveness.
Theoretical foundations
Institutions are encouraged to implement strategies that promote a culture of openness,
cooperation, trust and collaboration, centred on mutual trust, empowerment,
responsibility and the common good among their employees. As a result of this
vision, it is essential to pay attention at strengthening the employees citizenship
behaviour, as a priority for achieving organizational goals. This topic has been studied
by theorist because of its influence in the managerial and academic area (Organ and
Ryan, 1995; Motowidlo et al., 1997; Motowidlo and Schmit, 1999; Le Pine et al., 2000).
Muchinsky (2007) argues that some employees contribute to the prosperity of their
companies, when their labour efforts exceed the duties assigned to their positions.
In the banking area, the customer service employee who behaves like a good citizen
within the organization is one that goes beyond ordinary expectations and finds ways
to solve customer problems. Employees who display these characteristics make
additional contributions than the required ones. When this phenomenon occurs,
organizational researchers as Organ et al. (1994) used the term organizational
citizenship or pro-social behaviour. This behaviour is spontaneous, occurring without
expecting reward later and is the result of a personal decision. Organ (1988) defines
the employee demonstrating organizational citizenship behaviour as a good soldier
who contributes to the effectiveness of the organization.
In keeping abreast of these situations managers would pay more attention to the
recruitment and retention of employees. They must be highly qualified, and should
offer and bring assets to the work environment (Mondy and Noe, 2005). Employees
must keep a positive attitude; have loyalty to the organization, and show an attitude of
commitment, honesty and cooperation with peers. Employees satisfied with their work
exhibit behaviour that makes a difference in the life of the organization. It serves as an
inspiration for organizational satisfaction, commitment and desire to stay with the
company. A suitable working environment, with fair processes contributes to increase
the willingness of employees in performing their functions. Hence, it is vital to develop
a positive organizational behaviour, and a work environment apt for achieving
high-performance goals that result in the organizational success.
Various organizational studies discuss topics aimed at identifying the aspects that
initiate and maintain employees commitment to their organization. Research studying
employees commitment started in the 1960s (Becker, 1960). Researchers state that
organizational commitments, like job satisfaction, are human attitudes. However, both
concepts differ because commitment is more global, and reflects a general affective
response to the organization as a whole. Job satisfaction reflects the individuals
emotional response to their particular duties or to certain aspects of its work. For this
reason, the concept emphasizes the commitment of the individual and his adherence
to the organization as an employee. They include their goals and values, while the
satisfaction concept emphasizes the environment in which the individual performs
the job tasks (Kelly and Bredeson, 1991). Both, individuals and the organization share
values that exert influence on organizational commitment. Individuals feel more
comfortable in an environment consistent with their values.
Many organizations are sensitive to the concepts of fairness and justice in
developing mechanisms to ensure that employees perceive that they are treated fairly.
Employees who recognize justice and equity through the distribution of tasks and work

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processes are more likely to develop a high degree of commitment and a high
expression of organizational citizenship behaviour. When an employee is helping
another incoming partner to be aware of what is happening in the organization it
turns out to be a more productive employee faster (Farh et al., 1990; Moorman et al.,
1993; Niehoff and Moorman, 1993).
It should be noted that there is a comprehensive literature stating that job
satisfaction can have a direct influence on the demonstrations of organizational
citizenship. Employees who experience high satisfaction tend to be more committed to
pro-social behaviour (Schappe, 1998; Murphy et al., 2002). Regarding job satisfaction,
employees are willing to commit to activities that benefit the organization (Lowery
et al., 2002). Several investigations about job satisfaction created controversy over
whether this variable affects or not the employee disposition to show an organizational
citizenship behaviour (Murphy et al., 2002; Schoenfelt and Battista, 2004; Schappe,
1998; Alotaibi, 2001; Al-Busaidi and Kuehn, 2002). Organizations benefit when
employees consciously or unconscious help each other to improve effectiveness, which
in turn might lead to an increase in productivity, and a positive effect on the
profitability of the organization.
Organizational commitment
Organizational commitment is viewed as the employees loyalty to their employer
(Muchinsky, 2007). Meyer and Allen (1991) and Davenport (1999) assert that
organizational commitment is established when the employee and the organization
foster greater interest on keeping their working relationship. Mathieu and Zajac
(1990) indicated what the different measures and definitions have in common which is
considering it as a link between the individual and the organization.
According to Davis and Newstron (2001) the employee experiences a degree of
loyalty related to his bonding with the organization, and his willingness to continue
participating or working with it. Organizational commitment is an emotional
connection that the employee feels with his job.
The model of organizational commitment of Meyer and Allen (1991) includes three
dimensions in most definitions. These are affective commitment, the necessary
commitment and moral commitment. Affective commitment is related to emotional
attachment, resulting in emotional orientation towards the organization. It is the
product of satisfaction that predisposes it to oppose a possible job change. Somehow,
these employees understand their working relationship with that particular
organization is right. The necessary commitment is related to reciprocity established
between the employee and the organization. It is based on the cost associated if they
leave the organization. The employees understand their investments in time and effort,
and in many ways, they are afraid of losing the seniority status in the organization,
and the corresponding benefits or compensation. The moral commitment is the
obligation felt by the employee to remain in the organization. Both moral and affective
commitments are related to organizational citizenship. An employee with a strong
moral commitment has the conviction to serve the organization with a high degree of
loyalty. They feel that this is their obligation and duty.
Meyer and Allen (1991) indicate that feelings usually motivate individuals to behave
appropriately in the organization and make it right. Therefore, it is expected that moral
commitment be positively related to high-performance behaviour, excellent attendance
and the demonstration of organizational citizenship behaviour. Employees who exhibit

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this moral commitment are loyal. They feel a high level of identity between their
personal values and the values held by that organization. They realize that they
contribute significantly to a good cause, to do well from their jobs. Somehow, it is
understood that being part of that particular organization is the right thing to do.
They are identified and supported by a corporate culture embodying certain values
that they share.
Studies have been conducted from 1991 to 1994 using the conceptual model of the
three components of organizational commitment of Allen and Meyer (1990). According
to Meyer (1997) engaged employees are more likely to remain in the organization,
contrary of disengaged employees. Organizational commitment manifests itself as
an emotional connection that an employee feels for his job. Moreover, Becker (1960)
mentioned that a person commits with his job by an individual decision, which leads
him to make investments, such as to contribute to the effort of obtaining benefits
provided by the company, such as a pension or retirement plan. Quitting the
organization will mean a loss.
Research by Caldwell et al. (1990) found that organizational commitment is
associated with employee motivation. Evidence that reveal employees engagement
is observed by their actions, or extraordinary behaviour within the organization, like
their agreement to work after hours. Lee et al. (2000) supported the importance of
occupational engagement to strengthen various aspects of organizational behaviour.
Other studies have established the link between organizational behaviour and
demonstrations of organizational citizenship behaviour (Carson and Carson, 1998;
Moorman et al., 1993; Morrison, 1994; Munene, 1995; Shore and Wayne, 1993). Research
by Feather and Rauter (2004) states that there is a positive correlation between
organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behaviours. Schappe (1998)
argue that only organizational commitment is a predictor for the meaning of
organizational behaviour actions.
Affective commitment is the most valued behaviour. It is manifested by an
emotional link that promotes the employee organizational citizenship, in benefit of the
company (Wasti, 2003). The necessary commitment is considered the most undesirable
in which the only reason to belong to a particular organization is that economic
conditions offered are better when compared with the rest of the available options
(Clugston et al., 2000).
Organizational commitment is probably the best predictor of performance and the
main contribution of human capital. It is a comprehensive and lasting response to
the organization as the job satisfaction. An employee may be dissatisfied with
a particular job, but consider it a temporary situation, and yet not be dissatisfied
with the organization. But when the dissatisfaction extends to the organization, it is
likely that individuals consider the resignation (Robbins, 1999). Organizational
commitment can be one of the tools the human resources managers have to analyse
the employees identification with organizational goals, and loyalty linking them to
their workplace. So, finding that employees that are identified and involved in the
organization, in which they work, increase the likelihood of remaining with it.
Organizational citizenship
Jex (2002) defined organizational citizenship as the behaviour demonstrated by an
employee which is not formally part of the job description. These include overt
behaviours that are not formally rewarded by the organization. Organ (1977, 1994)

stated that organizational citizenship could be categorized into five dimensions,


including:
(1) altruism, which is to reflect the willingness of people volunteering to help with
a specific task or problem relevant to the workplace;
(2) the courtesy, which manifests itself in the attitude of attention, respect and
basic considerations to others;
(3) the chivalry, expressed as kindness or tolerance, which is the attitude of
avoiding complaints, grievances and tolerate the inevitable inconveniences at
work;

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(4) awareness, which is defined as the conduct of the employee optimistic towards
work, where the person is sensibly of the rules and procedures of the company;
and
(5) civic virtue (or CSR) defined as responsible participation in the organizational
activities as, for example participation in charitable events sponsored by the
organization.
The issue of organizational citizenship was investigated based on the premise that it is
essential for organizational effectiveness (Katz and Kahn, 1978). Companies would
gladly hire employees who have the skills and qualities required in the working groups
and who are expected to demonstrate organizational citizenship behaviours. Similarly,
Smith et al. (1983) found that organizations receive some benefits where employees
demonstrate organizational citizenship behaviours. They constitute means for
maintaining the social machinery and in fact, it has already been established the
effect of organizational citizenship on the efficiency, effectiveness, innovation and
adaptability within various organizations (Organ, 1988).
According to Ivancevich et al. (2006) the key to organizational success lies in its
human resources. Human resources need to work hard, think creatively and perform
within a framework of excellence. It also requires rewarding and encouraging human
resources timely and significantly. These authors suggest that it is possible to perceive
clearly the beneficial, pleasing and motivating interactions resulting in a work
environment with people who get along, understand each other, communicate well,
show respect, and work in harmony and in cooperation, vs other work environments
where the opposite prevails. A suitable working environment based on good
relationship with employees, results in a favourable organizational effect and it is
indispensable for achieving high-performance goals, both individually and collectively.
Organizations must be concerned not only by the productivity factor within their
companies, but also for the quality of life of their employees at work.
Research questions
Researchers will seek to answer the following questions:
RQ1. What is the relationship between organizational commitment and
demonstrations of organizational citizenship behaviour and its dimensions?
RQ2. What are the relationships between organizational commitment and
manifestations of organizational citizenship behaviour and its dimensions
by gender?

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RQ3. What are the relationship between organizational commitment and


manifestations of organizational citizenship behaviour and its dimensions
by age groups?
RQ4. What are the relationships between organizational commitment and
manifestations of organizational citizenship behaviour and its dimensions
by management positions?
RQ5. What is the relationship between organizational commitment and
manifestations of organizational citizenship behaviour and its dimensions
by seniority status?

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Research hypothesis
The hypotheses proposed for the research are:
H1. There is a statistically significant correlation between organizational
commitment and demonstrations of organizational citizenship behaviour.
H0. There is no statistically significant correlation between organizational
commitment and demonstrations of organizational citizenship behaviour.
H1. There is a statistically significant correlation between organizational
commitment and demonstrations of organizational citizenship behaviour by
variables such as gender, age, position and seniority.
H0. There is no statistically significant correlation between organizational
commitment and demonstrations of organizational citizenship behaviour by
variables such as gender, age, position and seniority.
Methodology
The research design included descriptive and quantitative methodologies. Variables
were measured and analysed in accordance with statistical methods. The population of
interest consisted of 254 employees from a private bank, and the sample size was 154
with a 5 per cent margin of error and a confidence level of 95 per cent. To achieve
a representative and balanced distribution of employee responses, we asked, and
assisted, a HR representative to randomly select the employees in the research sample.
Meetings were then held with the selected employees in the workplace to outline the
purpose of the research and data collection procedures, discuss confidentiality issues,
and encourage involvement in the project. The number of participants was 119,
representing a response rate of 77.3 per cent. It included a representative sample
of employees providing administrative support and other employees who do not
work in administrative positions at a private bank in the north metropolitan area
of Puerto Rico.
The data collection process
The survey technique for collecting demographic data consisted of a data sheet
including the following items: gender, age, level of education, years with the
organization, position level and type of position (administrative support or no).
Responses were obtained through a questionnaire with multiple choice questions from

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which the participants selected the alternative that better represented their opinion.
A Likert rating scale was used, which according to Hernndez et al. (2010) is one of the
most popular scales to measure variables that constitute attitudes. The statements
included were intended to validate the conceptual model proposed by the investigator
to answer the research questions.
We worked with the Organizational Commitment Scale, which consisted of 15 items
and the scale of organizational citizenship behaviours of 23 items. The test were
developed and validated by Dr Ernesto Rosario-Hernandez and Dr Lillian
Rovira-Milln (Rosario et al., 2004). The different scales used in this test have
been used in several previous studies. The development of the study was
systematic and the same information was obtained from all participants,
related to the study variables. The potential response was expanded through the use
of a Likert rating scale. According to Hernndez et al. (2010) said that the Likert
method is one of the most popular for scales to measure the variables that constitute
attitudes.
Results
Results are based on the analyses and descriptive statistics utilized in order to
characterize the set of data collected. Inferential statistics was used on sample data
to infer conclusions about the population surveyed (Pagano, 2008). Data analysis
allowed for establishing the relationship between commitment and socio-demographic
variables, with the demonstrations of organizational citizenship behaviour in its
dimensions.
Socio-demographic description of the participants
Individuals answering the item concerning gender were 118. Of these, 61.9 per cent
were female, and 38.1 per cent were male. Totally, 28 per cent of the participants
were between 22 and 31 years, 24.6 per cent between 32 and 41. The largest
group of respondents, by age were those between 42 and 51 years with
30.5 per cent; 13.6 per cent were between 52 and 61; and 2.5 per cent were 62 years
or more.
The predominant education level in the sample is the bachelors degree with 53.4
per cent, followed by master degree with 26.3 per cent, associate degree with 16.9 per cent,
PhD with 8 per cent and high school 2.5 per cent.
It is observed that 50.8 per cent have been ten years or less in their working area;
11.9 per cent are between 11 and 15 years; 16.1 per cent are between 16 and 20, and 21.2
per cent are between 21 and 31 or more years.
Regular or full-time employees comprise 93.9 per cent of the workforce; 3.5 per cent
of participants are transitory employees, and 2.6 per cent are under time limited
contracts.
Employees assigned to management or administrative support were 73.7 per cent,
while 26.3 per cent of the participants are classified as non-administrative
support.
Analysis of statistical results
The Cohen (1988) scale was used for the interpretation of the correlation coefficients
(see Table I).

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Correlation matrix between organizational commitment and organizational citizenship


scale and its dimensions
A correlation matrix with the variables organizational commitment and organizational
citizenship and its dimensions was used. The data in Table II answer the first research
question. What is the relationship between organizational commitment with the
demonstrations of organizational citizenship behaviour and its dimensions? The
variable of organizational commitment is made up of three dimensions: affective
commitment, moral commitment and commitment necessary. The variable of
organizational citizenship has five dimensions. These are: altruism, courtesy,
chivalry conceived as tolerance, awareness and civic virtue.
The results show a moderate Pearson product moment correlation coefficient,
statistically significant between the variables of organizational commitment and
organizational citizenship, r 0.44, p o 0.05.
According to the Cohen (1988) scale this ratio is a moderate character. The
coefficient of determination, or organizational commitment explained variation in
the dependent variable of organizational citizenship is 19 per cent. In examining the
relationship between affective commitment dimension constituting the organizational
citizenship, statistically significant correlations were found with overall scores of
organizational citizenship, r 0.49, p o 0.05, altruism, r 0.34, p o 0.05, courtesy,
r 0.24, p o 0.05 and civic virtue, r 0.51, p o 0.05.
As for the dimension of moral commitment, significant correlations were found in
the dimensions of tolerance, r 0.21, p o 0.05, and civic virtue, r 0.28, p o 0.05 for
organizational citizenship. We found a correlation coefficient of 0.33 between moral
commitment and organizational citizenship.
Organizational commitment scores generally showed a statistically significant
correlation with the dimensions of organizational citizenship tolerance, r 0.22,
p o 0.05, and civic virtue, r 0.44, p o 0.05.
The necessary commitment did not present significant coefficients with the
dimensions of organizational citizenship.

Correlation range

Table I.
Cohen scale

Table II.
Correlation matrix
between
organizational
commitment and
organizational
citizenship scale and
its dimensions

Interpretation

r 0.10-0.29
r 0.30-0.49
r 0.50-1.00

Dimensions or scales
Affective commitment
Moral commitment
Organizational commitment
Note: *p o0.05

r 0.10 - 0.29
r 0.30 - 0.49
r 0.50 - 1.00

(Small)
(Medium)
(Large)

Organizational
citizenship
Altruism Awareness Courtesy
0.49*
0.33
0.44*

0.34*
0.20
0.28

0.07
0.16
0.14

0.24*
0.10
0.14

Tolerance
(Chivalry)

Civil
virtue

0.17
0.21*
0.22*

0.51*
0.28*
0.44*

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Data included in Tables III through VI, present the relationships between demographic
variables of gender, age, place and seniority in the organization and the behaviour
demonstrations in organizational citizenship and its dimensions.
Correlation matrix between organizational commitment and organizational citizenship
scale and its dimensions between genders
The results in Table III show the scores obtained by the participants in the
organizational citizenship scale and their gender dimensions. It indicates that the
female participants scored an average of 114.20 points on the scale of organizational
citizenship, with an average for the male of 118.19 points. In the dimension of altruism,
women scored an average of 37.42 points in contrast to the average of 38.44 points
for men.
Comparing the average scores of organizational citizenship and its dimensions with
the gender variable, we found no statistically significant differences in all comparisons.
With the exception of the dimension awareness, male gender scored higher averages
when compared to female.

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Correlation matrix between organizational commitment and organizational citizenship


scale and its dimensions by age groups
The results in Table IV, shows the scores obtained by the participants in the scale of
organizational citizenship and their respective dimensions by age.
The highest averages were found in participants whose age range was up to 21
years, recording 122, and for those between 52 and 61 years in the organizational
citizenship scale the average was 117.20. We conducted an analysis of variance test of
a single factor for comparing these averages. We found a value of F 24, with a
significance level W 5 per cent.
Gender
Femalea

Maleb

Dimensions

Mean

SD

Mean

SD

t-student

Organizational citizenship
Altruism
Awareness
Courtesy
Chivalry
Civic virtue
Notes: an 71; bn 43

114.20
37.42
15.96
15.20
13.96
31.66

14.39
4.97
2.99
2.58
7.53
7.53

118.19
38.44
15.84
15.42
15.02
33.47

11.23
4.53
2.97
2.86
3.36
5.38

1.65
1.12
0.21
0.43
1.56
1.37

Dimensions
Organizational citizenship
Altruism
Awareness
Courtesy
Chivalry
Civil virtue

21
122.00
42.00
18.00
15.00
18.00
29.00

Age in years value dimensions for F


22-31
32-41
42-51
52-61 62 or more
116.81
38.50
16.22
15.84
14.16
32.09

115.71
37.04
16.46
15.18
14.04
33.00

114.03
37.34
15.09
14.63
14.40
32.57

117.20
38.00
16.33
15.73
14.73
32.40

113.67
40.67
14.33
15.67
16.00
27.00

Table III.
Scores obtained by
participants in
organizational
citizenship scale and
their gender
dimensions

Value for F
0.24
0.70
1.14
0.80
0.43
0.47

Table IV.
Scores obtained by
participants in
organizational
citizenship scale
dimensions and
their age

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In the results for the dimension of altruism it was found that the average size varies by
age from 37.04 to 42 points. In the analysis of variance for a single factor, it was found
an F-value of 0.70, with a significance level W 5 per cent. When analysing average
scores for the awareness, courtesy, chivalry and civil virtue dimensions by age group,
the F-values ranged from 0.43 to 1.14, all with significance levels W 5 per cent.
Comparing the average scores with the organizational citizenship variable and its
dimensions, taking into consideration the age variable, statistically significant
differences were found in all comparisons.

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Correlation matrix between organizational commitment and organizational citizenship


scale and its dimensions between positions held in the company
The results in Table V show the scores obtained by the participants, on the scale of
organizational citizenship and their respective dimensions, and the type of position
held by employees surveyed in the company. It was found that participants, who
occupy a temporary position in the company, obtained an average of 122.67 points, on
the scale of organizational citizenship. While those who occupy a full-time or contract
basis position, averaged 116.2 and 100 points, respectively.
By comparing these results, through an analysis of variance of a single factor it was
found an F-value of 2.62, with a significance level W 5 per cent. When analysing the
results obtained in the altruism, awareness, courtesy, chivalry and civil virtue
dimensions by type of position held in the company, F-values ranged from 0.53 to 2.53,
with all levels of significance W 5 per cent. Therefore, there were no statistically
significant differences in all comparisons.
Correlation matrix between organizational commitment and organizational citizenship
scale and its dimensions between seniority
The results in Table VI show the scores obtained by the participants, organizational
citizenship scale and their respective dimensions, and seniority.
It was found that those participants who have worked in the company for o 6 years
or those who have worked 16-20 years had an average of 118.06 and 118.78 points, on
the scale of organizational citizenship, respectively. By comparing the results obtained
by the participants in the scale of organizational citizenship, for the years working in
the company, we found a value for F of 1.69, with a significance level W 5 per cent.
It means that there is no significant difference between the participants, on the scale of
organizational citizenship and years working in the company.
Available evidence indicates that the average dimension of courtesy ranged from
13.64 to 16.75 points. Comparing these averages, by age group it was found a value for
Table V.
Scores obtained by
the participants on
the scale and their
respective
organizational
citizenship
dimensions by type
of position held in
the company

Dimensions
Organizational citizenship
Altruism
Awareness
Courtesy
Chivalry
Civil virtue

Regular

Job type
Temporary

Contract

Values for F

116.20
37.90
16.03
15.27
14.50
32.50

122.67
38.00
17.00
17.33
14.67
35.67

100.00
35.00
14.67
13.67
12.33
24.33

2.62
0.53
0.51
1.48
0.55
2.53

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F of 2.28, with lower 5 per cent significance, implying that there were significant
differences in all comparisons.
Conclusions and final comments
There is strong evidence that organizational commitment is positively correlated to
the organizational citizenship and its civic virtue dimensions, courtesy and altruism
in the sample. These results are consistent with some found in the literature (Meyer and
Allen, 1991; Niehoff and Organ, 1993; Munene, 1995; Feather and Rauter, 2004).
However, the results differ from those in a study by Schappe (1998) where it was noted
that organizational commitment is only a predictor for the meaning of organizational
behaviour actions. The results also show that organizational commitment and some
of its dimensions correlated positively with the demonstration of organizational
citizenship behaviour.
Previous studies have established the link between organizational behaviour and
demonstrations of organizational citizenship behaviour (Moorman et al., 1993; Shore
and Wayne, 1993; Morrison, 1994; Munene, 1995; Carson and Carson, 1998). Feather
and Rauter (2004) also found a positive correlation between organizational commitment
and behavioural demonstrations of organizational citizenship. The dimensions of
affective and moral commitment show the strongest correlation with the dimension
of civic virtue and the expressions of organizational citizenship. However, according to
the results obtained, there is no significant correlation between the necessary
commitment, organizational citizenship and its dimensions.
Rodrguez Rosa (2003) in her study found that affective commitment is the strongest
predictor of the demonstrations of organizational citizenship behaviour. These results
differ from researchers Moorman et al. (1993) who indicate that organizational
commitment and its dimensions are not related to the demonstrations of organizational
citizenship. However, it is important to observe that several researchers have noted
the impact of the organizational commitment dimensions and its implications for
employee behaviour (OReilly and Chatman, 1986; Meyer et al., 1989). Employees are
committed to the organization go to work consistently, show a great willingness to
comply with company policies, and have lower rates of labour desertion.
According to the results, there are not significant differences in scores for men and
women, or by group, by age, by position, by seniority within the scale of organizational
citizenship. It is understood that employees who are satisfied with their jobs tend to
show organizational citizenship behaviours, and achieve high individual performance
goals. The demonstrations of organizational citizenship are the positive outcomes of a

Dimensions

o6

610

Years working for the company


1115 1620 2125 2630 31 or more Values for F

Organizational citizenship 118.06 116.57 107.07 118.78 110.40 117.70


Altruism
38.26 38.65 34.14 38.56 37.10 38.80
Awareness
15.80 15.87 17.29 14.94 15.20 17.20
Courtesy
15.94 16.00 13.64 15.83 13.70 15.00
Chivalry
14.49 14.09 13.14 14.78 13.90 15.70
Civil virtue
33.97 31.96 28.86 34.87 30.50 31.00
Note: *p o0.05

114.75
37.75
15.25
16.75
15.00
30.00

1.69
1.77
1.29
2.28*
0.62
1.61

Private
banking
employees
101

Table VI.
Scores obtained by
the participants on
the scale and their
respective
organizational
citizenship
dimensions for years
they have working
in the company

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102

committed workforce, characterized by voluntary contributions. Sometimes this is not


recognized by the formal organizational reward system (Organ, 1988).
Based on strong evidence in the sample, that organizational commitment is
positively correlated to the organizational citizenship and its civic virtue dimensions,
courtesy and altruism, top management should take into consideration the impact of
the organizational commitment on employee behaviour as noted by (OReilly and
Chatman, 1986; Meyer et al., 1989). The bank managers are in a favourable position
to enhance some dimensions of organizational citizenship by strengthening the
organizational commitment dimensions, with the expectation of a long-lasting influence
in employee and customer satisfaction. Their challenge would consist of assessing
periodically the employee behaviour and bank performance to refine the different
dimensions of organizational commitment and organizational citizenship.
One way in which the demonstrations of organizational citizenship behaviour of
employees may improve the efficiency of a company is through the release of various
types of resources. Have more productive uses, such as when employees help each
other with work-related problems. Allows the manager to spend more time on
productive tasks, such as strategic planning, business processes improvement and
ensure effective utilization of valuable resources, among others. Similarly, when
employees engage in self-development activities, they improve their ability to do
their job and this also can reduce the need for supervision. This conduct creates a
natural consequence of helping behaviours encouraging and maintaining industrial
peace that fosters team spirit, morale and cohesion.
The coordination of activities among members of the working group may also
improve when employees voluntarily attend and actively participate in meetings, as
evidence of civic virtue. When employees have a cooperative spirit, willing to avoid
problems and to refrain from complaining about trivial matters, giving the example of
placing the interests of the unit or working group ahead of their own interest, the sense
of loyalty and commitment is strengthened.
These findings prove that organizations, which recruit, attract and retain committed
employees successfully, with a high perception of organizational justice, satisfaction
and generate job performance, no doubt, show organizational citizenship behaviours.
Their employees may be more likely to maintain consistently high performance,
increase their competitiveness and productivity, and their actions might result in
higher profitability for the organization.
The success and relevance of organizations depends on the ability to cultivate the
habit of performance excellence through the development of new approaches,
evaluative skills and techniques for handling its human capital. Organizations
should guide efforts and foster attitudes and attributes to urge and promote the
organizational citizenship noble conduct. The result would allow us to develop leaders
who model the attributes required to support organizations with a system aligned with
the vision, mission and strategies required in a highly competitive global market. These
employees may impact the organization and the community creating the platform to
improve the quality of life in our countries.
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Alotaibi, A.G. (2001), Antecedents of organizational citizenship behavior: a study of public
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Kuehn, K.W. and Al-Busaidi, Y. (2002), Citizenship behavior in a non-western context: an
examination of the role of satisfaction, commitment, and job characteristics on self-reported
OCB, International Journal of Commerce and Management, Vol. 12 No. 2, pp. 107-136.
Meyer, J. and Allen, N. (1997), Commitment in the Workplace: Theory, Research and Application,
Sage Publications Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA.
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About the authors
Dr Mara Zayas-Ortiz is an Associate Professor at the AACSB accredited School of Business and
Entrepreneurship of Universidad del Turabo. Her PhD is in Philosophy/Business Development
and Management with Human Resource specialization from the Inter American University,
San German Campus-Puerto Rico. She teaches courses in the areas of human resources,
management and leadership. Dr Mara Zayas-Ortiz is the corresponding author and can be
contacted at: mzayas8@suagm.edu
Dr Ernesto Rosario is an Associate Professor at the Clinical Psychology Program of the Ponce
School of Medicine & Health Sciences. His PhD is in Industrial/Organizational Psychology from
the Carlos Albizu University. He teaches courses in the areas of test construction, statistics and
research methods.

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Dr Eulalia Marquez is a Professor at the AACSB accredited School of Business and


Entrepreneurship of Universidad del Turabo. Her PhD is in Industrial/Organizational
Psychology from the Carlos Albizu University, Puerto Rico. She teaches courses in the areas
of organizational behaviour, human resources and management.
Pablo Coln Grueiro is a Professor at the School of Business and Entrepreneurship of
Universidad del Turabo. His MBA is in Quantitative Methods from the University of
Puerto Rico, and PhD candidate with research interest in management. He teaches courses
in statistic.

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