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Normal Stresses

Stress is defined as the strength of a material per unit area or unit strength. It is the force on a
member divided by area, which carries the force, formerly express in psi, now in N/mm2 or MPa.

where P is the applied normal load in Newton and A is the area in mm2. The maximum stress in
tension or compression occurs over a section normal to the load.
Normal stress is either tensile stress or compressive stress. Members subject to pure tension (or
tensile force) is under tensile stress, while compression members (members subject to
compressive force) are under compressive stress.
Compressive force will tend to shorten the member. Tension force on the other hand will tend to
lengthen the member.
Problem 104

A hollow steel tube with an inside diameter of 100 mm must carry a tensile load of 400 kN.
Determine the outside diameter of the tube if the stress is limited to 120 MN/m2.
Solution 104



Strength of Materials 4th Edition by Pytel and Singer
Problem 105 page 12

Weight of bar = 800 kg
Maximum allowable stress for bronze = 90 MPa
Maximum allowable stress for steel = 120 MPa
Required: Smallest area of bronze and steel cables
Solution 105

By symmetry:

For bronze cable:

For steel cable:

Shear Stress
Forces parallel to the area resisting the force cause shearing stress. It differs to tensile and
compressive stresses, which are caused by forces perpendicular to the area on which they act.
Shearing stress is also known as tangential stress.

where is the resultant shearing force which passes through the centroid of the area


Required diameter of hole = 20 mm
Thickness of plate = 25 mm
Shear strength of plate = 350 MN/m2
Required: Force required to punch a 20-mm-diameter hole
Solution 115

The resisting area is the shaded area along the perimeter and the shear force
punching force .


is equal to the

Shear strength of plate = 40 ksi
Allowable compressive stress of punch = 50 ksi
The figure below:

a. Maximum thickness of plate to punch a 2.5 inches diameter hole
b. Diameter of smallest hole if the plate is 0.25 inch thick
Solution 116
a. Maximum thickness of plate:

Based on puncher strength:

Equivalent shear force of the plate
Based on shear strength of plate:
b. Diameter of smallest hole:

Based on compression of puncher:

Equivalent shear force for plate
Based on shearing of plate:

Strength of Materials 4th Edition by Pytel and Singer

Problem 117 page 17

Force P = 400 kN
Shear strength of the bolt = 300 MPa
The figure below:

Required: Diameter of the smallest bolt

Solution 117
The bolt is subject to double shear.
Strength of Materials 4th Edition by Pytel and Singer
Problem 118 page 17

Diameter of pulley = 200 mm
Diameter of shaft = 60 mm
Length of key = 70 mm
Applied torque to the shaft = 2.5 kNm
Allowable shearing stress in the key = 60 MPa
Required: Width b of the key
Solution 118



Bearing Stress
Bearing stress is the contact pressure between the separate bodies. It differs from compressive
stress, as it is an internal stress caused by compressive forces.

Problem 125

In Fig. 1-12, assume that a 20-mm-diameter rivet joins the plates that are each 110 mm wide. The
allowable stresses are 120 MPa for bearing in the plate material and 60 MPa for shearing of rivet.
Determine (a) the minimum thickness of each plate; and (b) the largest average tensile stress in
the plates.

Solution 125

Part (a):
From shearing of rivet:

From bearing of plate material:


Part (b): Largest average tensile stress in the plate: