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Sarah Major Humanities Business Management

Teaching & Assessment (tracking back/teaching to the exam) Page 1


Section A. Link between Study Design and Exam 2013
Exam Question

Type of
Question

Area of Study/Outcome

Key Knowledge

Key Skills

1a) Identify two characteristics


of large-scale organisations.

Identify
(short answer)

Unit 3 AOS 1: Outcome 1


Discuss and analyse the context in
which large-scale organisations
operate.

characteristics of large-scale organisations

research aspects of the management of large-scale organisations using print and online
sources

1b) Outline two positive and


two negative contributions that
large-scale organisations make
to theAustralian economy.

Identify and
explain
(short answer)

Unit 3 AOS 1: Outcome 1


Discuss and analyse the context in
which large-scale organisations
operate.

contributions, both positive and negative, of large-scale organisations to the


economy

research aspects of the management of large-scale organisations using print and online
sources
analyse business information and data;

1c) Stakeholders may place


competing demands on largescale organisations. Explain why
this may occur.

Explain
(short answer)

Unit 3 AOS 1: Outcome 1


Discuss and analyse the context in
which large-scale organisations
operate.

identification and characteristics of stakeholders of large-scale organisations,


including their interests, possible conflicts and related ethical and socially responsible
considerations.

accurately use relevant management terms


research aspects of the management of LSOs using print & online sources
analyse business information and data
analyse the context in which LSOs operate

The following scenario relates to question 2:


ZX Bank is a large retail bank that operates in all states in Australia.
In response to a recent market survey of its customers, it is considering opening its branches on Saturdays and Sundays. Currently, the banks employees feel that their expectations regarding conditions of employment and work-life balance are being met.
The employees have been asked about the proposed change in opening hours and 70 per cent said that they would prefer not to work on weekends but, if they had to, they would expect higher pay rates on those days.
The Human Resource Manager has responded, saying that an increase in pay rates might make opening on weekends unprofitable. The bank executives are hoping to reach an agreement with the employees that keeps pay rates at current levels.
Both sides believe that it is important to discuss this issue further.
2a) Employee expectations
include a number of factors.
Explain what is meant by worklife balance and conditions of
employment. Refer to the
information about ZX Bank in
your response.

Explain
(short answer)

Unit 4 AOS 1:Outcome 1


Analyse and evaluate practices and
processes related to human resource
management.

employee expectations, including conditions of employment, occupational health


and safety (OH&S), job security and worklife balance

accurately use relevant management terms


apply human resource management knowledge and concepts to practical and/or simulated
situations

Sarah Major Humanities Business Management


Teaching & Assessment (tracking back/teaching to the exam) Page 2
Exam Question

Type of
Question

Area of Study/Outcome

Key Knowledge

Key Skills

2b) To resolve the issue


regarding the proposed change
in opening hours and the
employees expectations of
higher pay rates on weekends,
the bank executives will need to
apply a range of management
skills.

Identify,
describe and
justify
(short answer)

Unit 3 AOS 2: Outcome 2


Discuss and analyse major aspects of
the internal environment of large-scale
organisations.

key management skills as appropriate to the process of effective management


the relationship between management styles and skills

accurately use relevant management terms


apply knowledge and concepts to practical and/or simulated situations.

Identify,
describe and
justify
(short answer)

Unit 3 AOS 2: Outcome 2


Discuss and analyse major aspects of
the internal environment of large-scale
organisations.

key management skills as appropriate to the process of effective management


the relationship between management styles and skills

accurately use relevant management terms


apply knowledge and concepts to practical and/or simulated situations.

2c) Compare the centralised and


decentralised approaches to
employee relations.

Compare
(short answer)

Unit 4 AOS 1:Outcome 1


Analyse and evaluate practices and
processes related to human resource
management.

the similarities and differences between centralised and decentralised approaches

accurately use relevant management terms


evaluate key aspects of human resource management theory

2d) Discuss the likely


consequences of banks or other
large-scale organisations
introducing newtechnology to
optimise operations.

Compare,
discuss

Unit 3 AOS 3: Outcome 3


Discuss and analyse strategies related
to operations management.

strategies adopted to optimise operations, including: facilities design and layout


materials management management of quality extent of the use of technology;

accurately use relevant management terms


apply operations management knowledge and concepts to practical and/or simulated
situations
discuss key aspects of operations management

Describe two management skills


and justify their use in this
situation.

2b) To resolve the issue


regarding the proposed change
in opening hours and the
employees expectations of
higher pay rates on weekends,
the bank executives will need to
apply a range of management
skills.
Describe two management skills
and justify their use in this
situation.

Sarah Major Humanities Business Management


Teaching & Assessment (tracking back/teaching to the exam) Page 3
Exam Question

Type of
Question

Area of Study/Outcome

Key Knowledge

Key Skills

The following scenario relates to question 3:


Alice Smith has read the biographies of many great business leaders. She would like to follow inthe footsteps of these successful leaders. Alice has just taken over as the CEO of The Travellers Helpmate, a business that publishes print and online travel guides. Her observation
is that her staff are professional, highly educated and independent. In private conversations, some staff have said that they felt underappreciated by the previous CEO as positive feedback was rarely provided.

3a) Define the following


leadership qualities that Alice
will need in order to be an
effective leader.

Define
(short answer)

Unit 3 AOS 2: Outcome 2


Discuss and analyse major aspects of
the internal environment of large-scale
organisations.

key management roles: planning: long, medium and short-term organising:


resource and task allocation techniques leading: importance of leadership qualities,
including interpersonal, informational and decision making controlling: financial
and non-financial processes and control systems;

accurately use relevant management terms;


apply knowledge and concepts to practical and/or simulated situations.

Identify, explain

Unit 3 AOS 2: Outcome 2


Discuss and analyse major aspects of
the internal environment of large-scale
organisations.

corporate culture and its future development;

accurately use relevant management terms


analyse major aspects of the internal environment of large-scale organisations
apply knowledge and concepts to practical and/or simulated situations.

Identify,
describe and
explain

Unit 3 AOS 3: Outcome 3


Discuss and analyse strategies related
to operations management.

ethical and socially responsible management of an operations system.

accurately use relevant management terms


apply operations management knowledge and concepts to practical and/or simulated
situations
discuss key aspects of operations management
analyse strategies that arise through practices within operations management.

Identify,
Evaluate

Unit 4 AOS 1:Outcome 1


Analyse and evaluate practices and
processes related to human resource
management.

key principles of Maslows, Hertzbergs and Lockes theories of motivation

evaluate key aspects of human resource management theory


apply human resource management knowledge and concepts to practical and/or simulated
situations
evaluate different practices and processes for managing human resources.

interpersonal
informational
decision-making
3b) The biographies that Alice
read indicated the importance of
a strong corporate culture.
Identify two indicators of
corporate culture and explain
how each reflects the shared
values and beliefsof an
organisation.
3c) Alice wants The Travellers
Helpmate to be seen as ethical
and socially responsible. To
meet this goal, she is reviewing
the key elements of her
operations system.
Describe one ethical and social
responsibility issue that Alice
may consider from each of the
threeelements of the operations
system.

3d) Alice is choosing between


two approaches to staff
motivation Herzberg or Locke.
Evaluate the key aspects of both
of these theories of motivation
and recommend which theory
sheshould adopt.

Sarah Major Humanities Business Management


Teaching & Assessment (tracking back/teaching to the exam) Page 4
Exam Question

Type of
Question

Area of Study/Outcome

Key Knowledge

Key Skills

4) Describe two driving forces


for change and analyse their
impacts on the internal
environment of a large-scale
organisation that you have
studied this year.

Identify,
describe and
analyse

Unit 4 AOS 2: Outcome 2


Analyse and evaluate the management
of change in a large-scale organisation,
and evaluate the impact of change on
the internal environment of a largescale organisation.

the concept of organisational change;


the dynamic nature of the internal and external (operating and macro) environments
as sources of change;
driving and restraining forces for change in large-scale organisations, including
management, employees, time, competitors, low productivity, organisational inertia,
legislation, cost;
key principles of the Kotter theory of change management;
a range of strategies for effective change management, including low-risk practices
and high-risk practices;
the process of effective change management in the context of a significant issue;
the role of leadership in change management;
the possible impact of change on the internal environment of large-scale
organisations, including the functional areas of operations and human resources;
ethical and socially responsible management of change

accurately use relevant management terms;


research related aspects of change management using print and online sources;
analyse business literature, information and data;
use management theory to evaluate different strategies to manage change;
apply change management knowledge and concepts to practical and/or simulated
representations;
analyse and evaluate effective change management in the context of the selected significant
issue.

5) Explain how Kotters theory


of change management can be
used to support the ethical and
socially responsible
management of change.

Identify, apply,
explain

Unit 4 AOS 2: Outcome 2


Analyse and evaluate the management
of change in a large-scale organisation,
and evaluate the impact of change on
the internal environment of a largescale organisation.

the concept of organisational change;


the dynamic nature of the internal and external (operating and macro) environments
as sources of change;
driving and restraining forces for change in large-scale organisations, including
management, employees, time, competitors, low productivity, organisational inertia,
legislation, cost;
key principles of the Kotter theory of change management;
a range of strategies for effective change management, including low-risk practices
and high-risk practices;
the process of effective change management in the context of a significant issue;
the role of leadership in change management;
the possible impact of change on the internal environment of large-scale
organisations, including the functional areas of operations and human resources;
ethical and socially responsible management of change.

accurately use relevant management terms;


research related aspects of change management using print and online sources;
analyse business literature, information and data;
use management theory to evaluate different strategies to manage change;
apply change management knowledge and concepts to practical and/or simulated
representations;
analyse and evaluate effective change management in the context of the selected significant
issue.

Sarah Major Humanities Business Management


Teaching & Assessment (tracking back/teaching to the exam) Page 5
Exam Question

Type of
Question

Area of Study/Outcome

Key Knowledge

Key Skills

6) The movement of staff into,


through and out of an
organisation (the employment
cycle) is generally managed by
the

Identify, use,
explain, discuss,
evaluate
(justify)
(extended
response)

Unit 4 AOS 1:Outcome 1


Analyse and evaluate practices and
processes related to human resource
management.

factors involved in managing human resources:


relationship of HR function to business objectives & business strategy; employee
expectations, including conditions of employment, OH&S, job security & worklife
balance
key principles of Maslows, Hertzbergs & Lockes theories of motivation; ethical
& socially responsible human resource management
management practices and processes associated with the key phases of the
employment cycle:
Establishment phase: HR planning related to business strategy; job analysis & job
design; recruitment methods & selection processes; employment arrangements &
remuneration
Maintenance phase: induction; training and development; recognition and reward;
performance management
Termination phase: termination management, including entitlement & transition
issues
management practices and processes associated with employee relations:
relationship to business objectives & business strategy; industry wide awards,
collective agreements within an individual organisation & individual contracts; role
of HR managers in employee relations under a decentralised approach; management
styles & skills in employee relations, including their application to the resolution of
conflict

accurately use relevant management terms


research related aspects of human resource management using print and online sources
analyse business literature, information and data
evaluate key aspects of human resource management theory
apply human resource management knowledge and concepts to practical and/or simulated
situations
evaluate different practices and processes for managing human resources.

Human Resource Manager.


With reference to management
practices and processes that are
associated with each phase of
the employment cycle, discuss
how the management role of
planning could be used
in the establishment
phase
how performance indicators
could be used in the
maintenance phase
how the choice of
management style
could impact on the
termination phase.

Sarah Major Humanities Business Management


Teaching & Assessment (tracking back/teaching to the exam) Page 6
Section B: Teaching to the Exam

The three questions that will be the focus point will be:
1c) Stakeholders may place competing demands on large-scale organisations. Explain why
this may occur.
2c) Compare the centralised and decentralised approaches to employee relations; and
5) Explain how Kotters theory of change management can be used to support the ethical and
socially responsible management of change.
The reasons for the review and suggested teaching and learning strategies for these questions
is due to them scoring the lowest marks on average on the 2013 exam with 30%, 32.5% and
27.5% respectively. Further, these questions cover base level knowledge and identification
through to application and justification, or lower order through to higher-order thinking skills.
In addition, these questions have varying key knowledge while allowing students to apply
key skills by accurate identification, explanation and application of relevant terms in addition
to higher-order-thinking of application and justification. Question 6, though an extended
response containing lower to higher-order thinking is omitted in this analysis due to reaching
an average of 43%.
In regards to question 1c, students were required to know who possible stakeholders were
within an organisation and identify competing demands within the large-scale organisation
and explain why the competing demands between stakeholders may occur. As mentioned in
the 2013 Examination Report (VCAA, 2014), mistakes were made in regards to
comprehension and interpretation of the question with some students interpreting the question
as identifying and explaining issues of stakeholders of competing organisations, rather than

Sarah Major Humanities Business Management


Teaching & Assessment (tracking back/teaching to the exam) Page 7
stakeholders from the same organisation with competing demands. This would be a prime
example of the requirement to teach specifically in the understanding and interpretation of
questions and teaching students how to answer the question directly which would prove to be
time well-spent within classes throughout the year due to the number of misinterpretations
identified through the exam as a whole.1 One method in which to prepare students for exam
style questions, is to provide them with exam questions to answer as homework or as exit
tickets once the relevant content has been covered. This is a task that can be introduced to
them at an early stage throughout the unit and, can be completed as a class, then in small
groups, then individually, then individually under time constraints thereby increasing the
intensity of exam style questions and effectively aiming to desensitise students to exam style
questions and condition through gradual exposure. An additional method (or for extension) is
to have students write their own exam questions and answer each these. This can be
completed in or outside class time depending on class time available.
In regards to teaching the content required for question 1c, the student textbook (whichever is
prescribed by the school) would be one resource to utilise as would other alternative
textbooks not on the school list. Some of these texts may include the Essential VCE Business
Management Units 3 & 4 by Cambridge, or Jacarandas Key Concepts in VCE Business
Management Units 3 & 4. Additional valuable resources for stakeholders would include the
Business Review Weekly website (www.brw.com.au), Compak, Victorian Commercial
Teachers Association, Melbourne (http://www.vcta.asn.au/) and the Teaching Bubble website
that is specifically catered to VCE Business Management students.

This is not taking into account an analysis of the exam itself as there may be issues with the way the question
are written if misinterpretations of questions are high.

Sarah Major Humanities Business Management


Teaching & Assessment (tracking back/teaching to the exam) Page 8
A very useful resource in grasping the idea of different stakeholders within the same
organisation and identifying and explain conflicts between is demonstrated will in the video
(also on YouTube) that looks into employee safety and comfort with the investment of more
ergonomic workstations vs shareholders that become disgruntled due to the large financial
investment

of

these

workstations

(http://teachingbubble.com/social-responsibility-

stakeholder-conflict. From an example such as this, it can be broken down into a table that
student use to first identify advantages and disadvantage of the situation previously and after
the implementation of the new system/device/process. The teacher can ask students of
explain these demands (either in writing, utilising collaborative ICT or in small groups
culminating in mini presentations). The teacher can then extend students further (beyond the
question) to ask them to analyse or create potential solutions for the competing demands and
produce a list of recommendations on which the class partakes in a role play and decides on
the most appropriate course of action. This would also simulates further business skills such
as scenarios where senior management of the Board of Directors are involved.
Additional useful teaching resources for similar tasks include newspaper articles from
business section of The Age, The Australian or relevant Herald Sun articles or the Business
Review Weekly. By allowing students to analyse their own case studies, identifying,
analysing and explaining them students are employing skills in correct use of relevant
managerial terms, they are applying their prior developing operations management
knowledge to practical situations and they are analysing strategies (and issues) that arise
through operations management.
Additional resources for this questions may include:

http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/reed-elsevier/corporate-responsibility-andstakeholders/potential-stakeholder-conflict.html#axzz3qzbLDOXN

Sarah Major Humanities Business Management


Teaching & Assessment (tracking back/teaching to the exam) Page 9

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/business/environment/stakeholders4.shtml

http://www.slideshare.net/msanne/14-stakeholders-objectives-and-conflicts?related=1

http://www.slideshare.net/blackwell3/bm-14-stakeholders (recommended as use as a


teacher resource)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r_MzZ9uAcBE

https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B_0ZESWFmW8TclQxQ1pJdC11ZjA/edit

https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B_0ZESWFmW8TbnR1TGpudUc1UmM/edit

http://teachingbubble.com/stakeholders

In order for students to effectively address question 2, students will need to first understand
the concepts behind the centralised and decentralised approaches to employee relations
including key characteristics of both, their advantages and disadvantages, and basic
knowledge of industry wide awards, collective agreements and individual contracts in order
to add the breadth of knowledge that this kind of question demands. A lesson may include
some of the following aspects and resources:

http://teachingbubble.com/centralised-v-decentralised-systems Including the video on


the website, this is a great place to incorporate different teaching strategies other than
just reading from a textbook and can be incorporated into a self-paced lesson as a
whole. It would also assist if there was a flipped-classroom for this topic where prior
reading is completed from the prescribed textbook, clarifications are completed in
class and then move onto this self-paced activity of watching the video and answering
the questions regarding the centralised and decentralised systems.

Sarah Major Humanities Business Management


Teaching & Assessment (tracking back/teaching to the exam) Page 10

A table would be very useful for students to draw up regarding the employee relations
approaches which students can build on as their understanding of the content increase.

This should not be completed in one lesson and not revisited, due to the complexity of
the content, this should be revisited (and even introduced subtly) throughout the
course. When discussing organisations in Unit 3, teachers should be aware of
highlighting a few key elements of different agreements and employee relations
if/when the topic arises

Student can research an award/agreement and identify what kind of system it


represents, identify and describe the key characteristics and explain any advantages or
disadvantages they foresee for the employer and employee.
https://www.fairwork.gov.au/awards-and-agreements/awards/list-of-awards#t

Finally, in regards to teaching question 5 there is a vast amount of knowledge to cover as


students first need to know and understand Kotters theory of change management in addition
to knowing ethical and socially responsible change management before they can look at how
Kotters 8-step change management theory can be applied. Assuming students know the
Kotters 8 steps (or have easy reference to them) and understand the concepts behind them,
and assuming that students know of ethical and socially responsible change management the
following group, followed by individual method can be applied.
Use a business case study and consider an aspect or process that has changed over time. E.g.
an office, moving towards a paperless office in order to cut down on costs and be
environmentally friendly and socially responsible. In relation to Kotters 8 steps, ask students
(as a class) to consider first what aspects of this scenario may fit in with the outcome that is

Sarah Major Humanities Business Management


Teaching & Assessment (tracking back/teaching to the exam) Page 11
desired. Get students to write suggestions on board/post it and relate to the aspects. This
activity could also be completed around the classroom on a bigger scale or on a collaborative
ICT tool (such as Google docs). Next, get students to identify what aspects of the change
management theory can be used to support ethically and socially responsible management of
change (do this as a class first, then in smaller groups or as individuals).

Additional potential teaching resources in addition to prescribed texts may include:

http://teachingbubble.com/kotters-theory

http://www.kotterinternational.com/center-for-leaders/#classroom-programs

http://www.kotterinternational.com/the-8-step-process-for-leading-change/ (Teacher
Resource)

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-02-18/matten-social-responsibility-as-more-than-abusiness-add-on/5265100

http://www.forbes.com/sites/forbesleadershipforum/2015/01/05/how-companies-canbecome-more-socially-responsible-in-2014/

http://business.time.com/2012/05/28/why-companies-can-no-longer-afford-to-ignoretheir-social-responsibilities/

http://www.asyousow.org/about-us/theory-of-change/corporate-social-responsibility/

http://www.camac.gov.au/camac/camac.nsf/byheadline/pdfsubmissions_2/$file/lbyrne
s_csr.pdf

Next, ask students to research their own organisation that has undergone change and apply
Kotters 8-step theory of change management to the process undertaken. Next, ask students to
identify ethical and socially responsible aspects of the change management. Finally, ask

Sarah Major Humanities Business Management


Teaching & Assessment (tracking back/teaching to the exam) Page 12
students to explain how Kotters changes support socially and ethically responsible change
management.

Section C: Reflection
The process of completing the exam and back-mapping to classroom activities and resources
has been a very useful tool that I will be utilising in my teaching. Though, further to
completing one exam, I would be considering a plethora of exams, and not only VCAA
exams but relevant exam style questions. It has made me consider not only the skills and
knowledge the student need to reach, but also the fact that they need to be able to articulate
this clearly with the first hurdle being understanding and comprehension of the question.

Though utilising one exam was useful for me as a teacher and I would utilise more, this
would also be a useful activity to give to students, and something that can be exposed to them
gradually over time so they become familiar with the language, the content, and the
managerial terminology they will need to have in their toolbox. Further, scouring the
examination report was a highly useful activity in order to ascertain, if questions were
ambiguous, if there were a number of ways the question could be interpreted that would be
deemed acceptable which surprisingly, there often was.

The process of back-mapping to lesson content and resources that can be utilised has also
allowed me to see that a number of key skills within certain outcomes cross-over into other
outcomes and should not be purely kept in their own outcome. As a whole, the unit is
developing students with the skills to be effective at identifying ethical and socially
responsible business, investor and consumer behaviour through the exposure of real business

Sarah Major Humanities Business Management


Teaching & Assessment (tracking back/teaching to the exam) Page 13
scenarios. Im personally a huge fan of relating education to the real-world and making it
relevant to students, and business management is a class that lends itself to many relevant
real-life business management scenarios.