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KM1914

Engineering Graphics

Chapter 1
Communication through Graphics and Sketching
Lecturers

Azli Arifin
Assoc Prof Dr Mariyam Jameelah

Section 1.1
Introduction

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Communication via Graphics

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Aircraft

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Engineering drawing for aircraft components

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Users of graphics

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Graphics a communication channel

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Section 1.2
Importance of Graphics in Design Process

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Drawing is a graphical representation of object/structure, constructed


by hand, mechanical equipments or via computers.

Importance of Graphics in the design process:

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Visualisation 2D or 3D
Communication for analysis, manufacturing, etc.
Documentation in form of technical drawings

Section 1.3
Traditional Design Process

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Traditional Design Process

Design Refinement

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Section 1.4
Concurrent Engineering Design Process

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Concurrent Engineering Design Process

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Section 1.5
Standards and Conventions

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Conventions are commonly accepted practices, rules, or methods used in


technical drawing., e.g. break-up lines is commonly used to represent
hidden section.

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Standards are sets of rules that govern how technical drawings are
represented., e.g. ISO, ANSI, JIS.

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Section 1.6
Types of Line

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Types of Line

Extension line
Visible line
SECTION A-A

Centreline
Dimension
line

Cutting plane line

A
8.0

Section line
Break line

Hidden line

Phantom line

Visible line (0.7 mm)


Hidden line (0.35 mm)
Centreline (0.35 mm)
Cutting plane line (0.7 mm)
Cutting plane line (0.7 mm)
Break line (0.35 mm)
Break line (0.35 mm)
Section line (0.35 mm)
Dimension line (0.35 mm)
Phantom line (0.35 mm)

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Centreline

Section 1.8
Traditional Drawing Tools

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Traditional Tools
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8
12

1. Drawing board

2. T-square

3. Instrument set

4. 45 and 30X60
triangles
6. Irregular curve

5. Ruler
7. Protractor
9. Eraser

8. Mechanical pencil/
technical pen
10. Sticker

11. Templates

12. Drawing paper

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11

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2

Line Weight and Uniformity (ASME)

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Pencil Grade

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Paper Size and Title Block


Metrik (mm)

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ANSI (Inci)

A4

210 X 297

8.5 X 11

A3

297 X 420

11 X 17

A2

420 X 594

17 X 22

A1

594 X 841

22 X 34

A0

841 X 1189

34 X 44

Scales

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Compass

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Section 1.13
Technical Sketching

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Sketching Process

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Sketching Process

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Technical Sketching

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Multiview sketch of a mechanical part

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Pictorial sketch

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Types of Sketching

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Sketching is used throughout the design process to communicate


information

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CAD sketch (architectural structures)

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Sketching: Optical illusion (by M. C. Escher)

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Sketching: Optical illusion (by M. C. Escher)

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Mechanical drawn and sketched lines

Examples of good and bad straight-line

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Sketching long lines

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Sketching a circle

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Poorly drawn circle will have a flat areas and sharp curves

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