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1.

A hygrometer, which measures the amount of moisture in a gas stream, is to be calibrated

Steam and dry air are fed at known flow rates and mixed to form a gas stream with a known water con
recorded; the flow rate of either the water or the air is changed to produce a stream with a different w
recorded and so on. The following data are taken:
Mass
Fraction of
Water, y
0.011
0.044
0.083
0.126
0.17

Hygrometer
Reading, R.
5
20
40
60
80

(a) Draw a calibration curve and determine an equation for y( R ).

Calibration Curve

90
80
70
60

Calibration Curve

50

Linear (Calibration Curve)

40
30
20
10
0
0

0.02 0.04 0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12 0.14 0.16

0.18

(b) Suppose a sample of a stack gas is inserted in the sample chamber of the hygrometer and a readin
flow rate of the stack gas is 1200 kg/h, what is the mass flow rate of water vapor in the gas?
y = 0.0021 R
If R = 43 what is y?
y = 0.0021*43
y = 0.0903
mass flow rate of vapor in the gas is:
108.36

tream, is to be calibrated

as stream with a known water content and the hygrometer reading is


roduce a stream with a different water content and the new reading is

y = 0.0021 R

Calibration Curve
Linear (Calibration Curve)

ber of the hygrometer and a reading of R=43 is obtained. If the mass


water vapor in the gas?

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R
0.9997912573
R Square
0.9995825581
Adjusted R Square
0.9994434108
Standard Error
0.0014944649
Observations
5
ANOVA
df
Regression
Residual
Total

SS
MS
F
1 0.0160440997 0.0160440997 7183.62906617
3 6.700276E-006 2.233425E-006
4
0.0160508

Coefficients
Standard Error
t Stat
P-value
0.0004848066 0.0012181169 0.3979967891 0.7172630512
0.0021052486 2.483885E-005 84.7562921922 3.620239E-006

Intercept
X Variable 1

RESIDUAL OUTPUT

PROBABILITY OUTPUT

Observation
1
2
3
4
5

Predicted Y
0.0110110497
0.042589779
0.0846947514
0.1267997238
0.1689046961

Residuals
-1.10497E-005
0.001410221
-0.0016947514
-0.0007997238
0.0010953039

Percentile
10
30
50
70
90

X Variable 1
0.002
0.001
Residuals

0
-0.001 0

10

20

-0.002

Significance F
3.620239E-006

X Variable 1
0.2

Lower 95%
Upper 95%
Lower 95.0%
Upper 95.0%
-0.0033917851 0.0043613984 -0.0033917851 0.0043613984
0.0020262003 0.0021842969 0.0020262003 0.0021842969

0.1
0
0

10 20 30 40 50 60
X Variable 1

BILITY OUTPUT

Normal Prob

Y
0.011
0.044
0.083
0.126
0.17

0.2
Y

0.1
0
0

10

20

30

40

Sample

X Variable 1 Residual Plot


0.002
0.001

als

0
-0.001 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

-0.002
X Variable 1

X Variable 1 Line Fit Plot


Y
Predicted Y
Linear (Predicted Y)
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
X Variable 1

Normal Probability Plot

10

20

30

40

50

60

Sample Percentile

70

80

90

100

2. A process instrument reading, Z(volts), is thought to be related to a process stream flow rate
V(L/s) and pressure P(kPa) by the following expression:
Z = aVbPc
Process data have been obtained in two sets of runs---one with V held constant, the other with P
held constant. The data are as follows:
Point
1
2
3
4

V(L/s)
0.65
1.02
1.75
3.43

P(kPa)
11.2
11.2
11.2
11.2

Z(volts)
2.27
2.58
3.72
5.21

lnZ
lnV
lnP
0.81978 -0.430783 2.415914
0.947789 0.019803 2.415914
1.313724 0.559616 2.415914
1.65058 1.23256 2.415914

5
6
7

1.02
1.02
1.02

9.1
7.6
5.4

3.5
4.19
5.89

1.252763 0.019803 2.208274


1.432701 0.019803 2.028148
1.773256 0.019803 1.686399

(b) Now use a graphical method and all the data to calculate a, b, and c. Comment on why you
would have more confidence in this result than in that of part (a). (Hint: You will need at least
two plots.)

s stream flow rate

nt, the other with P

ment on why you


will need at least

ln Z = ln a + blnV + clnP
ln Z = 3.5371 + 0.5165^lnV - 1.0466^lnP
34.36711
Z = 34.36711V0.5165P-1.0466

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R
0.9952054236
R Square
0.9904338352
Adjusted R Square
0.9856507528
Standard Error
0.0415073647
Observations
7
ANOVA
df
Regression
Residual
Total

Intercept
X Variable 1
X Variable 2

2
4
6

SS
0.7135064805
0.0068914453
0.7203979258

MS
0.3567532402
0.0017228613

Coefficients
3.5371210232
0.5165475686
-1.0466377554

Standard Error
0.1385889391
0.0328641812
0.0625996286

t Stat
25.522390502
15.717646062
-16.7195521478

Predicted Y
0.7860145812
1.0187634481
1.2976026237
1.6452104551
1.2360866467
1.4246134931
1.7823012067

Residuals
0.0337652503
-0.0709740491
0.0161210446
0.0053694006
0.0166763218
0.0080872409
-0.0090452091

RESIDUAL OUTPUT
Observation
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

F
Significance F
207.0702006454 9.15115095E-005

P-value
0.000013997
9.57131179E-005
7.49835179E-005

Lower 95%
3.1523364416
0.4253019735
-1.2204421879

PROBABILITY OUTPUT
Percentile
7.1428571429
21.4285714286
35.7142857143
50
64.2857142857
78.5714285714
92.8571428571

Y
0.8197798315
0.9477893989
1.2527629685
1.3137236683
1.4327007339
1.6505798558
1.7732559977

Upper 95%
3.9219056048
0.6077931637
-0.8728333229

Lower 95.0%
3.1523364416
0.4253019735
-1.2204421879

X Variable 1 Residual Plot


0.05
0
Residuals -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0
-0.05

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

-0.1
X Variable 1

X Variable 2 Residual Plot


Upper 95.0%
3.9219056048
0.6077931637
-0.8728333229

0.05
Residuals

0
1.6
-0.05

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

90

100

-0.1
X Variable 2

Normal Probability Plot


2
Y

1
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Sample Percentile

70

80

lot

X Variable 1 Line Fit Plot


2

1.2

1.4

Y
-1

Linear (Predicted Y)

-0.5

0.5

1.5

X Variable 1

X Variable 2 Line Fit Plot


2
Y

2.4

2.5

Predicted Y

0
1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5
X Variable 2

ot

Predicted Y

lot

2.3

90

100

Linear (Predicted Y)

3. A solution containing hazardous waste is charged into a storage tank and subjected to a chemical
treatment that decomposes the waste to harmless products. The concentration of the decomposing
waste, C, has been reported to vary with time according to the formula.
C = 1/(a+bt)
When sufficient time has elapsed for the concentration to drop to 0.01 g/L, the contents of the tank
are discharged into a river that passes by the plant.
The following data are taken for C and t:
t(h)
1
2
3
4
5

C(g/L)
1.43
1.02
0.73
0.53
0.38

a. If the given formula is correct, what plot would yield a straight line that would enable you to
determine the parameters a and b?

Calibration Curve
6
5
4

Calibration Curve
Linear (Calibration Curve)

3
2
1
0
0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

b. Estimate a and b using the method of least squares (Appendix A.1). Check the goodness of fit by
generating a plot of C versus t that shows both the measured and predicted values of C.
a = 1.595
b = -0.259
c. Using the results of part (b), estimate the initial concentration of the waste in the tank and the
time required for C to reach its discharge level.

When t = 0
C = 1/(a+bt)
C = 1/(1.595 - 0.259*0)
C=
0.6269592476
when C = 0.01 g/L, t = ?
t = (a-(1/C))/b
t= (1.595-(1/0.01))/0.259
t=
-379.9420849
d. You should have very little confidence in the time estimated in part ( c ). Explain why
The value we have for t is -379.942085 so we have little confidence in part c.

cted to a chemical
the decomposing

ntents of the tank

nable you to

urve

ration Curve)

goodness of fit by
s of C.

he tank and the

ence in part c.

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R
0.9804137374
R Square
0.9612110965
Adjusted R Square
0.948281462
Standard Error
0.0949912277
Observations
5
ANOVA
df
Regression
Residual
Total

1
3
4

SS
MS
F
0.67081
0.67081 74.341706686
0.02707 0.0090233333
0.69788

Coefficients Standard Error


t Stat
P-value
1.595 0.0996276401 16.009613385 0.0005299827
-0.259 0.0300388637 -8.6221636894 0.0032808106

Intercept
X Variable 1

RESIDUAL OUTPUT

PROBABILITY OUTPUT

Observation
1
2
3
4
5

Predicted Y
1.336
1.077
0.818
0.559
0.3

Residuals
0.094
-0.057
-0.088
-0.029
0.08

Percentile
10
30
50
70
90

X Variable 1 R
0.2
0.1

Residuals

0
0.5
-0.1

1.5

Significance F
0.0032808106

X Variable 1 L
2

Lower 95%
Upper 95%
Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0%
1.2779403849 1.9120596151 1.2779403849 1.9120596151
-0.3545970708 -0.1634029292 -0.3545970708 -0.1634029292

1
0
0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

X Variable 1

ABILITY OUTPUT

Normal Prob

Y
0.38
0.53
0.73
1.02
1.43

2
Y

1
0
0

10

20

30

40

Sample P

X Variable 1 Residual Plot


0.2
0.1

uals

0
0.5
-0.1

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

5.5

X Variable 1

X Variable 1 Line Fit Plot


Y
Predicted Y
1

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

5.5

X Variable 1

Normal Probability Plot

10

20

30

40

50

60

Sample Percentile

70

80

90

100

4. A published study of chemical reaction. A-----P. indicates that if the reactor initially contains A
at a concentration CAO (g/L) and the reaction temperature, T, is kept constant, then the
concentration of P in the reactor increases with time according to the formula
CP(g/L) = CAO(1-e-kt)
The rate constant, k(s-1), is reportedly a function only of the reaction temperature.
To test this finding, the reaction is run in four different laboratories. The reported experimental
results are given below.
Lab 1

Lab 2

Lab 3

Lab 4

T = 275 C T = 275 C T = 275 C T = 275oC


CAO = 4.83 CAO = 12.2 CAO = 5.14 CAO = 3.69
o

t(s)
0
10
20
30
60
120
240
360
480
600

Cp (g/L)
0
0.287
0.594
0.871
1.51
2.62
3.91
4.3
4.62
4.68

0
1.21
2.43
3.38
5.89
8.9
11.2
12.1
12.1
12.2

0
0.31
0.614
0.885
1.64
2.66
3.87
4.61
4.89
5.03

k
0
0.245
0.465
0.67
1.2
2.06
3.03
3.32
3.54
3.59

#DIV/0!
0.006126
0.006561
0.006628
0.006248
0.006515
0.006909
0.006138
0.006532
0.005787

a. What plot would yield a straight line if the given equation is correct?
b. Enter the given data into a spreadsheet. For each data set (Cp versus t), generate the plot of
part (a) and determine the corresponding value of k. (Your spreadsheet program probably has a
built-in function to perform a linear regression on the data in two specified columns.)
c. Use the results in part (b) to come up with a good estimate of the value of k at 275 oC. Explain
how you did it.
d. If you did the calculation in part (b) correctly, one of the calculated values of k should be
considerably out of line with the others. Think of as may possible explanations for this result as
you can (up to 10)

initially contains A
then the

ted experimental

ln Cp = ln CAO + ln(1-ekt)
k = (1/t)[ln(Ca) - ln(Ca-Cp)]
k
#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!
0.010445 0.006221
0.011106 0.006361
0.010814 0.006299
0.010988 0.006405
0.010896 0.006073
0.010423 0.005825
0.013345 0.006311
0.010008 0.006299
Err:502 0.006407

enerate the plot of


am probably has a
lumns.)

k at 275 oC. Explain

of k should be
s for this result as

#DIV/0!
0.00687
0.006735
0.006679
0.006556
0.006809
0.007171
0.006389
0.006672
0.006014

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R
0.9270327498
R Square
0.8593897192
Adjusted R Square
0.8418134341
Standard Error
0.7574775216
Observations
10
ANOVA
df
Regression
Residual
Total

Intercept
X Variable 1

1
8
9

SS
28.0545020344
4.5901775656
32.6446796

MS
28.0545020344
0.5737721957

Coefficients
0.7853894855
0.0080927631

Standard Error
0.3267340946
0.0011573515

t Stat
2.4037573629
6.9924848273

Predicted Y
0.7853894855
0.8663171164
0.9472447474
1.0281723784
1.2709552713
1.7565210571
2.7276526286
3.6987842002
4.6699157718
5.6410473434

Residuals
-0.7853894855
-0.5793171164
-0.3532447474
-0.1571723784
0.2390447287
0.8634789429
1.1823473714
0.6012157998
-0.0499157718
-0.9610473434

RESIDUAL OUTPUT
Observation
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

F
48.8948440595

Significance F
0.000113487

P-value
0.0429243054
0.000113487

Lower 95%
0.0319393123
0.0054239057

PROBABILITY OUTPUT
Percentile

Y
5
15
25
35
45
55
65
75
85
95

0
0.287
0.594
0.871
1.51
2.62
3.91
4.3
4.62
4.68

Upper 95%
1.5388396586
0.0107616205

Lower 95.0%
0.0319393123
0.0054239057

X Variable 1 Residual Plot


2
Residuals

0
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

-2
X Variable 1

X Variable 1 Line Fit Plot


10

Upper 95.0%
1.5388396586
0.0107616205

Predicted Y
Linear (Predicted Y)

0
0

100 200 300 400 500 600 700


X Variable 1

Normal Probability Plot


5
Y
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Sample Percentile

70

80

90

100

lot

600

700

ot

ted Y
(Predicted Y)

90

100

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R
0.8721906137
R Square
0.7607164667
Adjusted R Square
0.730806025
Standard Error
2.553643501
Observations
10
ANOVA
df
Regression
Residual
Total

Intercept
X Variable 1

1
8
9

SS
165.8519289579
52.1687610421
218.02069

MS
165.8519289579
6.5210951303

Coefficients
3.1630427678
0.0196768606

Standard Error
1.1015011975
0.0039017174

t Stat
2.8715745157
5.0431280517

Predicted Y
3.1630427678
3.3598113736
3.5565799795
3.7533485853
4.3436544028
5.5242660379
7.8854893081
10.2467125782
12.6079358484
14.9691591185

Residuals
-3.1630427678
-2.1498113736
-1.1265799795
-0.3733485853
1.5463455972
3.3757339621
3.3145106919
1.8532874218
-0.5079358484
-2.7691591185

RESIDUAL OUTPUT
Observation
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

F
25.4331405454

Significance F
0.0009977367

P-value
0.0207786193
0.0009977367

Lower 95%
0.6229764514
0.0106794841

PROBABILITY OUTPUT
Percentile

Y
5
15
25
35
45
55
65
75
85
95

0
1.21
2.43
3.38
5.89
8.9
11.2
12.1
12.1
12.2

Upper 95%
5.7031090842
0.0286742371

Lower 95.0%
0.6229764514
0.0106794841

X Variable 1 Residual Plot


5
Residuals

0
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

-5
X Variable 1

X Variable 1 Line Fit Plot


20

Upper 95.0%
5.7031090842
0.0286742371

10

Predicted Y
Linear (Predicted Y)

0
0

100 200 300 400 500 600 700


X Variable 1

Normal Probability Plot


20
Y

10
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Sample Percentile

70

80

90

100

lot

600

700

ot

ted Y
(Predicted Y)

ot

90

100

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R
0.9389616743
R Square
0.8816490258
Adjusted R Square
0.866855154
Standard Error
0.7337671823
Observations
10
ANOVA
df
Regression
Residual
Total

SS
32.0870986778
4.3073142222
36.3944129

MS
32.0870986778
0.5384142778

Coefficients
Standard Error
0.7891641143
0.3165067597
0.0086548744
0.0011211245

t Stat
2.4933562715
7.7198158533

1
8
9

Intercept
X Variable 1

RESIDUAL OUTPUT
Observation
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Predicted Y
0.7891641143
0.8757128583
0.9622616024
1.0488103464
1.3084565786
1.8277490429
2.8663339714
3.9049189
4.9435038286
5.9820887571

Residuals
-0.7891641143
-0.5657128583
-0.3482616024
-0.1638103464
0.3315434214
0.8322509571
1.0036660286
0.7050811
-0.0535038286
-0.9520887571

F
59.5955568081

Significance F
0.000056392

P-value
0.0373264813
0.000056392

Lower 95%
0.0592982176
0.0060695568

PROBABILITY OUTPUT
Percentile

Y
5
15
25
35
45
55
65
75
85
95

0
0.31
0.614
0.885
1.64
2.66
3.87
4.61
4.89
5.03

Upper 95%
1.519030011
0.0112401921

Lower 95.0%
0.0592982176
0.0060695568

Upper 95.0%
1.519030011
0.0112401921

X Variable 1 Residual Plot


2
Residuals

0
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

-2
X Variable 1

X Variable 1 Line Fit Plot


10
Y

Predicted Y
Linear (Predicted Y)

0
0

100 200 300 400 500 600 700


X Variable 1

Normal Probability Plot


10
Y

5
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Sample Percentile

70

80

90

100

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R
0.9232473245
R Square
0.8523856222
Adjusted R Square
0.833933825
Standard Error
0.5951834366
Observations
10
ANOVA
df
Regression
Residual
Total

Intercept
X Variable 1

1
8
9

SS
16.3643634142
2.8339465858
19.19831

MS
16.3643634142
0.3542433232

Coefficients
0.6252852741
0.0061808059

Standard Error
0.2567293625
0.0009093821

t Stat
2.4355814538
6.7967097045

Predicted Y
0.6252852741
0.6870933327
0.7489013914
0.81070945
0.9961336259
1.3669819778
2.1086786815
2.8503753852
3.5920720889
4.3337687926

Residuals
-0.6252852741
-0.4420933327
-0.2839013914
-0.14070945
0.2038663741
0.6930180222
0.9213213185
0.4696246148
-0.0520720889
-0.7437687926

RESIDUAL OUTPUT
Observation
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

F
46.1952628073

Significance F
0.0001382865

P-value
0.0408450575
0.0001382865

Lower 95%
0.0332663024
0.0040837671

PROBABILITY OUTPUT
Percentile

Y
5
15
25
35
45
55
65
75
85
95

0
0.245
0.465
0.67
1.2
2.06
3.03
3.32
3.54
3.59

Upper 95%
1.2173042457
0.0082778447

Lower 95.0%
0.0332663024
0.0040837671

X Variable 1 Residual Plot


2
Residuals

1
0
-1

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

X Variable 1

X Variable 1 Line Fit Plot


Upper 95.0%
1.2173042457
0.0082778447

Y
Predicted Y

Linear (Predicted Y)

0
0

100 200 300 400 500 600 700


X Variable 1

Normal Probability Plot


4
Y

2
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Sample Percentile

70

80

90

100

lot

600

700

lot

cted Y

r (Predicted Y)

ot

90

100