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SPE 86506

Viscosities for Completion Fluids at Temperature and Density


Anne M. Ortego, SPE, BJ Services Company; and Daniel P. Vollmer, SPE, BJ Services Company
Copyright 2004, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc.
This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition
on Formation Damage Control held in Lafayette, Louisiana, U.S.A., 1820 February 2004.
This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of
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presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to
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Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A., fax 01-972-952-9435.

Abstract
Brine viscosities are an important property in sand control and
coil tubing operations. Viscosities are used to calculate sand
settling rates for gravel packing and frictional pressure losses.
Due to limited brine viscosity data, viscosites were determined
for conventional completion fluids using an Oswald
viscometer. Then three dimension equations were determined
as a function of density and temperature for calcium chloride,
calcium bromide, calcium chloride and calcium bromide,
calcium bromide and zinc bromide, three salt mixture of
calcium chloride, calcium bromide and zinc bromide, and
sodium bromide solutions. All equations had an average
deviation from the measured values of less than 10%.
Introduction
Viscosities for water and low density brines are readily
available even at elevated pressures.1-2 However, very little
work has been done on brines above 10.0 ppg. One source
provided brine viscosities in chart form at densities up to 16.5
ppg and at temperatures ranging from 40 to 500F.3 However,
interpolating within these brine densities are difficult but were
the best the industry had available. Since these viscosities
were established using an Ostwald-Cannon-Fenske viscometer, measuring these brine viscosities above 250F is
impossible due to boiling of these brines. Obviously, the brine
viscosities were extrapolated from the measured data above
the boiling point. Since no experimental data was provided,
the accuracy of these brine viscosities is questionable. Also
brine viscosities above 16.5 ppg are needed.
The purpose of this work is to provide brine
viscosities in equation form and to report the accuracy of these
equations from the experimental data.
Experimental
The various densities of the calcium chloride brines were
achieved by mixing 11.6 ppg calcium chloride with water until
the desired density was reached. The densities of the calcium
chloride, calcium bromide brines were achieved by combining
11.6 ppg calcium chloride with 15.1 ppg calcium bromide,

calcium chloride (two salt blend) until the chosen density was
attained. The densities of the calcium chloride, calcium
bromide and zinc bromide brines were made by adding 15.1
ppg calcium chloride, calcium bromide to 19.2 ppg calcium
bromide, zinc bromide (three salt blend) until the desired
densities were achieved. The densities of the sodium bromide
fluids were reached by diluting 12.5 ppg sodium bromide with
water. The specific gravity of the fluid was then measured.
The brines were then cooled to around 35oF. The viscosities
for the calcium chloride brines were measured using a Cannon
Instrument Company Viscosity Tube model number 50 Y 991.
All of the other viscosities were measured using a Cannon
Instrument Company Viscosity Tube model number 150 433 I.
The different fluids were placed in the tube, and the amount of
time for the fluid to go from the top line on the tube to the
bottom line of the tube was measured using a standard
stopwatch. This was done three times, and an average was
taken of the three times in seconds. After the 35F run was
completed, the brine was heated in the viscosity tube using a
Fisher Scientific Isotemp 2150 heater and a 4000 mL beaker
of water. The same procedure regarding the viscosity tube and
the stopwatch was repeated. The brines were heated to 198oF
in increments of 20oF. The brines were allowed to heat for
fifteen minutes to confirm that the temperature of the brine
was the same as the temperature of the water in the beaker.
Equation 1 was used to calculate the viscosities at
temperature.

Vis., cp. = Bt / 8.34 (1)


where is the coefficient of the viscometer, is the brines
density, ppg at temperature, and t is the time in seconds. A
thermal expansion factor of 0.000250/F was used for only the
two salt standard blends, and the fluids that contain zinc
bromide. Other expansion factors were calculated from
reference four. Viscometer coefficients of 0.004175 mm2/s2
(cSt/s) at 40C and 0.004155 mm2/s2 (cSt/s) at 100C were
provided by the manufacturer for Viscometer No. 50.
Whereas, 0.03251 mm2/s2 (cSt/s) at 40C and 0.03234 mm2/s2
(cSt/s) at 100C were provided for Viscometer No. 150.
Linear interpolation and extrapolation were performed to
determine the coefficients at different temperatures.
Brine Viscosity Equations
Once the brine viscosities were determined, Table Curve 3D
computer software was used to obtain brine viscosity
equations as a function of temperature and density. The
density is the density of brine at 70F. Equations were
selected so that extrapolation could be done without providing
an impossible situation, for example, a negative viscosity

SPE 86506

when extrapolating to 450F. Table 1 provides the equations


for the brines tested, while Figure 1 shows a 3-dimensional
plot for the 14.2 ppg to 19.2 ppg calcium bromide and zinc
bromide blends. Figure 2 shows the error for all the data,
while Appendix A reports all the experimental data used to
develop the equations. All equations had an average percent
deviation of less than 10 % (see Table 1).

References
1.

Kestin J., Khalifa, H. E., Ro, S. T., and Wakeham, W., A.,
"Preliminary Data on the Pressure Effect on the Viscosity
of Sodium Chloride-Water Solutions in the Range 10
40C, J. of Chemical and Engineering Data, Vol. 22,
No. 2 (1977) 207.

Conclusions

2.

Ershaghi, I., Abdassah, D., Bonakdar, M., R., and Ahmad,


S., "Estimation of Geothermal Brine Viscosity," Journal
of Petroleum Technology (March 1983) 621.

3.

Foxenberg, W., E., Effects of Completion Fluid Loss on


Well Productivity, paper SPE 31137 presented at the
1996 SPE International Symposium on Formation
Damage Control held in Lafayette, Louisiana, U.S.A.,
14-15 February.

4.

Washburn, E.W., International Critical Tables of


Numerical Data, Physics, Chemistry and Technology,
Vol III, McGraw-Hill, New York, (1928).

Brine viscosity equations as a function of density and


temperature were developed for three single salt brines
and three mixed salt brines based on experimental
viscosity data at temperature of less than 225oF.
All equations had an average percent deviation of less
than 10% from the measured data.
The equations were designed to extrapolate up to 450oF,
but the accuracy at these temperatures could not be
determined; therefore, severe error can be introduced.

Nomenclature
= the coefficient of the viscometer
= the brines density, ppg at temperature
t = the time in seconds
T = the temperature in degrees Farhenheit

Table 1
Brine Viscosity Equations
Density Range

Viscosity Equation

-5

Average % Deviation

8.5 11.6 ppg


CaCl2

Vis. = [exp(4.5 + 2.6826 x 10 exp())](TF)^(-0.01472 + 0.37539


3.10864 + 7.27826)

11.0 15.1 ppg


CaBr2

Vis. = exp(128.52701 7.3771245T + 33.311296(lnT) +


0.5
1.5
2
78.07303T/lnT 179.51933T + 0.23134603 0.051587771 +
0.016084973exp(/2.9018651)

11.6 15.1 ppg


CaCl2/CaBr2

Vis. = (-65.399685 0.054125113T + 0.00016837448T + 18.398031


2
3
1.6164243 + 0.048801301 )/(1 + 0.005278754T 2.9536043 x
-5 2
-7 3
10 T + 1.4155497 x 10 T - 0.076763811)

14.2 19.2 ppg


CaBr2/ZnBr2

Vis. = (19.930868 1.4539349lnT + 0.12528094(lnT) 11.31285ln


2
2
+ 2.0650777(ln) )/(1 0.19108857lnT + 0.02407836(lnT)
0.20346608ln)

15.1 19.2 ppg


CaCl2/CaBr2/
ZnBr2
9.0 12.5 ppg
NaBr

6.51

0.9954

8.58

0.9992

1.70

0.9965

7.00

Vis. = exp(-8.3768635 0.18225384(ln(T)) + 9406.5689ln/


2
22275.83/ + 5756399.1exp(-)

0.9919

5.32

Vis = exp(-2232.7031 25.203176lnT -1313.3789/lnT +


1.5
2
2
1045.1299lnT/T + 6613.5766 4245.4767 + 2352.758 ln 2.5
3
1188.2171 + 51.998509 )

0.9966

2.73

SPE 86506

25

25

20

20

15

15

10

10

0
19

175

18

Densit 17
y, ppg

16

15

14 25

Viscosity, cp.

Viscosity, cp.

Figure 1: Viscosities for 14.2 to19.2 ppg


CalciumBromide and Zinc Bromide Blends

15
12 0
100 5
, F
75
rature
e
p
50
m
Te

Brine Viscosities
70.00
60.00
50.00
40.00
30.00
20.00
10.00
0.00
0.00

10.00

20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00


Calculated Viscosity, cp.
Figure 2

60.00

70.00

SPE 86506

Appendix A: Experimental Data for Brine Viscosities


Table A-1
Calcium Bromide Solutions
11.0 ppg CaBr2
Temp.
F

Density
ppg

Time
sec.

16.5
64.4
88.1
108
127.9
148.1
167.9
188
198

11.18
11.06
11.00
10.95
10.90
10.84
10.78
10.71
10.68

142
44
34
29
25
22
20
18.7
18

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
6.21
1.90
1.46
1.24
1.06
0.93
0.84
0.78
0.75

13.0 ppg CaBr2


Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
6.21
2.15
1.63
1.26
0.99
0.81
0.70
0.61
0.58

% Dev

Temp.
F

Density
ppg

Time
sec.

-0.05
12.96
11.52
1.51
-6.38
-12.36
-17.11
-21.33
-22.19

36.5
70.6
88.5
108.1
128.2
147.9
168.1
188.1
198

13.14
13.02
12.96
12.90
12.83
12.76
12.70
12.63
12.60

85
68.3
56.7
47
40
34
31
27.7
26

11.5 ppg CaBr2


Temp.
F

Density
ppg

Time
sec.

37.6
72.3
88.4
108.1
128
148
167.7
188
198

11.53
11.44
11.40
11.34
11.29
11.23
11.17
11.10
11.07

59
44
38
32
27
24
22
20
19

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
2.66
1.97
1.69
1.42
1.19
1.05
0.95
0.86
0.82

Density
ppg

Time
sec.

40.5
68.7
88.5
108.1
128.1
148
167.9
187.9
198

12.07
11.99
11.93
11.87
11.81
11.75
11.69
11.62
11.59

65.3
48.3
42
35
30
26.7
24
22
21

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
3.08
2.26
1.96
1.62
1.38
1.22
1.09
0.99
0.94

Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
4.40
3.80
3.05
2.36
1.86
1.53
1.30
1.15
1.09

% Dev

Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
8.18
7.55
5.60
4.34
3.43
2.81
2.40
2.12
2.01

% Dev

Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
13.31
10.58
8.21
6.49
5.32
4.54
4.00
3.80

% Dev

0.74
9.23
6.18
-0.13
-6.87
-9.30
-14.75
-15.31
-14.08

14.2 ppg CaBr2


Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
2.61
2.21
1.81
1.40
1.11
0.91
0.77
0.68
0.65

% Dev

Temp.
F

Density
Ppg

Time
sec.

-1.83
12.21
6.90
-1.19
-6.87
-13.52
-18.85
-20.91
-20.74

44.7
62.5
88.5
108
127.9
147.9
167.9
187.9
198.1

14.37
14.30
14.20
14.12
14.05
13.98
13.90
13.83
13.80

144.7
132
98.6
80
66
56
48
42
39

12.0 ppg CaBr2


Temp.
F

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
4.37
3.47
2.87
2.36
2.00
1.69
1.53
1.36
1.27

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
8.13
7.37
5.46
4.41
3.61
3.05
2.59
2.26
2.09

0.59
2.35
2.43
-1.44
-5.00
-7.61
-7.51
-6.22
-3.98

15.1 ppg CaBr2


Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
3.08
2.69
2.11
1.64
1.29
1.06
0.91
0.80
0.76

% Dev

Temp.
F

Density
Ppg

Time
sec.

-0.23
18.74
8.03
1.05
-6.34
-13.05
-16.92
-19.55
-19.82

69.7
88.5
108
127.9
148
167.9
187.8
197.9

15.18
15.10
15.02
14.94
14.86
14.79
14.71
14.67

233.7
178
138
110
90
75
64
59

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
13.85
10.49
8.08
6.40
5.20
4.31
3.66
3.36

-3.92
0.87
1.59
1.35
2.13
5.24
9.48
12.94

SPE 86506

Table A-2
Calcium Chloride Solutions
8.5 ppg CaCl2
Temp.
F

Density
ppg

Time
sec.

44.4
67.8
88.1
108.2
127.9
147.9
168.1
188.1
199

8.56
8.54
8.51
8.48
8.44
8.39
8.34
8.28
8.25

446
277.3
218.7
179
149
127
112
98.7
93.7

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
1.92
1.19
0.93
0.76
0.63
0.53
0.47
0.41
0.39

10.0 ppg CaCl2


Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
1.86
1.18
0.90
0.72
0.61
0.52
0.45
0.40
0.38

% Dev

Temp.
F

Density
ppg

Time
sec.

-3.11
-0.12
-3.66
-4.87
-3.75
-2.58
-2.85
-1.35
-1.65

43.5
67.2
88.1
108.2
128
148.1
168.1
188.1
199.7

10.01
9.96
9.92
9.87
9.83
9.78
9.72
9.67
9.64

682
457
360
295
249
214
186
166
157

9.0 ppg CaCl2


Temp.
F

Density
ppg

Time
sec.

44.8
69.3
88.9
108.2
128
148
168.2
188.1
199.9

9.06
9.03
9.00
8.96
8.92
8.88
8.82
8.77
8.73

479.3
307
251
205.3
173.7
148.7
130
114
109

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
2.18
1.39
1.13
0.92
0.78
0.66
0.57
0.50
0.47

Density
ppg

Time
sec.

43.9
67.6
88.3
108.1
128.1
148.3
168
188.3
199.7

9.54
9.50
9.46
9.42
9.38
9.33
9.28
9.22
9.19

531.3
367.3
294
240
201.3
174
151
134
126

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
2.55
1.75
1.39
1.13
0.94
0.81
0.70
0.62
0.58

Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
3.83
2.49
1.91
1.56
1.32
1.14
1.01
0.90
0.85

% Dev

Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
7.55
3.41
2.77
2.31
1.97
1.71
1.50
1.42

% Dev

Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
17.76
7.04
5.51
4.44
3.66
3.09
2.72
2.55

% Dev

11.66
9.11
6.50
6.78
7.77
9.39
11.42
12.64
12.70

10.5 ppg CaCl2


Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
2.33
1.49
1.16
0.95
0.80
0.69
0.60
0.54
0.51

% Dev

Temp.
F

Density
ppg

Time
sec.

6.60
7.14
2.08
2.62
2.73
4.11
5.21
7.81
6.45

42.3
88.2
106.9
126.8
146.9
167.1
188.5
198.4

11.05
10.93
10.88
10.82
10.77
10.71
10.65
10.62

1344.3
665
546.7
452.7
382
329
284.7
267.7

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
7.46
3.64
2.98
2.45
2.06
1.76
1.51
1.42

1.26
-6.26
-6.86
-5.92
-4.32
-2.75
-0.69
0.24

11.6 ppg CaCl2

9.5 ppg CaCl2


Temp.
F

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
3.43
2.28
1.79
1.46
1.22
1.04
0.90
0.80
0.75

Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
3.00
1.95
1.50
1.22
1.03
0.89
0.79
0.70
0.66

% Dev

Temp.
F

Density
ppg

Time
sec.

17.75
11.47
7.32
8.07
9.45
10.13
12.81
14.27
15.09

42.8
88.7
107.7
127.7
148.7
169.8
187.9
197.7

11.75
11.62
11.56
11.50
11.44
11.37
11.32
11.29

2885
1203
979.7
773
626
523.6
458
442

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
17.03
7.00
5.67
4.45
3.58
2.97
2.59
2.49

4.31
0.58
-2.90
-0.26
2.18
3.90
5.03
2.34

SPE 86506

Table A-3
Calcium Chloride / Calcium Bromide / Zinc Bromide Standard Blends
17.0 ppg CaCl2 / CaBr2 / ZnBr2

15.5 ppg CaCl2 / CaBr2 / ZnBr2


Temp.
F

Density
ppg

Time
sec.

72.1
88.1
108.5
128.1
148.3
168.4
188.1
198.3

15.52
15.46
15.38
15.31
15.23
15.15
15.07
15.03

830
627
435.3
319
243
191
155
141

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
50.32
37.83
26.10
19.02
14.40
11.25
9.07
8.23

Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
51.22
37.20
26.27
19.68
15.13
11.97
9.71
8.78

% Dev

Temp.
F

Density
ppg

Time
sec.

1.80
-1.66
0.64
3.50
5.10
6.41
7.04
6.66

74.9
88.3
108.2
128.1
148
168
188.1
198.1

16.99
16.93
16.84
16.76
16.67
16.59
16.50
16.46

521.3
417.3
301
228
178.3
144
118
108

16.0 ppg CaCl2 / CaBr2 / ZnBr2


Temp.
F

Density
ppg

Time
sec.

76.3
88.3
108
127.7
147.7
167.7
188.3
198.8
220.7

16.00
15.95
15.87
15.79
15.71
15.63
15.55
15.51
15.42

675
540
380
281
216
171
138
125
102.3

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
42.17
33.61
23.51
17.28
13.21
10.39
8.33
7.52
6.12

Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
40.60
32.11
22.94
17.14
13.21
10.45
8.40
7.57
6.1716

Density
ppg

Time
sec.

70
88.3
108.1
128.2
148
168
188.3
198.5

16.53
16.46
16.37
16.29
16.21
16.12
16.04
16.00

650.3
456
331
248
193
153.7
124
113

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
41.99
29.29
21.13
15.74
12.17
9.63
7.72
7.02

Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
42.98
29.70
21.19
15.75
12.17
9.63
7.77
7.02

Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
36.73
28.21
20.09
14.98
11.56
9.15
7.39
6.69

% Dev

-6.22
-2.34
-1.65
-0.68
0.05
1.44
2.23
2.98

17.5 ppg CaCl2 / CaBr2 / ZnBr2


% Dev

Temp.
F

Density
ppg

Time
sec.

3.72
4.48
2.45
0.81
0.00
-0.55
-0.75
-0.55
-0.91

76.4
88.3
108.1
128.1
148
168
188.1
198.3
220.7

17.51
17.45
17.36
17.27
17.18
17.09
17.00
16.95
16.85

490.3
394
291
221
173.3
140.7
116
103.7
86

16.5 ppg CaCl2 / CaBr2 / ZnBr2


Temp.
F

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
34.58
27.57
19.77
14.88
11.57
9.28
7.56
6.90

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
33.51
26.83
19.70
14.87
11.59
9.35
7.66
6.82
5.62

Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
33.55
26.58
18.96
14.12
10.89
8.62
6.97
6.29
5.11

% Dev

-0.10
0.93
3.74
5.04
5.97
7.76
9.04
7.76
9.06

18.0 ppg CaCl2 / CaBr2 / ZnBr2


% Dev

Temp.
F

Density
ppg

Time
sec.

-2.34
-1.42
-0.26
-0.10
0.01
0.01
-0.55
-0.03

77.3
88.2
108.1
128.1
148.1
168
188.1
198.4

18.02
17.97
17.87
17.78
17.68
17.59
17.49
17.44

438.3
364.3
272.7
210.7
167
134.3
111
102

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
30.83
25.54
19.00
14.59
11.49
9.18
7.54
6.91

Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
30.56
24.72
17.60
13.10
10.10
8.00
6.46
5.84

% Dev

0.89
3.22
7.38
10.19
12.11
12.84
14.26
15.49

SPE 86506

19.2 ppg CaCl2 / CaBr2 / ZnBr2

18.5 ppg CaCl2 / CaBr2 / ZnBr2


Temp.
F

Density
ppg

Time
sec.

75.7
88.9
108.5
128.7
148.3
168.2
188.1
198.4

18.44
18.37
18.27
18.17
18.07
17.97
17.87
17.82

348
285
220
173
139
114
97
87

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
25.05
20.43
15.67
12.24
9.77
7.96
6.73
6.02

Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
29.33
22.65
16.24
12.06
9.35
7.41
6.00
5.42

% Dev

Temp.
F

Density
ppg

Time
sec.

-17.08
-10.89
-3.61
1.46
4.32
6.92
10.86
9.97

76
88.3
107.7
128.1
148.3
167.6
187.6
198.1

19.11
19.04
18.94
18.83
18.73
18.62
18.52
18.46

323
270.3
200
152
120
99
82
75

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
24.10
20.09
14.77
11.15
8.74
7.17
5.90
5.37

Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
25.01
19.66
14.11
10.44
8.03
6.40
5.18
4.66

% Dev

Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
20.50
16.59
12.22
9.35
7.33
5.90
4.90
4.51

% Dev

Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
30.55
22.68
16.53
12.44
9.64
7.66
6.25
5.70

% Dev

Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
40.01
30.59
21.75
16.15
12.33
9.63
7.76
7.00

% Dev

-3.78
2.14
4.46
6.37
8.21
10.64
12.20
13.22

Table A-4
Calcium Chloride / Calcium Bromide Blends
12.0 ppg CaCl2 / CaBr2
.5 ppg CaCl2 / CaBr2
Temp.
F

Density
ppg

Time
sec.

80.5
88.3
108.1
128.1
148.2
167.9
187.8
198.2

11.94
11.92
11.86
11.80
11.74
11.68
11.62
11.59

192
167.3
129.7
103.7
85
71
60.7
56

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
8.95
7.78
6.00
4.77
3.88
3.22
2.74
2.52

Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
9.43
8.35
6.27
4.83
3.85
3.21
2.79
2.63

% Dev

Temp.
F

Density
ppg

Time
sec.

-5.29
-7.32
-4.53
-1.38
0.80
0.41
-1.72
-4.36

75.8
88.2
108.3
128
148
168.1
188.1
198.2

13.46
13.41
13.35
13.28
13.21
13.15
13.08
13.04

397
320
235.3
181
142.7
115
96
88

12.5 ppg CaCl2 / CaBr2


Temp.
F

Density
ppg

Time
sec.

79.8
89.2
108.3
128.2
148.1
167.9
188.1
198.3

12.44
12.41
12.35
12.29
12.23
12.16
12.10
12.07

234
206
159
124.7
101
83
70.3
65

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
11.36
9.98
7.66
5.97
4.80
3.92
3.30
3.05

Density
ppg

Time
sec.

71.1
88.1
108.2
128
148
168.1
188.3
198.2

12.95
12.89
12.83
12.76
12.70
12.63
12.57
12.54

326.7
257
191.7
149
119
97
81.3
75.3

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
16.52
12.93
9.59
7.41
5.88
4.76
3.97
3.66

1.73
0.96
0.19
0.13
0.14
-0.40
-0.50
-1.25

14.0 ppg CaCl2 / CaBr2


Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
11.64
10.05
7.62
5.87
4.67
3.86
3.30
3.09

% Dev

Temp.
F

Density
ppg

Time
sec.

-2.46
-0.72
0.52
1.61
2.74
1.71
0.24
-1.38

72.5
88.4
108.1
128.1
148
168
188
198.1

14.01
13.96
13.89
13.82
13.75
13.68
13.61
13.57

583.3
425.3
305.3
229.3
178
143
117
107.3

13.0 ppg CaCl2 / CaBr2


Temp.
F

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
20.86
16.75
12.24
9.36
7.34
5.88
4.88
4.46

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
31.92
23.16
16.53
12.34
9.52
7.60
6.18
5.65

4.29
2.09
0.01
-0.78
-1.22
-0.72
-1.08
-0.79

14.5 ppg CaCl2 / CaBr2


Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
16.85
12.70
9.44
7.26
5.74
4.68
3.94
3.67

% Dev

Temp.
F

Density
ppg

Time
sec.

-1.99
1.75
1.52
1.93
2.37
1.77
0.63
-0.16

75.3
88.5
108.3
128.1
148.1
168.3
188.1
198.5

14.47
14.42
14.35
14.27
14.20
14.13
14.06
14.02

695
550.7
388
287.7
220
174
140
126

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
39.26
30.99
21.70
16.00
12.16
9.56
7.64
6.86

-1.89
1.29
-0.21
-0.97
-1.38
-0.80
-1.54
-2.04

SPE 86506

15.1 ppg CaCl2 / CaBr2


Temp.
F

Density
ppg

Time
sec.

76.4
88.5
108.3
128.1
148.2
168.2
188
198.3

15.07
15.02
14.95
14.87
14.80
14.72
14.65
14.61

1067
819
557.7
400
299
231.7
186
167

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
62.79
48.01
32.50
23.17
17.21
13.26
10.58
9.47

Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
64.08
47.68
32.25
23.20
17.25
13.22
10.43
9.31

% Dev

-2.05
0.68
0.76
-0.13
-0.19
0.29
1.45
1.73

Table A-5
Sodium Bromide Solutions
9.0 ppg NaBr
Temp.
F

Density
ppg

Time
sec.

72.5
88.2
108
128.2
148.3
168.1
188.4
199.1

9.02
8.99
8.96
8.91
8.86
8.81
8.75
8.72

33.7
27
23
20
18
16
15
14

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
1.19
0.95
0.80
0.69
0.62
0.55
0.51
0.47

12.0 ppg NaBr


Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
1.159
0.96
0.79
0.68
0.60
0.54
0.49
0.47

% Dev

Temp.
F

Density
ppg

Time
sec.

2.40
-0.83
2.01
2.77
3.92
1.94
4.25
1.78

73.9
88.3
108.1
128.3
148.3
168.2
188.4
199.1

11.97
11.94
11.90
11.86
11.83
11.81
11.78
11.77

43.7
36
29.7
25
22
19.7
18
17

10.0 ppg NaBr


Temp.
F

Density
Ppg

Time
sec.

74.5
88.1
108
127.9
147.8
167.9
187.4
199.1

9.96
9.93
9.89
9.85
9.80
9.75
9.70
9.67

34
27
23
20
17.7
16.3
15
14

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
1.32
1.05
0.89
0.77
0.67
0.62
0.57
0.53

Density
Ppg

Time
sec.

69.2
88.1
108
128.1
147.8
167.9
187.7
199.1

11.04
11.00
10.96
10.92
10.88
10.84
10.80
10.78

42
33
27
24
21
19
17.6
17.3

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
1.81
1.42
1.15
1.02
0.89
0.80
0.74
0.72

Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
1.93
1.62
1.34
1.15
1.01
0.91
0.83
0.79

% Dev

Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
2.01
1.66
1.43
1.26
1.13
1.03
0.98

% Dev

5.26
3.19
2.92
0.67
-0.17
-1.05
-0.79
-1.87

12.5 ppg NaBr


Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
1.28
1.087
0.89
0.77
0.68
0.61
0.56
0.53

% Dev

Temp.
F

Density
Ppg

Time
sec.

3.05
-3.84
-0.80
-0.18
-0.69
1.09
1.43
-0.59

88.3
108.1
127.8
148
167.9
188.1
199.1

12.41
12.37
12.34
12.32
12.30
12.28
12.28

41
34
28
24
22
19
18

Viscosity
cp.
Predicted
1.77
1.40
1.15
0.99
0.87
0.78
0.71
0.68

% Dev

11.0 ppg NaBr


Temp.
F

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
2.04
1.68
1.38
1.16
1.01
0.90
0.82
0.78

2.48
1.50
0.48
3.44
1.83
1.99
3.26
6.25

Viscosity
cp.
Measured
1.99
1.64
1.35
1.15
1.05
0.91
0.86

-1.36
-1.08
-6.03
-9.53
-7.84
-13.70
-14.37