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REPORT OF PRESENTATION
SIR IMRAN DAUD
SYED ZIAFAT ALI SAAD ASGHAR
Working and importance of Internet Protocol (IP).
The Internet base protocols and systems were mainly devised in the 1970s and 1980s. Many were established initially as a means to connect mainframe computer systems for timesharing purposes. The system introduced for this
fairly trivial purpose has expanded to become a global multimedia information and communications system, connecting PCs, phones, and tens of millions rather than the few devices foreseen by the original inventors. The Internet Protocol Suite resulted from work done by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in the early 1970s. After building the pioneering ARPANET in 1969, DARPA started work on a number of other data transmission technologies. In 1972, Robert E. Kahn was hired at the DARPA Information Processing Technology Office, where he worked on both satellite packet networks and ground-based radio packet networks, and recognized the value of being able to communicate across them. In the spring of 1973, Vinton Cerf, the developer of the existing ARPANET Network Control Program (NCP) protocol, joined Kahn to work on open-architecture interconnection models with the goal of designing the next protocol generation for the ARPANET. In 1975, a two-network TCP/IP communications test was performed between Stanford and University College London (UCL). In November, 1977, a threenetwork TCP/IP test was conducted between sites in the US, UK, and Norway. Several other TCP/IP prototypes were developed at multiple research centers between 1978 and 1983. The migration of the ARPANET to TCP/IP was officially completed on January 1, 1983 when the new protocols were permanently activated. In March 1982, the US Department of Defense declared TCP/IP as the standard for all military computer networking.In 1985, the Internet Architecture Board held a three day workshop on TCP/IP for the computer industry, attended by 250 vendor representatives, promoting the protocol and leading to its increasing commercial use.
Layers Of TCP/IP :
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is not a single Protocol; it refers to a family or suite of protocols. The suite consists of a four-layer model.
1.) Network Interface Layer
The Network Interface Layer is equivalent to the combination of the Physical and Data Link Layers in the OSI model. It is responsible for formatting packets and placing them onto the underlying network. All common Data Link protocols Support TCP/IP.
2.) Internet Layer
The Internet Layer is equivalent to the Network Layer in the OSI model. It is Responsible for network addressing. The main protocols at this layer are: Internet Protocol (IP), Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP), Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), and Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP).
3.) The Transport Layer
The Transport Layer is equivalent to the Transport Layer in the OSI model. The Internet Transport layer is implemented by TCP and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP). TCP provides reliable data transport, while UDP provides Unreliable data transport.
4/) The Application Layer
The Application Layer is equivalent to the top three layers, (Application, Presentation and Session Layers), in the OSI model. The Application Layer is responsible for interfacing between user applications and the Transport Layer. Applications commonly used are File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Telnet, Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), Domain Name system (DNS), Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), and so on.
IP is a connectionless protocol that is primarily responsible for addressing and routing packets between network devices. Connectionless means that a Session is not established before data is exchanged. IP is quite unreliable because packet delivery is not guaranteed. IP makes what is termed a ‘best effort’ attempt to deliver a packet. Along the way a packet may be lost, delivered out of sequence, duplicated or delayed. An acknowledgement is not required when data is received. The sender or Receiver is not informed when a packet is lost or out of sequence. The acknowledgement of packets is the responsibility of a higher-layer transport Protocol, such as the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). IP is also responsible for fragmenting and reassembling packets. A large packet must be divided into smaller pieces when it has to traverse a network that supports a smaller packet size The Internet Protocol (IP) is the method or protocol by which data is sent from one computer to another on the Internet. Each computer (known as a host) on the Internet has at least one IP address that uniquely identifies it from all other computers on the Internet. When you send or receive data (for example, an e-mail note or a Web page), the message gets divided into little chunks called packets. Each of these packets contains both the sender's Internet address and the receiver's address. Any packet is sent first to a gateway computer that understands a small part of the Internet. The gateway computer reads the destination address and forwards the packet to an adjacent gateway that in turn reads the destination address and so forth across the Internet until one gateway recognizes the packet as belonging to a computer within its immediate neighborhood or domain. That gateway then forwards the packet directly to the computer whose address is specified. Because a message is divided into a number of packets, each packet can, if necessary, be sent by a different route across the Internet. Packets can arrive in a different order than the order they were sent in. The Internet Protocol just delivers them. It's up to another protocol, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) to put them back in the right order. IP is a connectionless protocol, which means that there is no continuing connection between the end points that are communicating. Each packet that travels through the Internet is treated as an independent unit of data without any relation to any other unit of data. (The reason the packets do get put in the right order is because of TCP, the connection-oriented protocol that keeps track of the packet sequence in a message.) In the Open Systems
Routing of IP Packets:
IP delivers its packets in a connectionless mode. It does not check to see if the receiving host can accept data. Furthermore it does not keep a copy in case of errors. IP is therefore said to “fire and forget”. When a packet arrives at a router, the router forwards the packet only if it knows a route to the destination. If it does not know the destination, it drops the packet. In practice routers rarely drop packets, because they typically have default routes defined. The router does not send any acknowledgements to the sending device. A router analyses the checksum. If it is not correct then the packet is dropped. It also decreases the Time-To-Live (TTL), and if this value is zero then the packet is dropped. If necessary the router fragments larger packets into smaller ones and sets flags and Fragment Offset fields accordingly. Finally, a new checksum is generated due to possible changes in TTL, flags and Fragment offset. The packet is then forwarded.
IP PACKET STRUCTURE:
When the size of the packet exceeds the limits of the network on the outgoing interface, the packet must be broken into smaller packets, each of which carries a portion of the original data. This process is called Fragmentation. The fragmented IP packets have data copied from the original packet into their data area. Each fragment contains an IP header that duplicates the original header, with the exception of the information in the checksum, flags and offset fields. They are treated as normal IP packets while being transported to their destination. The fragment packets may take different routes to their final destination. When the fragment packets arrive at their destination, the destination host must join the fragments together again before processing the original packet in the normal way. If, however, one of the fragments gets lost then the complete IP packet is considered to be lost. This is because IP does not provide any acknowledgement mechanism. The remaining fragments will simply be discarded by the destination host. Note that if a packet has a flag set to ‘don’t fragment’ and the router decides to send this packet over a medium which does not support the size of the packet, then the packet is dropped.
The IP Address:
Every network interface on a TCP/IP device is identified by a globally unique IPaddress. Host devices, for example, PCs, typically have a single IP address. Routers typically have two or more IP addresses, depending on the numberof interfaces they have. An IP address has two parts: the identifier of a particular network on the Internet and an identifier of the particular device (which can be a server or a workstation) within that network. On the Internet itself - that is, between the router that move packets from one point to another along the route - only the network part of the address is looked at. Each IP address is 32 bits long and is composed of four 8-bit fields, calledoctets. The address is normally represented in ‘dotted decimal notation’ bygrouping the four octets and representing each one in decimal form. Each octetrepresents a decimal number in the range 0-255. For example, 11000001 10100000 00000001 00000101, is known as 184.108.40.206. Each IP address consists of a network ID and a host ID. The network ID identifies the systems that are located on the same network. The network ID must be unique to the internetwork. The host ID identifies a TCP/IP network device (or host) within a network. The address for each host must be unique to the network ID. In the example above, the PC is connected to network ’220.127.116.11’ and has a unique host ID of ‘.5’.
The Network Part of the IP Address:
The Internet is really the interconnection of many individual networks (it's sometimes referred to as an internetwork). So the Internet Protocol (IP) is basically the set of rules for one network communicating with any other (or occasionally, for broadcast messages, all other networks). Each network must know its own address on the Internet and that of any other networks with which it communicates. To be part of the Internet, an organization needs an Internet network number, which it can request from the Network Information Center (NIC). This unique network number is included in any packet sent out of the network onto the Internet.
The Local or Host Part of the IP Address:
In addition to the network address or number, information is needed about which specific machine or host in a network is sending or receiving a message. So the IP address needs both the unique network number and a host number (which is unique within the network). (The host number is sometimes called a local or machine address.)
IP Address Classes and Their Formats:
Since networks vary in size, there are four different address formats or classes to consider when applying to NIC for a network number:
• • • •
Class Class Class Class
A addresses are for large networks with many devices. B addresses are for medium-sized networks. C addresses are for small networks (fewer than 256 devices). D addresses are multicast addresses.
The first few bits of each IP address indicate which of the address class formats it is using. The address structures look like this:
Class A 0 Network (7 bits) Local address (24 bits)
Class B 10 Class C 110 Class D 1110 Multicast address (28 bits) Network (21 bits) Local address (8 bits) Network (14 bits) Local address (16 bits)
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