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HYDRAULICS LABORATORY

NAME

STUDENT NO.

: _____2013150752___________________________________

COURSE-SECTION

___

PIPE____

TITLE

DATE PERFORMED

DATE SUBMITTED

GRADE

INSTRUCTOR

FLUID FRICTION IN A SMOOTH BORE PIPE

I.

INTRODUCTION

Professor Osborne Reynolds demonstrated that two types of flow may exist in a

pipe.

1. Laminar flow at low velocities where h

u.

un

These two types of flow are separated by a transition phase where no definite

relationship between h and u exists.

Graphs of h versus u and log u show these zones.

Turbulent

Higher critical

velocity

Lower critical velocity

Laminar flow

II.

OBJECTIVE

To determine the relationship between head loss due to fluid friction and velocity

for flow of water through smooth bore pipes.

Method

To obtain a series of readings of head loss at different flow rates through the

three smooth bore test pipes.

A. Fluid Friction Apparatus An apparatus that has different valves, pipes, and

fittings to show losses. It also includes experiments on roughened pipes and

uses the theory of Bernoulli equation to measure flow and velocity profile.

a projecting arm at one end, to which is attached a sliding vernier with a

projecting arm that forms a jaw with the other projecting arm.

time elapsed from a particular time when it is activated to the time when

the piece is deactivated.

EQUIPMENT SET UP

Additional equipment required: Stop watch, Internal Vernier Caliper.

Refer to the diagram General Assembly of the Apparatus.

VALVE SETTINGS

Close V1, 10, V4 in test pipe 3

Open V2

Open V4 in test pipe 1, V4 in test pipe 2 or 7 in test pipe 4 as required

Open A and B or C and D after connecting probes to tappings

Prime the pipe network with water. Pen and close the appropriate

valves to obtain the flow rate of water through the required test pipe.

Measure flow rates using the volumetric tank in conjunction with flow control

valve V6. For small flow rates, use the measuring cylinder in conjunction with

flow control valve V5 (V6 closed). Measure head loss between the tappings

using

the

mercury

manometer

or

pressurized

water

manometer

as

Measure the internal diameter using the of each test pipe sample

using the Vernier caliper.

PROCESSING RESULTS

All readings should be tabulated as follows:

Volum

e

V

Liters

Time

T

Secs

Flow

rate

Q

m3/s

Vx 103

T

Pipe

dia.

d

m

Velocit

y

U

m/s

4Q

2

d

Head

Loss

H

mmHg

Head

Loss

h

m H 2O

(hA hB)

(hC

hD)

or

12.6H

Log

u

Log h

Plot a graph of h versus u for each size of pipe. Identify the laminar, transition

and turbulent zones on graphs.

Confirm that the graph is a straight line for the zone of laminar flow h

u.

Plot a graph of log h versus log u for each size of pipe. Confirm that the graph

is a straight line for the zone of turbulent flow h

Estimate the value of Reynolds number at the start and finish of the

transition phase. These two values of Re are called the upper and lower

critical velocities.

It is assumed that:

Given:

t = 115.61 s

V = 5 L = 0.005 m3

d = 0.006 m

hA

= 296 mmHg

h B = 289 mmHg

Solution:

Q=

3

V x 103 (5 L ) ( 10 )

m3

=

=4.325 x 105

T

115.61 s

s

u=

4Q

=

2

d

4(4.325 x 10

( 0.006 m)

m

)

s

=1.5297

m

s

h=hC hB =12.6 H =12.6 ( 317 mmHg )=3994.2 m

log u=l og (1.5296)=0.1846

log h=log (4.0256)=0.6048

VII. CONCLUSION

This experiment is entitled Fluid Friction in a Smooth Bore Pipe. Its

main objective is to determine the relationship between head loss due to fluid

friction and velocity for flow of water through smooth bore pipes and confirm

the head loss predicted by pipe friction equation.

head loss at different flow rates through the smooth bore test pipes. From

this, we observed the relationship between fluid friction coefficient and

Reynolds' number for flow of water through a pipe having a roughened bore.

In getting the flow rate, we measured the amount of water collected over a

period of time. From the data gathered, we determined the head loss

associated with flow of water through standard fittings used in plumbing

installations by getting the difference in elevation.

Fluid friction is observed in the flow of liquids and gases. Its causes

are similar to those responsible for friction between solid surfaces, for it also

depends on the chemical nature of the fluid and the nature of the surface

over which the fluid is flowing. The tendency of the liquid to resist flow like its

degree of viscosity, is another important factor.

design of airplanes and automobiles is the result of engineers' efforts to

minimize fluid friction while retaining speed and protecting structure. It was

observed in the experiment that fluids have intrinsic friction due to two

effects: the weak attraction between fluid molecules (viscosity), and the

transfer of momentum from fluid molecules that bounce off objects (highspeed drag).

Overall, the experiment succeeded in meeting the mentioned

objective since through experimentation, we attained desired values which

were relatively close to the actual values.

Pumps are used in almost all aspects of industry and engineering

from feeds to reactors and distillation columns in chemical engineering to

pumping storm water in civil and environmental.

The results and underlying principles of the study of pipe friction

are of the greatest importance to engineers in the aeronautical, civil,

mechanical, marine, agricultural and hydraulic fields. This apparatus allows

the detailed study of the fluid friction head losses which occur when an

incompressible fluid flows through pipes, bends, valves and pipe flow

metering devices. Friction head losses in straight pipes of different sizes can

be investigated over a range of Reynolds' numbers from 103 to nearly 105,

thereby covering the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes in

smooth pipes. In addition, an artificially roughened pipe is supplied which, at

the higher Reynolds' numbers, shows a clear departure from the typical

smooth bore pipe characteristics.

IX. REFERENCES

A. Uy,F. A., Tan, F., & Monjardin, C. E. (2015). Laboratory Manual in Fluid

Mechanics

B. http://www.gunt.de/static/s4563_1.php

C. http://www.advantageengineering.com/fyi/156/advantageFYI156.php

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