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MAPUA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

SCHOOL OF CIVIL, ENVIRONMENTAL AND GEOLOGICAL ENGINEERING


HYDRAULICS LABORATORY

NAME

:______ZAPANTA, JOHN MICHAEL M.____________________

STUDENT NO.

: _____2013150752___________________________________

COURSE-SECTION

: _____CE142P C5_______________ GROUP NO. : ___3___

EXPERIMENT NO. _12-A_


___

FLUID FRICTION IN A SMOOTH BORE


PIPE____
TITLE

DATE PERFORMED

: _______November 14, 2016_______

DATE SUBMITTED

: _______November 24, 2016______


GRADE

ENGR. KEVIN PAOLO V. ROBLES


INSTRUCTOR

EXPERIMENT NO. 12-A


FLUID FRICTION IN A SMOOTH BORE PIPE
I.

INTRODUCTION
Professor Osborne Reynolds demonstrated that two types of flow may exist in a

pipe.
1. Laminar flow at low velocities where h

2. Turbulent flow at higher velocities where h

u.

un

These two types of flow are separated by a transition phase where no definite
relationship between h and u exists.
Graphs of h versus u and log u show these zones.

Turbulent
Higher critical
velocity
Lower critical velocity
Laminar flow

II.

OBJECTIVE
To determine the relationship between head loss due to fluid friction and velocity
for flow of water through smooth bore pipes.
Method
To obtain a series of readings of head loss at different flow rates through the
three smooth bore test pipes.

III. SKETCH OF THE APPARATUS

A. Fluid Friction Apparatus An apparatus that has different valves, pipes, and
fittings to show losses. It also includes experiments on roughened pipes and
uses the theory of Bernoulli equation to measure flow and velocity profile.

B. Vernier Caliper - A linear measuring instrument consisting of a scaled rule with


a projecting arm at one end, to which is attached a sliding vernier with a
projecting arm that forms a jaw with the other projecting arm.

A. Stopwatch a handheld time piece designed to measure the amount of


time elapsed from a particular time when it is activated to the time when
the piece is deactivated.

IV. LABORATORY PROCEDURE


EQUIPMENT SET UP
Additional equipment required: Stop watch, Internal Vernier Caliper.
Refer to the diagram General Assembly of the Apparatus.
VALVE SETTINGS
Close V1, 10, V4 in test pipe 3
Open V2
Open V4 in test pipe 1, V4 in test pipe 2 or 7 in test pipe 4 as required
Open A and B or C and D after connecting probes to tappings

TAKING A SET OF RESULTS


Prime the pipe network with water. Pen and close the appropriate
valves to obtain the flow rate of water through the required test pipe.
Measure flow rates using the volumetric tank in conjunction with flow control
valve V6. For small flow rates, use the measuring cylinder in conjunction with
flow control valve V5 (V6 closed). Measure head loss between the tappings
using

the

mercury

manometer

or

pressurized

water

manometer

as

appropriate. Obtain readings on test pipes 1, 2 and 4.


Measure the internal diameter using the of each test pipe sample
using the Vernier caliper.
PROCESSING RESULTS
All readings should be tabulated as follows:
Volum
e
V
Liters

Time
T
Secs

Flow
rate
Q
m3/s

Vx 103
T

Pipe
dia.
d
m

Velocit
y
U
m/s

4Q
2
d

Head
Loss
H
mmHg

Head
Loss
h
m H 2O

(hA hB)

(hC

hD)
or
12.6H

Log
u

Log h

Plot a graph of h versus u for each size of pipe. Identify the laminar, transition
and turbulent zones on graphs.
Confirm that the graph is a straight line for the zone of laminar flow h

u.

Plot a graph of log h versus log u for each size of pipe. Confirm that the graph
is a straight line for the zone of turbulent flow h

un. Determine the slope

of the straight line to find the n.

Estimate the value of Reynolds number at the start and finish of the
transition phase. These two values of Re are called the upper and lower
critical velocities.
It is assumed that:

is the molecular viscosity = 1.15x10-3 Ns/m2 at 15

is the density = 999 kg/m3 at 15

VI. SAMPLE COMPUTATION


Given:
t = 115.61 s
V = 5 L = 0.005 m3
d = 0.006 m

hA

= 296 mmHg

h B = 289 mmHg
Solution:

Q=

3
V x 103 (5 L ) ( 10 )
m3
=
=4.325 x 105
T
115.61 s
s

u=

4Q
=
2
d

4(4.325 x 10

( 0.006 m)

m
)
s

=1.5297

m
s

H=h AhB =317 mmHg


h=hC hB =12.6 H =12.6 ( 317 mmHg )=3994.2 m
log u=l og (1.5296)=0.1846
log h=log (4.0256)=0.6048

VII. CONCLUSION
This experiment is entitled Fluid Friction in a Smooth Bore Pipe. Its
main objective is to determine the relationship between head loss due to fluid
friction and velocity for flow of water through smooth bore pipes and confirm
the head loss predicted by pipe friction equation.

In this experiment, we were able to obtain a series of readings of


head loss at different flow rates through the smooth bore test pipes. From
this, we observed the relationship between fluid friction coefficient and
Reynolds' number for flow of water through a pipe having a roughened bore.
In getting the flow rate, we measured the amount of water collected over a
period of time. From the data gathered, we determined the head loss
associated with flow of water through standard fittings used in plumbing
installations by getting the difference in elevation.
Fluid friction is observed in the flow of liquids and gases. Its causes
are similar to those responsible for friction between solid surfaces, for it also
depends on the chemical nature of the fluid and the nature of the surface
over which the fluid is flowing. The tendency of the liquid to resist flow like its
degree of viscosity, is another important factor.

Fluid friction is affected by increased velocities, and the modern streamline


design of airplanes and automobiles is the result of engineers' efforts to
minimize fluid friction while retaining speed and protecting structure. It was
observed in the experiment that fluids have intrinsic friction due to two
effects: the weak attraction between fluid molecules (viscosity), and the
transfer of momentum from fluid molecules that bounce off objects (highspeed drag).
Overall, the experiment succeeded in meeting the mentioned
objective since through experimentation, we attained desired values which
were relatively close to the actual values.

VIII. APPLICATION TO ENGINEERING


Pumps are used in almost all aspects of industry and engineering
from feeds to reactors and distillation columns in chemical engineering to
pumping storm water in civil and environmental.
The results and underlying principles of the study of pipe friction
are of the greatest importance to engineers in the aeronautical, civil,
mechanical, marine, agricultural and hydraulic fields. This apparatus allows
the detailed study of the fluid friction head losses which occur when an
incompressible fluid flows through pipes, bends, valves and pipe flow
metering devices. Friction head losses in straight pipes of different sizes can
be investigated over a range of Reynolds' numbers from 103 to nearly 105,
thereby covering the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes in
smooth pipes. In addition, an artificially roughened pipe is supplied which, at
the higher Reynolds' numbers, shows a clear departure from the typical
smooth bore pipe characteristics.

IX. REFERENCES
A. Uy,F. A., Tan, F., & Monjardin, C. E. (2015). Laboratory Manual in Fluid
Mechanics
B. http://www.gunt.de/static/s4563_1.php
C. http://www.advantageengineering.com/fyi/156/advantageFYI156.php