You are on page 1of 89

IR MUSIC TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER

Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the award of the degree


of

Bachelor of Technology
in

Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering


of
Cochin University of Science and Technology
APARNA K
AYISHA A
BIBBIN VARGHESE
CHRISTOPHER MATHEW ALEX

Under the guidance of

MS. ANJU V SATHYAN


Asst.Professor

April, 2016
Department of Electronics Engineering
College of Engineering, Chengannur-689121
Phone: (0479) 2454125, 2451424

Fax: (0479) 2451424

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, CHENGANNUR


KERALA

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING


CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project entitled

IR MUSIC TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER


Submitted by
APARNA K
AYISHA A
BIBBIN VARGHESE
CHRISTOPHER MATHEW ALEX

is a bona fide work done by them.

Guide

Coordinator
Head of the Department

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Beginning with we would like to thank GOD ALMIGHTY for providing us the strength
to perceive our project with full effort.
We would like to extend our deep gratitude to Prof. JYOTHI JOHN, Principal, College
of Engineering Chengannur and Dr.JYOTHIRAJ V.P, Head of the Department of Electronics
and our coordinator for providing us with the necessary facilities required for the completion of
the project.
We would like to express our special thanks to Mr. Tubin Xavier Assistant Professor
and Mrs. Dhanya G Sasi, Assistant Professor whose encouragement, guidance and support from
the initial to the final stage enabled us to develop an immense understanding of the project. We
also extend our gratitude to our guide, Ms. Anju V Sathyan, Assistant Professor.
A special thanks to Faculty of the Electronics Department, Lab assistants for providing
the numerous tools, programming systems, microcontroller programmers and facilities at the Lab
that have encouraged, support and helped us in completing this project successfully.
Last but not the least; we convey our regards to all those who supported us in the
completion of our project.

ABSTRACT
Thus communication can be performed with the minimum infrared output regardless of the
opposite apparatus. IR communication has here to fore been known in which infrared light is
used to perform communication among apparatuses. According to the IR communication, for a
distance of 1m from a communication object communication can be

performed without

performing connection via a cable and the like which is convenient for use and which provides
and advantage that the communication can be realized with a simple constitution as compared
with the communication using radio waves. From such advantage, IR communication is
preferable applied to small apparatuses such as a note type personal computer and a portable
information terminal. In this we illustrate process by which music can be transmitted through IR
rays.

CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION01

2. PROBLEM DEFINITION AND OPTIMIZED SOLUTION


2.1 PROBLEM DEFINITION.....03
2.2 OPTIMIZED SOLUTION..03
3. BLOCK DIAGRAM AND DESCRIPTION
3.1 BASIC BLOCK DIAGRAM...........05
3.2 BLOCK DESCRIPTION .....07

4. COMPONENT LIST AND SPECIFICATIONS


4.1 UM66.10

4.2ZENER DIODE......10
4.3TRANSISTOR10
4.4LED...11
4.5 IR EMITTER & IR PHOTOTRANSISTOR..11
4.6 IC741C12
4.7 LM386 ..........................................12
4.8 RHEOSTAT12
4.9 CAPACITORS.12

5.CIRCUIT DESIGN AND CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION


5.1 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM......15
5.2 CIRCUIT DESIGN......17

6.PCB LAYOUT
6.1 POWER SUPPLY BOARD
6.1.1 BOTTOM VIEW.............20

6.2 TRANSMITTER SECTION


6.2.1

BOTTOM VIEW...20

6.3 RECIEVER SECTION


6.3.1 BOTTOM VIEW..21
6.4 PCB FABRICATION ..........22

7.RESULTS ............25
8.CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE.27

9.REFERENCE.............29
10.APPENDIX BILL OF MATERIALS.....31

11.DATA SHEETS ............33

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

1.INTRODUCTION

1
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

Using this circuit audio musical note can be generated and can be heard up to a distance of 10
meters. The receiver can be placed at a maximum distance of 1 meter from the transmitter
without any considerable noise interference. The circuits of transmitter and receiver are quite
simple and can be placed and carried anywhere easily. The small apparatus provided with the
infrared communication function in many case operated by a battery incorporated inside so
that it is convenient when a user carries it during movement, and it is preferable that power
consumption be minimized also to lengthen the continuous operation possible time of infrared
emission is optimized. Here there is no use of any modulation techniques when working with
infrared rays. Hence there is no necessity of carrier generation. The apparatus provided with a
conventional infrared communication function, and receiver designs much simpler. This
project emphasizes the way by which music is generated and driven by infrared rays and gives
an explanation to the one of the methods of receiving infrared rays without considerable noise
interference.

2
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

2. PROBLEM DEFINITION AND OPTIMIZED


SOLUTION

3
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

2.1 PROBLEM DEFINITION


In todays stressful life music plays an important role in our life. With the advancement of
technology wireless gadgets are very popular.
2.2 OPTIMISED SOLUTION

This project aims at generating music notes by infrared radiations. The infrared radiations are
transmitted and received by IR LEDs and phototransistor respectively. The melody produced is
heard through the receivers loudspeaker. It can be used in music systems, mobile gadgets and cc
cameras.

4
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

3. BLOCK DIAGRAM AND DESCRIPTION

5
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

3.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM


TRANSMITTER SECTION

Figure 3.1 Transmitter section


RECEIVER SECTION

Figure 3.2 Receiver section

6
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

3.2 BLOCK DESCRIPTION


3.2.1 POWER SUPPLY
Almost all electronic equipment needs a circuit that converts AC voltage of main supply in to
DC voltage. Our IR music transmitter & receiver needs a fixed voltage regulator of 9v.
The first part of the power supply is a transformer which converts mains voltage to a low
AC voltage. Then it is followed by a rectifier, which converts the AC output of the transformer
to pulsating DC. It is followed by a filter, reduces the ripples in the pulsating DC. This output is
connected to a voltage regulation and we get a regulated voltage.

AC
Line

TRANSFORMER

RECTIFIER

FILTER

REGULATOR

LOAD

Fig 3.3 Power supply


3.2.2 UM66 MELODY

UM66IC is a popular melody generator that can continuously generate musical tones. The output
of the IC is fed to the IR driver stage. The red LED(LED1) flickers according to the musical
tones generated by UM66IC,indicating modulation.
3.2.3 DRIVER STAGE
It Consist of two transistors(T1 BC547 & T2 SK100) to get the maximum range.
TRANSMITTING LED
IR LED2 & LED3 are infrared transmitting LEDs. For maximum sound transmission these
should be oriented towards IR phototransistor(T3 L14F1).

7
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

3.2.4 PHOTOTRANSISTOR
The transmitted infrared rays from the IR LEDs are received by the phototransistor(T3 L14F1) in
the receiver section. The received signals are fed to the popular op amp 741 IC.
3.2.5 AMPLIFIER
The 741 Op amp IC has two inputs to the amplifier, designated + and -. This is because the
741, like all the IC Op amps of this type, is in fact a differential amplifier. Thus, the output
voltage is determined by the difference between the two input voltages. The + or non-inverting
input, is grounded through a resistor. Its gain can be varied by using pot meter VR1. The output
of IC is fed to IC is fed to ICLM386 via capacitor C5 & pot meter VR2.
3.2.6 AUDIO FREQUENCY AMPLIFIER & LOUDSPEAKER
The LM386 is an integrated circuit containing a low voltage audio power amplifier. The IC
consists of an 8 pin dual in-line package and can output 0.25 to 1 watts of power depending on
the model using a 9-volt power supply. The primary advantages of the LM380 series ICs are
higher output power, very low distortion and low external parts count. The melody produced is
heard through the receivers loudspeaker(8 ohm,1W).

8
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

4.COMPONENT LIST AND SPECIFICATIONS

9
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

4.1 IC UM66
This is the simplest ever musical calling bell that can be easily built. It is a 3 pin and generates
the music as an analog signal when it receives supply and drives a small speaker through a class
C amplifier using silicon transistor BC547. UM66 is a pleasing music generator IC works on a
supply voltage of 9V. The required 9V is supplied through Zener regulator. Its output is taken
from pin no:1 and is given to push pull amplifier to drive the low impedance loudspeaker. A
class A amplifier can be used before the push pull amplifier to decrease the noise.

Fig:4.1 Front view of UM66 IC


4.2 ZENER DIODE
A Zener diode is a type of diode that permits current in the forward direction like normal diode,
but also in the reverse direction if the voltage is larger than the breakdown voltage known as
Zener knee voltage or Zener voltage. The device was named after Clarence voltage who
discovered this electrical property. UM66IC has a voltage rating of 1.5V-3.4V. Beyond this
3.4V, IC gets damaged. So Zener diode act as a voltage stabilizer for UM66 IC.
4.3 TRANSISTOR
The transistor is a component with 3 wire coming out of it. They are Base(B),Emitter(E) and
Collector(C). Here two transistors are used. BC547(NPN transistor) is a BJT which amplifies the
analog signal provided by the UM66 IC. SK100/BD140(PNP transistor)

is a semi power

transistor which drives the IR rays according the amplitude of music signal.

10
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

4.4 LIGHT EMITTING DIODE LED


A LED is a semiconductor diode that emits light when an electric current is applied in the
forward direction of the device. The effect is a form of electroluminescence where the incoherent
and narrow spectrum light is emitted from the pn junction. The current through this LED is set to
a maximum value of 35mA which means bright red light. It is a sort of indicator as well as
voltage provider for the emitter circuit of SK100/BD140.
4.5 IR EMITTER AND PHOTOTRANSISTOR
An IR emitter is an LED made from gallium arsenide, which emits near IR energy at about
880nm. The IR phototransistor act as a transistor with the base voltage determined by the amount
of light hitting the transistor. Hence it act as a variable current source. Greater amount of IR light
cause greater current to flow through the Collector-Emitter leads.

Fig 4.5 Circuit diagram of IR emitter & phototransistor

11
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

4.6 IC 741
A very typical commercial IC op-amp is the 741. Here its used as a inverting amplifier to
amplify the received audio signals.
4.7 LM386
The LM386 is a low power amplifier designed for use in low voltage consumer applications. The
IC consist of a 8 pin dual in- line package and can output 0.5W.The gain is internally set to 20to
keep external part count low, but the addition of an external resistor and capacitor between pins 1
and 8 will increase the gain to any value from 20 to 200.
4.8 RHEOSTAT
A rheostat is a two terminal variable resistor. Often these are designed to handle much higher
current and voltage. Here pot meter VR1 is used for varying the gain of the op amp and pot
meter VR2 is for controlling the volume of the loudspeaker.
4.9 CAPACITOR
Capacitors store electric charge and are used with resistors in timing circuits. They are also used
in filter circuits. Electrolytic capacitor C2 and C4 is used to filter out the ambient switching
transients from affecting the circuit. C3 is used to block the dc bias of the IR transistor reaching
op amp.
4.10 RESISTOR
Resistor is a two terminal electronic component that produces a voltage across its terminals that
is proportional to the electric current passing through it in accordance with ohms law. R1 sets
the safe operating bias current for the Zener and R2,R3 forms attenuator for the output of the
UM66 IC while applying this signal to the transistor. R10 to certain extent act as a stabilizing
negative feedback component and hence reduces the bias for the receiver transistor.

12
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

4.11 LOUDSPEAKER
A loudspeaker is an electro acoustical transducer that converts an electrical signal to sound. The
speaker pushes the air in accordance with the variations of the electrical signal and causes sound
waves to propagate. Here we used 8ohm and 1W loudspeaker LS1.

13
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

5.CIRCUIT DESIGN AND CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION

14
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

5.1 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Fig 5.1 Transmitter circuit

15
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

Fig 5.2 Receiver circuit

16
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

5.2 CIRCUIT DESIGN


The main circuit of the IR Music Transmitter & Receiver consists of various stages, i.e. the main
power supply unit, transmitter section and receiver section.Step-wise analysis and approach
made it easy to obtain, improve and rectify our mistakes in the designing process.
5.2.1POWER SUPPLY UNIT

The power supply unit consists of a step-down transformer, a rectifier (where we


preferred to use a bridge rectifier), a filter (capacitor filter), voltage regulators that provides
regulated input to next stages.

Design
Output requirement: to generate constant output voltage of 5V and output current of 1A.
1. Step-down transformer
A 230V primary to 9V secondary,1A step-down transformer is required.
2. IN4001 diodes for the bridge rectifier.
3. Voltage regulator 7809 for 9V voltage regulation.
4. Capacitors
Capacitors C2 and C3 are taken as 0.01uF to regulate the output without ripples.
The capacitor C2 can be avoided if the regulator is close to the main power supply.
For capacitor C1
Let ripple, r =1/(43fRC1)
Vm=Vrms*1.42
F=50Hz

17
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

Required voltage=9V
Vrms= 9V
Vm=9*1.42
I=1A
Range of voltage
Vmin = 8.5v,Vmax =9.5V
r=(Vac-Vrms)/Vdc
Vac-Vrms= (Vr/2)*1.72=.866V
Vdc= Vmax-(Vr/2)=9.5-.5=9V
r=.866/9=.096
r=(1/4*1.72*R*f*C1)
since R=V/I=(9*1.42)/1=12.78ohm
.096=1/(4*1.72*12.78*50*C)
C1=0.000236F=236F(use 470F)

18
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

6.PCB LAYOUT

19
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

6.1 POWER SUPPLY UNIT

Fig 6.1 Power supply PCB Layout


6.2 TRANSMITTER UNIT

Fig 6.2 Transmitter PCB Layout

20
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

6.3 RECEIVER UNIT

Fig 6.3 Receiver PCB Layout

21
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

6.4 PCB FABRICATION


A printed circuit board or PCB is used to mechanically connect electronic components
using conductive pathways, or traces, etched form copper sheets laminated onto a nonconductive substrate. A PCB populated with electronic components is a printed circuit assembly
(PCA), also known as printed circuit board assembly (PCBA).
The various stages of the PCB fabrication are
1. Patterning
2. Drilling
3. Soldering
Patterning (Etching)
The majority of the printed circuit boards today are made from purchased
laminated material with copper already applied to both sides. The unwanted copper is
removed by various methods leaving only the desired copper traces, this is called
subtractive. In an additive method, t races are electroplated onto a bare substrate using a
complex process with many steps. The advantage of additive method is less pollution of
the environment. The method chosen for PCB manufacture depends on the number of
boards to be produced.

Drilling
Holes through a PCB are typically drilled with small-diameter drill bits made of solid
coated tungsten carbide. Coated tungsten carbide is a recommended since many board
materials are very abrasive and drilling must be high RPM and high feed to be cost
effective. Drill bits must also remain sharp. Here we used a mechanical hand drill to drill
the printed circuit board.

Soldering
Soldering is process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and
pouring a filler metal into the joint, the filler metal having a relatively low melting point.
Soft soldering is characterized by the melting point of the filler material, which is below
22
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

400C. The filler metal used in the process is called solder. In a soldering process, heat
is applied to the parts to be joined, causing the solder to melt and be drawn into the joint
by capillary action and to bond to the materials to be joined by wetting action. After the
metal cools, the resulting joints are not as strong as the base metal, but have adequate
strength, electrical conductivity and water tightness for many uses.
PCB fabrication using Toner Transfer Method involves the following steps:

First clean the copper clad board thoroughly. Handle the board by edges only.

Place the PCB copper-side up on an ironing board.

Cut the transfer film to size so that its no longer than the board.

Carefully place the transfer film over the board so that the toner side faces the
copper clad.

Secure the film into place with some strips of masking tape, but dont tape over
the toner areas.

Place a small piece of cloth or several layers of paper towel over the PCB and
transfer film.

Let the iron warm up and then apply the iron to the board. Move the iron back and
forth in the slow in even strokes.

Apply steady and firm pressure for 15 to 20 seconds.

Wait 10 to 15 seconds and then gently lift the cloth.

Carefully peel back a small corner of the film to see if the toner has transferred to
the copper clad.

If the toner hasnt completely transferred to the copper, replace the film and apply
the iron for another 15 to 20 seconds.

Follow these steps to etch the board:

Pour the etchant normally ferric chloride, into the plastic tray carefully, avoiding
spills and splashes.

Dunk the board into the tray and continually rock it back and forth.

23
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

Keep the board in the solution for 10 to 30 minutes (depending on the type and
strength of the etchant) or until the etchant has removed all the excess copper.
Keep shaking the tray gently moving back and forth.

Use the plastic or wooden tongs to lift the board out of the tray from time to time
to check progress.

The etchant removes the copper, starting from the edges and areas close to resist. The
etchant has completed etching when no traces of exposed copper are visible. Now the
board is drilled and components placed on it.

24
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

7.RESULTS

25
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

The model was fabricated as designed in the beginning of the project and the desired output was
obtained. We have tried our level best to make this project compact and efficient, with the easily
available and affordable component and that to limited to our knowledge within the small period
of study.

26
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

8.CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE

27
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

8.1 CONCLUSION
IR ray communication is very easy to understand and simple to implement. It finds various
applications in short distance field of communications. Its one of the best ways of building
wireless gadgets. The PCBs of the circuit was designed and setup. The appropriate components
were soldered on the board. A suitable cabin was designed and the soldered PCBs ere screwed to
the base. The mentioned components were checked and output was verified. Thus we were
successful in implementing our product IR MUSIC TRANSMITTER & RECIEVER. We
proudly present our product and hope it will prove worthy for the users. After the several months
of development and debugging, finally the project has been successfully completed. The
projects aim and the main objectives have been accomplished.
8.2 FUTURE SCOPES
We are extremely satisfied with the operation of our project. But there are number of
future enhancements that could be done to make the product more marketable and businessfriendly.I n f u t u r e t h e r e i s s c o p e o f b u i l d i n g v i r t u a l environment using the principles
of IR ray transmission and reception. Virtual gamingwhich also employs IR reception
techniques is still in research process which is soongoing to rule the world of gaming.

28
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

9.REFERENCE

29
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

1. G-QRP Club Circuit Handbook


2. WIA Book
3. ARRL/RSGB Handbooks
4. www.electronicsforu.com
5.www.techxcite.pratt.duke.edu
6.www.electrotechonline.com

30
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

10. APPENDIX

31
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

10.1 BILL OF MATERIALS

Serial No

Item

Quantity (nos )

Price

Amount
(Rs.)

Electrode

40

80

Drill Bit

36

Ferric Chloride

125g

30

30

Copper Clad

90

90

Transformer

70

140

230V-9V,1A
6

Lead

50g

20

20

IC UM66

10

10

Transistor

60

60

BC545
9

Transistor
SK100

10

Transistor
L14F1

11

IC 741

12

IC LM386

13

Loudspeaker

38

38

14

Resistor

12

12

15

Potmeter

10

20

16

Capacitor

13

13

17

IR LED

10

18

LED

19

Zener diode

20

7809 regulator

TOTAL

584

32
College of Engineering, Chengannur

IR Music Transmitter & Receiver

11.DATA SHEETS

33
College of Engineering, Chengannur

Zener Diode
Features:

High reliability.
Very sharp reverse characteristic.
Low reverse current level.
Vz-tolerance 5%.

Application:
Voltage stabilization.

Absolute Maximum Ratings

Tj = 25C

Parameter

Test Conditions

Symbol

Value

Unit

Power dissipation

Tamb 50C

Pv

Z-current

Iz

Pv / Vz

mA

Junction temperature

Tj

200

Storage temperature range

Tstg

-65 to +175

Parameter

Test Conditions

Symbol

Value

Unit

Junction ambient

I = 9.5 mm (3/8) TL = constant

RthJA

100

K/W

Maximum Thermal Resistance

Tj = 25C

Stresses exceeding maximum ratings may damage the device. Maximum ratings are stress ratings only. Functional operation above
the recommended operating conditions is not implied. Extended exposure to stresses above the recommended operating conditions
may affect device reliability.

Electrical Characteristics

Tj = 25C

Parameter

Test Conditions

Symbol

Maximum

Unit

Forward voltage

IF = 200 mA

VF

1.2

http://www.farnell.com
http://www.newark.com
http://www.cpc.co.uk

Page <1>

21/06/11 V1.1

Zener Diode
Specification Table

1)

IR

VR

VZnom1)

IZT

mA

mA

3.3

76

< 10

< 400

< 100

1N4728A

3.6

69

< 10

< 400

< 100

1N4729A

3.9

64

<9

< 400

< 50

1N4730A

4.7

53

<8

< 500

< 10

1N4732A

5.1

49

<7

< 550

< 10

1N4733A

5.6

45

<5

< 600

< 10

1N4734A

6.2

41

<2

< 700

< 10

1N4735A

6.8

37

< 3.5

< 700

< 10

1N4736A

7.5

34

<4

< 700

0.5

< 10

1N4737A

8.2

31

< 4.5

< 700

0.5

< 10

1N4738A

9.1

28

<5

< 700

0.5

< 10

1N4739A

10

25

<7

< 700

0.25

< 10

7.6

1N4740A

11

23

<8

< 700

0.25

<5

8.4

1N4741A

12

21

<9

< 700

0.25

<5

9.1

1N4742A

13

19

< 10

< 700

0.25

<5

9.9

1N4743A

15

17

< 14

< 700

0.25

<5

11.4

1N4744A

16

15.5

< 16

< 700

0.25

<5

12.2

1N4745A

18

14

< 20

< 750

0.25

<5

13.7

1N4746A

20

12.5

< 22

< 750

0.25

<5

15.2

1N4747A

22

11.5

< 23

< 750

0.25

<5

16.7

1N4748A

24

10.5

< 25

< 750

0.25

<5

18.2

1N4749A

27

9.5

< 35

< 750

0.25

<5

20.6

1N4750A

30

8.5

< 40

< 1000

0.25

<5

22.8

1N4751A

33

7.5

< 45

< 1000

0.25

<5

25.1

1N4752A

36

< 50

< 1000

0.25

<5

27.4

1N4753A

39

6.5

< 60

< 1000

0.25

<5

29.7

1N4754A

43

< 70

< 1500

0.25

<5

32.7

1N4755A

47

5.5

< 80

< 1500

0.25

<5

35.8

1N4756A

51

< 95

< 1500

0.25

<5

38.8

1N4757A

56

4.5

< 110

< 2000

0.25

<5

42.6

1N4758A

62

< 125

< 2000

0.25

<5

47.1

1N4759A

68

3.7

< 150

< 2000

0.25

<5

51.7

1N4760A

75

3.3

< 175

< 2000

0.25

<5

56

1N4761A

for

rziT

rziK

at

IZK

at

Part Number

Based on DC-measurement at thermal equilibrium while maintaining the lead temperature (TL) at 30C,
9.5 mm (3/8) from the diode body.

http://www.farnell.com
http://www.newark.com
http://www.cpc.co.uk

Page <2>

21/06/11 V1.1

Zener Diode
Characteristics (Tj = 25C unless otherwise specified)
Symbol

Parameter

VZ

Reverse zener voltage at IZT

IZT

Reverse current

ZZT

Maximum zener impedance at IZT

IZK

Reverse current

ZZK

Maximum zener impedance at IZK

IR

Reverse leakage current at VR

VR

Breakdown voltage

IF

Forward current

VF

Forward voltage at IF
Zener Voltage Regulator

Temperature Coefficients
(-55C to +150C temperature range; 90% of the units are in the ranges indicated)

http://www.farnell.com
http://www.newark.com
http://www.cpc.co.uk

Page <3>

21/06/11 V1.1

Zener Diode
Characteristics (Tj = 25C unless otherwise specified)

Effect of Zener Voltage on Zener Impedance

Effect of Zener Current on Zener Impedance

Dimensions

Dimensions: Millimetres

Standard Glass case


JEDEC DO-41

Disclaimer This data sheet and its contents (the "Information") belong to the Premier Farnell Group (the "Group") or are licensed to it. No licence is granted for the use of it other than for information purposes
in connection with the products to which it relates. No licence of any intellectual property rights is granted. The Information is subject to change without notice and replaces all data sheets previously supplied.
The Information supplied is believed to be accurate but the Group assumes no responsibility for its accuracy or completeness, any error in or omission from it or for any use made of it. Users of this data
sheet should check for themselves the Information and the suitability of the products for their purpose and not make any assumptions based on information included or omitted. Liability for loss or damage
resulting from any reliance on the Information or use of it (including liability resulting from negligence or where the Group was aware of the possibility of such loss or damage arising) is excluded.
This will not operate to limit or restrict the Group's liability for death or personal injury resulting from its negligence. SPC Multicomp is the registered trademark of the Group. Premier Farnell plc 2011.

http://www.farnell.com
http://www.newark.com
http://www.cpc.co.uk

Page <4>

21/06/11 V1.1

BC546/547/548/549/550

BC546/547/548/549/550
Switching and Applications
High Voltage: BC546, VCEO=65V
Low Noise: BC549, BC550
Complement to BC556 ... BC560

TO-92

1. Collector 2. Base 3. Emitter

NPN Epitaxial Silicon Transistor


Absolute Maximum Ratings Ta=25C unless otherwise noted
Symbol
VCBO

Collector-Base Voltage

Parameter
: BC546
: BC547/550
: BC548/549

Value
80
50
30

Units
V
V
V

VCEO

Collector-Emitter Voltage : BC546


: BC547/550
: BC548/549

65
45
30

V
V
V

VEBO

Emitter-Base Voltage

6
5

V
V

IC

Collector Current (DC)

100

mA

PC

Collector Power Dissipation

500

mW

TJ

Junction Temperature

150

TSTG

Storage Temperature

-65 ~ 150

: BC546/547
: BC548/549/550

Electrical Characteristics Ta=25C unless otherwise noted


Symbol
ICBO

Parameter
Collector Cut-off Current

Test Condition
VCB=30V, IE=0

Min.
110

Typ.

hFE

DC Current Gain

VCE=5V, IC=2mA

VCE (sat)

Collector-Emitter Saturation Voltage

IC=10mA, IB=0.5mA
IC=100mA, IB=5mA

90
200

VBE (sat)

Base-Emitter Saturation Voltage

IC=10mA, IB=0.5mA
IC=100mA, IB=5mA

700
900

VBE (on)

Base-Emitter On Voltage

VCE=5V, IC=2mA
VCE=5V, IC=10mA

580

Units
nA

800

660

fT

Current Gain Bandwidth Product

VCE=5V, IC=10mA, f=100MHz

300

Cob

Output Capacitance

VCB=10V, IE=0, f=1MHz

3.5

Cib

Input Capacitance

VEB=0.5V, IC=0, f=1MHz

NF

Noise Figure

VCE=5V, IC=200A
f=1KHz, RG=2K
VCE=5V, IC=200A
RG=2K, f=30~15000MHz

: BC546/547/548
: BC549/550
: BC549
: BC550

Max.
15

2
1.2
1.4
1.4

250
600

mV
mV
mV
mV

700
720

mV
mV
MHz

pF

10
4
4
3

dB
dB
dB
dB

pF

hFE Classification
Classification

hFE

110 ~ 220

200 ~ 450

420 ~ 800

2002 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation

Rev. A2, August 2002

BC546/547/548/549/550

Typical Characteristics

100

IB = 400A

VCE = 5V

IC[mA], COLLECTOR CURRENT

IC[mA], COLLECTOR CURRENT

100

IB = 350A
IB = 300A

80

IB = 250A

60

IB = 200A
IB = 150A

40

IB = 100A
20

10

IB = 50A
0.1
0.0

0
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

VCE = 5V

hFE, DC CURRENT GAIN

1000

100

10

1
100

0.8

1.0

1.2

10000

IC = 10 IB

V BE(sat)

1000

100

V CE(sat)

10

1000

10

IC[mA], COLLECTOR CURRENT

100

1000

IC[A], COLLECTOR CURRENT

Figure 3. DC current Gain

Figure 4. Base-Emitter Saturation Voltage


Collector-Emitter Saturation Voltage

1000

f=1MHz
IE = 0
10

0.1
1

10

100

V CB[V], COLLECTOR-BASE VOLTAGE

Figure 5. Output Capacitance

2002 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation

1000

fT, CURRENT GAIN-BANDWIDTH PRODUCT

100

Cob[pF], CAPACITANCE

0.6

Figure 2. Transfer Characteristic

VBE(sat), VCE(sat)[mV], SATURATION VOLTAGE

Figure 1. Static Characteristic

10

0.4

VBE[V], BASE-EMITTER VOLTAGE

VCE[V], COLLECTOR-EMITTER VOLTAGE

0.2

VCE = 5V

100

10

1
0.1

10

100

IC[mA], COLLECTOR CURRENT

Figure 6. Current Gain Bandwidth Product

Rev. A2, August 2002

BC546/547/548/549/550

Package Dimensions

TO-92
+0.25

4.58 0.20

4.58 0.15

0.10

14.47 0.40

0.46

1.27TYP
[1.27 0.20]

1.27TYP
[1.27 0.20]
0.20

(0.25)

+0.10

0.38 0.05

1.02 0.10

3.86MAX

3.60

+0.10

0.38 0.05

(R2.29)

Dimensions in Millimeters
2002 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation

Rev. A2, August 2002

TRADEMARKS
The following are registered and unregistered trademarks Fairchild Semiconductor owns or is authorized to use and is not
intended to be an exhaustive list of all such trademarks.

ACEx
FACT
ActiveArray
FACT Quiet series
Bottomless
FAST
FASTr
CoolFET
CROSSVOLT FRFET
GlobalOptoisolator
DOME
EcoSPARK
GTO
E2CMOS
HiSeC
EnSigna
I2C
Across the board. Around the world.
The Power Franchise
Programmable Active Droop

ImpliedDisconnect
ISOPLANAR
LittleFET
MicroFET
MicroPak
MICROWIRE
MSX
MSXPro
OCX
OCXPro
OPTOLOGIC
OPTOPLANAR

PACMAN
POP
Power247
PowerTrench
QFET
QS
QT Optoelectronics
Quiet Series
RapidConfigure
RapidConnect
SILENT SWITCHER
SMART START

SPM
Stealth
SuperSOT-3
SuperSOT-6
SuperSOT-8
SyncFET
TinyLogic
TruTranslation
UHC
UltraFET
VCX

DISCLAIMER
FAIRCHILD SEMICONDUCTOR RESERVES THE RIGHT TO MAKE CHANGES WITHOUT FURTHER NOTICE TO ANY
PRODUCTS HEREIN TO IMPROVE RELIABILITY, FUNCTION OR DESIGN. FAIRCHILD DOES NOT ASSUME ANY
LIABILITY ARISING OUT OF THE APPLICATION OR USE OF ANY PRODUCT OR CIRCUIT DESCRIBED HEREIN;
NEITHER DOES IT CONVEY ANY LICENSE UNDER ITS PATENT RIGHTS, NOR THE RIGHTS OF OTHERS.

LIFE SUPPORT POLICY


FAIRCHILDS PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT
DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF FAIRCHILD SEMICONDUCTOR
CORPORATION.
As used herein:
1. Life support devices or systems are devices or systems
which, (a) are intended for surgical implant into the body,
or (b) support or sustain life, or (c) whose failure to perform
when properly used in accordance with instructions for use
provided in the labeling, can be reasonably expected to
result in significant injury to the user.

2. A critical component is any component of a life support


device or system whose failure to perform can be
reasonably expected to cause the failure of the life support
device or system, or to affect its safety or effectiveness.

PRODUCT STATUS DEFINITIONS


Definition of Terms
Datasheet Identification

Product Status

Definition

Advance Information

Formative or In
Design

This datasheet contains the design specifications for


product development. Specifications may change in
any manner without notice.

Preliminary

First Production

This datasheet contains preliminary data, and


supplementary data will be published at a later date.
Fairchild Semiconductor reserves the right to make
changes at any time without notice in order to improve
design.

No Identification Needed

Full Production

This datasheet contains final specifications. Fairchild


Semiconductor reserves the right to make changes at
any time without notice in order to improve design.

Obsolete

Not In Production

This datasheet contains specifications on a product


that has been discontinued by Fairchild semiconductor.
The datasheet is printed for reference information only.

2002 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation

Rev. I1

  

Order this document


by BC546/D

SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNICAL DATA


 




NPN Silicon


  


  

COLLECTOR
1
2
BASE
3
EMITTER
1

MAXIMUM RATINGS

Symbol

BC
546

BC
547

BC
548

Unit

Collector Emitter Voltage

VCEO

65

45

30

Vdc

Collector Base Voltage

VCBO

80

50

30

Vdc

Emitter Base Voltage

VEBO

6.0

Vdc

Collector Current Continuous

IC

100

mAdc

Total Device Dissipation @ TA = 25C


Derate above 25C

PD

625
5.0

mW
mW/C

Total Device Dissipation @ TC = 25C


Derate above 25C

PD

1.5
12

Watt
mW/C

TJ, Tstg

55 to +150

Characteristic

Symbol

Max

Unit

Thermal Resistance, Junction to Ambient

RqJA

200

C/W

Thermal Resistance, Junction to Case

RqJC

83.3

C/W

Rating

Operating and Storage Junction


Temperature Range

CASE 2904, STYLE 17


TO92 (TO226AA)

THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (TA = 25C unless otherwise noted)


Characteristic

Symbol

Min

Typ

Max

Unit

OFF CHARACTERISTICS
Collector Emitter Breakdown Voltage
(IC = 1.0 mA, IB = 0)

BC546
BC547
BC548

V(BR)CEO

65
45
30

Collector Base Breakdown Voltage


(IC = 100 Adc)

BC546
BC547
BC548

V(BR)CBO

80
50
30

Emitter Base Breakdown Voltage


(IE = 10 mA, IC = 0)

BC546
BC547
BC548

V(BR)EBO

6.0
6.0
6.0

Collector Cutoff Current


(VCE = 70 V, VBE = 0)
(VCE = 50 V, VBE = 0)
(VCE = 35 V, VBE = 0)
(VCE = 30 V, TA = 125C)

BC546
BC547
BC548
BC546/547/548

0.2
0.2
0.2

15
15
15
4.0

nA

ICES

REV 1

Motorola SmallSignal Transistors, FETs and Diodes Device Data


Motorola, Inc. 1996



  

  

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (TA = 25C unless otherwise noted) (Continued)


Characteristic

Symbol

Min

Typ

Max

BC547A/548A
BC546B/547B/548B
BC548C

90
150
270

(IC = 2.0 mA, VCE = 5.0 V)

BC546
BC547
BC548
BC547A/548A
BC546B/547B/548B
BC547C/BC548C

110
110
110
110
200
420

180
290
520

450
800
800
220
450
800

(IC = 100 mA, VCE = 5.0 V)

BC547A/548A
BC546B/547B/548B
BC548C

120
180
300

0.09
0.2
0.3

0.25
0.6
0.6

0.7

0.55

0.7
0.77

150
150
150

300
300
300

Unit

ON CHARACTERISTICS
DC Current Gain
(IC = 10 A, VCE = 5.0 V)

hFE

Collector Emitter Saturation Voltage


(IC = 10 mA, IB = 0.5 mA)
(IC = 100 mA, IB = 5.0 mA)
(IC = 10 mA, IB = See Note 1)

VCE(sat)

Base Emitter Saturation Voltage


(IC = 10 mA, IB = 0.5 mA)

VBE(sat)

BaseEmitter On Voltage
(IC = 2.0 mA, VCE = 5.0 V)
(IC = 10 mA, VCE = 5.0 V)

VBE(on)

V
V

SMALLSIGNAL CHARACTERISTICS
Current Gain Bandwidth Product
(IC = 10 mA, VCE = 5.0 V, f = 100 MHz)

fT
BC546
BC547
BC548

MHz

Output Capacitance
(VCB = 10 V, IC = 0, f = 1.0 MHz)

Cobo

1.7

4.5

pF

Input Capacitance
(VEB = 0.5 V, IC = 0, f = 1.0 MHz)

Cibo

10

pF

125
125
125
240
450

220
330
600

500
900
260
500
900

2.0
2.0
2.0

10
10
10

SmallSignal Current Gain


(IC = 2.0 mA, VCE = 5.0 V, f = 1.0 kHz)

Noise Figure
(IC = 0.2 mA, VCE = 5.0 V, RS = 2 kW,
f = 1.0 kHz, f = 200 Hz)

hfe
BC546
BC547/548
BC547A/548A
BC546B/547B/548B
BC547C/548C

NF
BC546
BC547
BC548

dB

Note 1: IB is value for which IC = 11 mA at VCE = 1.0 V.

Motorola SmallSignal Transistors, FETs and Diodes Device Data



  

  

1.0
VCE = 10 V
TA = 25C

1.5

0.8

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4

VBE(sat) @ IC/IB = 10

0.7
VBE(on) @ VCE = 10 V

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2

0.3

VCE(sat) @ IC/IB = 10

0.1
0.2

0.2

0.5

50
2.0
5.0 10
1.0
20
IC, COLLECTOR CURRENT (mAdc)

0
0.1

200

100

Figure 1. Normalized DC Current Gain

50 70 100

VB, TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (mV/ C)

1.0
TA = 25C

1.6
IC = 200 mA
1.2
IC = IC = IC = 50 mA
10 mA 20 mA

IC = 100 mA

0.8

0.4

0.2 0.3 0.5 0.7 1.0 2.0 3.0 5.0 7.0 10 20 30


IC, COLLECTOR CURRENT (mAdc)

Figure 2. Saturation and On Voltages

2.0
VCE , COLLECTOREMITTER VOLTAGE (V)

TA = 25C

0.9
V, VOLTAGE (VOLTS)

hFE , NORMALIZED DC CURRENT GAIN

2.0

0.02

10

0.1
1.0
IB, BASE CURRENT (mA)

55C to +125C
1.2
1.6
2.0
2.4
2.8

20

10
1.0
IC, COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA)

0.2

Figure 3. Collector Saturation Region

100

Figure 4. BaseEmitter Temperature Coefficient

10

C, CAPACITANCE (pF)

7.0

TA = 25C

5.0

Cib

3.0
Cob
2.0

1.0

0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

2.0
4.0 6.0 8.0 10
VR, REVERSE VOLTAGE (VOLTS)

20

40

f T, CURRENTGAIN BANDWIDTH PRODUCT (MHz)

BC547/BC548

Figure 5. Capacitances

Motorola SmallSignal Transistors, FETs and Diodes Device Data

400
300
200

VCE = 10 V
TA = 25C

100
80
60
40
30
20
0.5 0.7

1.0

2.0 3.0
5.0 7.0 10
20
IC, COLLECTOR CURRENT (mAdc)

30

50

Figure 6. CurrentGain Bandwidth Product



  

  

BC547/BC548

TA = 25C

VCE = 5 V
TA = 25C

0.8
V, VOLTAGE (VOLTS)

hFE , DC CURRENT GAIN (NORMALIZED)

1.0

2.0
1.0
0.5

VBE(sat) @ IC/IB = 10
0.6
VBE @ VCE = 5.0 V
0.4

0.2
0.2
VCE(sat) @ IC/IB = 10
0

10
100
1.0
IC, COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA)

0.1 0.2

0.2

0.5

1.0

2.0

100

200

50

100

200

1.0
TA = 25C

1.6
20 mA

50 mA

100 mA

200 mA

1.2
IC =
10 mA

0.8

0.4

50

Figure 8. On Voltage

VB, TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (mV/ C)

VCE , COLLECTOREMITTER VOLTAGE (VOLTS)

Figure 7. DC Current Gain

10 20
2.0
5.0
IC, COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA)

0.02

0.05

0.1

0.2
0.5
1.0 2.0
IB, BASE CURRENT (mA)

5.0

10

1.4

1.8
VB for VBE
55C to 125C

2.2

2.6

3.0

20

0.2

Figure 9. Collector Saturation Region

0.5

10 20
1.0 2.0
5.0
IC, COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA)

Figure 10. BaseEmitter Temperature Coefficient

BC546

f T, CURRENTGAIN BANDWIDTH PRODUCT

40

C, CAPACITANCE (pF)

TA = 25C
20
Cib
10
6.0
Cob

4.0

2.0

0.1

0.2

1.0 2.0
10 20
0.5
5.0
VR, REVERSE VOLTAGE (VOLTS)

Figure 11. Capacitance

50

100

500

VCE = 5 V
TA = 25C

200
100
50

20

1.0
5.0 10
50 100
IC, COLLECTOR CURRENT (mA)

Figure 12. CurrentGain Bandwidth Product

Motorola SmallSignal Transistors, FETs and Diodes Device Data



  

  

PACKAGE DIMENSIONS

NOTES:
1. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER ANSI
Y14.5M, 1982.
2. CONTROLLING DIMENSION: INCH.
3. CONTOUR OF PACKAGE BEYOND DIMENSION R
IS UNCONTROLLED.
4. DIMENSION F APPLIES BETWEEN P AND L.
DIMENSION D AND J APPLY BETWEEN L AND K
MINIMUM. LEAD DIMENSION IS UNCONTROLLED
IN P AND BEYOND DIMENSION K MINIMUM.

R
P
L

SEATING
PLANE

K
D
J

X X
G
H
V

SECTION XX

N
N

CASE 02904
(TO226AA)
ISSUE AD

Motorola SmallSignal Transistors, FETs and Diodes Device Data

DIM
A
B
C
D
F
G
H
J
K
L
N
P
R
V

INCHES
MIN
MAX
0.175
0.205
0.170
0.210
0.125
0.165
0.016
0.022
0.016
0.019
0.045
0.055
0.095
0.105
0.015
0.020
0.500

0.250

0.080
0.105

0.100
0.115

0.135

MILLIMETERS
MIN
MAX
4.45
5.20
4.32
5.33
3.18
4.19
0.41
0.55
0.41
0.48
1.15
1.39
2.42
2.66
0.39
0.50
12.70

6.35

2.04
2.66

2.54
2.93

3.43

STYLE 17:
PIN 1. COLLECTOR
2. BASE
3. EMITTER



  

  

Motorola reserves the right to make changes without further notice to any products herein. Motorola makes no warranty, representation or guarantee regarding
the suitability of its products for any particular purpose, nor does Motorola assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any product or circuit,
and specifically disclaims any and all liability, including without limitation consequential or incidental damages. Typical parameters can and do vary in different
applications. All operating parameters, including Typicals must be validated for each customer application by customers technical experts. Motorola does
not convey any license under its patent rights nor the rights of others. Motorola products are not designed, intended, or authorized for use as components in
systems intended for surgical implant into the body, or other applications intended to support or sustain life, or for any other application in which the failure of
the Motorola product could create a situation where personal injury or death may occur. Should Buyer purchase or use Motorola products for any such
unintended or unauthorized application, Buyer shall indemnify and hold Motorola and its officers, employees, subsidiaries, affiliates, and distributors harmless
against all claims, costs, damages, and expenses, and reasonable attorney fees arising out of, directly or indirectly, any claim of personal injury or death
associated with such unintended or unauthorized use, even if such claim alleges that Motorola was negligent regarding the design or manufacture of the part.
Motorola and
are registered trademarks of Motorola, Inc. Motorola, Inc. is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer.

How to reach us:


USA/EUROPE: Motorola Literature Distribution;
P.O. Box 20912; Phoenix, Arizona 85036. 18004412447

JAPAN: Nippon Motorola Ltd.; TatsumiSPDJLDC, Toshikatsu Otsuki,


6F SeibuButsuryuCenter, 3142 Tatsumi KotoKu, Tokyo 135, Japan. 0335218315

MFAX: RMFAX0@email.sps.mot.com TOUCHTONE (602) 2446609


INTERNET: http://DesignNET.com

HONG KONG: Motorola Semiconductors H.K. Ltd.; 8B Tai Ping Industrial Park,
51 Ting Kok Road, Tai Po, N.T., Hong Kong. 85226629298

Motorola SmallSignal Transistors, FETs and Diodes Device Data

 

BC546/D

DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS

DATA SHEET
ok, halfpage

M3D100

BD136; BD138; BD140


PNP power transistors
Product specification
Supersedes data of September 1994
File under Discrete Semiconductors, SC04

1997 Mar 26

Philips Semiconductors

Product specification

PNP power transistors

BD136; BD138; BD140

FEATURES

PINNING

High current (max. 1.5 A)

PIN

Low voltage (max. 80 V).

emitter

collector, connected to metal part of


mounting surface

base

DESCRIPTION

APPLICATIONS
General purpose power applications, e.g. driver stages
in hi-fi amplifiers and television circuits.

handbook, halfpage

DESCRIPTION

PNP power transistor in a TO-126; SOT32 plastic


package. NPN complements: BD135, BD137 and BD139.

3
1

Fig.1

Top view

MAM272

Simplified outline (TO-126; SOT32)


and symbol.

QUICK REFERENCE DATA


SYMBOL
VCBO

VCEO

PARAMETER
collector-base voltage

CONDITIONS

TYP.

MAX.

UNIT

open emitter

BD136

45

BD138

60

BD140

100

BD136

45

BD138

60

collector-emitter voltage

open base

80

Tmb 70 C

DC current gain

IC = 150 mA; VCE = 2 V

40

transition frequency

IC = 50 mA; VCE = 5 V; f = 100 MHz

BD140
ICM

peak collector current

Ptot

total power dissipation

hFE
fT

1997 Mar 26

MIN.

250

160

MHz

Philips Semiconductors

Product specification

PNP power transistors

BD136; BD138; BD140

LIMITING VALUES
In accordance with the Absolute Maximum Rating System (IEC 134).
SYMBOL
VCBO

PARAMETER
collector-base voltage

CONDITIONS

MAX.

UNIT

open emitter

BD136

45

BD138

60

100

BD136

45

BD138

60

80

BD140
VCEO

MIN.

collector-emitter voltage

open base

BD140
VEBO

emitter-base voltage

open collector

IC

collector current (DC)

1.5

ICM

peak collector current

IBM

peak base current

Ptot

total power dissipation

Tstg

storage temperature

65

+150

Tj

junction temperature

150

Tamb

operating ambient temperature

65

+150

Tmb 70 C

THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMBOL

PARAMETER

CONDITIONS

Rth j-a

thermal resistance from junction to ambient

note 1

Rth j-mb

thermal resistance from junction to mounting base

Note
1. Refer to TO-126 (SOT32) standard mounting conditions.

1997 Mar 26

VALUE

UNIT

100

K/W

10

K/W

Philips Semiconductors

Product specification

PNP power transistors

BD136; BD138; BD140

CHARACTERISTICS
Tj = 25 C unless otherwise specified.
SYMBOL

PARAMETER

CONDITIONS

MIN. TYP.

MAX.

UNIT

IE = 0; VCB = 30 V

100

nA

ICBO

collector cut-off current

IE = 0; VCB = 30 V; Tj = 125 C

10

IEBO

emitter cut-off current

IC = 0; VEB = 5 V

100

nA

hFE

DC current gain

VCE = 2 V; see Fig.2


IC = 5 mA

40

IC = 150 mA

40

250

IC = 500 mA

25

BD136-10; BD138-10; BD140-10

63

160

BD136-16; BD138-16; BD140-16

100

250

IC = 150 mA; VCE = 2 V; see Fig.2

DC current gain

hFE

VCEsat

collector-emitter saturation voltage IC = 500 mA; IB = 50 mA

VBE

base-emitter voltage

IC = 500 mA; VCE = 2 V

0.5

fT

transition frequency

IC = 50 mA; VCE = 5 V; f = 100 MHz

160

MHz

h FE1
----------h FE2

DC current gain ratio of the


complementary pairs

IC = 150 mA; VCE = 2 V

1.3

1.6

MBH730

160

handbook, full pagewidth

hFE

VCE = 2 V

120

80

40

0
101

102

10

Fig.2 DC current gain; typical values.

1997 Mar 26

103

IC (mA)

104

Philips Semiconductors

Product specification

PNP power transistors

BD136; BD138; BD140

PACKAGE OUTLINE
Plastic single-ended leaded (through hole) package; mountable to heatsink, 1 mounting hole; 3 leads SOT32

P1
P

L1

3
e1

w M

2.5

5 mm

scale

DIMENSIONS (mm are the original dimensions)


UNIT

bp

e1

L1(1)
max

P1

mm

2.7
2.3

0.88
0.65

0.60
0.45

11.1
10.5

7.8
7.2

4.58

2.29

16.5
15.3

2.54

1.5
0.9

3.2
3.0

3.9
3.6

0.254

Note
1. Terminal dimensions within this zone are uncontrolled to allow for flow of plastic and terminal irregularities.
OUTLINE
VERSION
SOT32

1997 Mar 26

REFERENCES
IEC

JEDEC

EIAJ

EUROPEAN
PROJECTION

ISSUE DATE
97-03-04

TO-126

Philips Semiconductors

Product specification

PNP power transistors

BD136; BD138; BD140

DEFINITIONS
Data Sheet Status
Objective specification

This data sheet contains target or goal specifications for product development.

Preliminary specification

This data sheet contains preliminary data; supplementary data may be published later.

Product specification

This data sheet contains final product specifications.

Limiting values
Limiting values given are in accordance with the Absolute Maximum Rating System (IEC 134). Stress above one or
more of the limiting values may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only and operation
of the device at these or at any other conditions above those given in the Characteristics sections of the specification
is not implied. Exposure to limiting values for extended periods may affect device reliability.
Application information
Where application information is given, it is advisory and does not form part of the specification.
LIFE SUPPORT APPLICATIONS
These products are not designed for use in life support appliances, devices, or systems where malfunction of these
products can reasonably be expected to result in personal injury. Philips customers using or selling these products for
use in such applications do so at their own risk and agree to fully indemnify Philips for any damages resulting from such
improper use or sale.

1997 Mar 26

Philips Semiconductors

Product specification

PNP power transistors

BD136; BD138; BD140


NOTES

1997 Mar 26

Philips Semiconductors a worldwide company


Argentina: see South America
Australia: 34 Waterloo Road, NORTH RYDE, NSW 2113,
Tel. +61 2 9805 4455, Fax. +61 2 9805 4466
Austria: Computerstr. 6, A-1101 WIEN, P.O. Box 213,
Tel. +43 1 60 101, Fax. +43 1 60 101 1210
Belarus: Hotel Minsk Business Center, Bld. 3, r. 1211, Volodarski Str. 6,
220050 MINSK, Tel. +375 172 200 733, Fax. +375 172 200 773
Belgium: see The Netherlands
Brazil: see South America
Bulgaria: Philips Bulgaria Ltd., Energoproject, 15th floor,
51 James Bourchier Blvd., 1407 SOFIA,
Tel. +359 2 689 211, Fax. +359 2 689 102
Canada: PHILIPS SEMICONDUCTORS/COMPONENTS,
Tel. +1 800 234 7381
China/Hong Kong: 501 Hong Kong Industrial Technology Centre,
72 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, HONG KONG,
Tel. +852 2319 7888, Fax. +852 2319 7700
Colombia: see South America
Czech Republic: see Austria
Denmark: Prags Boulevard 80, PB 1919, DK-2300 COPENHAGEN S,
Tel. +45 32 88 2636, Fax. +45 31 57 1949
Finland: Sinikalliontie 3, FIN-02630 ESPOO,
Tel. +358 9 615800, Fax. +358 9 61580/xxx
France: 4 Rue du Port-aux-Vins, BP317, 92156 SURESNES Cedex,
Tel. +33 1 40 99 6161, Fax. +33 1 40 99 6427
Germany: Hammerbrookstrae 69, D-20097 HAMBURG,
Tel. +49 40 23 53 60, Fax. +49 40 23 536 300
Greece: No. 15, 25th March Street, GR 17778 TAVROS/ATHENS,
Tel. +30 1 4894 339/239, Fax. +30 1 4814 240
Hungary: see Austria
India: Philips INDIA Ltd, Shivsagar Estate, A Block, Dr. Annie Besant Rd.
Worli, MUMBAI 400 018, Tel. +91 22 4938 541, Fax. +91 22 4938 722
Indonesia: see Singapore
Ireland: Newstead, Clonskeagh, DUBLIN 14,
Tel. +353 1 7640 000, Fax. +353 1 7640 200
Israel: RAPAC Electronics, 7 Kehilat Saloniki St, TEL AVIV 61180,
Tel. +972 3 645 0444, Fax. +972 3 649 1007
Italy: PHILIPS SEMICONDUCTORS, Piazza IV Novembre 3,
20124 MILANO, Tel. +39 2 6752 2531, Fax. +39 2 6752 2557
Japan: Philips Bldg 13-37, Kohnan 2-chome, Minato-ku, TOKYO 108,
Tel. +81 3 3740 5130, Fax. +81 3 3740 5077
Korea: Philips House, 260-199 Itaewon-dong, Yongsan-ku, SEOUL,
Tel. +82 2 709 1412, Fax. +82 2 709 1415
Malaysia: No. 76 Jalan Universiti, 46200 PETALING JAYA, SELANGOR,
Tel. +60 3 750 5214, Fax. +60 3 757 4880
Mexico: 5900 Gateway East, Suite 200, EL PASO, TEXAS 79905,
Tel. +9-5 800 234 7381
Middle East: see Italy

Netherlands: Postbus 90050, 5600 PB EINDHOVEN, Bldg. VB,


Tel. +31 40 27 82785, Fax. +31 40 27 88399
New Zealand: 2 Wagener Place, C.P.O. Box 1041, AUCKLAND,
Tel. +64 9 849 4160, Fax. +64 9 849 7811
Norway: Box 1, Manglerud 0612, OSLO,
Tel. +47 22 74 8000, Fax. +47 22 74 8341
Philippines: Philips Semiconductors Philippines Inc.,
106 Valero St. Salcedo Village, P.O. Box 2108 MCC, MAKATI,
Metro MANILA, Tel. +63 2 816 6380, Fax. +63 2 817 3474
Poland: Ul. Lukiska 10, PL 04-123 WARSZAWA,
Tel. +48 22 612 2831, Fax. +48 22 612 2327
Portugal: see Spain
Romania: see Italy
Russia: Philips Russia, Ul. Usatcheva 35A, 119048 MOSCOW,
Tel. +7 095 755 6918, Fax. +7 095 755 6919
Singapore: Lorong 1, Toa Payoh, SINGAPORE 1231,
Tel. +65 350 2538, Fax. +65 251 6500
Slovakia: see Austria
Slovenia: see Italy
South Africa: S.A. PHILIPS Pty Ltd., 195-215 Main Road Martindale,
2092 JOHANNESBURG, P.O. Box 7430 Johannesburg 2000,
Tel. +27 11 470 5911, Fax. +27 11 470 5494
South America: Rua do Rocio 220, 5th floor, Suite 51,
04552-903 So Paulo, SO PAULO - SP, Brazil,
Tel. +55 11 821 2333, Fax. +55 11 829 1849
Spain: Balmes 22, 08007 BARCELONA,
Tel. +34 3 301 6312, Fax. +34 3 301 4107
Sweden: Kottbygatan 7, Akalla, S-16485 STOCKHOLM,
Tel. +46 8 632 2000, Fax. +46 8 632 2745
Switzerland: Allmendstrasse 140, CH-8027 ZRICH,
Tel. +41 1 488 2686, Fax. +41 1 481 7730
Taiwan: Philips Semiconductors, 6F, No. 96, Chien Kuo N. Rd., Sec. 1,
TAIPEI, Taiwan Tel. +886 2 2134 2870, Fax. +886 2 2134 2874
Thailand: PHILIPS ELECTRONICS (THAILAND) Ltd.,
209/2 Sanpavuth-Bangna Road Prakanong, BANGKOK 10260,
Tel. +66 2 745 4090, Fax. +66 2 398 0793
Turkey: Talatpasa Cad. No. 5, 80640 GLTEPE/ISTANBUL,
Tel. +90 212 279 2770, Fax. +90 212 282 6707
Ukraine: PHILIPS UKRAINE, 4 Patrice Lumumba str., Building B, Floor 7,
252042 KIEV, Tel. +380 44 264 2776, Fax. +380 44 268 0461
United Kingdom: Philips Semiconductors Ltd., 276 Bath Road, Hayes,
MIDDLESEX UB3 5BX, Tel. +44 181 730 5000, Fax. +44 181 754 8421
United States: 811 East Arques Avenue, SUNNYVALE, CA 94088-3409,
Tel. +1 800 234 7381
Uruguay: see South America
Vietnam: see Singapore
Yugoslavia: PHILIPS, Trg N. Pasica 5/v, 11000 BEOGRAD,
Tel. +381 11 625 344, Fax.+381 11 635 777

For all other countries apply to: Philips Semiconductors, Marketing & Sales Communications,
Building BE-p, P.O. Box 218, 5600 MD EINDHOVEN, The Netherlands, Fax. +31 40 27 24825

Internet: http://www.semiconductors.philips.com

Philips Electronics N.V. 1997

SCA53

All rights are reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part is prohibited without the prior written consent of the copyright owner.
The information presented in this document does not form part of any quotation or contract, is believed to be accurate and reliable and may be changed
without notice. No liability will be accepted by the publisher for any consequence of its use. Publication thereof does not convey nor imply any license
under patent- or other industrial or intellectual property rights.

Printed in The Netherlands

117047/00/02/pp8

Date of release: 1997 Mar 26

Document order number:

9397 750 01992

HERMETIC SILICON
PHOTODARLINGTON
L14F1

L14F2

PACKAGE DIMENSIONS
0.230 (5.84)
0.209 (5.31)
0.195 (4.95)
0.178 (4.52)

0.255 (6.47)
0.225 (5.71)

0.030 (0.76)
NOM

0.500 (12.7)
MIN

0.100 (2.54)

SCHEMATIC

0.050 (1.27)

(CONNECTED TO CASE)
COLLECTOR
3

2
1

0.038 (0.97)
0.046 (1.16)
0.036 (0.92)

0.020 (0.51) 3X

BASE 2

45

NOTES:

1
EMITTER

1. Dimensions for all drawings are in inches (mm).


2. Tolerance of .010 (.25) on all non-nominal dimensions
unless otherwise specified.

DESCRIPTION
The L14F1/L14F2 are silicon photodarlingtons mounted in a narrow angle, TO-18 package.

FEATURES
Hermetically sealed package
Narrow reception angle

2001 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation


DS300306
6/01/01

1 OF 4

www.fairchildsemi.com

HERMETIC SILICON
PHOTODARLINGTON
L14F1
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Parameter
Operating Temperature
Storage Temperature
Soldering Temperature (Iron)(3,4,5 and 6)
Soldering Temperature (Flow)(3,4 and 6)
Collector to Emitter Breakdown Voltage
Collector to Base Breakdown Voltage
Emitter to Base Breakdwon Voltage
Power Dissipation (TA = 25C)(1)
Power Dissipation (TC = 25C)(2)

L14F2

(TA = 25C unless otherwise specified)


Symbol
TOPR
TSTG
TSOL-I
TSOL-F
VCEO
VCBO
VEBO
PD
PD

Rating
-65 to +125
-65 to +150
240 for 5 sec
260 for 10 sec
25
25
12
300
600

Unit
C
C
C
C
V
V
V
mW
mW

NOTE:
1. Derate power dissipation linearly 3.00 mW/C above 25C ambient.
2. Derate power dissipation linearly 6.00 mW/C above 25C case.
3. RMA flux is recommended.
4. Methanol or isopropyl alcohols are recommended as cleaning agents.
5. Soldering iron tip 1/16 (1.6mm) minimum from housing.
6. As long as leads are not under any stress or spring tension.
7. Light source is a GaAs LED emitting light at a peak wavelength of 940 nm.
8. Figure 1 and figure 2 use light source of tungsten lamp at 2870K color temperature. A GaAs source of 0.05 mW/cm2 is approximately
equivalent to a tungsten source, at 2870K, of 0.2 mW/cm2.

ELECTRICAL / OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS


PARAMETER

Collector-Emitter Breakdown
Emitter-Base Breakdown
Collector-Base Breakdown
Collector-Emitter Leakage
Reception Angle at 1/2 Sensitivity
On-State Collector Current L14F1
On-State Collector Current L14F2
Rise Time
Fall Time

www.fairchildsemi.com

(TA =25C) (All measurements made under pulse conditions)

TEST CONDITIONS

SYMBOL

MIN

IC = 10 mA, Ee = 0
IE = 100 A, Ee = 0
IC = 100 A, Ee = 0
VCE = 12 V, Ee = 0

BVCEO
BVEBO
BVCBO
ICEO

IC(ON)
IC(ON)
tr
tf

25
12
25

Ee = .125 mW/cm2, VCE = 5 V(7)


Ee = .125 mW/cm2, VCE = 5 V(7)
IC = 10 mA, VCC = 5 V, RL =100
IC = 10 mA, VCC = 5 V, RL =100

2 OF 4

TYP

MAX

UNITS

100

V
V
V
nA
Degrees
mA
mA
s
s

8
7.5
2.5

300
250

6/01/01

DS300306

HERMETIC SILICON
PHOTODARLINGTON
L14F1

Figure 2. Relative Light Current vs. Ambient Temperature

Figure 1. Light Current vs. Collector to Emitter Voltage


5.0 mW/cm2

IL / IL @25C, RELATIVE LIGHT CURRENT

IL, NORMALIZED LIGHT CURRENT

100

2.0
1.0

10

.5
.2
1.0

.1
.05

NORMALIZED TO:
VCE = 5 V
Ee = .2 mW/cm2

0.1
0

10

15

20

25

30

10
8
6
4
2
1.0
.8
.6
.4
.2
.1
.08
.06
.04

VCE = 5 V
H = .2 mW/cm2

.02
.01
-50

35

-25

0.9

100

0.8

90

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3

60
50
40
30
20
10

800

900

1000

125

70

0.1
700

100

80

0.2

600

75

Figure 4. Angular Response


110

RELATIVE AMPLITUDE

RELATIVE SPECTRAL RESPONSE

Figure 3. Spectral Response


1.0

500

50

25

T, TEMPERATURE (C)

VCE , COLLECTOR TO EMITTER VOLTAGE (V)

0
400

L14F2

1100

0
-90

1200

-70

-30

-50

, WAVE LENGTH (NANOMETERS)

10

-10

50

30

70

90

DEGREES

Figure 6. Light Current vs. Relative Switching Speed


100
VCC

OUTPUT
PULSE

INPUT
LED56

10%

LED
td

RL

OUTPUT

tf
tr

ts

IL, LIGHT CURRENT (mA)

90%

L14F

LOAD RESISTANCE
10

1.0 V

100

10

1000

1.0

INPUT PULSE
tOFF = ts + tf
tON = td + tr

NORMALIZED TO:
RL = 100
IL = 10 mA

VCC = 10 V
0.1
0.01

Figure 5. Test Circuit and Voltage Waveforms

0.1

1.0

10

100

RELATIVE SWITCHING SPEED


td + tr + ts + tf

DS300306

6/01/01

3 OF 4

www.fairchildsemi.com

HERMETIC SILICON
PHOTODARLINGTON
L14F1

L14F2

DISCLAIMER
FAIRCHILD SEMICONDUCTOR RESERVES THE RIGHT TO MAKE CHANGES WITHOUT FURTHER NOTICE TO
ANY PRODUCTS HEREIN TO IMPROVE RELIABILITY, FUNCTION OR DESIGN. FAIRCHILD DOES NOT ASSUME
ANY LIABILITY ARISING OUT OF THE APPLICATION OR USE OF ANY PRODUCT OR CIRCUIT DESCRIBED
HEREIN; NEITHER DOES IT CONVEY ANY LICENSE UNDER ITS PATENT RIGHTS, NOR THE RIGHTS OF
OTHERS.
LIFE SUPPORT POLICY
FAIRCHILDS PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT
DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT OF FAIRCHILD
SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION. As used herein:
1. Life support devices or systems are devices or
systems which, (a) are intended for surgical
implant into the body,or (b) support or sustain life,
and (c) whose failure to perform when properly
used in accordance with instructions for use provided
in labeling, can be reasonably expected to result in a
significant injury of the user.

DS300306

6/01/01

2. A critical component in any component of a life support


device or system whose failure to perform can be
reasonably expected to cause the failure of the life
support device or system, or to affect its safety or
effectiveness.

4 OF 4

www.fairchildsemi.com

LM386

LM386 Low Voltage Audio Power Amplifier

Literature Number: SNAS545A

LM386
Low Voltage Audio Power Amplifier
General Description

Features

The LM386 is a power amplifier designed for use in low voltage consumer applications. The gain is internally set to 20 to
keep external part count low, but the addition of an external
resistor and capacitor between pins 1 and 8 will increase the
gain to any value from 20 to 200.
The inputs are ground referenced while the output automatically biases to one-half the supply voltage. The quiescent
power drain is only 24 milliwatts when operating from a 6 volt
supply, making the LM386 ideal for battery operation.

n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n

Battery operation
Minimum external parts
Wide supply voltage range: 4V12V or 5V18V
Low quiescent current drain: 4mA
Voltage gains from 20 to 200
Ground referenced input
Self-centering output quiescent voltage
Low distortion: 0.2% (AV = 20, VS = 6V, RL = 8, PO =
125mW, f = 1kHz)
n Available in 8 pin MSOP package

Applications
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n

AM-FM radio amplifiers


Portable tape player amplifiers
Intercoms
TV sound systems
Line drivers
Ultrasonic drivers
Small servo drivers
Power converters

Equivalent Schematic and Connection Diagrams


Small Outline,
Molded Mini Small Outline,
and Dual-In-Line Packages

DS006976-2

DS006976-1

2000 National Semiconductor Corporation

DS006976

Top View
Order Number LM386M-1,
LM386MM-1, LM386N-1,
LM386N-3 or LM386N-4
See NS Package Number
M08A, MUA08A or N08E

www.national.com

LM386 Low Voltage Audio Power Amplifier

August 2000

LM386

Absolute Maximum Ratings (Note 2)

Dual-In-Line Package
Soldering (10 sec)
+260C
Small Outline Package
(SOIC and MSOP)
Vapor Phase (60 sec)
+215C
Infrared (15 sec)
+220C
See AN-450 Surface Mounting Methods and Their Effect
on Product Reliability for other methods of soldering
surface mount devices.
Thermal Resistance
37C/W
JC (DIP)
107C/W
JA (DIP)
35C/W
JC (SO Package)
172C/W
JA (SO Package)
210C/W
JA (MSOP)
56C/W
JC (MSOP)

If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required,


please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/
Distributors for availability and specifications.
Supply Voltage
(LM386N-1, -3, LM386M-1)
Supply Voltage (LM386N-4)
Package Dissipation (Note 3)
(LM386N)
(LM386M)
(LM386MM-1)
Input Voltage
Storage Temperature
Operating Temperature
Junction Temperature
Soldering Information

15V
22V
1.25W
0.73W
0.595W
0.4V
65C to +150C
0C to +70C
+150C

Electrical Characteristics (Notes 1, 2)


TA = 25C
Parameter

Conditions

Min

Typ

Max

Units

12

Operating Supply Voltage (VS)


LM386N-1, -3, LM386M-1, LM386MM-1

LM386N-4
Quiescent Current (IQ)

5
VS = 6V, VIN = 0

18

mA

Output Power (POUT)


LM386N-1, LM386M-1, LM386MM-1

VS = 6V, RL = 8, THD = 10%

250

325

LM386N-3

VS = 9V, RL = 8, THD = 10%

500

700

mW

LM386N-4

VS = 16V, RL = 32, THD = 10%

700

1000

mW

Voltage Gain (AV)

VS = 6V, f = 1 kHz

26

dB

mW

10 F from Pin 1 to 8

46

dB

Bandwidth (BW)

VS = 6V, Pins 1 and 8 Open

300

kHz

Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)

VS = 6V, RL = 8, POUT = 125 mW

0.2

50

dB

50

250

nA

f = 1 kHz, Pins 1 and 8 Open


Power Supply Rejection Ratio (PSRR)

VS = 6V, f = 1 kHz, CBYPASS = 10 F


Pins 1 and 8 Open, Referred to Output

Input Resistance (RIN)


Input Bias Current (IBIAS)

VS = 6V, Pins 2 and 3 Open

Note 1: All voltages are measured with respect to the ground pin, unless otherwise specified.
Note 2: Absolute Maximum Ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the device may occur. Operating Ratings indicate conditions for which the device is functional, but do not guarantee specific performance limits. Electrical Characteristics state DC and AC electrical specifications under particular test conditions which guarantee specific performance limits. This assumes that the device is within the Operating Ratings. Specifications are not guaranteed for parameters where no limit is
given, however, the typical value is a good indication of device performance.
Note 3: For operation in ambient temperatures above 25C, the device must be derated based on a 150C maximum junction temperature and 1) a thermal resistance of 107C/W junction to ambient for the dual-in-line package and 2) a thermal resistance of 170C/W for the small outline package.

www.national.com

LM386

Application Hints
GAIN CONTROL

INPUT BIASING

To make the LM386 a more versatile amplifier, two pins (1


and 8) are provided for gain control. With pins 1 and 8 open
the 1.35 k resistor sets the gain at 20 (26 dB). If a capacitor
is put from pin 1 to 8, bypassing the 1.35 k resistor, the
gain will go up to 200 (46 dB). If a resistor is placed in series
with the capacitor, the gain can be set to any value from 20
to 200. Gain control can also be done by capacitively coupling a resistor (or FET) from pin 1 to ground.
Additional external components can be placed in parallel
with the internal feedback resistors to tailor the gain and frequency response for individual applications. For example,
we can compensate poor speaker bass response by frequency shaping the feedback path. This is done with a series
RC from pin 1 to 5 (paralleling the internal 15 k resistor).
For 6 dB effective bass boost: R . 15 k, the lowest value
for good stable operation is R = 10 k if pin 8 is open. If pins
1 and 8 are bypassed then R as low as 2 k can be used.
This restriction is because the amplifier is only compensated
for closed-loop gains greater than 9.

The schematic shows that both inputs are biased to ground


with a 50 k resistor. The base current of the input transistors is about 250 nA, so the inputs are at about 12.5 mV
when left open. If the dc source resistance driving the LM386
is higher than 250 k it will contribute very little additional
offset (about 2.5 mV at the input, 50 mV at the output). If the
dc source resistance is less than 10 k, then shorting the
unused input to ground will keep the offset low (about 2.5 mV
at the input, 50 mV at the output). For dc source resistances
between these values we can eliminate excess offset by putting a resistor from the unused input to ground, equal in
value to the dc source resistance. Of course all offset problems are eliminated if the input is capacitively coupled.
When using the LM386 with higher gains (bypassing the
1.35 k resistor between pins 1 and 8) it is necessary to bypass the unused input, preventing degradation of gain and
possible instabilities. This is done with a 0.1 F capacitor or
a short to ground depending on the dc source resistance on
the driven input.

www.national.com

LM386

Typical Performance Characteristics


Quiescent Supply Current
vs Supply Voltage

Power Supply Rejection Ratio


(Referred to the Output)
vs Frequency

Peak-to-Peak Output Voltage


Swing vs Supply Voltage

DS006976-5
DS006976-13
DS006976-12

Voltage Gain vs Frequency

Distortion vs Frequency

DS006976-15

DS006976-14

Device Dissipation vs Output


Power 4 Load

Device Dissipation vs Output


Power 8 Load

DS006976-17

www.national.com

Distortion vs Output Power

DS006976-18

DS006976-16

Device Dissipation vs Output


Power 16 Load

DS006976-19

LM386

Typical Applications
Amplifier with Gain = 20
Minimum Parts

Amplifier with Gain = 200

DS006976-4
DS006976-3

Amplifier with Gain = 50

Low Distortion Power Wienbridge Oscillator

DS006976-6

DS006976-7

Amplifier with Bass Boost

Square Wave Oscillator

DS006976-8

DS006976-9

www.national.com

LM386

Typical Applications

(Continued)
Frequency Response with Bass Boost

DS006976-10

AM Radio Power Amplifier

DS006976-11

Note 4: Twist Supply lead and supply ground very tightly.


Note 5: Twist speaker lead and ground very tightly.
Note 6: Ferrite bead in Ferroxcube K5-001-001/3B with 3 turns of wire.
Note 7: R1C1 band limits input signals.
Note 8: All components must be spaced very closely to IC.

www.national.com

LM386

Physical Dimensions

inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted

SO Package (M)
Order Number LM386M-1
NS Package Number M08A

www.national.com

LM386

Physical Dimensions

inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted (Continued)

8-Lead (0.118 Wide) Molded Mini Small Outline Package


Order Number LM386MM-1
NS Package Number MUA08A

www.national.com

LM386 Low Voltage Audio Power Amplifier

Physical Dimensions

inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted (Continued)

Dual-In-Line Package (N)


Order Number LM386N-1, LM386N-3 or LM386N-4
NS Package Number N08E

LIFE SUPPORT POLICY


NATIONALS PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT
DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT AND GENERAL
COUNSEL OF NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION. As used herein:
1. Life support devices or systems are devices or
systems which, (a) are intended for surgical implant
into the body, or (b) support or sustain life, and
whose failure to perform when properly used in
accordance with instructions for use provided in the
labeling, can be reasonably expected to result in a
significant injury to the user.
National Semiconductor
Corporation
Americas
Tel: 1-800-272-9959
Fax: 1-800-737-7018
Email: support@nsc.com
www.national.com

National Semiconductor
Europe
Fax: +49 (0) 180-530 85 86
Email: europe.support@nsc.com
Deutsch Tel: +49 (0) 69 9508 6208
English Tel: +44 (0) 870 24 0 2171
Franais Tel: +33 (0) 1 41 91 8790

2. A critical component is any component of a life


support device or system whose failure to perform
can be reasonably expected to cause the failure of
the life support device or system, or to affect its
safety or effectiveness.

National Semiconductor
Asia Pacific Customer
Response Group
Tel: 65-2544466
Fax: 65-2504466
Email: ap.support@nsc.com

National Semiconductor
Japan Ltd.
Tel: 81-3-5639-7560
Fax: 81-3-5639-7507

National does not assume any responsibility for use of any circuitry described, no circuit patent licenses are implied and National reserves the right at any time without notice to change said circuitry and specifications.

IMPORTANT NOTICE
Texas Instruments Incorporated and its subsidiaries (TI) reserve the right to make corrections, modifications, enhancements, improvements,
and other changes to its products and services at any time and to discontinue any product or service without notice. Customers should
obtain the latest relevant information before placing orders and should verify that such information is current and complete. All products are
sold subject to TIs terms and conditions of sale supplied at the time of order acknowledgment.
TI warrants performance of its hardware products to the specifications applicable at the time of sale in accordance with TIs standard
warranty. Testing and other quality control techniques are used to the extent TI deems necessary to support this warranty. Except where
mandated by government requirements, testing of all parameters of each product is not necessarily performed.
TI assumes no liability for applications assistance or customer product design. Customers are responsible for their products and
applications using TI components. To minimize the risks associated with customer products and applications, customers should provide
adequate design and operating safeguards.
TI does not warrant or represent that any license, either express or implied, is granted under any TI patent right, copyright, mask work right,
or other TI intellectual property right relating to any combination, machine, or process in which TI products or services are used. Information
published by TI regarding third-party products or services does not constitute a license from TI to use such products or services or a
warranty or endorsement thereof. Use of such information may require a license from a third party under the patents or other intellectual
property of the third party, or a license from TI under the patents or other intellectual property of TI.
Reproduction of TI information in TI data books or data sheets is permissible only if reproduction is without alteration and is accompanied
by all associated warranties, conditions, limitations, and notices. Reproduction of this information with alteration is an unfair and deceptive
business practice. TI is not responsible or liable for such altered documentation. Information of third parties may be subject to additional
restrictions.
Resale of TI products or services with statements different from or beyond the parameters stated by TI for that product or service voids all
express and any implied warranties for the associated TI product or service and is an unfair and deceptive business practice. TI is not
responsible or liable for any such statements.
TI products are not authorized for use in safety-critical applications (such as life support) where a failure of the TI product would reasonably
be expected to cause severe personal injury or death, unless officers of the parties have executed an agreement specifically governing
such use. Buyers represent that they have all necessary expertise in the safety and regulatory ramifications of their applications, and
acknowledge and agree that they are solely responsible for all legal, regulatory and safety-related requirements concerning their products
and any use of TI products in such safety-critical applications, notwithstanding any applications-related information or support that may be
provided by TI. Further, Buyers must fully indemnify TI and its representatives against any damages arising out of the use of TI products in
such safety-critical applications.
TI products are neither designed nor intended for use in military/aerospace applications or environments unless the TI products are
specifically designated by TI as military-grade or "enhanced plastic." Only products designated by TI as military-grade meet military
specifications. Buyers acknowledge and agree that any such use of TI products which TI has not designated as military-grade is solely at
the Buyer's risk, and that they are solely responsible for compliance with all legal and regulatory requirements in connection with such use.
TI products are neither designed nor intended for use in automotive applications or environments unless the specific TI products are
designated by TI as compliant with ISO/TS 16949 requirements. Buyers acknowledge and agree that, if they use any non-designated
products in automotive applications, TI will not be responsible for any failure to meet such requirements.
Following are URLs where you can obtain information on other Texas Instruments products and application solutions:
Products

Applications

Audio

www.ti.com/audio

Communications and Telecom www.ti.com/communications

Amplifiers

amplifier.ti.com

Computers and Peripherals

www.ti.com/computers

Data Converters

dataconverter.ti.com

Consumer Electronics

www.ti.com/consumer-apps

DLP Products

www.dlp.com

Energy and Lighting

www.ti.com/energy

DSP

dsp.ti.com

Industrial

www.ti.com/industrial

Clocks and Timers

www.ti.com/clocks

Medical

www.ti.com/medical

Interface

interface.ti.com

Security

www.ti.com/security

Logic

logic.ti.com

Space, Avionics and Defense

www.ti.com/space-avionics-defense

Power Mgmt

power.ti.com

Transportation and Automotive www.ti.com/automotive

Microcontrollers

microcontroller.ti.com

Video and Imaging

RFID

www.ti-rfid.com

OMAP Mobile Processors

www.ti.com/omap

Wireless Connectivity

www.ti.com/wirelessconnectivity
TI E2E Community Home Page

www.ti.com/video

e2e.ti.com

Mailing Address: Texas Instruments, Post Office Box 655303, Dallas, Texas 75265
Copyright 2011, Texas Instruments Incorporated

LM741

LM741 Operational Amplifier

Literature Number: SNOSC25B

LM741
Operational Amplifier
General Description
The LM741 series are general purpose operational amplifiers which feature improved performance over industry standards like the LM709. They are direct, plug-in replacements
for the 709C, LM201, MC1439 and 748 in most applications.
The amplifiers offer many features which make their application nearly foolproof: overload protection on the input and

output, no latch-up when the common mode range is exceeded, as well as freedom from oscillations.
The LM741C is identical to the LM741/LM741A except that
the LM741C has their performance guaranteed over a 0C to
+70C temperature range, instead of 55C to +125C.

Features

Connection Diagrams
Metal Can Package

Dual-In-Line or S.O. Package

00934103

00934102

Note 1: LM741H is available per JM38510/10101

Order Number LM741H, LM741H/883 (Note 1),


LM741AH/883 or LM741CH
See NS Package Number H08C

Order Number LM741J, LM741J/883, LM741CN


See NS Package Number J08A, M08A or N08E

Ceramic Flatpak

00934106

Order Number LM741W/883


See NS Package Number W10A

Typical Application
Offset Nulling Circuit

00934107

2004 National Semiconductor Corporation

DS009341

www.national.com

LM741 Operational Amplifier

August 2000

LM741

Absolute Maximum Ratings (Note 2)


If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required,
please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/
Distributors for availability and specifications.
(Note 7)
LM741A

LM741

22V

22V

18V

500 mW

500 mW

500 mW

30V
15V

30V
15V

30V
15V

Output Short Circuit Duration

Continuous

Continuous

Continuous

Operating Temperature Range

55C to +125C

55C to +125C

0C to +70C

Storage Temperature Range

65C to +150C

65C to +150C

65C to +150C

150C

150C

100C

N-Package (10 seconds)

260C

260C

260C

J- or H-Package (10 seconds)

300C

300C

300C

Vapor Phase (60 seconds)

215C

215C

215C

Infrared (15 seconds)

215C

215C

215C

Supply Voltage
Power Dissipation (Note 3)
Differential Input Voltage
Input Voltage (Note 4)

Junction Temperature

LM741C

Soldering Information

M-Package

See AN-450 Surface Mounting Methods and Their Effect on Product Reliability for other methods of
soldering
surface mount devices.
ESD Tolerance (Note 8)

400V

400V

400V

Electrical Characteristics (Note 5)


Parameter

Conditions

LM741A
Min

Input Offset Voltage

LM741
Min

LM741C

Typ

Max

1.0

5.0

Min

Units

Typ

Max

Typ

Max

0.8

3.0

2.0

6.0

mV

4.0

mV

TA = 25C
RS 10 k
RS 50

mV

TAMIN TA TAMAX
RS 50
RS 10 k

6.0

Average Input Offset

7.5

15

mV
V/C

Voltage Drift
Input Offset Voltage

TA = 25C, VS = 20V

10

15

15

mV

Adjustment Range
Input Offset Current

TA = 25C

3.0

TAMIN TA TAMAX
Average Input Offset

30

20

200

70

85

500

20

200

nA

300

nA

0.5

nA/C

Current Drift
Input Bias Current

TA = 25C

Input Resistance

TA = 25C, VS = 20V

1.0

TAMIN TA TAMAX,

0.5

30

TAMIN TA TAMAX

80

80

0.210
6.0

500

80

1.5
0.3

2.0

500
0.8

0.3

2.0

nA
A
M
M

VS = 20V
Input Voltage Range

12

TA = 25C
TAMIN TA TAMAX

www.national.com

12

13

13

V
V

Parameter

(Continued)

Conditions

LM741A
Min

Large Signal Voltage Gain

Typ

LM741
Max

Min

Typ

50

200

LM741C
Max

Min

Typ

20

200

Units
Max

TA = 25C, RL 2 k
VS = 20V, VO = 15V

50

V/mV

VS = 15V, VO = 10V

V/mV

TAMIN TA TAMAX,
RL 2 k,
VS = 20V, VO = 15V

32

V/mV

VS = 15V, VO = 10V
VS = 5V, VO = 2V
Output Voltage Swing

25

15

V/mV

10

V/mV

16
15

VS = 20V
RL 10 k
RL 2 k

VS = 15V
RL 10 k

12
10

RL 2 k
Output Short Circuit

TA = 25C

10

Current

TAMIN TA TAMAX

10

Common-Mode

TAMIN TA TAMAX

Rejection Ratio

25

35

Supply Voltage Rejection

TAMIN TA TAMAX,

Ratio

VS = 20V to VS = 5V
RS 50

25

14
13

25

mA

95

86

96

90

70

90

dB
77

96

77

96

dB
s

TA = 25C, Unity Gain


0.25

0.8

0.3

0.3

Overshoot

6.0

20

TA = 25C

Slew Rate

TA = 25C, Unity Gain

Supply Current

TA = 25C

Power Consumption

TA = 25C

0.437

1.5

0.3

0.7

VS = 20V

80

LM741

%
MHz

0.5

0.5

V/s

1.7

2.8

1.7

2.8

mA

50

85

50

85

mW

150

VS = 15V
LM741A

dB
dB

Rise Time
Bandwidth (Note 6)

V
mA

70
80

RS 10 k
Transient Response

12
10

40

RS 10 k, VCM = 12V
RS 50, VCM = 12V

14
13

mW

VS = 20V
TA = TAMIN

165

mW

TA = TAMAX

135

mW

VS = 15V
TA = TAMIN

60

100

mW

TA = TAMAX

45

75

mW

Note 2: Absolute Maximum Ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the device may occur. Operating Ratings indicate conditions for which the device is
functional, but do not guarantee specific performance limits.

www.national.com

LM741

Electrical Characteristics (Note 5)

LM741

Electrical Characteristics (Note 5)

(Continued)

Note 3: For operation at elevated temperatures, these devices must be derated based on thermal resistance, and Tj max. (listed under Absolute Maximum
Ratings). Tj = TA + (jA PD).

Thermal Resistance
jA (Junction to Ambient)
jC (Junction to Case)

Cerdip (J)

DIP (N)

HO8 (H)

SO-8 (M)

100C/W

100C/W

170C/W

195C/W

N/A

N/A

25C/W

N/A

Note 4: For supply voltages less than 15V, the absolute maximum input voltage is equal to the supply voltage.
Note 5: Unless otherwise specified, these specifications apply for VS = 15V, 55C TA +125C (LM741/LM741A). For the LM741C/LM741E, these
specifications are limited to 0C TA +70C.
Note 6: Calculated value from: BW (MHz) = 0.35/Rise Time(s).
Note 7: For military specifications see RETS741X for LM741 and RETS741AX for LM741A.
Note 8: Human body model, 1.5 k in series with 100 pF.

Schematic Diagram

00934101

www.national.com

LM741

Physical Dimensions

inches (millimeters)

unless otherwise noted

Metal Can Package (H)


Order Number LM741H, LM741H/883, LM741AH/883, LM741AH-MIL or LM741CH
NS Package Number H08C

www.national.com

LM741

Physical Dimensions

inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted (Continued)

Ceramic Dual-In-Line Package (J)


Order Number LM741J/883
NS Package Number J08A

Dual-In-Line Package (N)


Order Number LM741CN
NS Package Number N08E

www.national.com

LM741 Operational Amplifier

Physical Dimensions

inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted (Continued)

10-Lead Ceramic Flatpak (W)


Order Number LM741W/883, LM741WG-MPR or LM741WG/883
NS Package Number W10A

National does not assume any responsibility for use of any circuitry described, no circuit patent licenses are implied and National reserves
the right at any time without notice to change said circuitry and specifications.
For the most current product information visit us at www.national.com.
LIFE SUPPORT POLICY
NATIONALS PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS
WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT AND GENERAL COUNSEL OF NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR
CORPORATION. As used herein:
1. Life support devices or systems are devices or systems
which, (a) are intended for surgical implant into the body, or
(b) support or sustain life, and whose failure to perform when
properly used in accordance with instructions for use
provided in the labeling, can be reasonably expected to result
in a significant injury to the user.

2. A critical component is any component of a life support


device or system whose failure to perform can be reasonably
expected to cause the failure of the life support device or
system, or to affect its safety or effectiveness.

BANNED SUBSTANCE COMPLIANCE


National Semiconductor certifies that the products and packing materials meet the provisions of the Customer Products Stewardship
Specification (CSP-9-111C2) and the Banned Substances and Materials of Interest Specification (CSP-9-111S2) and contain no Banned
Substances as defined in CSP-9-111S2.
National Semiconductor
Americas Customer
Support Center
Email: new.feedback@nsc.com
Tel: 1-800-272-9959
www.national.com

National Semiconductor
Europe Customer Support Center
Fax: +49 (0) 180-530 85 86
Email: europe.support@nsc.com
Deutsch Tel: +49 (0) 69 9508 6208
English Tel: +44 (0) 870 24 0 2171
Franais Tel: +33 (0) 1 41 91 8790

National Semiconductor
Asia Pacific Customer
Support Center
Email: ap.support@nsc.com

National Semiconductor
Japan Customer Support Center
Fax: 81-3-5639-7507
Email: jpn.feedback@nsc.com
Tel: 81-3-5639-7560

IMPORTANT NOTICE
Texas Instruments Incorporated and its subsidiaries (TI) reserve the right to make corrections, modifications, enhancements, improvements,
and other changes to its products and services at any time and to discontinue any product or service without notice. Customers should
obtain the latest relevant information before placing orders and should verify that such information is current and complete. All products are
sold subject to TIs terms and conditions of sale supplied at the time of order acknowledgment.
TI warrants performance of its hardware products to the specifications applicable at the time of sale in accordance with TIs standard
warranty. Testing and other quality control techniques are used to the extent TI deems necessary to support this warranty. Except where
mandated by government requirements, testing of all parameters of each product is not necessarily performed.
TI assumes no liability for applications assistance or customer product design. Customers are responsible for their products and
applications using TI components. To minimize the risks associated with customer products and applications, customers should provide
adequate design and operating safeguards.
TI does not warrant or represent that any license, either express or implied, is granted under any TI patent right, copyright, mask work right,
or other TI intellectual property right relating to any combination, machine, or process in which TI products or services are used. Information
published by TI regarding third-party products or services does not constitute a license from TI to use such products or services or a
warranty or endorsement thereof. Use of such information may require a license from a third party under the patents or other intellectual
property of the third party, or a license from TI under the patents or other intellectual property of TI.
Reproduction of TI information in TI data books or data sheets is permissible only if reproduction is without alteration and is accompanied
by all associated warranties, conditions, limitations, and notices. Reproduction of this information with alteration is an unfair and deceptive
business practice. TI is not responsible or liable for such altered documentation. Information of third parties may be subject to additional
restrictions.
Resale of TI products or services with statements different from or beyond the parameters stated by TI for that product or service voids all
express and any implied warranties for the associated TI product or service and is an unfair and deceptive business practice. TI is not
responsible or liable for any such statements.
TI products are not authorized for use in safety-critical applications (such as life support) where a failure of the TI product would reasonably
be expected to cause severe personal injury or death, unless officers of the parties have executed an agreement specifically governing
such use. Buyers represent that they have all necessary expertise in the safety and regulatory ramifications of their applications, and
acknowledge and agree that they are solely responsible for all legal, regulatory and safety-related requirements concerning their products
and any use of TI products in such safety-critical applications, notwithstanding any applications-related information or support that may be
provided by TI. Further, Buyers must fully indemnify TI and its representatives against any damages arising out of the use of TI products in
such safety-critical applications.
TI products are neither designed nor intended for use in military/aerospace applications or environments unless the TI products are
specifically designated by TI as military-grade or "enhanced plastic." Only products designated by TI as military-grade meet military
specifications. Buyers acknowledge and agree that any such use of TI products which TI has not designated as military-grade is solely at
the Buyer's risk, and that they are solely responsible for compliance with all legal and regulatory requirements in connection with such use.
TI products are neither designed nor intended for use in automotive applications or environments unless the specific TI products are
designated by TI as compliant with ISO/TS 16949 requirements. Buyers acknowledge and agree that, if they use any non-designated
products in automotive applications, TI will not be responsible for any failure to meet such requirements.
Following are URLs where you can obtain information on other Texas Instruments products and application solutions:
Products

Applications

Audio

www.ti.com/audio

Communications and Telecom www.ti.com/communications

Amplifiers

amplifier.ti.com

Computers and Peripherals

www.ti.com/computers

Data Converters

dataconverter.ti.com

Consumer Electronics

www.ti.com/consumer-apps

DLP Products

www.dlp.com

Energy and Lighting

www.ti.com/energy

DSP

dsp.ti.com

Industrial

www.ti.com/industrial

Clocks and Timers

www.ti.com/clocks

Medical

www.ti.com/medical

Interface

interface.ti.com

Security

www.ti.com/security

Logic

logic.ti.com

Space, Avionics and Defense

www.ti.com/space-avionics-defense

Power Mgmt

power.ti.com

Transportation and Automotive www.ti.com/automotive

Microcontrollers

microcontroller.ti.com

Video and Imaging

RFID

www.ti-rfid.com

OMAP Mobile Processors

www.ti.com/omap

Wireless Connectivity

www.ti.com/wirelessconnectivity
TI E2E Community Home Page

www.ti.com/video

e2e.ti.com

Mailing Address: Texas Instruments, Post Office Box 655303, Dallas, Texas 75265
Copyright 2011, Texas Instruments Incorporated