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You are on page 1of 7

A=

x x

x x

Where u is the number of trails and v is the number of responses, A is an array of responses.

Trails

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Open

Voltage

(A)

1

1

1

2

2

2

3

3

3

Servo

Voltage

(B)

1

2

3

1

2

3

1

2

3

Wire Feed

(C)

1

2

3

2

3

1

3

1

2

Material Removal

Rate (MRR)

(mm3/min)

78.9600

62.8800

55.1200

79.6000

65.9200

51.2000

75.6000

58.3200

49.2800

Machining Time

(MT) (min)

Gap Voltage

(GV) (Volts)

5.2160

6.4500

7.3170

5.1170

6.1670

7.9000

5.4000

6.9500

8.2170

30.3400

38.9600

48.5200

30.2000

37.8400

50.6900

30.5200

42.1200

51.2300

All responses were converted to signal to the noise ratio (S/N ratio) with the help of given formulas,

For Lower-is-better (LB),

v

1

(S/N)LB = -10log10[ v x

u=1

(1)

For Higher-is-better (HB),

v

1

1

(S/N)HB = -10log10[ v x ]

u=1

(2)

Step 3 Normalization of S/N ratios values

S/N values are normalize using these mathematical formulas [10],

For Lower-is-better (LB),

Z=

Max ( x ) x

Max ( x ) Min ( x )

(3)

Z=

x Min ( x )

Max ( x ) Min ( x )

(4)

Where Z is the normalised value for xuv responses, Min (xuv) is the smaller value of xuv and Max (xuv) is the

larger value of xuv, Z is a normalized array.

Z=

Trails

S/N (MRR)

(dB)

37.9481

35.9702

34.8262

38.0183

36.3803

34.1854

37.5704

35.3163

33.8534

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

S/N (MT)

(dB)

-14.3467

-16.1912

-17.2867

-14.1803

-15.8015

-17.9525

-14.6479

-16.8397

-18.2943

TOTAL

MEAN

VARIANCE

COVARIANCE

CORRELATION

X-X'

Y-Y'

Z-Z'

0.466

0.443

4

0.488

9

0.015

7

0.983

2

0.040

5

0.001

2

0.508

3

0.488

8

0.474

4

0.233

6

0.755

1

0.889

7

0.482

8

0.606

7

0.394

1

0.419

2

0.089

5

0.079

7

0.916

9

0.892

5

0.113

6

0.012

4

0.351

3

0.646

4

0.622

0.992

5

4.655

3

0.517

2

4.355

4

0.483

9

4.411

4

0.490

1

0.008

9

0.283

6

S/N (GV)

(dB)

-29.6403

-31.8124

-33.7184

-29.6001

-31.5590

-34.0984

-29.6917

-32.4898

-34.1905

0.9832

0.5083

0.2336

1.0000

0.6067

0.0797

0.8925

0.3513

0.0000

Z=

z z

z z

0.004

9

Normalized

(MRR)

0.9832

0.5083

0.2336

1.0000

0.6067

0.0797

0.8925

0.3513

0.0000

0.0405

0.4888

0.7551

0.0000

0.3941

0.9169

0.1136

0.6464

1.0000

Normalize

d (GV)

0.0012

0.4744

0.8897

0.0000

0.4192

1.0000

0.0124

0.6220

0.9925

0.0012

0.4744

0.8897

0.0000

0.4192

1.0000

0.0124

0.6220

0.9925

(X-X')(XX')

(Y-Y')(YY')

(Z-Z')(ZZ')

(X-X')(YY')

(Y-Y')(ZZ')

(X-X')(Z-Z')

0.217156

0.1966035

6

0.2390232

1

-0.2066244

0.21677826

-0.2278274

0.000079

0.000024

0.0002464

9

-0.000044

-0.000077

0.00013973

0.0804289

6

0.0735494

4

0.1596801

6

0.10837152

-0.11332656

0.2330958

4

0.2341592

1

0.2401980

1

0.23715939

-0.23662028

0.0080102

5

0.0080640

4

0.0050268

1

-0.0080371

0.00636682

-0.00634555

-0.1894375

0.2207867

-0.22308125

0.17689231

-0.17928081

0.02143375

-0.02188221

0.25928864

-0.25984128

-1.1475415

1.24700039

-1.26806561

-0.1434

0.1559

-0.1585

0.271

2

0.399

6

0.483

9

0.089

8

0.490

1

0.070

9

0.437

5

0.433

0.509

9

0.1914062

5

0.187489

0.2599980

1

0.375

3

0.370

3

0.477

7

0.1408500

9

0.1371220

9

0.2281972

9

0.162

5

0.131

9

0.0275228

1

0.0264062

5

0.0173976

1

0.516

1

0.502

4

0.2674958

4

0.2663592

1

0.2524057

6

1.1660450

4

1.1297768

1.4021733

5

0.1458

0.1412

0.1753

0.165

9

0.517

2

Normalized

(MT)

0.0405

0.4888

0.7551

0.0000

0.3941

0.9169

0.1136

0.6464

1.0000

0.0769123

2

0.2336269

2

0.1389735

9

0.0269587

5

0.2669269

2

-0.9997

0.9907

-0.9917

Principal component analysis (PCA) technique is a multivariate statistical approach developed by pearsion [18]

and further it is drive by Hotelling [8]. Initially this technique was applied to identify and qualify in social

science, where it is very difficult to directly measure the phenomenal changes. PCA is quit beneficial in

reducing data and interpretation of multiple objective sets of data. Now ever day PCA is widely using in

scientific fields. In this paper problem consists of three process parameters and is found with correlation

between them. To find the optimal process parameter from various process parameters with different technique

is quite difficult, but PCA make it easy to solve and overcome best parameters because of this quality PCA has

been used in countless statistical applications. PCA is capable to convert multiple correlated responses data into

several uncorrelated quality indices. Then it is converted into mathematical function which makes it easy to

calculate. Formula is made by gathering all or some quality indices. Finally rank can be used to find out the

optimal parameters or condition on which MRR is Maximum, at Minimum MT and GV [22].

The procedure steps to find out PCA are given as:

Step 4 calculate variance-covariance in array B through the normalized values

B=

N N

N N

]

Cov(x ( u ) , x (v))

Nu,v=

Var ( x ( u ))Var ( x ( v ) )

(5)

Where u=1, 2,3..v, and Cov(x(u), x(v)) is the covariance of x(u) and x(v).

Step 5 Calculate the Eigen values and Eigen vectors with the help of correlation coefficient,

(R-xIu)Vuv=0

(6)

Step 6 Find the principal components,

v

x V

PC=

u=1

(7)

Where i=1,2,3.n

Step 7 Calculate the Total Principal Component Index,

v

TPCI =

PC e (x)

x=1

(8)

eig( x )

Where, e(x) =

eig(x)

x=1

Step 8 Generate response table and choose the optimal processing parameters.

Variables

Open Voltage (OV)

Servo Voltage (SV)

Wire Feed (WF)

Level 1

m1

n1

o1

Level 2

m2

n2

o2

m1 =

Level 3

m3

n3

o3

3

(9)

n1 =

3

(10)

o1 =

3

(11)

1.1. Selection of material

We selected En45A alloy steel as workpiece for our experimental work. It is widely used in most of the field for

manufacturing of oil and gases pipeline, springs, construction, automobiles, power plants, etc. It is widely used

due to its mechanical properties and hardness. Melting temperature of En45A alloy steel is 1425c and its

density is 8.08 gm/cm3. Chemical composition of En45A alloy steel material is as below shown in table 1 [14].

Element

s

%

Carbon (C)

0.66

Silicon (Si)

Manganese

Chromium

Copper

(Mn)

(Cr)

(Cr)

1.62

0.89

0.23

0.20

Iron (Fe)

95.60

(b)

(a

Figure 2. Top view (a) and side view (b) of En45A Alloy steel material

1.2. Table of input parameters

S. No

1.

2.

3.

Variables

Open Voltage (OV)

Servo Voltage (SV)

Wire Feed (WF)

Symbols

Units

Level (L1)

A

Volts

80

B

Volts

30

C

m/min

5

Level (L2)

85

40

6

Level (L3)

90

50

7

This technique is found by Genichi Taguchi, a Japanese scientist which is based on orthogonal array. Nowever

day it is widely using day by day it makes trails compact and make less difficult to find out the optimal

parameters. This technique is totally depends on factors and number of trails (level). Here we consider Open

voltage (OV), Servo voltage (SV), and Wire feed (WF) as an input parameters and applied L 9 Taguchi

orthogonal array [19]. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array is shown in table 3.

Trails

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Open Voltage (A)

Servo Voltage (B)

1

1

1

2

1

3

2

1

2

2

2

3

3

1

3

2

3

3

1

2

3

2

3

1

3

1

2

Trails

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Material Removal Rate

Machining Time (MT)

3

(MRR) (mm /min)

(min)

78.9600

5.2160

62.8800

6.4500

55.1200

7.3170

79.6000

5.1170

65.9200

6.1670

51.2000

7.9000

75.6000

5.4000

58.3200

6.9500

49.2800

8.2170

(Volts)

30.3400

38.9600

48.5200

30.2000

37.8400

50.6900

30.5200

42.1200

51.2300

Trails

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

S/N (MRR) (dB)

S/N (MT) (dB)

37.9481

-14.3467

35.9702

-16.1912

34.8262

-17.2867

38.0183

-14.1803

36.3803

-15.8015

34.1854

-17.9525

37.5704

-14.6479

35.3163

-16.8397

33.8534

-18.2943

-29.6403

-31.8124

-33.7184

-29.6001

-31.5590

-34.0984

-29.6917

-32.4898

-34.1905

Trails

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Normalized (MRR)

Normalized (MT)

0.9832

0.0405

0.5083

0.4888

0.2336

0.7551

1.0000

0.0000

0.6067

0.3941

0.0797

0.9169

0.8925

0.1136

0.3513

0.6464

Normalized (GV)

0.0012

0.4744

0.8897

0.0000

0.4192

1.0000

0.0124

0.6220

0.0000

1.0000

0.9925

Table 7. Eigen values & Eigen vectors

PC1

PC2

-0.4780

0.373

0.4780

-0.441

0.476

0.816

Eigen Vectors

Eigen Values

Proportion

Cumulative

2.9882

0.9960

0.9960

PC3

0.726

0.687

-0.039

0.0116

0.0040

1.0000

0.0002

0.0000

1.0000

Table 8. Principal component for experimental trails

VPC1

VPC2

-0.2417

0.3499

0.3620

0.3611

0.1139

0.4801

0.6780

0.3730

0.6245

0.3946

0.5991

0.4414

-0.4430

0.2929

0.1044

0.3535

0.6497

0.3689

Trails

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

VPC3

0.7415

0.6863

0.6536

0.7260

0.6949

0.6488

0.7255

0.6748

0.6483

Trails

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

TPCI

Ranks

-0.2393

8

0.3620

5

0.1153

6

0.6768

1

0.6237

3

0.5985

4

-0.4401

9

0.1054

7

0.6486

2

ANOVA is conducted to identify the most significant factor which effects performance and result of ANOVA is

given in Table 10. It shows the individual affect of Open voltage, Servo voltage & Gap voltage. In our F-test, if

F value of any input parameter is high, it means that input parameter is affecting most [5].

Symbol

A

B

C

Error

SUM

DOF

2

2

2

2

Sum of square

Variance

0.586

0.293

0.348

0.174

0.383

0.192

0.047

0.023

1.364

F-values

12.466

7.401

8.151

Contribution (%)

42.96

25.50

28.09

3.45

100

When we conduct our operations on wire cut machine, we took Open voltage, Servo voltage & Wire feed as our

input parameters and material removal rate, machine timing, & gap voltage as our responses. After conducting

experiments principal component analysis method is used with the support of Taguchis orthogonal array and we

identify optimal process parameters (A2 B1 C2), means on 85 Open Voltage, 30 Servo Voltage and 6 Wire feed,

machining will be optimum it will give maximum MRR at minimum MT and GV which is in table 11.

S. No.

Open Voltage

85

Servo Voltage Wire Feed Material Removal

Rate

30

6

79.6000

Machining

Time

5.1170

Gap

Voltage

30.2000

Individual optimal process parameters are identified and shown in Table 12. According to this optimal process

parameters are (A3 B1 C2).

Inputs

Open Voltage (OV)

Servo Voltage (SV)

Gap Voltage (GP)

* Optimal values

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Max-Min

0.0794

-0.0009

0.1549*

0.1558

0.6330*

0.3637

0.5625

0.2693

0.1046

0.4541*

0.0996

0.3545

Rank

3

1

2

4. Conclusions

In this paper Taguchi orthogonal array is coupled with Principal component analysis are used to improve

multiple responses like MRR (material removal rate), MT (machining time), & GV (gap voltage) of En45A

alloy steel for WEDM. As well as our result is compare and tested with the help of ANOVA. The conclusions of

this experimental optimization work as follows:

Experimental results were found with good agreement.

The optimal parameters combination was identified as A 2B1C2 i.e. Open voltage 85V, Servo Voltage 30V

and wire feed 6m/min.

Individual optimal parameter combination was identified as A3B1C2.

The result of ANOVA shows affect of Open voltage is more, than other input parameters.

ANOVA find out the 3.45% of error in experimental calculation.

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