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DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES

PART I
PROVISIONS GOVERNING ALL CLASSES OF LAND SURVEYS

DENR ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER No. 98- 12:

CHAPTER I- LAND SURVEY'S AND GEODETIC ENGINEERS


CLASSIFICATION OF LAND SURVEYS

SUBJECT: REVISED MANUAL OF LAND SURVEYING REGULATIONS IN


THE PHILIPPINES

Section 1 - For the purpose of these regulations, the survey of lands used for
agricultural, residential, industrial, commercial, resettlement and other similar
purposes shall be divided into three (3) groups. These are:
(1) Isolated Land Surveys
(2) Cadastral Land Surveys

The dynamic advancement of surveying science resulted in the new survey


technologies and practices. In view of this the "Manual for Land Surveys in
the Philippines" issued in 1980 is hereby revised and reissued under the new
name "Revised Manual of Land Surveying Regulations in the Philippines". It is
an integration of the land surveys rules and regulations of the Land
Management and the Mines and Geo-Sciences Bureaus, embracing the DENR
policy on integrated approach in surveying and mapping:

REVISED MANUAL OF LAND SURVEYING REGULATIONS

(3) Geodetic Surveys


Section 2 - Isolated land surveys shall comprise all classes of surveys of
isolated parcels of land used for agricultural, residential, industrial,
commercial, resettlement, or other purpose. These surveys shall be classified
as follows:
a) Public Land Surveys- All original surveys of lands of the public domain
classified as alienable or disposable pursuant to the provisions of the public
land laws.
b) Private Land Surveys- All original surveys of lands claimed or owned by
individuals, partnership, corporations, or any other form of organization,
undertaken for use in original land registration proceedings pursuant to the
provisions of Presidential Decree No. 1529 otherwise known as Property
Registration Decree. It includes subdivision, consolidation/subdivision of
decreed, patented, or titled properties.
c) Government Land Surveys- All original surveys of lands administered by
or belonging to the National Government or any of its branches pursuant to
the provisions of Friar Lands Act No. 1120, as amended; Act No. 3038; or
similar acts which may hereafter be enacted,

d) Conversion Surveys- All surveys converting graphical cadastral lots into


numerical cadastral lots, computed and plotted in the system of the cadastral
project.
e) Other Land Surveys- All surveys made for the purpose of determining
political boundaries, verifying or relocating prior surveys, delimiting alienable
and disposable areas, forestlands, parks and other protected areas, ancestral
claims, watersheds, reservations, foreshore land; determining the geographic
coordinates, establishing location monuments and triangulation stations,
locating roads and streets, easements, and any other survey work not
included in the preceding classes.
Section 3 - Cadastral land surveys shall comprise all surveys of extensive
areas consisting of several lots for cadastral registration proceedings,
agricultural development, or for any purpose, pursuant to the provisions of
Cadastral Act No. 2259, as amended; Act No. 3240, as amended; Act No.
3327, as amended; Sections 1850 to 1857 of the Administrative Code (Act
No. 2711, as amended); Commonwealth Act No. 141, as amended; or other
acts which may hereafter be enacted.
Section 4 - Geodetic surveys shall comprise all surveys of extensive areas
that take into account the curvature of the earth. This shall be made for the
purpose of determining the geographic positions of reference points of
cadastral projects and other expansive isolated surveys.
The establishment of the national geodetic network shall be in accordance
with the specification of the Coast and Geodetic Survey Department of the
National Mapping and Resource Information Authority (NAMRIA) which follows
international standards.

WHO MAY EXECUTE SURVEYS


Section 5 - Land surveys for registration and other surveys with prescribed
precision of accuracy as stated in this Manual, shall be made by geodetic
engineers or junior geodetic engineers duly registered in accordance with
Republic Act No. 4374, as amended.

Section 6 - Geodetic engineers and junior geodetic engineers who are in the
service of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) may
undertake public land surveys, private land surveys, government land surveys
and other land surveys, subject to the administrative direction, control and
supervision of the Director of Lands Management Bureau through the
Regional Technical Director for Lands Management Services.
Section 7 - Duly licensed geodetic engineers and junior geodetic engineers in
private practice may undertake private land surveys, subject to these rules
and regulations. In the case of Junior Geodetic Engineer, subject further to
the limitation of three lots with an aggregate area of not exceeding one
hectare and other limitations prescribed by the Geodetic Engineering Board.
Section 8 - Duly licensed geodetic engineers and junior geodetic engineers in
private practice may be authorized to undertake surveys of isolated parcels of
public and government lands, subject to the administrative direction, control
and supervision of the Lands Management Bureau through the DENR-Lands
Management Services.
Section 9 Duly licensed geodetic engineers in private practice may be
authorized to undertake cadastral surveys, subject to existing laws and the
administrative direction, control and supervision of the Lands Management
Bureau through the DENR-Lands Management Services.

BONDS FOR GEODETIC ENGINEERS


Section 10 - Geodetic engineer in private practice may be authorized to
undertake survey of isolated parcels of public lands under the administration
of the Lands Management Bureau, upon issuance of survey authority. The
request for survey authority shall be accompanied by documents that will
show the actual occupation of the land by the claimant. Such documents may
be a certification of the Barangay Captain or the Municipal Mayor. Survey for
homestead, lease or sale application is exempted from this requirement.
In case the geodetic engineer, when so notified, does not make the
necessary field correction, he may be required to deposit sufficient amount to

defray the cost of field correction survey or if the survey is rejected, a


notation will be reflected in the in the records of the survey.
Section 11 - In the case of mineral land surveys, the geodetic engineer duly
authorized to execute the same, shall file a bond to be determined by the
Regional Executive Director and the Regional Director for Mines and GeoSciences in the amount of not more than Twenty Thousand Pesos (20,000).
Mineral land surveys includes the survey of mining claims, quarry
applications, sand and gravel applications, and other mineral lands for lease,
permit, license service contract and other purposes. (Sec. 108 Mineral Land
Surveys Regulation, MLSR),
The bond shall guaranty the faithful and efficient execution of the
survey. It shall also cover any expenses that may be incurred by the DENR in
the verification, correction, or field work. (Sec. 111r, MLSR)
The bonds shall be in the form as stated in Section 14 of this Manual
or a Torrens Title covering unencumbered private lands provided the assessed
value is not less than twice the amount of the required bond and this
encumbrance shall be recorded in the Register of Deeds concerned. The bond
shall continue to be in force until the surveys are approved or ordered
cancelled or rejected by the Regional Executive Director and/or the Regional
Technical Director for Lands. (Sec. 109 & 110, MLSR; DAO 72).
Section 12 - A geodetic engineer in private practice who has been authorized
to undertake cadastral project shall file a performance bond in the amount to
be fixed by the Regional Executive Director. The bond shall not be less than
ten percent of the project cost.
Section 13 - The performance bond shall remain in force in accordance with
the terms and conditions of the contract for the cadastral project.
Section 14- The performance bond shall be in any of the following forms:
a) A cash deposit with the National Treasurer.
b) A cash surety furnished by the Government Service Insurance
System

c) Bonds of the Republic of the Philippines.

CHAPTER II - SURVEYING INSTRUMENTS


THEODOLITES, TRANSITS, ELECTRONIC DISTANCE
MEASURING AND OTHER EQUIPMENT

Section 15 - Official surveys to be used in the issuance of land patents and


leases, adjudication of titles and other administrative or judicial proceedings
shall be made with transits, theodolites, photogrammetric instruments and
other surveying and mapping instruments certified for use by the Director of
Lands Management Bureau or Regional Technical Director for Lands. If
theodolites or transits are used, they must be of the following specifications:
THEODOLITE
a) The telescope should have a magnifying power of not less than 30
diameters
b) The horizontal circle should have a minimum inside diameter of 80
millimeters and provided with microptic reading devices.
c) The horizontal and vertical circles should be full circles with least reading of
twenty (20) seconds of arc or less or its equivalent in the centesimal units.
Angular units may be in the sexagesimal or centesimal system.
d) The stadia constant should preferably be one hundred (100).

ENGINEERS TRANSIT
a) The telescope should have a magnifying power of not less than 20
diameters.
b) The telescope should possess center cross wires or hairs and preferably
with solar squares.

c) The stadia constant should preferably be one hundred (100).

internal centering and/or alignment, replacement of parts, etc.

d) The minimum inside diameter of the horizontal circle should be 118


millimeters.

c) When malfunction is suspected;

e) The horizontal and vertical circles should be full circles.


The horizontal circle should be provided with two (2) verniers and the vertical
circles with one (1) vernier with least reading of one minute or less.
f) The transit should be provided with a magnetic compass with a least
reading of one degree or less.
g) The plate levels should have a sensitivity of seventy-five seconds of arc
(75") or less per 2mm graduation,

ELECTRONIC DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT


Section 16- Electronic Distance Measuring (EDM) equipment of any kind and
model shall be tested for zero (prism/instrument) constant, measuring scale
frequency with the following specifications:
a) A measuring range of at least 300 meters when using one prism.
b) It should operate with an accuracy of +/- (5 mm + 5 ppm) probable error
and within temperature range of 15 to 40 degrees Celsius.
c) It should have a measuring range display read-out to the nearest
millimeter.
d) It should be provided with meteorological correction factor for atmospheric
conditions, earth curvature, refraction, and reflector constant including cyclic
errors.
Section 17- The EDM instrument should be presented to the Lands
Management Bureau for a full calibration or check and if necessary, a separate
cyclic test shall be carried out if any of the following is present:
a) Upon receipt of new EDM.
b) After any repair which affects the component such as the light source,

d) When the distances measured by the EDM may be or are to be challenged


in a Court of Law.
Section 18- A partial calibration over one of the established calibration base
should be carried out before its use in any project if the EDM instrument has
not been used for some time. If any discrepancy is noted then a full
calibration may be necessary. The UP Calibration Base or the South
Superhighway Baseline and other established baseline may be used, provided
the said baseline is in accordance with the standards.
Section 19 - To minimize the necessity of regular re-calibration of the EDM
instrument, immediately after a full calibration at the U.P. Calibration Baseline
or the South Superhighway Baseline and other Regional established baseline,
small check base should be established in the project area by the project
chief. Two stations, approximately 300-400 meters apart, should be located
and pegged with an intervening station at a commonly measured distance. A
test over this check base prior to the start of work may suffice to give
confidence in the instrument or indicate the need for further checks. The field
notes of this test shall form part of the survey returns.
Section 20 - The EDM instrument shall be used at both ends of a line to
measure a primary and secondary control distances in the forward and
reversed directions. It shall be calibrated over the established baseline by the
Lands Management Bureau before and after its use in a project control.
Same requirements and procedures from EDM shall also be applied to
the total station instrument.
STEEL, INVAR OR LOVAR, AND OTHER TAPES
Section 21- The measurement of distances shall be made with invar, lovar or
steel tapes graduated in the metric system. The true length of these shall be
determined by comparison with the standard and tested at the calibration
baseline. Other tapes such as Fiberglass, phosphor bronze or nylon-coated

steel tape may be used as accessories but must be limited to locating details
in topographic survey, locating corners from an established control station or
checking distances of witness points and in survey which need not be
approved for land registration.

Section 22 - Broken tapes which have been repaired (3) times or less may
be used only in lot surveys of tertiary precision. However, tests shall be made
to determine the correction to be applied to the measurements. If the
correction to be applied is greater than one in ten thousandths (1:10,000) of
the tape length, the said tape shall not be used for survey of lands for
registration or related purposes. Likewise, tapes that have been repaired
more than three (3) times shall not be used for survey of lands for
registration or related purposes.
Section 23 - The temperature of thirty-two (32) degrees Celsius shall be
adopted as the standard temperature at which each tape shall be of standard
length with a tension of ten (10) kilograms when supported horizontally
throughout its entire length.
Section 24 - Only steel tapes which are of standard length at temperatures
between twenty-seven (27) degrees Celsius and thirty-seven (37) degrees
Celsius; may be approved for use in primary, secondary, and tertiary surveys.

Section 25 - All temperature measurements shall be in the Celsius system.

Section 26 - No correction for temperature shall be required for tapes of


standard length at temperature ranging from twenty-seven to thirty seven
degrees Celsius when used in tertiary surveys and in locating corners from
traverse stations.
Section 27 - The coefficient of stretch, standard temperature and unit weight
of tape shall be stated in the certificates of examination and approval.

EXAMINATION, TEST, CERTIFICATION, AND RECORDS

Section 28 - The appropriate instrument shall be used in performing a


survey. Such equipment must be capable of achieving the standards of
accuracy prescribed for each kind of survey as stated in Sections 54, 55 and
116.
Section 29 -To ensure accuracy of angular and linear measurements,
surveying instruments used in the survey of lands especially surveys for
registration purposes shall be examined, calibrated, standardized, and
approved by the Lands Management Bureau.
Section 30 - Surveys made with instruments which have not been examined
and approved shall not be accepted for verification and approval.
Section 31 - The original certificate for each instrument approved for use in
property surveys, stating its technical data and condition at the time of
examination shall be issued by the Land Management Bureau. Subsequent
examination and certification, except for GPS receivers, Theodolites, EDMs
and other sophisticated instruments, may be done in the Lands Management
Services. If subsequent examination proves that the instrument is no longer
fit for use in property surveys, the certificate shall be cancelled. A copy of the
renewed certificate or letter of cancellation issued by the Lands Management
Services shall be furnished to the Lands Management Bureau (LOC No. 80 and
80-1, S-1983).
Section 32 - The Lands Management Bureau shall keep an up-to-date record
of the instruments examined. The Lands Management Services shall likewise
keep a record of all re-inspected instruments in the region.
Section 33 - Individuals, corporations, or associations engaged in the
importation, purchase, sale, repair, or adjustment, etc., of surveying
instruments shall submit their instruments to the Lands Management Bureau
for examination, test, certification and record shall before the sale,
Section 34- A certificate for the use of: (1) transits and theodolites shall be

valid for a period of five (5) years; and (2) tapes for two (2) years from the
date of last examination and certification. A new certificate shall be issued
after the physical re-examination of the instrument when the instrument is
found fit for use in property surveys. A certificate is deemed cancelled upon
its expiry date and Section 30 shall apply.
Section 35 - The fees that shall be charged for the examination, calibration,
certification of each instrument and the re-issuance of true copy of certificate
thereof shall be as prescribed by DENR from time to time.

OTHER INSTRUMENTS
Section 36- Thermometers, barometers, chronometers and other
instruments used in property surveys shall be frequently tested and compared
with established standards,
Section 37- LMB shall test and calibrate GPS receivers at stations designated
by NAMRIA. The results shall form part of the survey returns for verification
and approval.

CHAPTER III- POSITION OF SURVEYS


POINTS OF REFERENCE

Section 38 - Land surveys shall be fixed in position on the surface of the


earth by monuments of permanent nature and by azimuths and distances to
"points of reference" of known geographic positions. The geographic positions
shall be in the Philippine Plane Coordinate System - Transverse
Mercator/Philippine Reference System 1992 (PPCS-TM/PRS-92). These points
of reference shall be as follows:

Monuments (CBM),
2) Municipal Boundary Monuments (MBM),
3) Barangay Boundary Monuments (BBM);
c) Triangulation stations established by the:
1) Bureau of Lands
2) Bureau of Coast and Geodetic Survey
3) United States Army Corps of Engineers
4) Other organizations, the work of which is of acknowledged standard
d) Primary stations of cadastral surveys;
e) Church towers, historical monuments and other prominent permanent
structures of known PRS 92 geographic or grid coordinates;
f. Stations established by Global Positioning Systems, Doppler, Hiran, and
Loran, and other similar stations of at least third order accuracy and in the
PPCS-TM/PRS-92.
Section 39 - The Lands Management Bureau/Services shall establish at least
one pair of standard location monuments to be designated as BLLM No. 1 and
BLLM No. 2 in each city and municipality of the Philippines.
Section 40 - Additional location monuments shall be established along the
controls of projects. These monuments shall be by pairs with an average
interval of five or six kilometers. These shall be designated and numbered as
BLLM No. 3 and BLLM No. 4, BLLM No. 5 and BLLM No. 6, and so forth.
However, the pair of location monuments shall be established as near as
possible to the center of the Barangay.

GEOGRAPHIC POSITION

a) Bureau of Lands Location Monuments (BLLM);


b) Political Boundary Monuments:
1) Provincial Boundary Monument (PBM) and City Boundary

Section 41 - The complete geographic position of points of reference shall be


expressed in latitude, longitude and elevation.

Section 42 - The geographic position of points of reference shall be referred


to the standard datum of the Philippines and shall be classified into four
categories, namely:
a) First Order
b) Second Order
c) Third Order
d) Fourth Order
Section 43 - The geographic position of the control points shall be derived
from the adopted coordinates of previously established stations as referred to
the standard datum by a network of triangulation, trilateration, traverse,
leveling, GPS, or by any other method of recognized standard.
Section 44- The standard datum for the Philippines shall be defined by the
geographic coordinates of the triangulation station of the Coast and Geodetic
Surveys, known as "Balanacan" which are:

Latitude

= N 13 deg. 33 min. 41.000 sec.

Longitude

= E 121 deg. 52 min. 03.000 sec.

Geoid/spheroid separation

= 0.34 meters

The azimuth from triangulation station "Balanacan" to triangulation


station "Baltazar" is 912' 37.000" and the distance is 37,680.90 meters. The
back azimuth is 189 11'50.60".
The description of the triangulation station, Balanacan, is as follows:
Balanacan (Marinduque Province, O. W. Ferguson, 1906, 1907). On the
highest hill at the northwest point of Marinduque Island. Salvaria Island in the
entrance to Looc Bay bears N. 9 E., distance 3 kilometers, and the highest
point to the western one of the two San Andres Islands bears S. 80 E.,
distance 3 kilometers. It is on the northwest end of the hill, 10 meters

northwest of the highest point, and is in a commanding situation, seeing a


hundred miles of the south coast of Luzon, much of the north and west coasts
of Marinduque, the coast of Mindoro and other islands.
Station mark is the center of a hole 1.5 centimeters in diameter and 6
centimeters deep, drilled at the center of a triangle 16 centimeters on a side,
cut in a hard rock. Reference mark is on a hard, white boulder of about one
cubic meter in volume, standing 80 centimeters above the ground and 90
centimeters higher than the station. The mark is a hole 1.5 centimeters in
diameter and 8 centimeters deep, at the center of a cross cut on top of this
stone. From the station, the reference mark is in azimuth 326 34' and is
distant 18.85 meters,
Section 45 - The mean sea level obtained from the tidal observations of the
Coast and Geodetic Survey Department/NAMRIA shall be used as vertical
datum of bench marks. The elevation of these bench marks shall be used in
leveling other points or bench marks.
Section 46- In topographic or any other surveys where elevations are
necessary, the said elevations shall be referred either to an assumed or a
local mean sea level, when there are no established bench marks.
PHILIPPINE REFERENCE SYSTEM OF 1992
Section 47- The Philippine Reference System of 1992 (PRS-92) is the new
reference system for all surveys and maps in the country pursuant to
Executive Order Number 45 dated 5 January 1992. It is also known as the
Philippine Plane Coordinate System-Transverse Mercator/Philippine Reference
System of 1992 (PPCS-TM/PRS-92) to distinguish it from the PPCS of 1965. A
transition period up to the year 2000 is allowed in order to integrate existing
surveys into the system after which the PRS-92 shall be recognized as the
Sole reference.
Section 48 - The PRS-92 is based from the Luzon Datum with origin at
station Balanacan in Marinduque, Luzon Datum as defined in Section 44.
Section 49- Geodetic control surveys shall be established in the system of

PRS-92 by GPS or by conventional surveying methods using duly registered


instruments.
Section 50 - Positions read out direct from the GPS Receivers are referred to
World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS-84). As such the geographic coordinates
are geocentered, earth fixed coordinate system defined by the Global
Positioning System (GPS) satellite ephemerides.
The geocentric Cartesian coordinates must be transformed
Cartesian coordinates on the Luzon Datum with the following parameters:

Translation

Rotation

Scale Parameter

127.62195 meters

67.24478 meters

47.04305 meters

Rot X =

-3.06762 secs

Rot Y =

+4.90291 secs

Rot Z =

+ 1.57790 secs

to

= 1.06002

PRS-92 Spheroid - Clark Spheroid of 1866. The signs are reversed


when transforming from Luzon Datum to World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS
84). The general transformation formula that relates the two sets of
coordinates is as follows:

Section 51 - Observation Requirements for GPS Surveys shall be as follows:


Order

60

30

15

15

at least three (% of total stations)


(b)

20%

10%

at least two (% of total stations)


(b)

50%

30%

30%

Min.
observation
minutes

period

in

Independent occupations per station

Common satellites observed simultaneously


Min. number
Min. Period in minutes

3*

3*

3*

30

15

15

15

Min. number of quadrants with

satellite observations
GDOP value to be achieved
during

10

an observing period (c)


Max. period between
meteorological

60

Optiona
l

Optiona
l

Optiona
l

(e)

(e)

(e)

(e)

10

observation in minutes (d)


Min. crystal frequency
standard
warm-up period hours
Min. elevation of satellite in
degrees

*Provided a precise ellipsoid height is known for each station and/or an


atomic frequency standard is used to constrain the solution.

Those in parenthesis mean:


(a) Independent occupations per station may be back to back, but the
antenna must be re-setup for each occupation. Antenna heights are to be
changed by at least 0.5 m. The full specified minimum observation period
must be observed with each occupation.
(b) For 1st ORDER Network;
(I) 20% of stations are to be occupied at least three times;
(II) 50% of stations are to be occupied at least twice.
(c) Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP) is an indicator of the geometrical
strength of a four or more satellite constellation as it applies to instantaneous
point position fixing. The lower the number, the better the geometry for

achieving an accurate point position.


Caution should be used in applying this parameter as an absolute
acceptance/rejection criterion. This is particular in relative GPS positioning
where longer observation periods largely remove common biases.
Rapidly changing GDOP during a recording session assists in the
determination of ambiguities. Therefore it is desirable to incorporate at least
one such period in an observing session.
Ideal constellations, in addition to exhibiting rapidly changing GDOP is
less than or equal to those values detailed in the above Table.
(d) Observations of temperature and relative humidity should be collected at
or near the location of the phase center of the antenna, Observations of wetbulb and dry-bulb temperature readings should be recorded to the nearest 0.5
c. The relative humidity should be measured to the nearest 2%. Barometric
readings at the station site should be recorded to the nearest millibar and
corrected for any significant difference in height between the antenna phase
centre and location of the barometer. The meteorological instruments should
be brought and compared against a standard at least once a month. The logs
should include the name of manufacturer, model, and serial numbers of
instruments used.
(e) The amount of warm-up time required is instrument dependent. It is very
important to follow the manufacturers specification.
(f) Elevations may be reduced if suitable models for tropospheric refraction
are used in the data reduction.
Section 52 - For land surveys the Relative Positioning Technique is advisable
to be used. With this technique, positions can be determined with respect to
another point, taking one point as the origin of a local coordinate system.
Relative positioning may be Static or Kinematic. Static refers to the
positioning of stationary object while kinematics is the positioning of a moving
object.
Section 53 - In the establishment of geodetic networks, connections must

always be made to a network that is higher in accuracy than the one to be


established.
Section 54- To integrate all surveys to the PRS-92, all subsequent
interconnections must be surveyed at the following geometric relative
positioning accuracy standards:

1st Order
2nd Order
3rd Order
4th Order

Positional Accuracy
10 parts per million
1/100000 1 cm per km
20 parts per million
1/50000
2 cm per km
50 parts per million
1/20000 5 cm per km
100 parts per million
1/10000 10 cm per km
Vertical Accuracy

2nd Order

- 8.4 mm times square root of the distance

3rd Order

- 12.0 mm times square root of the distance

Section 55 - The accuracy of the following surveys or connection surveys to


PRS-92 shall be in accordance with the orders in the preceding section.
(a) Densification of the 1st Order PRS-92 National Network shall be in
2nd and 3rd Order accuracy.

Section 56- New GPS Stations in PRS-92 may be established by government


agencies and accredited geodetic engineering professionals with capabilities in
GPS surveying; provided their receivers are duly registered with NAMRIA or
.
Section 57- The GPS Station in PRS-92 shall be monumented with
subsurface marking and reference point numbering of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd
Order accuracy. It shall follow those established by CGSD/NAMRIA in setting
up the PRS-92. CGSD/NAMRIA should be consulted as to what number shall
be used.
The Lands Management Bureau and/or Lands Management Services
and the CGSD/NAMRIA may design their own set of numbering for new
stations of lower accuracy. The RTD for Lands shall forward, through the
Lands Management Bureau, whatever system they adopt to CGSD/NAMRIA
for completion of the central data bank.
Section 58 - Geodetic Engineers in the government and private sectors who
established GPS Station which form part of the national geodetic network,
shall submit to CGSD/NAMRIA the GPS Survey Pre/Post requirements for
evaluation of the design and survey results using GPS Receivers. This shall
contain the following:
a) Type of GPS Receivers (Brand/Model);

(b) Project controls of cadastral projects shall be at least in 3rd Order


accuracy.

b) Technique/survey practices to be utilized in the survey;

(c) Political boundary surveys shall be at least in 3rd Order accuracy.

d) Network design;

c) Reduction techniques and computer programs for adjustment;

(d) Delimitation surveys of Integrated Social Forestry Projects; mineral


land surveys; relocation or delimitation of national parks and other protected
areas, reservations, classified forests including buffer zones; delimitation of
ancestral claims shall be in 4th Order accuracy.

e) Results of a minimally constrained least squares network adjustment


computed on the ellipsoid associated with the datum on which the
observations were acquired;

(e) Ground control surveys for topographic and hydrographic activities


shall be in 4th Order accuracy.

g) Time per occupation as a function of satellite geometry;

f) Number of existing horizontal control points to be occupied;

h) Number of occupation per site;

10

i) Number of repeated baselines;


j) Cut off elevation;
k) Antenna set-up specifications;
1) Number of receivers; and
m) Ephemeris source and age.
GPS receivers that will be used in land surveys, survey controls and
establishment of Political boundary shall be submitted to the LMB for
certification based on the aforementioned requirements.

Satellite Datum are transformed to geocentered cartesian coordinates. This is


then transformed to cartesian coordinates on the Luzon Datum (PRS-92)
using the transformation formula and parameters in Section 50 before its
transformation to geographical PRS-92 coordinates. The transformed
cartesian coordinates on the PRS92 Luzon Datum is referred to in the survey
returns as PPCS-TM/PRS-92.

Section 61 - The characteristics of the Philippine Plane Coordinate System


are:
1. Spheroid: Clarke's Spheroid of 1866

Section 59 - The connection survey returns of the reference points


monumented in Section 38 using conventional instruments such as
Theodolite, EDM and/or total stations shall be submitted to Lands
Management Services for verification and approval before its integration to
PRS -92. A copy of these approved data shall be sent to the Lands
Management Bureau and CGSD/NAMRIA for incorporation into the National
Geodetic Data Bank,

PHILIPPINE PLANE COORDINATES SYSTEM AND THE PHILIPPINE


REFERENCE SYSTEM OF 1992
Section 60 - Philippine Plane Coordinate System (PPCS), also known as
Philippine Transverse Mercator Grid (PTM), are transformed cartesian
coordinates on the Luzon Datum from geographic coordinates determined
through astronomical observations. PPCS-TM was adopted in 1965 as the
reference system in the Philippines. Prior to the adoption of PRS92, the
geographic coordinates of the points of references enumerated in Section 38
are transformed into the Philippine Transverse Mercator Grid System. The
transformed coordinates are simply referred to as PPCS-TM Grid. The
geocentered geographic coordinates of a reference point defined by the Global
Positioning System (GPS) Satellite ephemerides which are referred to WGS 84

2. Projection: Transverse Mercator, in zones of two degrees net width


3. Point of Origin: Intersection of the Equator and the Central
Meridian of each zone, with Northing of 0 meter and an Easting of 500,000
meters
4. Scale factor at the Central Meridian: 0.99995

5. Zonification:
Zone No.

Central Meridian

Extent of Zone

117

116 00 to 118 30

II

119

117 30 to 120 30

III

121

119 30 to 122 30

IV

123

121 30 to 124 30

125

123 30 to 127 00

Section 62 - The geographic coordinates of PRS-92 can be converted to


PPCS-TM/PRS-92 Grid Coordinates and vice versa using the following
formulas:

11

Section 63 - In converting the PRS 92 geographic coordinates to PPCSTM/PRS 92 grid coordinates and vice versa, the transformation formulas in
Section 62 and the procedures as contained in DNR/Bureau of Lands (now
DENR/LMB) Technical Bulletin Number 26 (Philippine Transverse Mercator Grid
Tables) shall be used.
Section 64 - All computations, maps and plans of cadastral surveys, public
land subdivisions and group settlement surveys and other kinds of Surveys
shall be prepared using the PPCS-TM/PRS 92. This shall be submitted to the
Lands Management Services for verification and approval.
Section 65 - The assignment of provinces into the map projection zones of
the PPCS-TM/PRS 92 shall be as follows:

a. Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)


1 Abra
2 Benguet
3 Ifugao
4 Mountain Province (Bontoc)
5 Kalinga
6 Apayao
b. National Capital Region (NCR)
1 Metro Manila
c. Region No. I
1 Ilocos Norte
2 Ilocos Sur
3 La Union
4 Pangasinan
d. Region No. II
1 Batanes
2 Cagayan
3 Isabela
a Municipalities West of 122 E
b Municipalities East of 122 E

Zone No. III


-do-do-do-do-doZone No. III
Northwestern
Luzon
Zone No. III
-do-do-doNortheastern Luzon
Zone No. III
-do-doLongitude- Zone III
Longitude- Zone IV

4 Neuva Viscaya
5 Quirino
e. Region No. III
1 Bataan
2 Bulacan
3 Nueva Ecija
4 Pampanga
5 Tarlac
6 Zambales
f. Region No. IV
1 Aurora
2 Batangas
3 Cavite
4 Laguna
5 Marindique
6 Occidental Mindoro
7 Oriental Mindoro
8 Palawan
*Central Meridian
9 Quezon
a Municipalities East of 122 E,
Longitide
b Municipalities West of 122 E,
Longitide
c Polillo Islands
10 Rizal
11 Romblon
g. Region No. V
1 Albay
2 Camarines Norte
3 Camarines Sur
4 Catanduanes
5 Masbate
6 Sorsogon
h. Region No. VI
1 Aklan

Zone No. III


-doCentral Luzon
Zone No. III
-do-do-do-do-doSouthern Tagalog
Zone No. III
-do-do-do-do-do-doZone 1 (a)
118 30 E
Zone No. IV
Zone No. III
Zone No. III
Zone No. III
Zone No. IV
Bicol
Zone No. IV
-do-do-do-do-doWestern Visayas
Zone No. IV

12

2 Antique
3 Capiz
4 Iloilo
5 Negros Occidental
6 Guimaras
i. Region No. VII
1 Bohol
2 Cebu
a Camotes Island
3 Negros Oriental
4 Siquijor
j. Region No. VIII
1 Eastern Samar
2 Leyte
3 Northern Samar
4 Samar (Western Samar)
5 Southern Leyte
6 Biliran
k. Region No. IX
1 Basilan
2 Zamboanga del Sur
3 Zamboanga del Norte
l. Region X
1 Bukidnon
2 Camiguin
3 Misamis Occidental
4 Misamis Oriental
m. Region No. XI
1 Davao del Norte
2 Davao del Sur
3 Davao Oriental
4 South Cotabato
5 Sarangani
n. Region No. XII
1 Lanao del Norte
2 North Cotabato

-do-do-do-do-doCentral Visayas
Zone No. V
Zone No. IV
Zone No. V
Zone No. IV
-doEastern Visayas
Zone No. V
-do-do-do-do-doWestern Mindanao
Zone No. IV
Zone No. IV
-doNorthern Mindanao
Zone No. V
-doZone No. IV
Zone No. V
Southern Mindanao
Zone No. V
-do-do-do-doCentral Mindanao
Zone No. V
-do-

3 Sultan Kudarat
o. Region No. XIII
1 Agusan del Norte
2 Agusan del Sur
3
Surigao del Norte
4 Surigao del Sur
p. Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao
(ARMM)
1 Lanao del Sur
2 Maguindanao
3 Tawi-Tawi
4 Sulu
(*Zones are revised)

-doZone No. V
-do-do-do-

Zone No. V
-doZone No. III *
Zone No. III

Section 66 The transformation of geographic to grid coordinates and viceversa, the determination of the convergence between the local and central
meridians, and the determination of the scale factor at any station, shall be
referred to DNR/BL (now DENR/LMB) Technical Bulletin Number 26.
Section 67 - The Coast and Geodetic Surveys Department of NAMRIA and
the Lands Management Bureau shall publish the Philippine Reference System
of 1992 (PRS-92), geographic and grid coordinates and descriptions of the
established points of reference in the cities and municipalities of the
Philippines.
Section 68 - In all land surveys, the position of BLLM No. 1 of each
municipality or city as referred to the national datum shall have its
corresponding coordinates in the Philippine Reference System of 1992 (PRS92). All other location monuments, triangulation stations, etc., situated within
the jurisdiction of the municipality or city shall have their coordinates in the
PRS-92.
Section 69 - In the case of islands, which form part of the municipality, the
location monument which is most centrally and conveniently located in the
island shall be referred to the Central Meridian of the province.

13

ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS
Section 70 - Astronomical observations for time, latitude, longitude and
azimuth shall be made whenever necessary to determine the following:
a) The error in the time shown by watches or chronometers.
b) The latitude and longitude of points of reference which have not
been connected to other points of known geographic coordinates.
c) The azimuths of lines of survey.
d) A check for the geographic position.
Section 71 - Astronomical observations shall be made on either the sun or
the stars, as the geodetic engineer may prefer, using the procedures as
prescribed in this Manual. However, the azimuth between BLLM Nos. 1 to 2
shall be obtained through stellar observations if there is no direct connection
made to established geodetic control lines.

Section 75 - When making solar observations the following shall be


observed:
a) The index error of the vertical circle shall be determined by direct
and reversed sighting at a fixed point. The average of at least ten direct and
ten reversed readings on as many points of different elevations shall be used
for determining the index error. The observed vertical angles shall be
corrected by the amount of the index error. The value of the index correction
shall be entered with the data for each solar observation.
b) Observations shall be taken when the altitude is not less than
twenty degrees.
Section 76 - If the direct and reversed readings of the vertical angles to a
point, corrected for index error, differ by more than thirty seconds of arc, the
instrument shall be tested and adjusted accordingly.

TIME

Section 72 - All observed altitudes of the sun shall be corrected for index
error, refraction and parallax in the order given. Only corrections for index
error and refraction shall be applied to observed altitudes of the star.

Section 77 - For the purpose of determining the hour angle of the sun's
center or the hour angle of the vernal equinox at any instant, observations for
time shall be made to find the error of a timepiece.

Section 73 - The altitude of the sun's center shall be determined by


observing its lower or upper limb and correcting the vertical angle observed.
The correction shall be done by adding or subtracting its angular semidiameter or by centering the sun's disc in the solar circle or square which
shall be taken first with the telescope direct, then twice with the telescope
reversed and finally with the telescope direct.

Section 78 - Observations on celestial bodies shall be made when the


observed body is on the prime vertical. If this is not possible, observations
can be made along the meridian but this should be limited.

Section 74 In solar observations and computations of declination of the


sun, the standard time (120 EMT) shall be determined by:

a) Time by transit of the sun;

a) Observing for the local apparent time, converting it into mean time
and finally reducing to standard time.
b) Comparing watch time with the official standard time signals.

Section 79- Any of the following methods for determining the time shall be
followed:

b) Time by transit of a star;


c) Time by an altitude of the sun at any hour angle;
d) Time by an altitude of a star at any hour angle;
(e) Time by equal altitudes of a star.

14

Section 80 -The official or standard time to be used in astronomical


observation shall be the mean time corresponding to the one hundred
twentieth degree (120) meridian east of Greenwich.
Section 81 - Geodetic engineers shall use accurate watches or chronometers
for astronomical observations
Section 82 -.The accuracy of the times kept by a watch or chronometer shall
be verified by comparison with standard chronometers or by observations for
local mean time. This is to determine the correction to be applied to the time
indicated by the watch or chronometer.
Section 83 - Local mean time shall be determined by altitude observations
on the sun or stars at the moment of meridian passage or at any hour angle.
Section 84- When local mean time is determined by altitude of the sun
before or after meridian passage the procedure outlined in Section 104 for
determining azimuth shall be followed.
Section 85 - Any formula for determining the hour angle may be used, but
the following tangent formula shall be adopted from altitude observation for
time:

1
Tangent T = cos S sec ( SP ) sin ( SH ) csc ( SL )
2

the telescope in the direct and the reversed positions as provided in Sections
103 and 104.
Section 86 - The time obtained by observations on the sun is local apparent
time which shall be transformed into local mean time. Equation of time is
equal to apparent time minus local mean time.
Section 87 - The time obtained by observations on the star is local sidereal
time which shall be transformed into local mean time.
Section 88 - At least two complete sets of observations shall be made. The
average shall be transformed into local mean time. The data obtained for
determining time may be used also for determining the azimuth of line.

LATITUDE
Section 89 - Observations for latitude shall be made whenever the latitude of
the station occupied is not known from previous observations or from
connection to a point of reference of known latitude.
Section 90 - Of the various methods for determining latitude, the following
may be used with the transit or Theodolite:
a) By a circumpolar star at culmination
b) By meridian altitude of a southern star

where:

S = 1/2 (P+H+L)

c) By circum-meridian altitudes

T = Hour angle of the observed celestial body

d) By altitude of Polaris at any hour angle

H = Observed altitude of the celestial body, corrected for refraction in


case of stars and parallax and refraction in the case of the sun.

e) By altitude of Sun at noon

L=Latitude of the place of observation


P = North polar distance of the celestial body

Separate computation shall be made for each set of observations with

Section 91 - The highest recorded altitude of the sun when corrected for
refraction, index error, semi-diameter and parallax may be accepted and used
for determining the latitude.
Section 92 - Observations on the sun shall consist of a series of not less than
8 altitude observations alternately with the transit in the direct and the
reversed positions. Half of the series shall be made before the time of the

15

meridian passage and the other half after the time of meridian passage.

Section 96 -Latitude determination by observations on the star or the sun at


meridian passage shall be made using the following formula:

Section 93 When more accurate results are desired, the latitude shall be
determined by observations of Polaris at culmination. The average of the
reduced altitudes shall be accepted and used for determining latitude.

For the star's and the sun's center south of the Zenith but north of the
equator:
L=Z+D
and for those south of the zenith and south of the equator:

Section 94 - When a latitude is determined by Polaris or any circumpolar star


at any hour angle, these procedures shall be followed:

L=Z-D
In those north of Zenith and north of the equator

a) Set and level the instrument over the point.


b) By means of the upper motion take several altitude observations on

L=D-Z
where:

L = Latitude of observer

Polaris in the direct and reversed positions.

Z = Zenith distance of celestial body

c) Take note of the time at each pointing of the star.

D = Declination

d) Apply index correction to the observed altitude when necessary and then
take the mean of the altitudes and the mean of the times and treat the
results as a single observation.
e) Compute the hour angle of the star.

Section 97 The latitude used in the computations for azimuth shall be


derived from the latitude as determined by the position computation.
Section 98 - If the above method is not feasible, the latitude shall be
determined by astronomical observations.

f) Compute the latitude (f) using the formula:

1
Lat=h pcost + p 2 sin 2 t tan h sin1 ' '
2
where:

h = corrected mean observed altitude


t = hour angle of Polaris or any circumpolar star (difference
between sidereal time and the star's right ascension)
= polar distance in seconds of Polaris or any circumpolar star.

LONGITUDE
Section 99- Longitude shall be determined by means of control starting from
reference points of known geographic positions. Other methods for
determining longitude shall be used as follows:
a) Longitude by transportation of a timepiece.
b) Longitude by transit of the moon.
c) Longitude by the time signals.
d) Laplace observation method.

Section 95 - In all land surveys, the latitude shall be determined by a control


connection with points of reference of known geographic positions.

ELEVATION
Section 100- Elevations may be determined by lines of levels starting from

16

bench marks of known elevations, by trigonometric leveling, spirit leveling or


by means of the barometer.

AZIMUTH
Section 101 - The azimuths of all lines of survey lines shall be reckoned from
the south as the zero direction following clockwise of the quadrants. This shall
be carried from the astronomical azimuth of one or more lines of the survey,
Section 102 - The astronomical azimuth of a line shall be determined by
observations on the sun or stars. It shall consist of at least one to eight series
of observations as required using an instrument tested beforehand.
Section 103- Each series shall consist of two sets of observations. One set
shall consist of the mean of observed readings with the telescope in the direct
and reversed positions.
Section 104 - In solar observations for azimuth using the vertical and
horizontal cross wires, the cross wires shall be made tangent to the left and
lower, right and upper, right and lower, or left and upper limbs of the sun, as
the case maybe. The procedures to be followed are:
1) Set up the instrument over the station and level the instrument.
2) Set the vernier plate or micrometer reading to 0000'00" and sight the
rearward station, the azimuth of which is to be determined using the lower
motion and lower tangent screw.
3) Screw the colored prismatic glass to the eyepiece and using the upper
motion and upper tangent screw turn the telescope toward the sun.
4) Observe the sun in accordance with the following tangent positions and
record the time, vertical angle or zenith distance and horizontal angle for each
sighting as shown by the following example:

(1) Telescope direct

(5) Telescope reverse

(2) Telescope direct

(6) Telescope reverse

(3) Telescope reverse

(7) Telescope direct

(4) Telescope reverse

(8) Telescope direct

5) After the eight sightings, turn the telescope to the rearward station using
the upper motion then read and record the horizontal angle. The time interval
between successive sightings shall in no case exceed two minutes. The eight
sightings constitute one series of observation and shall be completed within
twenty minutes otherwise the results shall be voided and another series shall
be made.
6) The allowable horizontal angle of closure shall be within +/- 30 seconds of
arc and must be distributed equally among the horizontal angle readings.
7) After the observations have been completed, test the accuracy of the
observations by determining the rate of motion of the sun. This is to detect

17

any mistake in the observations and to be able to make additional series as


required.
The test for solar variation shall be made by horizontal and vertical
variation methods as follows.
a) To find the variation in horizontal angle divide the difference in horizontal
angle readings by the corresponding difference in time. Combinations are
from any two horizontal readings from the left-side of the telescope vertical
cross-hairs or any two readings from the right-side of the vertical cross-hairs.

Hvar=

( HnHm)
(TnTm)
(1)

(4-1) (5)

(4-1)

(9)

(4-1)

(2)

(4-1) (6)

(4-1) (10)

(4-1)

(3)

(4-1) (7)

(4-1) (11)

(4-1)

(4)

(4-1) (8)

(4-1) (12)

(4-1)

more than two seconds of arc per second of time. Other combinations using
the mean of a direct and reverse positions shall be used to determine the
variation.
Additional safeguard against mistakes in observations shall be
determined by noting that the average apparent angular diameter of the sun
is about thirty two minutes of arc in the vertical and thirty-two minutes of arc
divided by secant of altitude in the horizontal.
Section 105 - In case of stellar observations, the star shall be centered as
closely as possible at the intersection of the cross wires. The accuracy of the
observations shall be tested by comparing the rate of motion of the stars in
the horizontal and vertical angles.
Section 106 -For observations on circumpolar stars for azimuth at
elongation, the following formulas for determining the hour angle and azimuth
of a star shall be used:
cos t = tan L cot D
sin Z = sin P sec L

b) To find the variation in vertical angle divide the difference in vertical angle
readings by the corresponding difference in time. Combinations are from any
two vertical readings from the upper-side of the telescope horizontal crosshair or any two readings from the lower-side of the horizontal cross-hair.

(VnVm)
Vvar=
(TnTm )

where ;

t = hour angle of star at western elongation

and

t =24 t at eastern elongation


L = latitude of place
D= declination of star
P = north polar distance of star

(1)

(3-1) (5)

(7-3)

(9)

(8-2)

(2)

(5-1) (6)

(7-5) (10)

(6-4)

(3)

(7-1) (7)

(4-2) (11)

(8-4)

(4)

(5-3) (8)

(6-2) (12)

(8-6)

Z = angle of star reckoned from the north


The time shall be determined from the following formulas:

S=s +t s
h

S=( sun +12 ) +T


In both cases, the results should not differ from the mean variation by

18

where S

= sidereal time

s
T

= right ascension of star


= local civil time

ts
sun

= hour angle of star


= right ascension of sun (n)

Section 107- The procedure for observing stars for azimuth at elongation
shall be as follows:

5) About five minutes before elongation bisect the star with the cross wires
and follow it as it moves toward elongation using the tangent screw.
6) At elongation, read and record the horizontal angle and time.
7) Reverse the telescope, bisect the star again and read and record horizontal
angle and time.
8) Return the telescope to the azimuth mark and check the closing reading.

Section 108 - In all azimuth observations, points occupied and observed


shall always be stations of the survey controls.

1) Find the sidereal time of elongation:


a) Compute the hour angle (t) of the star of elongation (cos t = tan L
cot D).
b) Add the hour angle for western or eastern elongation to the right
ascension of the star to get sidereal time.
2) Find the local civil time at the same instant.
a) Determine the (sun + 12h) corrected for longitude.
b) Subtract the result of (a) from the sidereal time determined in step
(1). The result is sidereal interval which shall be converted to local civil
time by the application of correction from sidereal into mean solar
time.
c) The result shall be corrected for longitude difference to reduce to
120 E time.

Section 109 - The following formula shall be used for determining azimuth of
a line by observations on the sun or stars at any hour angle:

cot

1
A= sec S sec ( SP ) sin ( SH ) sin (SL)
2

The result shall be checked using the formula:


cos A = tan H tan L - cos P sec H sec L

In both formulas:
A = angle between the celestial body and the south
H = observed altitude of the celestial body corrected for refraction in
case of stars and for parallax and refraction in the case of the sun
L = Latitude of the place of observation

3) Set the instrument over the station in position at least thirty minutes
before the time of elongation.

P = north polar distance of the observed celestial body.

4) Set the micrometer (vernier) reading to approximately 0000'00" and sight


the azimuth mark.

P is (90-D) when the declination is north and (90+D) when the


declination is south.

S = 1/2 (P + H + L)

19

In the morning the azimuth of sun is 360 minus A and in the


afternoon, the azimuth of sun is A. If the station mark is to the left of the sun,
the horizontal angle is to be subtracted from the azimuth of the observed
celestial body; if to the right it is to be added.

geographic positions of points on the earth's surface taking into account the
curvature of the earth. It also includes determination of positions of points
through satellite survey or photogrammetric aerial triangulation.
Section 113 - Geodetic control surveys shall be made in accordance with the
general instructions contained in the special publications used by the Coast
and Geodetic Survey Department/NAMRIA for first, second and third order
control work.
PROJECT CONTROL SURVEYS
Section 114 -Project control surveys shall consist of traverse, triangulation
or any combination thereof, which together with leveling, shall determine the
positions of control points between stations of geodetic accuracy over an area
of limited extent such as isolated tracts of lands, group settlement, barangay
areas, municipalities or group of municipalities.
Section 115 - There shall be three classes of project control surveys,
namely, primary, secondary and tertiary controls.
Section 116- The following classification and standards of accuracy in project
control establishment shall be adopted.

CHAPTER IV - GEODETIC AND PROJECT CONTROL SURVEYS


CLASSES OF CONTROL SURVEYS
Section 110 - There shall be two classes of control surveys; namely,
geodetic and project control surveys.
Section 111 - The basis of classification of geodetic and project control
surveys shall in general be the accuracy with which the length and azimuth of
a line of the triangulation, traverse or trilateration is determined.

GEODETIC CONTROL SURVEYS

CLASSIFICATION AND STANDARDS OF ACCURACY OF PROJECT


CONTROLS FOR LAND SURVEY

SPECIFICATION
Spacing of stations
* Angular error of
closure not to exceed

TRAVERSE
Primary
between 100
m. to 1,000m

Secondary
100 m. to 500
m.

___
2.5 P

___
10.0 S

Tertiary
as required

30

____
T

Section 112 - Geodetic control surveys shall consist of triangulation,


traverse, trilateration and any combination thereof, which together with
leveling and astronomic observations, shall determine the accurate

20

No. of observations:
Positions with 1 second
Theodolite
Set with 20 or 30 second
transit

6 D/R for
interior and
exterior
angles

as required

4 D/R for
interior angle
for circuit and
loop traverse
clamped

** Linear error of closure


not to exceed

0.0001 P

Azimuth reading

1.0 second

10 to 15 sec.

30 sec. to 1
minute

Instrument least reading

1 sec.
Theodolite;
20 to 30
transit
8 or 4, am
and 4, pm

1 sec.
Theodolite or
20 to 30
transit
4 or 2, am
and 2, pm

1 minute
transit

Astronomic
Observations:
No. of series night or day
Probable error of
astronomical
observations not to
exceed
Azimuth checks not to
exceed

20

0.0002 P

Clamped
plate

10

30

0.0005 P

No. of stations between


azimuth checks not to
exceed

25

*** Distance
Measurement

Nearest

Probable error or
distance measurement
not to exceed
Relative error after
azimuth adjustment

50

1:40,000

as required

as required

1:20,000

1:10,000

1:5,000

mm.

SPECIFICATION
Spacing of stations not to
exceed
Angular Observations
Positions with 1 second
Theodolite
Set with 20 or 30 second
transit

15

as required

35

Triangle closure not to


exceed Base
Measurement
Probable error not to
exceed

1-3 km

2
6 D/R for
interior and
exterior
angles

5
1:40,000

TRIANGULATION
1 km

2
4 D/R for
interior angle
and exterior
angles

10
as required

Consistent
with good
sighting
As required
2 D/R

30
as required

21

Check on base not to


exceed

1:20,000

1:10,000

1:5,000

Section 117 - Project controls shall be classified as follows:


a) Primary control:
The azimuth shall be determined to the nearest one second of arc and the
distances shall be measured twice to the nearest millimeter taking into
account the temperature, sag, pull, grade and sea level corrections.
b) Secondary control:
The azimuth shall be determined to the nearest fifteen seconds of arc or less
and the distances shall be measured once to the nearest millimeter, taking
into account the temperature, sag, pull, grade and sea level corrections.
c) Tertiary control:
The azimuth shall be determined to the nearest one minute of arc or less and
the distances shall be measured once to the nearest centimeter, taking no
account of temperature, pull, sea level and sag corrections if the weight of the
tape per meter does not exceed fifteen thousandths (0.015) kilogram.
Section 118 - The main control shall be the primary, secondary, or tertiary
control, as the case may be, from and to which all other controls established
in the survey of an area shall begin or close.
Section 119 - When the main control is fixed by:
a) Primary control, the details of the survey may be located by the primary
control or by secondary and tertiary controls connected thereto.
b) Secondary control, the details of the survey may be located by the
secondary control or by tertiary control connected thereto.
c) Tertiary control, the details of the survey may be located by the main
control or by other tertiary controls connected thereto.
Section 120 - A traverse which closes to the point of its origin shall be

known as a circuit traverse. A traverse starting from a station and closing into
another station of the same or another traverse shall be known as a loop
traverse. A traverse which does not close into another station of the same or
of any other traverse shall be known either as a loose tie line or connection
traverse.
Section 121 - The quality of control to be used for isolated land surveys shall
be as follows:
AREA TO BE CONTROLLED

QUALITY OF CONTROL

less than 1,500 hectares

Tertiary Control

1,500 to 15,000 hectares

Secondary control

Over 15,000 hectares

Primary Control

In isolated parcels of land having an area of less than 1,500 hectares to be


subdivided into fifty or more lots, at least one pair of location monuments
shall be established. The location monument shall be connected by a control
of secondary precision from previously established reference point provided
that no lots shall have a distance of more than one (1) kilometer from the
nearest point of reference.
Section 122 -The main control for cadastral projects shall be established by
traverse, triangulation, trilateration, or combination thereof with primary
accuracy precision.
Section 123- The main control starting from and closing to the BLLM No. 1 of
the project shall be established to control all subsidiary controls within the
project.
Section 124- The main control starting from and closing to the BLLM No. 1 of
the project shall be established to control all subsidiary controls within the
project.
Section 125 - From the BLLM No.1, the main control shall generally follow
the project boundary. If the place is rugged, it may be run through fairly level

22

area near the boundary and include at least three second or third order
geodetic control stations.
Section 126 - In case mountain peaks or hills define the boundary of the
municipality or project, the primary control shall be located at the base of the
mountains or hills. If the terrain is rugged, it may be run through existing
road located as near as possible to the boundary for convenience and to
produce a more reliable control. Traverse lines may be longer than 1,000
meters as prescribed in Section 129 as systematic errors on angle and
distance measurements will be smaller.
Section 127- Whenever the main control includes established geodetic
control stations as specified in Section 125, the main control shall be divided
into loops, each loop starting from one geodetic control station and closing on
another geodetic control station.
Section 128 - Main control stations shall be numbered consecutively from
one for each project. This shall be inscribed on the monuments in a clockwise
order and shall be indicated in the field notes, computations and maps as P1,
P2, P3, P4, and so on. The BLLM No. 1 of the project shall be the first main
control station to be known as P1 of the main control; the BLLM No. 2 shall be
made as the second or last main control station, without changing the marks
thereon.
Section 129 - The primary traverse station shall be established on the
ground so that the distance between consecutive stations shall not be less
than 100 meters nor more than 1,000 meters whenever conditions may allow.
Section 130 -Additional pairs of location monuments shall be established
along the control of the project at an interval of from 5 to 6 kilometers to be
designated and numbered as BLLM No. 3 and BLLM No. 4; BLLM No. 5; and
BLLM No. 6; etc. and given corresponding equivalent main control station
numbers without changing the marks thereon.
Section 131 - All main control stations except the BLLMs shall be defined by
cylindrical concrete monuments fifteen centimeters in diameter by fifty
centimeters in length (15 by 50 cm). These shall be reinforced preferably by

barbed wire and set not more than twenty centimeters (20 cm) above the
ground. The station center shall be defined by a cross on a galvanized iron
(G.I.) spike, set flush into the concrete monument.
Section 132 - After the main control stations have been monumented,
preferably before starting the measurement of angles and distances, the
positions of the stations shall be determined by a preliminary survey using the
transit and tape or stadia. The preliminary survey shall define the
approximate project boundaries to be used in the generation of information
for the preparation of provisional progress map and preliminary control for the
immediate commencement of sketching operations. Reference points of the
monuments shall be located during the preliminary survey.
Section 133 - The measurement of distances for primary control shall be
made with calibrated steel tapes or electronic distance measuring (EDM)
equipment.
The EDM shall be tested and calibrated at the calibration base line before and
after its use in the project as required in Section 20. It shall also be tested as
often as necessary over a calibrated line in the project. Kinked or broken
tapes, even if repaired, shall not be used in the measurement of primary and
secondary controls.
Section 134- Distances of primary control lines that cannot be directly
measured shall be indirectly determined by traverse triangulation or by
broken base Measurement.
POSITION AND BASE MERIDIAN OF THE PROJECT
Section 135- The geographic position of BLLM No. 1 of the cadastral survey
shall be derived from the second and third order geodetic control stations as
specified in Section 125. It shall be included in the main control of the
project.
In the absence of second and third order geodetic control stations at a
distance of ten (10) kilometers from the project boundary, connection of
primary precisions shall be made to any other point of reference accepted by
the Lands Management Bureau.

23

Section 136 - The central meridian of the zone shall be the base meridian to
which all azimuths of lines of the project shall be referred.

GRID AZIMUTH
Section 137 - The azimuth used in the cadastral project shall be known as
grid azimuth to distinguish it from astronomical azimuth which may be
observed within the project.
Section 138 - The grid azimuth shall be derived from at least two established
geodetic control lines within or near the project.
Section 139- When the grid azimuth for the cadastral project cannot be
obtained by direct connection to established geodetic control lines, it shall be
determined by: (1) stellar observations for azimuth on BLLM Numbers 1 - 2 of
the project independent of any previous determination; and (2) by the
application of the convergency correction between the station occupied and
the central meridian of the adopted zone. Astronomical observations for
azimuth shall be made on other pairs of location monuments of the cadastral
project to check the carried grid azimuth of the line.
Section 140 - When the main control of the project is connected to the main
control of an adjoining project, as required in Sections 154-160, astronomical
observations for azimuth shall likewise be made on the two extreme stations
common to the two project controls.
Section 141 - Astronomical observations for azimuth on the lines of the main
control other than the line defined by BLEM Nos. 1-2 shall be used only as a
check on the carried grid azimuth of the line, except as provided in Section
139.
Section 142 - Check on azimuth shall be from azimuth line to another
azimuth line. The azimuth line is when eight (8) series of astronomical
observations are made as prescribed in Section 102. The astronomical
azimuth is reduced to grid azimuths. Angular errors shall be within

2.5' ' P ,

shall be distributed among the angles between the azimuth lines. The linear
error of closure is determined and if within allowable limit, the latitude and
departure errors shall be distributed accordingly. If this procedure is used, the
angular loop closure and adjustment at interval of 20-25 stations must not be
done.
Section 143 - The astronomical observations on the sun for azimuth shall be
determined in accordance with Section 104. The arithmetical mean of at least
four acceptable series taken in the morning and four series taken in the
afternoon of the same or different days shall be used to determine the
astronomical azimuth of the line.
Section 144- The astronomical observations for azimuth on the stars shall be
determined by at least four acceptable series taken on the east stars and four
series on the west stars. The arithmetical mean shall be used as the
astronomical azimuth of the lime,
Section 145 - The probable error of the arithmetical mean of the
observations under Sections 143 and 144 shall not exceed five (5) seconds of
arc.
Section 146 - The probable error of the mean azimuth from two sets
composing one series of observations shall be determined as follows:
a) Determine the difference in azimuth between the first and second
sets.
b) Express this difference (D) in seconds and compute the probable
error (P.E.) from the formula:
. . = 0.33725
c) The result will be seconds of arc which shall not exceed five seconds
for base meridian and primary, ten seconds for secondary and fifteen
seconds for tertiary controls.
d) Adopt the mean azimuth if the result is within the limit,

where P is the number of stations between the azimuth lines. Azimuth closure

24

Section 147-The probable error of the mean azimuth from several series of
observations shall be determined only from a series whose probable errors
are within the limit provided in the preceding section. The procedures in
determining the probable error shall be as follows:

Section 150- When the primary control consists of one traverse circuit along
the perimeter of the project, astronomical observations for azimuth shall be
made at every 20 to 25 stations to check the carried grid azimuth of the lines
in addition to the requirements of Sections 140 and 149.

a) Determine the arithmetical mean of the azimuths of the selected


series of observations.

Section 151 - The astronomical azimuths determined at the main control


lines shall be corrected for convergency of meridians in accordance with
Sections 152 or 153 and shall be within twenty seconds (20") of arc with the
carried grid azimuths of the lines.

b) Determine the differences (v's) between the arithmetical mean


azimuth and the azimuth of each series of observations.
c) Express these differences or residuals in seconds of arc and
determine the square the residuals.
d) Add the squares of the difference (V) or residuals and compute the
probable error from the formula:

Probable Error=0.6745

Where

2
v

n(n1)

= the sum of all the squares of the residuals

Section 152 - The amount of convergency correction in seconds of arc to be


applied to the observed astronomical azimuth shall be computed using Table
III, Determination of Convergency and Scale Factor, Technical Bulletin No. 26.
If the latitudes and longitudes of the stations occupied are known, the
convergency correction may also be computed by means of the formula for
geodetic position computation.
Section 153 - The convergency corrections may also be determined by
multiplying the number of kilometers of departure of the place of observation
from the central meridian and the number of, seconds of angular convergency
corresponding to the following tables:

= the number of series of observations


CORRECTION FOR CONVERGENCY

Section 148- When the probable error of the astronomical azimuth


observations is more than the allowable limit, the azimuths having residuals
greater than 10" from the mean shall be rejected. Additional observations for
azimuth in accordance with Sections 143 and 144 shall be made until the
allowable limit is obtained.
Section 149- When the main primary control is divided into traverse loops,
astronomical observations for azimuth similar to those taken at location
monuments as provided for in Section 139 shall be made at the main station
common to the loops.

Latitudes

Convergency

2.26''

2.83''

3.40''

3.97''

4.55''

5.12''

10

5.70''

25

SYSTEM PRS-92
11

6.29''

12

6.87''

13

7.46'

14

8.06''

15

8.66''

16

9.27''

17

9.88''

18

10.50''

19

11.13''

20

11.76''

21

12.41''

22

13.06''

The angular convergency is for one kilometer of departure east or west


from the central meridian.
The correction shall be added to the astronomical azimuth for points
west of the central meridian and subtracted from the astronomical azimuth for
points east of the central meridian.
CONNECTION WITH ADJOINING PROJECTS
Section 154- In case the main control of an adjoining cadastral project has
been located or completed, connection therewith shall be made at the
extreme main control stations of their common lines. This connection shall be
made by measuring the horizontal angle and distance at each of the main
control stations to which connection is made to the two adjacent stations of
the previous main control.

ADJOINING PROJECT IN THE PHILIPPINE PLANE COORDINATE

Section 155 - If the adjoining project is in the Philippine Plane Coordinate


System (PPCS)/PRS-92, the main control of the project shall be conformed or
adjusted to the main control of the adjoining project. If, however, the angular
error and/or the error of the closure of the main control exceeds the allowable
limits, investigation shall be made and the results of which shall be reported
to the Director of Lands Management Bureau.

ADJOINING PROJECT IN THE LOCAL PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEM

Section 156 - If the adjoining project is in the Local Plane Coordinate


System (LPCS), the distances and horizontal angles of the main control
common to those projects undergoing survey shall be reduced to the grid
system (PPCS/PRS 92). This shall be used in the main control of the project
undergoing survey. The latitude and departure of the line defined by the two
junction stations with the main control or the adjoining project shall be
transformed into the Philippine Plane Coordinate System/PRS 92.
Section 157 - The following formulas shall be used to transform the latitudes
and departures of lines in the LPCS to the PPCS:

X p =( Lcos sin + Lsin cos )( K )


Y p=(L sin sin + Lcos cos )( K )
L= length of line in LPCS

= local azimuth

grid convergence

K = scale factor at the midpoint of the line

Xp

= grid departure of the line

26

Yp

= grid latitude of the line

Section 158 - The horizontal angles and distances of the adjoining project
shall be used to complete the main control of the project undergoing survey.
If the angular error or the linear error of closure of the main control exceeds
the allowable limit, investigation shall be made the results of which shall be
reported to the Director of Lands Management Bureau,
Section 159- The difference between the grid azimuths of the common
control lines as carried from their respective base meridians when reduced by
the angle of convergency between these base meridians shall be less than
thirty seconds of arc; otherwise, an investigation shall be made and reported
to the Director of Lands Management Bureau.
Section 160 - If connection to the main control of an adjoining project is no
longer feasible, connection shall be made by including all recoverable
monuments of the adjoining project along or near their common boundaries
in the main control of the project.

PRIMARY CONTROLS - MEASUREMENTS OF HORIZONTAL ANGLES

Section 161 - The horizontal angle formed at each primary station by the
two primary lines meeting thereat and its explement shall be measured
clockwise by the method of repetition.
Section 162 - The measurement of horizontal angles by the repetition
method using a transit with a least reading of 30" or less shall be performed
as follows:

1) First angle
a) Set and level the transit over the primary station where the
angle is to be measured;
b) Set vernier A to read 000'00"; record the readings at
verniers A and B. With the telescope in the direct position,
backsight at the rearward station using the lower clamp and
lower tangent screw.
c) Loosen upper clamp, rotate telescope in a clockwise
direction, sight the forward station. Read and record the
readings on verniers A and B. This is the first reading.
d) Loosen lower clamp and backsight at the rearward station
and proceed as in (c) for a total of six times except that the
vernier is read only after the six sighting.
e) Closing the horizon: Invert the telescope, loosen lower clamp
and backsight at forward station. Loosen upper clamp and then
revolve instrument again in a clockwise direction then sight the
rearward station. Repeat this process six times. The vernier
reading should be 000'00" for the horizon closure. If it differs
from 000'00" by more than 30", reject the result and make
another set of repetitions.
f) The value of the angle is computed by getting the difference
between the mean of the initial and closing readings and the
sixth reading and dividing this difference by six. For angles
more than 60 add to the quotient multiple of 60 nearest to,
but lower than, the first reading.
2) Second Angle (explement)
a) Proceed as in 1 (b) to 1 (e) but take backsights at the
forward station first and foresights to the rearward station. In
closing the horizon, take backsights at the rearward station and
foresights at the forward station.

27

b) If the horizon closure in this measurement is within the


allowable 30", compute for the value of the angle as in 1 (f).

The angle is determined from the list of directions by subtracting the direction
to the rearward station from the direction to the forward station.

Section 163 - The sum of the 1st and 2nd angles shall not differ from 360 by
more than +/-10"; otherwise, make additional measurements,
Section 164 - A simpler method is the direction method of observation
where the azimuth of primary lines shall be determined by observing two
positions with a one-second direction Theodolite. One position is as follows:
a) With the telescope in direct position, bisect the signal on the
rearward station using the horizontal clamp and tangent screw.
b) Set any initial reading approximately at zero degree and one minute
(001'00"). Bisect again the signal on the rearward station. Record the
micrometer reading.
c) Release the horizontal clamp and turn the telescope in a clockwise
direction to the forward station. Tighten the clamp and bisect the
signal accurately by means of the tangent screw. Record the
micrometer reading.
d) Release again the clamp, reverse the telescope, and sight again the
forward station by means of the clamp and its tangent screw. Record
the micrometer reading.

PRIMARY CONTROL - MEASUREMENT OF DISTANCES


Section 165 - The distances between primary stations which must be intervisible shall be measured twice with the use of steel tapes. The observed data
shall be entered in the prescribed field notes form together with the
corrections for temperature, sag, tension, slope or grade, and sea level,
including the name of observer, the tape numbers and weights of the tapes,
etc. The first measurement shall be made with one tape in one direction and
the second measurement, with another tape in the opposite direction.
Section 166 - The temperature correction for each tape measurement shall
be computed using the following formula:

Ct =L ( t at s ) K
where:

= correction due to temperature (plus or minus)

L = measured length

t a = actual temperature of the tape


ts

e) Release the clamp and turn the telescope to bisect the rearward
station. Record the micrometer reading.
The difference between the initial reading and the closing reading on
the initial line shall not exceed 10 seconds of arc; otherwise, the
observations shall be repeated.

Ct

= standard temperature of the tape

K = coefficient of expansion of the tape material (.0000116C


for steel tape)
Section 167 - The sag correction for each tape measurement between two
consecutive supports shall be computed using the following formula:

The second position is made by following the above procedure, but the
initial reading shall be set at approximately ninety degrees more than
the first initial reading at (b).
The discrepancy between the mean readings of the 1st and 2nd
positions shall not be greater than five (5) seconds; otherwise, the
observations shall be repeated.

C s=
where:

Cs

w2 l 3 W 2 L
=
24 p2 24 P 2

= sag correction (always negative) between consecutive

supports (span)

28

w = unit weight of tape


W = total weight of tape
L = length between supports

C g=

h2 h4
+
2 s 8 s3

where:

p = pull applied

Cg = slope or grade correction (always to subtracted)


s = measured slope length corrected for temperature, sag and
tension
h = difference in elevation of the end points of each tape
measurement

Section 168 - The pull correction for each tape measurement shall be
computed using the following formula:

lc = l-Cg + corrected horizontal distance

L( aP s)
SE
C p =
where:

Cp

= pull correction (plus or minus)

L = measured length
Pa = actual pull applied
Ps = standard pull
S = cross sectional area of the tape
E = modolus of elasticity of tape material
or

1
SE

= coefficient of stretch

In order to eliminate error due to pull, the standard tension for the
tape shall be used.
Section 169 - The slope or grade correction for each tape measurement shall
be computed using the formula:

Section 170 - Sea level correction shall be determined using the formula:

C sl =
where:

C sl

Bh Bh2
+
R R2

= seal level correction

B
= actual measured length of line in meters corrected for
temperature, sag, tension, slope
h = average elevation of the line
R = radius of curvature of the spheroid corresponding to mean
latitude of the line; for the Philippines
R = 6,370,000 meters
Section 171 - Elevations of points to be used in sea level correction shall be
determined in accordance with Section 100.
Section 172 - Distances between monuments of primary lines may be
measured with standardized one hundred meter steel tapes, without breaks
or splices. The measurements shall be made over accurately aligned tripods.
For this purpose the tripods of transits, plane tables or other instruments shall
be used. When these are not available, similar devices constructed locally
may be used.
A board about 4 x 8 x 80 centimeters may be bolted through its center to the
tripod head. The bolt shall be left loose enough to permit movement of the

29

board in the horizontal plane so that the end graduation of the tape will fall on
the board. The bolt shall be tightened to give firm and steady surface on
which to mark the measurement. The point where the end graduation falls
shall be marked with an office pin stuck in the board. When measuring the
end point of the line, the tripod shall be set slightly beyond the monument
and the board is set to swing until the plumb line held over the monument
strikes an edge of the board. This point shall be marked by a pin and then
measurement shall be made.
Section 173 - The tape shall be supported at every twenty-five meter
interval. The intermediate supports shall provide full and free support to the
tape and shall not exert any strain on the tape in any direction except to
support it against the action of gravity.
Section 174 - In rough terrain where the use of tripods is impractical, the
measurement may be made by the use of two transits correctly aligned
between the stations. The distance between the two transits shall be equal to,
or slightly less than the length of the tape used in the measurement. The tape
shall, as much as possible, be supported at every twenty-five meter interval
and measurement shall be made between the horizontal axes of the transits.
Extreme care shall be used in reading the tape and the vertical angles. For
each tape interval, vertical angles shall be read from both transits.
Section 175 - In measuring primary distances, the thermometers shall be
attached to the tape.
Section 176 In measurement of less than a full tape length, the tape shall
be stretched the full length, supported at every twenty-five meter interval,
standard tension applied and the distance measured in the same manner as
for a full tape length
Section 177 In cases where tapes are used under conditions different from
those under which they are standardized, corrections for temperature, sag
and tension, and slope shall be applied to the measurements,
Section 178 - When the correction for slope is being made, difference in
elevations shall be determined for each tape length. The vertical angle shall

be measured to the nearest thirty seconds of arc in the case of transits and to
the nearest second of arc in the case of theodolites. In both cases, readings
shall be taken in the direct and reversed positions. If the vertical angle is
taken to the nearest thirty seconds of arc, no measurement with slope greater
than ten degrees shall be allowed.
Section 179- The spring balance to be used in determining tension shall be
tested by weighing with a standard weight of not less than ten kilograms in
government offices having such standard weight. If an index error is found, it
shall be applied according to its sign to the tension indicated by the spring
balance.
Section 180 - The tape thermometers shall be frequently compared with a
standard thermometer. If an index error is found, it shall be applied to the
temperature according to its sign.
Section 181 - All corrections for temperature, sag, pull, slope, and sea level
shall be computed to the nearest millimeter.
Section 182 - After the corrections for temperature, sag, and pull have been
applied to the measured inclined or slope distance, reduction of the inclined
distance to the horizontal shall be made. The horizontal line is then reduced
to sea level distance.
Section 183 When the two measurements of a primary line have been
corrected for temperature, sag, pull and slope and reduced to the sea level
the arithmetic mean of the measurements shall be adopted as the length of
the line provided the probable error of the arithmetic mean is 1:40,000 or
less of the adopted mean.
Section 184 - The probable error of the arithmetic mean of the two
measurements shall be computed as follows:
Probable Error = 0.33725 D
where :

D represents the difference between the two measurements of


the line

The probable error divided by the arithmetic mean shall be one in forty

30

thousand (1:40,000), or less.

Section 185 - When the probable error obtained of the two measurements
as obtained in Section 184 is greater than the ratio of one in forty thousand
(1:40,000), additional measurements shall be made until the required
precision is obtained.
Section 186 - In general, when more than two measurements of a primary
line are made with equal care, none of the measurements shall be discarded.
The arithmetic mean of all the measurements shall be computed and the
probable error shall be determined to the nearest millimeter in accordance
with the general formula for probable error as described in Section 147.
Section 187 - The distance measurements of the primary line shall be
entered on the same consecutive pages of the primary distance book.
Reference shall be made to the page of the primary angle book where the
azimuth determination for the primary line is found.
Section 188 - Primary distances may also be measured with an Electronic
Distance Measuring (EDM) equipment in accordance with Sections 16 to 20.
Each primary line measured ten (10) times using an EDM instrument shall
have a rejection limit of not greater than 0.005 meter from the mean. (156a;
LOC 123)

PRIMARY CONTROL COMPUTATIONS


Section 189 - After the measurements of the horizontal angles, the values to
be adjusted for the first and second angles shall be the mean of the
repetitions in each case plus (+) or minus (-) the horizon closure correction.
This shall be applied equally to each angle. The sum of the adjusted first and
second angles shall be 360 degrees.
Section 190 - The sum of the interior angles of the traverse polygon shall be
equal to one hundred and eighty degrees multiplied by the number of lines in

the circuit less two. The angular error of the closure for a primary traverse
polygon shall be determined using the formula:
Ae = A-[180 (P-2)]

where :

Ae = the angular error of polygon closure


A = the sum of all interior angles of the primary traverse
polygon
P = the number of stations or angles or lines in the primary
traverse polygon

Section 191 - Another method of determining the angular error of closure is


as follows:
a. With the first angle
(1) At the initial station, add the first angle mentioned in Section 189
to the back azimuth of the preceding or initial line. The sum is the
forward azimuth of the forward line. If the sum exceeds 360 degrees,
the forward azimuth is the sum minus 360 degrees.
(2) At the second station, add 180 degrees to the forward azimuth of
the preceding line to obtain its back azimuth. If the sum exceeds 360
degrees, the back azimuth of the line is the sum minus 360 degrees,
(3) To obtain the azimuth of the forward line on the second station,
add the first angle determined at the station as in (1) above,
(4) Continue the procedure until the back azimuth of the initial line is
obtained.
(5) The difference in the starting back azimuth and the closing back
azimuth of the initial line is the angular error of closure.

b. With the second angle

31

(1) At the initial station, subtract the second angle mentioned in


Section 189 from the back azimuth of the preceding or initial line. The
difference if positive is the forward azimuth of the forward line. If the
difference is negative, add 360 degrees. The positive sum is the
forward azimuth.

determining corrections. The angular error of a loop traverse shall be


determined and distributed only among the lines of the loop traverse.

(2) To obtain the back azimuth at the second station repeat "a (2)"

Section 197-After the corrected azimuths have been determined, the


latitudes and departures of the traverse shall be computed to the nearest
millimeter. Grid azimuths to the nearest second of arc and grid distances to
the nearest millimeter shall be used in the computation.

(3) To obtain the forward azimuth at the second station repeat "b (1)."
(4) Continue the procedure until the back azimuth of the initial line is
obtained,

Section 196 - After the angles are corrected, the azimuths of primary
traverse lines shall be determined to the nearest one second of arc. The
corrected azimuths shall be recorded in the primary angle book.

Section 198 - The actual linear error of closure shall be determined from the
formula:

(5) Repeat "a (5)".

Section 192 - The maximum allowable angular error of closure for primary
traverses shall be determined using the formula:
''

A p=2.5

Ps

E c = L2 + D 2
where:

Ec
L

D2
where:

Ap

= maximum allowable angular error for primary

traverses expressed in seconds of arc

Ps

= the number of stations or angles in the primary

traverses

Section 193 - If the maximum allowable angular error of closure is


exceeded, the work shall be verified in the field and corrected accordingly.
Section 194 - The allowable angular error of closure of the traverse shall be
distributed uniformly among the interior angles or the azimuth of the primary
lines, as the case may be, to close the polygon.
Section 195 - In case angle measurements are made under different
conditions, relative weights may be assigned to the measured angles for

= the linear error of closure


= the error in latitude squared
= the error in departure squared

The linear error divided by the perimeter is the relative error.


Section 199- The relative error for primary traverse shall not be greater than
one part in twenty thousand (1:20,000) of the perimeter.
Section 200 - If the relative error of closure is greater than the limit
provided for in the preceding section, the field and office work shall be
verified to determine where the error lies. Re-observation shall be made until
the error is within the prescribed limit of precision.

Section 201 - Latitudes and departures shall be balanced as prescribed in


Section 203 and the coordinates of the traverse stations shall be determined
to the nearest millimeter. After the traverse has been closed and approved, no
change shall subsequently be made in the bearings or distances except after
consultation with and advice in writing from the Director of Lands

32

Management Bureau or from the Regional Technical Director for Lands,


Section 202 - When the primary traverse starts from and closes to primary
stations of another closed, coordinated primary traverse, the linear error of
closure shall be determined as follows:
a) Add algebraically the latitudes and departures of all the primary
lines of the new traverse and the unadjusted latitudes and departures
of the primary lines of the previous traverse which are common to the
new traverse to get the errors in latitude and departure.
b) Determine the linear error of closure as prescribed in Section 198,
The relative error shall be determined by dividing this linear error by
the perimeter of the entire circuit. The result shall not exceed one part
in twenty thousand (1:20,000) of the perimeter, as provided in Section
199.
If the relative error of closure is greater than the limit provided for in the
preceding section, the field and office work shall be verified to determine
where the error lies. Re-observation shall be made until the error is within the
prescribed limit of precision.

Section 203 - The primary traverse loop shall then be balanced as follows:
a) Determine the latitude and departure from the accepted coordinates
of the two primary stations of the previous traverse from which the
new primary traverse started and closed.
b) Add algebraically the latitudes and departures of the new primary
traverse.
c) The difference, if any, between the latitudes and departures
determined as prescribed in (a) and (b) shall be distributed
proportionally among the lines of the new primary traverse.
Section 204- When the primary traverse control of a project consisting of a
circuit and several loops connected thereto, and the circuit has not been
finally coordinated, the entire system of primary circuit and loop traverses

shall be adjusted and coordinated as follows:


a) Distribute the angular error of closure among the angles of each
traverse polygon. The distribution shall be made in such a way that
each polygon shall close in accordance with the principle enunciated in
Section 194.
b) Compute the coordinates of the primary stations, always beginning
from and closing to the BLLM No. 1 through different routes.
c) The final coordinates of each junction station shall be the weighted
mean of all the coordinates of the station as computed from different
routes.
d) Coordinate other primary stations by distributing the error in
latitudes and departures between junction stations, considering BLLM
No. 1 as a junction station.

SECONDARY CONTROL - LOCATION OF SECONDARY STATIONS


Section 205 - Secondary traverses starting from and closing to primary
stations shall be established at or near the barangay boundaries as far as
local conditions may permit following a general direction of either:
a) North and south, along arcs of meridians, or
b) East and west, along arcs or parallels

Section 206 - The secondary traverse lines shall be established at intervals


of approximately every one minute of arc in the portions of the project where
the land is divided into small lots and at intervals not exceeding three minutes
of arc in those portions where the land is divided into larger lots such as
extensive haciendas, reservations and other similar tracts.
Section 207 - When the terrain is rough, hilly or mountainous the secondary
traverse shall be located where it may be of maximum use provided it shall be

33

available to control lot surveys within the area represented by the cadastral
maps. Secondary traverses shall also serve as the political boundary controls.
The barangay corners may be located by simple triangulation or short
traverses. If there are several barangays in the project area, the first set of
secondary traverses shall be big enough to cover two or more barangays. The
angular and linear errors of these loops may be adjusted simultaneously by
the method of least squares to avoid propagation of errors up to the last
lines. Additional secondary traverses shall be established to cover the other
barangays.
Section 208 - The secondary stations may be located along public highways
or railways and at or near the barangay boundaries. They shall be defined by
concrete monuments of not less than ten centimeters in diameter and fifty
centimeters in length centered by a small nail and numbered consecutively
starting from one. The monuments shall be set to not more than five
centimeters above the ground. Secondary lines shall not exceed five hundred
meters in length.

SECONDARY CONTROL - AZIMUTHS AND DISTANCES


Section 209- The azimuths of secondary traverse lines shall be determined
by the clamped plate method. With a one- second Theodolite, the azimuth of
a secondary line may be determined by a single observation of the angle
between two secondary lines. In orienting the instrument on the primary
stations, the vernier shall be set to read the azimuths of the primary lines to
the nearest fifteen or twenty seconds of arc for transits and to the nearest
one second of arc for theodolites.
Section 210 -Azimuths shall be read from the instruments to the nearest
fifteen or twenty seconds of arc as the case may be for transits and one
second of arc for theodolites. Magnetic bearings shall be read and recorded
except when the instrument used is not provided with a magnetic.

the azimuth of the primary line. This difference must not exceed the amount
as determined by the following formula:

''

A s =10
As

where:

= maximum allowable azimuth error of closure for

secondary traverses
S

= the number of secondary stations in the traverse

Section 212 - Astronomical observations for azimuth shall be taken at every


twenty-five to thirty-five stations in single loop of a secondary traverse and at
the junction stations with the control traverse of an adjoining project.
However, when the secondary control is divided into loops, astronomical
observations shall also be taken at junction stations between the loops.
The astronomical observations shall consist of at least two series of two sets
each and the probable error shall not exceed ten second of arc as provided in
Section 146. The astronomical azimuths determined at the secondary stations
after correction for convergency shall conform with the carried azimuth to
within thirty seconds of arc.
Section 213 - The distances between secondary stations shall be measured
in the manner provided for primary controls in Sections 165 to 172, except
that the measurements shall be made once instead of twice. Stadia distances
may be read and recorded for each secondary line if measured with the tape
to check possible omission of a tape length).
Section 214 - The number of secondary control stations shall be indicated on
the monuments, in the field notes, computations and plans with the letter "S"
prefixed to the station number. Azimuths and distances shall be recorded on
prescribed LMB forms.

Section 211 - The azimuth error of closure at the primary station where the
secondary traverse closes is the difference between the carried azimuth and

34

SECONDARY CONTROL COMPUTATIONS


Section 215 -The azimuth error of closure to the nearest fifteen seconds of
arc shall be distributed in units of fifteen seconds of arc as follows:
a) Divide the total azimuth error of closure by fifteen (15). The quotient
represents the number of fifteen second (15") units.
b) Add one to the number of units determined in (a) and divide by this sum
the number of secondary lines between which the azimuth error shall be
distributed.
c) The quotient represents the number of groups of stations which will be
corrected by the same amount.
d) The group shall be corrected by amounts increasing so that the total error
shall be eliminated.

Example:
In a traverse of fifteen lines with an azimuth error of closure of thirty (30")
Seconds.
a) By (a), 30. 15 = 2(15") units
b) By (b) and (c), 15 divided by 3 = 5 stations per group
By (d), there will be three groups of five stations each

The correction shall be:


First group

00"

Second group

15"

Third group

30"

The above method shall be adopted only when the clamped plate method of
traversing is used. Otherwise, the allowable azimuth / angular error of closure

shall be distributed to close the traverse polygon as in the case of the primary
traverse as stipulated in Section 194, provided that the azimuth of the
secondary line shall be reduced to the nearest fifteen seconds of arc.
Section 216 - After the distribution of the azimuth error of closure, the
latitudes and departures shall be computed to the nearest centimeter. The
bearings and distances to be used in the computations shall be to the nearest
fifteen seconds of arc and to the nearest millimeter, respectively.
Section 217- In the case of azimuths measured with one second Theodolite,
the azimuth shall be recorded to the nearest second and the computations
shall be made as the preceding section.
Section 218 -The relative error of closure for secondary traverses shall not
be greater than one part in ten thousand (1:10,000) of the perimeter. The
linear error of closure shall be determined as prescribed in Section 198.
Section 219 - If the relative error of closure is greater than the limit
provided for in the preceding section, the field and office work shall be
verified to determine, re-observe and correct any possible error until the error
is within the prescribed limit of precision.

TERTIARY CONTROL - LOCATION OF TERTIARY STATIONS


Section 220- Tertiary traverses of cadastral surveys shall start from primary
or secondary stations except in cases provided in Section 119(c).
Section 221 As much as possible, the monuments defining corners of
tracts shall be occupied and used as tertiary stations. All other stations shall
preferably be defined by stakes, centered with tacks or small nails.
Section 222 - Tertiary station numbers shall not be assigned to primary,
secondary or location monuments when such stations are occupied in
connection with tertiary traverses.
Section 223 - Tertiary stations shall be numbered consecutively from one for
each project or survey and indicated in the field notes, computations and
plans with the letter "T" prefixed to the station number.

35

TERTIARY CONTROL - AZIMUTHS AND DISTANCES


Section 224- The azimuths of tertiary traverse lines shall be determined by
the clamped plate method.
In the case of cadastral survey, the instrument shall be oriented on primary or
secondary traverse lines of the cadastral project to the nearest thirty seconds
of arc. In the case of isolated land survey, the instrument shall be oriented to
the nearest thirty seconds of arc on established reference lines like location
monuments or by astronomical observations for azimuth.
Section 225 -All azimuths shall be read directly from the instrument to the
nearest one minute of arc except at the closing line where the azimuth shall
be read to the nearest thirty seconds of arc. Magnetic bearings shall be read
and recorded for each tertiary line.
Section 226- The maximum allowable azimuth error of closure at the
primary or secondary stations in the case of cadastral survey or of other
tertiary stations in the case of isolated land survey, shall be determined from
the following formula:

A t =30' ' T
where:

At

= maximum allowable azimuth error of closure for

tertiary traverse
T = the number of tertiary stations in the traverse

Section 227- The difference between the closing azimuth reading and the
actual azimuth of the line on which the tertiary traverse closes shall be the
azimuth error of closure. This shall not exceed the maximum as determined in
the preceding section otherwise the work shall be verified to determine and
correct in the field any possible error until the prescribed maximum limit is
attained.
Section 228 - The distances between tertiary stations shall be measured

with standardized measuring devices to the nearest centimeter. In hilly or


mountainous terrain, vertical angles or zenith distances shall be taken and
slope distances reduced to the horizontal. Stadia distances shall be read and
reduced for each tertiary line when measured with a tape.

TERTIARY CONTROL FOR ISOLATED SURVEYS


Section 229 - Tertiary controls of isolated land surveys shall start from
points of reference, other control stations or marked corners of approved
surveys and may be circuit or loop controls. When the lot to be surveyed is
within one (1) kilometer from a point of reference, the tertiary control shall
start from and close to this point of reference.
Section 230 - The traverse lines in isolated land surveys shall follow
approximately the boundaries of the properties undergoing survey. Retracing
or returning through the same stations of the traverse to close it is not a
correct practice and shall not be accepted for traverse closure.
Section 231 - When the tertiary control is independent of primary or
secondary control, as it is usually in isolated land surveys, the true azimuth of
at least one line shall be determined by astronomical observations.
Section 232 - If the azimuth is derived from the tertiary control of another
survey, or derived from location monuments and carried by long circuit tie line
traverse to the location of the property under survey, an astronomical
observation for azimuth must be made to check the carried azimuth.
Section 233 - An astronomical observation for azimuth shall be made at
intervals of not more than fifty stations in circuit and loop traverses. The
difference between the observed and carried azimuth in the system shall not
exceed the maximum allowable error of closure as provided in Section 226.
Such error shall be distributed among the lines in the sections for which the
error has been determined.
Section 234 - When the traverse loops are located as links forming a chain,
an astronomical observation for azimuth shall be required at alternate loops,

36

provided that astronomical observations shall be made on the first and last
loops.

precision.

Section 235 - When the data recorded on plans of approved surveys are
used, the points occupied, the azimuth used, the class and Bureau of Lands
survey number and the name of the applicant of the previous survey shall be
stated in the field notes, Azimuth of lines not included in the closed traverse
of the former survey shall not be used in the traverse of the new survey,

Section 242 - When triangulation control is used for establishing points of


control in the survey of cadastral projects, the general requirements shall be
as follows:

Section 236 - The astronomical azimuth for tertiary controls in isolated land
surveys shall be determined by a series of two sets of observations taken as
prescribed by Sections 103-105. The geographic position of the station
occupied shall be determined in accordance with Sections 89-99.

TRIANGULATION CONTROL

(a) The position of the triangulation stations shall be selected so that


no angle may be less than thirty degrees.
(b) Whenever possible, a scheme of quadrilaterals shall be established
and the angles between the diagonals and sides of the quadrilaterals
shall be measured.

Section 237 - The probable error shall be determined as prescribed by


Section 146 which shall not exceed 15 seconds of arc.

(c) Other schemes may be used whenever it is not practical to


completely use the quadrilaterals scheme.

TERTARY CONTROL COMPUTATIONS

(d) Each angle of the triangles shall be measured either by the


repetition method or by the direction method as in the case of the
measurement of the horizontal angles of primary controls described in
Sections 162 and 164.

Section 238 - The azimuth error of closure to the nearest one minute of arc
shall be distributed as in the case of secondary traverses described in Section
215, except that one minute of arc shall be used as unit instead of fifteen
seconds of arc.
Section 239-After the distribution of the azimuth error of closure, the
latitudes and departures shall be computed to the nearest centimeter. The
bearings and distances to be used in the computation shall be to the nearest
one minute of arc and the nearest centimeter, respectively.
Section 240 - The linear error of closure shall be determined as prescribed
by Section 198. The relative error for tertiary control shall not be greater than
one part in five thousand (1:5,000) of perimeter.
Section 241 - If the relative error of closure is greater than the limit
provided for in the preceding section, the field and office work shall be
verified to detect and correct any possible error or re-observe suspected lines
that are erroneously observed until the error is within the prescribed limit of

(e) The length of the base lines shall be measured with the same
degree of accuracy as that of the primary control lines described in
Sections 165 to 188,
(f) At least two base lines shall be measured, one situated at the
beginning and the other at the end of the triangulation scheme and the
triangulation control shall be adjusted between these base lines.

Section 243 -Detailed special instructions shall be issued by the Director of


Lands Management Bureau, whenever necessary concerning the scheme of
triangulation and methods of adjustments to be used.
Section 244- When the distance of a primary, secondary or tertiary control
line cannot be measured directly, it may be determined by traversetriangulation or by broken base measurement. The projected length of the

37

broken lines on the control line shall be adopted as the distance of the line.
Section 245 - The three angles of the triangle shall be measured as follows:
(a) For primary controls, by the repetition method as prescribed in
Section 162 or by the direction method as prescribed in Section 164 of
primary angles.
(b) For secondary controls, by the repetition method as prescribed in
Section 162 but the repetition shall be four times instead of six or the
direction method as prescribed in Section 164.
(c) For tertiary controls, by the repetition method as prescribed by
Section 162 but the repetition shall be two times instead of six.
Section 246 - The base lines for primary, secondary or tertiary traverse
-triangulation shall be measured as in the case of primary, secondary or
tertiary traverse lines, respectively.

LOCATION MONUMENTS SURVEYS


Section 247- Location monuments shall be established as required in
Sections 39, 40, 123, 130, and 543 in the poblacion/center of each
municipality/city and in other places thereof at an interval of about six (6)
kilometers.

to at least three permanent objects such as corners of substantial and


permanent buildings, nearby edible fruit trees, etc. and by azimuths to visible
church spires, peaks and other similar objects.
Section 252 - The azimuth of the line defined by each pair of location
monuments shall be determined as required in Sections 102 to 109 for the
establishment of the base meridian of a survey project.
Section 253 - The geographic position of BLLM No. 1 shall be determined by
a direct connection with a second or third order geodetic control station.
Section 254 - If there is an established triangulation point within ten
kilometers of these monuments, connection shall be made therewith by at
least secondary control accuracy. If by secondary traverse, a closed circuit or
loop shall be run; and if by triangulation, the triangle or triangles must be
well conditioned. Angles shall be measured by direction or by repetition
method.
Section 255 - The distance between each pair of location monuments shall
be determined as required in Sections 165 to 188, inclusive, for primary
traverse lines.
Section 256 - The other location monuments established in each municipality
shall be connected by at least secondary control starting from and closing to
the BLLM No. 1 of the adjoining municipalities.

with

Section 257 - The BLLM No. 1 of the municipality shall be connected by


secondary control with the BLLM No. 1 of the adjoining municipalities.

Section 249 - The distance between each pair of location monuments, such
as 1 and 2, 3 and 4, and so on, shall not be less than one hundred meters,
and whenever possible, it shall preferably be about three hundred meters.

Section 258 - The description of each location monument in the field notes
shall contain the data required in Section 251 and the location of the
monuments with respect to streets and specifications as prescribed in Section
272(c).

Section 248 - These monuments shall


specifications prescribed in Section 272(c).

be

made

of

concrete

Section 250- The location monuments shall be established whenever


possible on the corners of the plazas such that there will be no danger of the
line between the monuments being obstructed by buildings or other
permanent objects,
Section 251 - Each monument shall be referenced by bearings and distances

The condition of the recovered location monuments (BLLMs, PBMs, MBMs) in


the adjoining projects shall be described in the Location Monument Recovery
Report form and a copy submitted to the Land Management Bureau. (DAO 61,
S-1993)

38

Section 259 - The field notes of the secondary control lines from one
municipality to another shall be kept in one field book and all secondary
stations shall be numbered consecutively from one (1).
Section 260 - The secondary controls connecting location monuments shall
be run along public highways unless more direct routes are possible.

Section 261 - The most prominent points of churches, schools, chapels,


railroad stations, Sugar mills or other large buildings along the line of control
shall be located and their descriptions written for future reference.

Section 266 - If culverts or bridges are not available, road monuments of


natural objects, such as fixed boulders or stone ledges, at intervals of
approximately three kilometers from each other and from BLLMs, preferably
at the intersection of the provincial roads or at the intersection of streams or
railroads shall be located, marked and indicated in the field book as
prescribed in the preceding section.
Section 267- Names of towns, barangays and geographical features shall be
determined by diligent inquiry from the best informed people in the locality. In
case of dispute in geographical names a complete report shall be submitted to
the Lands Management Bureau.

Section 262- The points where the control lines cross provincial and
municipal boundaries shall be carefully determined. When monuments are
found, such monuments shall be accurately located and fully described in the
field book and on the Location Monument Recovery Report form.

Section 268 - A location monument description book shall be prepared for


each project.

Provincial and municipal authorities shall be requested to furnish all available


data on provincial and municipal boundaries. Barangay boundaries shall also
be located and surveyed.

CHAPTER V - MONUMENTS OF SURVEYS

Section 263 - Information on the general character of the area on both sides
of the road such as heavy woods, brush, cogon, swamps, nipa, rice, hemp,
tobacco, corn, sugar, coconuts, homelots etc. shall be entered in the field
book opposite the secondary stations. Likewise, the general characteristics of
the area beyond shall also be described. The width of the road and the
location of its center line with reference to the control station shall be stated.

Section 269 - The position of reference points and corners of boundary lines
of provinces, cities, municipalities, barangays, estates and other tracts of land
shall be defined and marked on the ground by monuments of permanent
nature, except when such corners lie near physiographic or natural features.
The first and last corners situated near natural boundaries shall be
monumented.

Section 264 - Railroad lines shall be traversed in the same manner as public
roads. Telegraphic posts at every kilometer along the line, bridges and
culverts shall be located.

Section 270 - The following objects shall be considered as monuments of


permanent nature to be used in defining and marking lot corners:

Section 265 - All stone or concrete culverts or bridges crossed by the control
line shall be marked. This mark shall consist of a hole seven millimeters in
diameter and three centimeters deep, with the letter B.L. These structures
shall be sketched, showing the location of the point, and described in the field
book.

b) Concrete posts which are parts of the fence when not less than ten
centimeters in diameter, or metal pipes not less than two centimeters in
outside diameter.

NATURE OF MONUMENTS

a) Standard concrete monuments.

c) Living edible fruit trees not less than fifteen centimeters in diameter or
trees belonging to the first group with diameter from fifteen to fifty

39

centimeters,
d) Points on masonry or concrete walls.
e) Immovable or fixed hard rocks or boulders with exposed surface of more
than one meter in diameter,
f) Peg, being of a composition that will resist destruction by fire, natural
corrosion or decay with nominal dimensions of 50 millimeters square in crosssection for at least 100 millimeters from the top and not less than 400
millimeters in length.
Section 271 The following objects shall not be used to define corners:
a) Adobe and other soft stones.
b) Clumps of bamboos, banana or abaca stalks, papaya trees and
other similar forms of plant.
) Living trees less than fifteen centimeters in diameter, except when
such trees are used to define corners along natural boundaries.
Section 272 - The standard concrete monuments to define the permanent
position of points of survey shall be as follows:
a) For provincial, city and municipal boundaries, thirty (30)
centimeters square by one (1) meter long (30 x 30 x 100 cm.)
centered by a galvanized iron spike and level on top, set sixty (60)
centimeters in the ground leaving a projection of forty (40)
centimeters above the ground.
b) For barangay boundaries, twenty (20) centimeters square by one
meter long (20 x 20 x 100 cm.) centered by a galvanized iron spike
and level on top, set sixty (60) centimeters in the ground leaving a
projection of forty (40) centimeters above the ground.
c) For Bureau of Lands Location Monuments, forty (40) centimeters
square by one (1) meter long (40 x 40 x 100 cm.) centered by a
galvanized iron spike and level on top, set eighty (80) centimeters in
the ground leaving a projection of twenty (20) centimeters above the
ground.

d)For corners of tracts of land, subject of the Property Registration


Decree (PD 1529), at least fifteen centimeters in diameter by fifty
centimeters in length, if cylindrical in form, and fifteen by fifteen by
fifty (15 x 15 x 50) centimeters, if parallelepiped in form, set not less
than thirty-five (35) centimeters in the ground. The top shall be
centered by a galvanized iron spike or by a conical hole not exceeding
two (2) centimeters in diameter and not less than one (1) centimeter
in depth to define the corner to which measurements shall be made
and marked by the letters "P.S." (Private Surveys) for surveys
undertaken by geodetic engineers in private practice and "G.S." for
surveys undertaken by government geodetic engineers.
e) In the case of the Integrated Social Forestry (ISF) Surveys, the
corners of the prominent turns of the boundaries shall be defined by
concrete monuments 15 x 15 x 50 cm marked on top "ISF" and the
corner number below, and set 40 cm in the ground. The intermediate
points of the boundary may be "x" marks on immovable or fixed hard
rocks or boulders with exposed surfaces of more than one (1) meter in
diameter or trees belonging to the first group.
To define the corners, the same markings shall be made in the case of
forest delimitation surveys except that the monument shall be marked
on top with "FZ" and the corner number below it and centered by a
galvanized iron spike or a conical hole not exceeding two (2) cm. in
diameter and not less than one (1) cm in depth. The boundary
monuments of forests shall be set not less than five hundred (500)
meters apart. (Department Administration Order No. 72, series 1990,
and P.D. 705).
f) The delimitation survey of the A & D areas, or classified forest
areas, national parks and other protected areas, the boundary shall be
marked with parallelepiped concrete markers 15 x 15 x 50 cm and set
35 cm in the ground leaving a projection of 15 cm above the ground
and centered by galvanized iron spike. The corner number is engraved
on the top. The corners maybe also "X" marks on big immovable

40

boulders with an exposed surface of one (1) m. in diameter or living


trees especially along the natural features which define the boundary
such as the creeks, rivers, streams, etc. provided that the first and the
last corners situated along the natural boundaries shall be marked by
concrete monuments. (DAO 72 s-1990)
g) The corners of mining claims shall be marked with parallelepiped
concrete monuments 20 x 20 x 50 cm set 40 cm in the ground for the
principal corners and cylindrical concrete monuments of 15 cm in
diameter x 50 cm long set 40 cm in the ground for the other corners.
The corresponding corner and survey numbers used in the
computation of mining claim shall be etched on top of the monument.
The corners of the mining claim may also be cement patch on
immovable boulders, centered with a hole, spike, or nail and marked
with the corresponding corner number and survey number as indicated
in the declaration of location. The latitude and longitude of the
principal corner shall also be indicated on the sides of the concrete
monuments when it coincides with the full one (1) minute and or 1/2
minute latitude and longitude, respectively. (73 MLSR)
When the mining claim undergoing survey adjoins submerged lands,
witness corner monuments along the boundary leading the shoreline
shall be set on the ground to witness the boundary-point- corner on
the claim at the low tide level of the sea or lake. Concrete monuments,
galvanized iron spike, fixed rocks, boulders or wooden post shall be set
to define the corners of the claim along the shoreline at the low tide
level.

corners situated along natural features (rivers, creek, arroyo) shall be


marked with monuments. Intermediate corners along the natural
features may be "X" mark etched on large immovable boulders with
exposed area of not less than one meter in diameter or on living trees
belonging to the first group with diameters of at least fifteen
centimeters.
Section 273 - Acceptable living trees when used to define corners shall be
blazed at about twenty (20) centimeters above the ground and when possible,
by cutting the bark on the side where the boundary line passes.
The blaze shall be at least ten centimeters. A cross shall be chiseled upon the
blaze and at the point of intersection of the cross, a galvanized iron spike
shall be driven to indicate the corner to which measurement shall be made.
Section 274- When concrete posts, masonry, concrete walls, immovable
rocks or boulders are used, the corner shall be defined by a galvanized iron
spike driven into the structure to which measurement shall be made. If for
any reason it is not feasible to drive a galvanized iron spike into a structure,
the corner shall be defined by a cross (x) mark chiseled upon such structure.
Section 275 - When metal pipes having an outside diameter greater than
two (2) centimeters are used, such pipes shall be filled with concrete and the
corner shall be defined either by a galvanized iron spike or by a conical hole
not exceeding two centimeters in diameter and not less than one centimeter
in depth, or by a cross (x) mark chiseled on the concrete top.

h) Similarly, boundaries of the foreshore lands shall be marked as in


the preceding paragraph.

Section 276 - When a cross (x) is used to define a corner, such mark shall be
chiseled to a depth of at least five (5) millimeters. Each arm of the cross shall
be, whenever possible, not less than five (5) centimeters in length and the
point of intersection of the arms shall define the corner to which
measurement shall be made.

i) The corners of the prominent turns of the boundary or reservations


or ancestral claims shall be defined by concrete monuments 15 x 15 x
50 cm. set 35 centimeters in the ground, marked on top by
appropriate symbol and the corner number below it. The first and last

Section 277 When a corner is inaccessible, its position shall be defined by


two witness monuments each of which shall be placed as near as possible to
the inaccessible corner. The witness monuments and the inaccessible corner
shall be considered as corners of the tract surveyed.

41

Section 278 - All witness monuments shall be identical in nature to corner


monuments as prescribed in Section 270.

letters such as G.S., P.S., I.S.F., F.Z., or such other letters designated
according to their use.

Section 279- Wooden posts of narra, ipil, molave, yacal or any other durable
hardwood of not less than fifteen centimeters in diameter forming part of a
house, a fence or other permanent structure may be used as corner markers
when such posts are situated at the corner of a tract to be surveyed. This
corner shall be defined by a galvanized iron spike set at the center of a cross
to be marked thereon.

CORNERS WHICH SHALL BE MONUMENTED


Section 284 - Whenever conditions permit, all corners, except those
otherwise provided, shall be defined by monuments of the nature specified in
Section 272.

Section 280 - The galvanized iron spike used to indicate corners shall
preferably be at least one centimeter in diameter and eight centimeters in
length driven flush or level to the surface of the monuments or objects used.

MANUFACTURE OF CONCRETE MONUMENTS


Section 281- The political boundary and location monuments shall be
constructed at the place where such monuments can be established
permanently. The names of the political subdivisions shall be inscribed at the
corresponding sides of the political boundary monuments. The monument
shall be in the form of a frustum of a quadrangular pyramid as per design of
the Land Management Bureau. As much as possible, sub-surface marks shall
be established to define its permanency for future surveys.
Section 282 Standard concrete monuments shall be made of the following
mixture:
Cement

- 1 part

Sand

- 2 parts

Gravel or broken stone

- 4 parts

or such other proportions as may be necessary to insure the best results,


depending upon the quality of the cement and sand used. Sand and gravel
must be clean, free from dust or mud or other organic matter.
Section 283 Concrete monuments shall be marked on top with engraved

Section 285 - Other corners except the first and the last, situated near
natural boundaries, such as the high tide line of seashores, lakes, etc., the
banks of rivers, ravines, streams etc., and ditches which are one meter or
more in width used for irrigation or other purposes, may be defined by large
stones, rocks, boulders and trees of specification below the requirement of
Section 270, if monuments of permanent nature are not available. In the
absence of these objects, wooden stakes as specified in Section 279 may be
used to define such corners.
Section 286 - The first and last corners situated near natural boundaries
shall be monumented whenever possible; otherwise, witness monuments for
these corners shall be placed in accordance with the requirements of Sections
277 and 278.
Section 287 - Acceptable living trees, fixed rocks or boulders, or galvanized
metal pipes may be used to define the corners when the tract undergoing
survey is an island or is surrounded by natural boundaries and it is not
practical to use standard concrete monuments,
Section 288- Boundary lines of parcels shall be marked with concrete
monuments at intervals not to exceed five hundred (500) meters in length. In
forest delimitation surveys pursuant to P.D. 705, boundaries between forests
and alienable and disposable land shall be clearly marked and maintained on
the ground with infrastructure road, or concrete monuments or with
acceptable visible markers to ensure protection of the forests. However, in
other surveys when such boundary lines pass through mountains or hills or
rolling country the intervals between consecutive monuments should be inter-

42

visible.

outline is suggested:

The corners at prominent turns of the boundaries inside classified


forestlands shall be defined by monuments of permanent nature described in
Section 272 and the other corners thereof may be defined by monuments as
specified in Section 270.

a) Concrete monument 15 centimeters in diameter by 50 centimeters set 35


centimeters in the ground leaving a projection of fifteen(15) centimeters
above the ground marked P.S., G.S., I.S.F., F. Z., on top.

Section 289 -Corners which are common to two or more adjoining properties
shall be defined by monuments of the nature specified in Section 270.
Section 290 - When the boundary line follows the direction of irregular rice
land dikes, monuments shall be placed at the corners situated within an
average interval of not to exceed twenty-five meters measured directly from
monument to monument. The intermediate points may be marked by wooden
post, stakes or any kind of stones,
Section 291 - In isolated surveys, corners of previous survey which were not
monumented at the time of survey and which are common to the property
undergoing survey shall be monumented. In relocating the position of the
corner to be monumented, the data of the previous survey shall be used.
Section 292 - Curvilinear walls of stones, concrete, etc. defining boundaries
of properties shall be marked by galvanized iron spikes set at intervals
depending upon the degree of curvature of such walls so as to form chords
not less than one meter in length.

b) Standard PS Cylindrical concrete monument 15 x 50 centimeters set 40


centimeters in the ground, (marked P.S., G.S., I.S.F., or F.Z., on top.
c) Fixed rock or boulder with exposed surface of more than 1 meter diameter
marked with a cross (x) centered with galvanized iron spike.
d) A ________ tree _________ centimeters in diameter with a galvanized
iron spike _______ centimeters above the ground.
e) A _______ post ________ by _______ centimeters with a galvanized iron
spike _______ centimeters above the ground.
f) Galvanized iron spike in cross marked on _______ fence or wall.
g) Stake or Peg.
In general, the description of corners shall be as brief as possible, definite and
devoid of ambiguity.

PUBLIC HIGHWAYS AND RAILWAYS

Section 293 - In the case of housing subdivision projects, the block corners
shall be marked with permanent concrete monuments in accordance with
Section 272 (d) and surveyed in accordance with Section 560 to 571.

Section 296 - The Department of Public Works and Highways shall be


consulted on the widths and center lines of existing public highways or roads
or those to be constructed.

Section 294 - In cases which are not provided for in this Manual, geodetic
engineers may use and place monuments in the manner which in their opinion
shall be best. Such cases shall be fully stated in their field notes. In public
land subdivision surveys within areas planted to trees, geodetic engineers
shall use only concrete monuments or living edible fruit trees or trees
belonging to the first group as corners.

Section 297 The Sangguniang Bayan and Sangguniang Barangay shall be


consulted on the minimum widths of municipal and barangay roads.

Section 295 -To insure uniformity in the description of corners, the following

Section 298 - The Local Government Planning and Development Office shall
be consulted on the minimum widths of roadways within residential
subdivisions.
Section 299- The railway company shall be consulted on the railroad rightof-way.

43

Section 300- Right-of-way of highways or railways shall be monumented as


follows:
a) The points of curvature (P.C.) and points of tangency (P.T.) shall be marked
with monuments provided in Section 272.
b) The points along the curve need not be monumented unless expressly
desired by the owners or claimants. The position of points along the curve
shall be determined by computation using the standard metric curve of
twenty meter chord.
Section 301 - Owners or claimants of land adjoining a public highway or
street shall be advised of the minimum right-of-way measured from lot line to
lot line for that particular street or highway as provided in Sections 296 to
298.
Legitimate efforts shall be exerted to inform survey applicants of the
importance of accepting the right-of-way lines as the boundary of their
properties.
Section 302 - When the claimant insists upon his right to a portion of the
proposed right-of-way, the area claimed by him shall be surveyed and
indicated as a separate parcel, but monuments shall be placed only upon the
right-of-way lines. If the public highway is unimproved and the District
Engineer or his authorized agent fails to establish the center line of the rightof-way, the geodetic engineer shall locate the boundary of the land as pointed
out by the survey applicant, stating the fact in the field notes and Geodetic
Engineer's Certificate.
Section 303 - When the boundary adjoins private roads, the owner of such
roads shall be notified of the survey. Monuments shall be placed along the
common boundary of the property undergoing survey and the private road.
The width of the road and the name of the owner shall be indicated in the
field notes, plans and certificate of survey.
Section 304 - When the property undergoing survey adjoins a railroad rightof-way, the railroad company shall be notified and requested to show the
extent of the right-of-way. Monuments shall be established at the points of

intersection between the right-of-way lines and the boundaries of the property
and along the tangent or curve of the right-of-way, as provided by Section
300.

CHAPTER VI - PHYSIOGRAPHIC FEATURES


Section 305 - For the purpose of this Manual, the following are defined:
a) An arroyo shall be any narrow natural bed or channel through which the
water flows continuously or intermittently throughout the year.
b) An estero shall be any bed or channel through which stagnant, dirty or salt
water flows under the influence of the tides.
c) A creek is a stream of water longer than a brook that empties into the
river.
d) A river shall be any wide natural bed or channel through which water flows
continuously or intermittently throughout the year.
e) A lake shall be a considerable inland body of standing water, also an
expanded part of a river.
f) A pond is a body of water naturally or artificially confined and usually
smaller than a lake.
g) A pool is a small body of standing or stagnant water.
h) A seacoast is a shore or border of the land adjacent to the sea or ocean.
ARROYOS, ESTEROS AND RIVERS
Section 306 - The classification of streams as arroyos, esteros, creek or
rivers is at times difficult as such streams gradually merge into one or the
other. In cases of doubt, the local designation or name of the stream shall
determine its classification and shall be clearly indicated in the field notes and
on the plan of the survey.
Section 307 - The natural bed or channel of arroyos, esteros, creeks or

44

rivers shall be the ground within the banks covered by water during the
highest floods which do not cause inundation.
Section 308 - Navigable esteros or rivers shall be those which contain
sufficient water to allow rafts, boats, cascos, etc., to float thereon and engage
in transportation or other activities.
Section 309 -RA 1273 Amending Section 90 of Act 141 which took effect in
June 14, 1955 provides that a strip of forty (40) meters wide starting from
the banks on each side of any river or stream shall be demarcated and
preserved as permanent timberland; that even after patent or lease contract
has been issued no clearing can be done thereon or the same cannot be
utilized for farming purposes but shall be planted to trees of economic value.
Section 16(7) and 16(8) of PD 705 dated 19 May 1975 provides that twenty
(20) meters strips of land along edge of the normal high waterline of rivers
and streams with channels of at least five meters wide; and strips of
mangrove or swamplands at least twenty- meters wide along shorelines
facing oceans, lakes, and other bodies of water; and strips of land at least
twenty meters wide facing lakes are areas needed for forest purposes and are
inalienable; and that even if titled, steps shall be taken, if public interest so
requires, to have said title cancelled or amended.
Section 310 - Conformably, the extent of surveys near rivers and streams
shall be as follows:
a) For lands classified in accordance with R.A. 1273, the boundary lines of
surveys shall extend to a line forty (40) meters from the bank on each side of
rivers or streams with channels of at least five (5) meters wide.
b) For lands classified pursuant to P. D. 705, the boundary line of survey shall
extend to a line twenty (20) meters from the edge of normal high waterline of
rivers and streams with channels of not less than five (5) meters wide;
twenty (20) meters from the terrestrial limit of a lake being the line reached
by its highest ordinary depth,
These strips of land of forty (40) and twenty (20) meters along the edge of
the high waterline of river and streams with channels of at least five (5)

meters wide are retained as permanent forest for river and stream bank
protection. They shall be excluded from the survey, otherwise said survey
shall not be accepted.
) Side shots to points on the bank of stream to show that these strips of land
are excluded from the survey shall be indicated in the field notes and
computation sheets and plotted on the plan. These points shall be connected
in red dotted lines to the traverse stations from which they were observed,
d) A strip of fifteen (15) meters in width on each side of the centerlines of
trails and roads which are reserved for right-of-way and timber outlet should
be set on the ground, and indicated in the field notes and on the plan.
e) The corresponding land classification maps shall be consulted by the
Geodetic Engineer for information on the width of bank protection to be
excluded from the survey, the strip preserved for road right-of-way and
timber outlet.
Section 311 In addition to the twenty or forty meters stream bank
protection, streams having natural beds or channels five (5) meters or more
in width shall be excluded from the boundaries of the property undergoing
survey. Likewise, streams less than five (5) meters in width through which
water flows continuously shall be excluded from the survey.
Section 312 - Strips of lands at least twenty (20) meters wide, along
shorelines facing oceans, lakes, and other bodies of waters which are needed
for forest purposes, shall likewise be excluded from the survey in accordance
with Section 16 of P.D. 705 (Forestry Reform Code).
Section 313 - The field notes and plans of the tract undergoing survey which
adjoins or near irrigation ditches, creeks, arroyos, esteros, rivers, etc. shall
indicate the following:
a) The widths of the body of water.
b) Whether it is navigable or not.
c) Whether right or left bank, with the observer facing downstream.
d) The direction of the flow of water by an arrow.

45

e) The distance in meters from the bank of the river or creek to the lot line.
Section 314- Private claims, temporary or permanent structure or other
works which prevent the free use of the easement mentioned in Section 322
shall be definitely located on the ground and indicated in the field notes and
on the survey plans.

LAKES, PONDS, AND POOLS

SEACOAST
Section 320 - The boundary line of lands bordering the sea or its arms shall
be the shoreline which is the line reached by the highest equinoctial tide.
Section 321 - When the tide line is not be distinguishable, the boundary line
shall extend to the limit reached by the sea water during ordinary tempest or
storms.

Section 315 - The boundaries of properties bordering lakes, ponds or pools,


whether navigable or non-navigable, shall be located and surveyed. The
bodies of water which are entirely included in the property or estates shall be
approximately sketched and the area and name shall be indicated on the plan
of the survey.

Section 322 - Private claims, permanent structures or other artificial works


which extend seaward beyond the shore line or which will interfere with the
easement or salvage or coast police zone shall be accurately located and
indicated in the field notes and plans of the survey.

Section 316 - The ownership or name of claimant of the natural bed or basin
of lakes, ponds or pools beyond the boundary lines shall be indicated in the
survey.

EASEMENTS, SALVAGE ZONES AND BANK PROTECTION

Section 317 -The natural bed or basin of lakes, ponds or pools j the ground
covered by the water when at their greatest ordinary depth.
Section 318 - Private claims located along the shores of Laguna de Bay or
other similar lakes, the waters of which advance or recede with changes of
the season, shall be surveyed up to the boundary line twenty (20) meters
from the high water mark at the time of greatest depth of water. The shore
line at the time of survey and the high-water mark at the time of the greatest
depth of water shall be located and indicated in the field notes and on the
plan of the survey.
Section 319 - The municipal authorities and the LLDA in the case of Laguna
de Bay shall be requested to indicate the shore line of adjoining shallow lakes
and marshes used mainly as municipal fishponds.

Section 323 - For the purpose of recreation, navigation, floatage, fishing and
salvage, the banks of esteros, arroyos, creeks and rivers throughout their
entire lengths, situated in urban areas, agricultural areas, and forested areas
shall be subject to the three meter, twenty-meter, and forty-meter easement
of public use, respectively. The shorelines of seas and lakes, throughout their
entire lengths are subject to twenty-meter easement pursuant to P.D. 705.
Section 324- Lands bordering the seas, gulfs, bays, or ports are subject to
easements of salvage zone of twenty meters measured landward from the
interior limit of the shoreline and an easement of coast police of six meters
wide from the shoreline within the salvage zone. The easement of coast police
is the obligation to leave a right of way six meters wide within the salvage
zone.
Section 325 - In surveying lands which border esteros, rivers, navigable
lakes, the sea or its arms, the geodetic engineer shall locate on the ground
and indicate in the field notes and plans of the survey the easements for
public use as defined in the preceding Sections 323 and 324 except when
they are within the strip of forty meters for bank protection which is excluded

46

from the survey as provided for in Sections 309 to 312.


In subdividing decreed or titled properties, these easement and river bank
protections shall be surveyed as separate lot and is inalienable.

CHAPTER VII - SURVEY COMPUTATIONS


GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
Section 326 - All computations from the field data of astronomical
observations, survey controls, lot surveys, transformation etc. shall be made
on forms prescribed by the Lands Management Bureau using standard
mathematical formulas in surveying books and within the limits of accuracy
prescribed in this Manual or as may be issued hereafter.
Section 327 All survey computations shall be done on LMB prescribed forms
for:
a) Logarithms
b) Natural functions and mechanical calculators
c) Scientific calculators
d) Programmable calculators
e) Microcomputers
Computations done with (a), (b), (c), (d) shall be duplicated in accordance
with Section 333. When calculators are used, the brand and model shall be
entered in the computation form.
Section 328 - When the computations are to be done on a micro-computer,
the LMB prescribed format or a pre-approved format design submitted by the
geodetic engineer shall be used. Computations shall be on 2- ply, 70 gsm or
substance 20 plain bond computer tabulating stock form of the prescribed
size. The name, brand and model of the microcomputer shall be indicated on
the form. Preferably, the program on a diskette shall be submitted with the
survey returns.

Section 329 - Hard pencils of good quality of the "2-H" degree of hardness
shall be used in all computations so that the figures will withstand
considerable handling without being blurred or erased.
Section 330 - The blanks on the headings of computation forms for the class
of survey, name and address of applicant, location of land (barangay,
municipality, city, and province), reference page to field notes, station
occupied, etc. shall be properly filled in.
Section 331 - All figures shall be written in a clear and legible handwriting
and computation sheets shall be kept clean, Illegible figures and crumpled or
soiled computation sheets shall not be accepted.
Section 332 - The following rule of approximation shall be used in all cases
of logarithms, distances or numbers required in computation, whether the
final number is in the unit's, tenth's, hundredth's, thousandth's or any other
decimal place. Rounding off values are as follows:
a) Digit to be rounded off is less than 5. When the digit to be rounded
off is less than 5, leave the preceding digit unchanged. Thus 2.1234
becomes 2.123 when rounded to the nearest thousandth, 2.12 to the
nearest hundredth, and 2.1 to the nearest tenth.
b) Digit to be rounded off is equal to 5. When the digit to be dropped
is 5, the preceding digit is unaltered, if it is even and increased by 1 if
it is odd. Thus 20,485 becomes 20.48 and 20.475 becomes 20.48.
c) Digit to be rounded off is greater than 5. When the digit to be
dropped is greater than 5, add 1 to the preceding digit. Thus, 35.6874
becomes 35.69. Also, 35.6754 becomes 35.68.

Section 333 - All computations shall be duplicated, except when provided


otherwise, the original and duplicate computations shall be made
independently by different computers. The final checking of the original and
duplicate computations shall be made by comparing them. When the same
person has to perform the computations, he shall use different formulas or

47

methods to check the results obtained.

recommendation of the geodetic engineer.

Section 334 - A pencil check shall be placed at the foot of each column to
indicate that the data in that column have been checked by comparison of the
original and duplicate computations.

Section 339 - The errors in latitudes and departures, the perimeter, linear
and relative errors of closure shall be computed and indicated at the end of
each traverse computations and on the spaces provided therefor.

Section 335- The persons who perform the various computations and
checking shall sign their full names and dates of computation or checking in
the respective blanks provided for in the computation forms.

Section 340 - In isolated land surveys, the traverse shall be computed and
closed and the relative error of closure shall be determined before leaving the
place of survey.

SURVEY CONTROLS COMPUTATIONS


Section 336 - All controls computations shall be made on authorized L.M.B.
Forms.
Section 337- In the case of traverse controls, if the algebraic sum of the
north and south latitudes and/or the east and west departures is not zero and
if the linear error of closure is within the allowable limit as prescribed for
controls computations the traverse shall be balanced as follows:
(a) For latitudes:
The correction to be applied to the latitude is to the latitude of the line as the
total error in latitudes (or algebraic sum of N and S latitudes) is to the
absolute sum of all the latitudes,
(b) For departures:
The correction to be applied to the departure is to the departure of the line as
the total error in departures (or algebraic sum of E and W departures) is to
the absolute sum of all the departures,
Each correction shall be applied to increase or decrease the latitude or
departure so as to finally eliminate the errors after balancing.
Section 338 - Other methods of adjustments may be used such as the
Transit rule, compass rule, the Crandall Method, or least squares method. In
certain cases, the traverse may be balanced arbitrarily in accordance with the

LOT DATA COMPUTATIONS


Section 341 - Lot data computations shall be made on the prescribed DENR
format. (See Annex B)
Section 342 - The computation for astronomical azimuth, traverse, lot data
and area shall be made in the L.M.B. forms designed for (a) logarithmic
method, (b) natural functions and mechanical calculators, (c) scientific
calculators, (d) programmable pocket calculators, and (e) microcomputers.
Section 343 - At least one direct tie line to corner one of each lot from a
reference location monument shall be computed at the beginning of the
computations. In cadastral or public land subdivision surveys, all tie lines shall
be computed from the nearest Location Monument.

COMPUTATIONS OF TRIANGULATIONS, INTERSECTION AND OTHERS


Section 344 - All traverse triangulations and intersections shall be sketched
and computed on authorized L.M.B. forms.

Section 345 - In triangulation control computation the following procedure


shall be followed:
a) Prepare the abstracts of directions from the field notes,
b) Prepare the lists of directions from the abstract of directions.

48

c) Determine the observed angles from the lists of directions and transfer the
data to the triangle computation form for the computations of the sides of the
triangles using the plane angles.

plotted on appropriate standard base maps projected upon spheroidal


quadrangles of Clarke's spheroid of 1866.

d) Adjust the triangle closure error either by the method of simple triangle
adjustment or quadrilateral adjustment as required.

Section 350 - The standard base maps of the Philippines shall be classified
into cadastral maps, barangay boundary and index maps, municipal boundary
and index maps, municipal, provincial, and regional base maps.

e) Derive the grid or true azimuths as the case may be for all the lines of the
triangulation control.

CADASTRAL MAPS

f) Transfer the data of triangle sides and the azimuths derived in (e) on the
control/traverse computation sheets.
g) Compute, adjust and coordinate the triangulation control in accordance
with Sections 189 to 205.
Section 346 The computation sheets shall be kept properly arranged to
facilitate reference whenever needed and shall show the steps taken in the
solution of the problem. In a control consisting of traverse and triangulation
caution should be taken to ensure that the triangulation control is adjusted
independently of the traverse.
Section 347 - The computations for geodetic positions, least square
adjustment of triangulation control and all other similar computations shall be
carefully verified. In the form for intersection computation, the formula
(either the sine or tangent formula) that will give the best result shall be
used,
Section 348 - When the scheme of quadrilaterals is adopted to control a
project, the quadrilateral adjustment outlined in authorized LMB forms shall
be used. All computations shall be performed on this form to insure uniformity
of procedures and to facilitate the verification.

CHAPTER VIII - MAPS AND PLANS OF SURVEYS


STANDARD BASE MAPS
Section 349 - Maps and plans of all land surveys in the Philippines shall be

Section 351- The cadastral maps shall comprise areas within spheroidal
quadrangle of one minute of arc in latitude and one minute of arc in longitude
and shall be drawn in the Philippine Plane Coordinates System (PPCS)-PRS 92
to the standard scale of 1:4000 on drafting material of stable base of uniform
size of approximately 54 x 54 centimeters. Sectional cadastral maps shall be
drawn on larger scales on the same material and of the same size as the
standard cadastral maps to show tracts of land which otherwise will appear
too small on the standard scale of 1:4000.
The sectional cadastral maps shall be in the scale of 1:2,000; 1:1,000;
1:500; 1:250 and shall comprise areas within spheroidal quadrangles of thirty
seconds, fifteen seconds, seven and one half seconds or three and threefourths seconds of arc, respectively.

SYSTEM OF NUMBERING OF CADASTRAL MAPS


Section 352 - The extreme west and east meridians and the extreme south
and north parallels of cadastral map in the scale of 1:4000 shall be full minute
meridians and parallels, respectively.

Section 353 - The latitude and longitude of the point of intersection of the
extreme west meridian and extreme south parallel of each spheroidal
quadrangle shall be used to designate the corresponding map number of the
quadrangle. If the latitude and longitude of the point of intersection of the
extreme west meridian and extreme south parallel of the map are 14 deg. 49

49

min. N and 120 deg. 54 min. E, respectively, the map shall be numbered as
follows:

NE Quadrant CM

1449' N - 12054' E

sec. 1-A-NE

SE Quadrant CM

1449' N - 12054' E

sec. 1-A-SE

SW Quadrant CM

1449' N - 12054' E

sec. 1-A-SW

CM 1449'N - 12054' E

Sectional cadastral maps in the scale of 1:2000 may be prepared to indicate


the NW, NE, SE and SW section of the standard cadastral maps and shall be
numbered, respectively as follows:

Sectional cadastral maps in the scale of 1:250 may be prepared to indicate


the NW, NE, SE and SW sections of the sectional cadastral map of scale 1:500
and shall be numbered, respectively, as follows:

NW Quadrant CM

1449' N - 12054' E

sec. 1

NW Quadrant CM

1449' N - 12054' E

sec.1-A-NW-1

NE Quadrant CM

1449' N - 12054' E

sec. 2

NE Quadrant CM

1449' N - 12054' E

sec.1-A-NW-2

SE Quadrant CM

1449' N - 12054' E

sec. 3

SE Quadrant CM

1449' N - 12054' E

sec.1-A-NW-3

SW Quadrant CM

1449' N - 12054' E

sec. 4

SW Quadrant CM

1449' N - 12054' E

sec.1-A-NW-4

Sectional cadastral maps in the scale of 1:1000 may be prepared to indicate


NW, NE, SE and SW quadrant sections of the sectional cadastral maps of scale
1:2000 and shall be numbered, respectively, as follows:
NW Quadrant CM

1449' N - 12054'E

sec. 1-A

NE Quadrant CM

1449' N - 12054'E

sec. 1-B

SE Quadrant CM

1449' N - 12054'E

sec. 1-C

SW Quadrant CM

1449' N - 12054'E

sec. 1-D

Sectional cadastral maps in the scale 1:500 may be prepared to indicate NW,
NE, SE and SW quadrant sections of the sectional cadastral map of scale
1:1000 and shall be numbered, respectively, as follows:

NW Quadrant CM

1449' N - 12054' E

sec. 1-A-NW

Other sectional cadastral maps on larger scale may be likewise prepared. The
general rule in numbering sectional cadastral map is as follows:

The first sectional cadastral map number shall be assigned to the topleft (NW) quadrant; the second, to the top-right (NE) quadrant; the
third, to the bottom-right (SE) quadrant and the last, to the bottomleft (SW) quadrant.
Section 354- Contiguous cadastral maps (CCM), consisting of four or sixteen
sheets, shall be drawn on a single sheet of the same material and size as the
standard cadastral map in the scale of 1:8,000 or 1:16,000, respectively, to
show parcels which would be too big on the standard scale of 1:4,000. The
cadastral map number of the extreme southwestern cadastral map shall be
used to designate the contiguous cadastral map number. If the extreme
southwestern cadastral map number is CM1424' N-12036'E, the contiguous

50

cadastral map number is CCM1424'N - 12036'E, scale 1:8,000 or


CCM1424'N - 12036'E, scale 1:16,000.

45000 to 60000

1:200000

60000 to 75000

1:250000

Section 355 - The map numbers of adjacent cadastral maps, whether


standard, sectional or contiguous, shall be indicated on the left side of the
quadrangle below the lower marginal line of each cadastral map.

75000 to 90000

1: 300000

BARANGAY BOUNDARY AND INDEX MAPS AND MUNICIPAL


BOUNDARY AND INDEX MAPS

Section 356 - Barangay Boundary and Index Maps (BBIM) and Municipal
Boundary and Index Maps (MBIM) shall be prepared and drawn in the grid
system on drafting material of stable base and of uniform size of 54 x 54
centimeters, using a scale based on the maximum differences in northings or
in eastings, whichever is bigger, tabulated as follows:

Scale to be Used

MUNICIPAL BASE MAPS


Section 357 Municipal base maps shall be prepared and kept up-to-date
for each city, municipality or municipal districts. They shall comprise areas
within spheroidal quadrangle of 15 minutes of arc in latitude and 10 minutes
of arc in longitude. This shall be drawn in the Philippine Plane Coordinate
System/PRS 92 to a standard scale of 1:60,000 on drafting materials of stable
base and of uniform size of approximately 54 x 54 centimeters.

Section 358 - All information derived from approved surveys shall be plotted
on the municipal base map/s of each municipality, Boundaries of Barangays
and other municipalities/municipal district and cities as well as other relevant
information that may be available from other sources shall be plotted thereon.

0 to 2400

1: 8000

2400 to 3600

1:12000

3600 to 4800

1:16000

PROVINCIAL BASE MAPS

4800 to 6000

1:20000

6000 to 9000

1:30000

9000 to 12000

1:40000

12000 to 18000

1:60000

18000 to 24000

1:80000

Section 359 - Provincial Base Maps shall be prepared and kept up-to-date
for each province. They shall comprise areas within spheroidal quadrangles of
one degree and thirty minutes of arc in latitude and one degree of arc in
longitude. This shall be drawn in the Philippine Plane Coordinate System/PRS
92 to a standard scale of 1:400,000 on drafting materials of stable base and
of uniform size of approximately 54 x 54 centimeters.

24000 to 30000

1:100000

30000 to 36000

1:120000

36000 to 45000

1:150000

Section 360 - All information derived from approved survey projects shall be
plotted in the provincial base map/s of each province. Boundaries of
municipalities and of the province as well as other relevant information that
may be available from other sources shall also be plotted thereon.

51

REGIONAL BASE MAPS


Section 361- Regional Base Map's shall be prepared and kept up-to-date for
each region. They shall comprise areas within spheroidal quadrangles of six
degrees in latitude and four degrees in longitude. This shall be drawn in the
Traverse Mercator projection to a standard scale of 1:800, 000 on drafting
material of stable base and of uniform size approximately 104 x 104
centimeters.
Section 362 - All relevant information derived from approved survey projects
shall be plotted in the Regional base map/s of each region. Boundaries of
provinces and of the region as well as other relevant information that may be
available from other sources shall also be plotted thereon.

Section 366- All isolated land surveys shall be plotted in pencil on the
projection maps prior to its approval by the Regional Technical Director of
Land. In the case of cadastrally surveyed municipalities, the cadastral maps
shall be used as the projection maps.
Section 367- When a municipality is surveyed as a cadastral project, its
projection maps shall be used as reference in the preparation of the cadastral
maps.
Section 368 - For map control purposes, the map assignments per agency
and the scales and sizes at which the maps are to be produced are as listed:
(DAO 72 series of 1990)

Agency
PROJECTION MAPS
Section 363 - Provisional cadastral maps, also known as projection maps,
shall comprise areas within spheroidal quadrangles of one minute of arc in
latitude and one minute of arc in longitude and shall be prepared in a scale of
1:4000 by using the length of minutes and seconds of arc of parallel and
meridian passing through the BLLM No. 1 of the municipality or locality which
is established as the point of reference for all surveys therein.
Section 364 - The extreme west and east meridians and the extreme south
and north parallels of each standard projection map shall be full minute of
arc.
Section 365 - The latitude and longitude of the point of intersection of the
extreme west meridian and the extreme south parallel of each spheroidal
quadrangle shall be used to designate the corresponding number of the
projection map. If the latitude is 1351'N and the longitude is 12051'E
corresponding to the said point of intersection, the projection map shall be
numbered as follows:
PM 1351'N - 12051'E

a.
Lands
Services

Maps/Plans
Cadastral
Maps

Barangay
Municipal

Maps Size
54x54
cm.

Scale
1:4000

Presently
adopted

1:2000

Sectoral
map
being adopted

1:1000

-do-

1:500

-do-

1:250

-do-

54x54
cm.

1:4000

42x54
cm.

1:100 and

Index Maps

Remarks
being

being adopted

and its
derivatives

(BBIM,
MBIM)
Isolated
Survey
Plan

For titling

its
derivatives

52

b. Mines

Geologic Map

Service
Mineral Land
Survey Map
Phil. Mineral
Rights Master

75x55
cm.

1:50000

Presently being

54x54
cm.

1:25000

-do-

60x75
cm.

1:25000

-do-

54x54
cm.

1:4000

adopted

Service

Integrated
Social

Forest
License Maps

54x54
cm.

1:1000
and its
derivatives

Land

Variable

1:25000

Classification

e. Parks &
Wildlife
Service

1. National

Variable

-doexcept
size

Forestry
Maps

d. NAMRIA

21x33
cm.

1:500

-do-

MAPS AND PLANS FOR REGISTRATION PROCEEDINGS

Maps
c. Forestry

5. Municipal/
Boundary
Tree Park

1:50000

standard

-do-

Presently
being
adopted
(previously
on
scale 1:20000)
Presently adopted

Park
2.Marine Park
Map

-do-

-do-

-do-

3.Marine
Reserve Map

-do-

-do-

-do-

4.Game
Refuge and
Bird
Sanctuary
Map

-do-

-do-

-do-

Section 369 - The cadastral maps on which the results of cadastral surveys
are drawn shall be reproduced for cadastral registration purposes.
Section 370 - All plans of isolated surveys which shall be used for
administrative or judicial registration purposes shall be drawn on DENR-LMB
prescribed format. If, however, the plans were prepared using a computerized
method, the Geodetic Engineer must secure authority from LMB.

COORDINATE LINES AND SCALES FOR ISOLATED SURVEYS


Section 371 - Vertical and horizontal center lines of plane coordinates
divisible by five shall be accurately drawn on the original plan and inked in
red.
Section 372 - The latitude and longitude lines of corner 1 of a lot or any
corner 1 of a group of adjoining lots shall be drawn in fine black ink on the
original survey plan in the following manner:

(a) The latitude line shall be drawn horizontally from left to the right
marginal lines through corner one. The corresponding northings based
on BLLM No. 1 shall be written above and along the latitude line from
the left hand border line of the plan towards the right; while the
geographic latitude shall be indicated below the northing.

53

1
(b) The longitude line shall be drawn vertically from the top to the bottom
marginal lines through corner 1. The easting based on BLLM No. 1
shall be written on the left side of and along the longitude line from
the bottom border line towards the top; while the geographic longitude
shall be indicated opposite the easting on the other side of longitude
line.

Section 373 - The scale to be used in plotting surveys shall depend on the
difference in the northings of the extreme north and south corners or in the
eastings of the extreme east and west corners of the lots, whichever is bigger,
as follows:
Scale
Used

to

be

Maximum Difference in Coordinates

100

0 to 30 meters

200

30 to 60 meters

300

60 to 90 meters

400

90 to 120 meters

500

120 to 150 meters

600

150 to 180 meters

800

180 to 240 meters

1000

240 to 300 meters

2000

300 to 600 meters

3000

600 to 900 meters

4000

900 to 1200 meters

5000

1200 to 1500 meters

6000

1500 to 1800 meters

8000

1800 to 2400 meters

10000

2400 to 3000 meters

The lot shall be centered and plotted on the plan so that its extreme corners
shall not be less than four centimeters from each marginal line when using
any of the scale provided above.
Section 374- When the maximum coordinate difference exceeds three
thousand meters, the plan shall be drawn on scales which are exact multiples
of 1:4,000, such as 1:12,000, 1:16,000, etc. If any of these scales would
make the length of the property lines generally less than one-half centimeter,
the survey shall be plotted on more than one sheet using an appropriate
scale.
In plotting one whole big parcel on more than one sheet, the parcel shall be
divided into convenient portions, each to be centered and plotted on the sheet
in accordance with Section 373 noting thereon the numbers of the adjoining
sheets.
Section 375 - When a parcel is divided into many small lots, which, if plotted
using any one of the largest possible scales mentioned in Section 373 would
result in diminutive geometrical figures, the subdivision plan shall be prepared
on two or more sheets on a uniform scale with each of its portions centered
on the sheet in accordance with Section 374. The numbers of the sheets on
which the other portions of the subdivisions are plotted, shall be properly
indicated on the plan.
Section 376 - One plan for each parcel, tract or lot in isolated land surveys
shall be prepared to a scale in accordance with Section 373.
Section 377 - Long narrow tracts such as highways, railways, canals, etc.
may be plotted by dividing the tract into sections and plotting the sections on
two or more plans.

54

DETAILS TO BE SHOWN ON PLANS OF ISOLATED LAND SURVEYS


Section 378 - The plans shall be clearly and neatly drawn in drawing ink and
shall show the following:

For uniformity in the preparation of isolated survey plans, only


information that cannot be inscribed on the plan shall be indicated on the
space provided for "Notes" at the bottom left corner. These are:
1. Description of corners as:

a) The boundaries of the property in full black ink lines heavier than those of
adjoining properties. Permanent walls along boundaries shall be drawn by
conventional symbols.

a) All corners marked "P.S." are cylindrical concrete monuments 15 x


50 centimeters.

b) The line from the lot corner to the control stations from which side shots
were taken, by dotted red ink lines.

"X" on boulders, or concrete nail on wall or tree).

c) The relative position of adjoining surveyed properties, indicating by dotted


lines the boundaries between them and the names of all adjoining owners and
all important improvements, roads, and streams, etc., including the width, in
black ink.
d) The corners indicated by small circles two millimeters in diameter drawn in
black ink and their respective descriptions noted.

b) All corners not otherwise described are stakes (or pegs, or

2. Adverse claims as:


a) Lot 2 is claimed by Edgar Barraca
b) Lot 3 is a portion of Psu-10001 as surveyed for Ivy Reyes.
3. Relation with any cadastral or public land subdivision survey project or
reservation (if survey is near a known reservation), as:
a) This survey is outside Cad 69, Pagsanjan Cadastre.

e) The boundary lines with corresponding bearings and distances in black ink.

b) This is outside the non-Christian reservation.

f) Tie line of corner 1 from reference control point in thin black line with
bearing and distance.
g) Horizontal (latitude) and vertical (longitude) lines passing through corner 1
in thin black line and the geographic and cartesian (grid) coordinates in PPCSTM/PRS 92 indicated in black ink.

c) This is outside Fort Bonifacio reservation.

Bearings and distances of the survey shall be tabulated on the plan when
these are too numerous to be drawn or shown clearly along or near the
boundary lines. When there are more than fifty lots on the plans, lot
descriptions thereof shall be prepared on LMB authorized forms.
In the case of subdivision or consolidation subdivision surveys, the
boundary data of the lot being subdivided, or of the lots being consolidated subdivided shall be tabulated in black ink in a boxed portion at the upper-left
corner.

4. If lot is a portion of undecreed cadastral lot, the cadastral lot number


pertaining to said portion, as:
Lot 7 = Lot 5000, Cad-69
5. Classification of lot as:
a) For survey inside classified/unclassified forest:
This survey is within classified/unclassified forest and therefore shall not be
the basis for registration or titling purposes.
b) For original survey:
This survey is inside the alienable and disposable area, Block
1, Project No. 25, Land Classification Map No. 329 for the Province of Laguna.

55

The Survey was approved based on the investigation report submitted by


Deputy Public Land Investigator (name) dated ______.

AS SURVEYED FOR
(Name of Claimant)

c.) For complex subdivision

SITUATED IN THE

This subdivision survey is in conformity with the approved subdivision


scheme.

RURBAN CODE

__________________

BARANGAY OF

__________________

Section 379 - In all lots of isolated land surveys with areas of one hectare or
more, the approximate boundary of the area under cultivation and the nature
of its vegetation such as rice, pastures, woods, etc. with a brief description of
the topographic features such as plain, rolling, hilly or mountainous shall be
indicated in light black dotted lines.

MUN/CITY OF

__________________

PROVINCE OF

__________________

ISLAND OF

__________________

Containing an area of

______________ Sq.M.

For lots less than one hectare in area, a general classification, such as,
"residential lot", "home lot", "rice land", "sugar cane land", "commercial lot"
shall be indicated on said plans. For a group of lots shown on one plan in
diminutive geometrical figures, a notation on the plan regarding the
topographic features and/or general classification for each lot is sufficient in
both cases,
Irrespective of the area, permanent structures such as buildings with concrete
foundation, stone walls, etc., shall be indicated by dotted black lines on the
plans and maps.

Section 380 - Plans of isolated land surveys shall be titled thus:


ORIGINAL SURVEY __________ Surveyed: ________ Approved: _______
Cad/Pls/Gss _________________________________________________
Lot No. ___________________ Patent No. ________ Date: __________
Decree No. ________________ Date: ____________ LRC Rec. No. ____
OCT No. __________________ Dated ____________ Issued to _______
TCT No. __________________ Dated ____________ Issued to _______

PPCS-TM/PRS 92 ZONE NO:


BEARINGS

SCALE:
(GRAPHICAL SCALE)
I hereby certify that this is a correct plan of the survey made by me
personally, or under my direct supervision in conformity with the provisions of
applicable laws of the Republic of the Philippines and the rules and regulations
of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources.
I further certify that this plan accurately indicates the boundaries of the
property as indicated to me on the ground by the survey claimant or his
authorized representative and that I assume full responsibility for the
technical correctness of the survey and the accuracy of monument setting.
Date of Survey:
Geodetic Engineer
Reg. Cert. No. ____ Date _____
Lic. No. _________ Date _____

PLAN OF LAND

56

(This approved plan, however, shall not be construed as title to the land)
REGIONAL TECHNICAL DIRECTOR
FOR LANDS
____________________
(Date Submitted)
DATE RETURNED

REASON

RECEIVED BY:

Printed Name and Signature

Date

Position verified by: __________________________________________


Republic of the Philippines
Department of Environment and Natural Resources Lands Management
Services
Regional Office ___
_____________________
(Location of Office)
The survey plotted herein is found to be technically correct, as per
submitted survey returns of the Geodetic Engineer and therefore
recommended for approval.
CHIEF, REGIONAL SURVEYS DIVISION
APPROVED: ______________________

Plotted on PM _________ N ____________E _________by ___________


Field Notes checked by: ______________________________________
Computation checked by: _____________________________________
Astronomical/Traverse/Lot Data ________________________________
Plotted/Inked by: ____________________________________________
Traced by: _________________________________________________
Checked & verified by: ________________________________________

The lettering to be used on all plans shall be simple, uniform, mechanical and
not ornamental lettering. (322 as amended by LAO 4-14)
Section 381 - When the meridian of the survey coincides with the vertical
axis of the plan, all bearings and distances shall be drawn along the boundary
lines and parallel thereto. If the line runs S. W. or N. E., the data shall be
written to the north-east; if N. W. or S. E., the data shall be written to the

57

south-east; and if due north and due south or due east and due west, the
data shall be written to the north, south and east, respectively.

b) If executed by a geodetic engineer in private practice, the survey number


and symbol will be H-(XI-1) 2425-D.

Section 382 - In general, the lot numbers, corner numbers, corner


descriptions, notes, titles, etc. shall be drawn parallel to the horizontal axis of
the plan.

Section 387 - The application numbers and not the entry number shall be
used to designate the corresponding survey numbers of all public land
surveys not otherwise numbered.

Section 383 - Geodetic Engineers and Junior Geodetic Engineers shall submit
their original plans properly prepared, the masthead filled up, signed and
sealed.

Section 388 - For the current instruction on the survey symbols and
numbers, Lands Management Bureau Circulars or Bulletins shall be consulted.

TRACING OF PLANS

TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION OF SURVEYS

Section 384 - A copy on reproducible stable material of the original approved


plan shall be prepared by the geodetic engineer concerned for approval of the
Regional Technical Director for Lands. In lieu thereof, copy/copies of the
approved plans as reproduced by any photochemical processes, such as cloth
reproducible, micro-film enlargements, polyethylene diazo film white prints,
blue prints, etc. may be prepared at the request of the geodetic engineer but
the same shall be duly authenticated by the Regional Technical Director for
Lands.

Section 389 - The technical descriptions of each lot of a survey to describe


and identify a piece of land for administrative and ordinary or cadastral land
registration proceedings shall contain the following information:

SURVEY SYMBOLS
Section 385 - The survey symbols to designate various kinds of surveys shall
be those listed in Appendix I.
Section 386 - The survey symbols used for public land surveys provided for
in the preceding section shall also be used for public land surveys made by
the geodetic engineers in private practice. In such cases, the letter D shall be
suffixed to the corresponding survey symbols for the purpose of identification
as follows:
Example: Homestead Application No. (XI-1)
a) If executed by a geodetic engineer in the Bureau of Lands, the survey
number and symbol will be H-(XI-1) 2425,

A. For Numerical Cadastre and Isolated Surveys.


1. Bureau of Lands Survey Number
2. Lot number
3. Name of claimants
4. Location of land
5. Legal authority
6. Name of geodetic engineer
7. Description of each corner as marked on the ground
8. Coordinates of Corner 1 (Northing and Easting)
9. Description of point of reference
10. Bearing and distance from point of reference to point 1 of
boundary
11. Bearings and distances of boundary lines in consecutive order
12. Area in square meters more or less

58

13. Names of adjoining owners


14. Meridian used and if applicable, the zone of the grid system
15. Dates of survey and approval
B. For Photo-Cadastral Mapping
1. Lot number
2, Lands Management Bureau case and cadastral project number
3. Name of applicant
4. Location of land

Section 392 - The survey claimant shall be furnished by the geodetic


engineer concerned with at least three(3) copies of the technical descriptions,
the approved reproducible copy of the plan or reproductions thereof duly
authenticated by the Regional Technical Director for Lands, and copies of
Geodetic Engineers Certificate.
Section 393 - The technical descriptions of survey may be prepared by the
Land Management Services of the DENR Regional Office concerned upon
payment of the prescribed fees, provided that the technical descriptions of all
housing subdivisions and cadastral surveys for titling shall be computergenerated under the Lot Survey Documentation System (LSDS).

5. Legal authority
6. Name of geodetic engineer
7. Sketch plan of the cadastral lot drawn to scale showing adjoining lot
numbers, their claimant, and physical features.
8. Description of each point of boundary as marked on the ground

PART II
PROVISIONS GOVERNING ISOLATED LAND SURVEYS

9. Approximate area in square meters


10. Names of adjoining owners
11. Meridian used and if applicable, the zone of the grid system
12. Date of monumenting
13. Date of Photography and by whom
14. Description of camera used
15. Date of approval
Section 390 - The technical descriptions of surveys may be prepared by
geodetic engineers from the data of the approved plans or maps or they shall
be computer-generated by the Lands Management Services of DENR,
Section 391 - Technical description prepared by geodetic engineer in private
practice shall be submitted to the Land Management Services of the
concerned Region for approval.

CHAPTER IX - GENERAL PROCEDURE


AUTHORITY AND ORDER TO EXECUTE SURVEYS
Section 394 - The Geodetic Engineers of the Department of Environment and
Natural Resources shall undertake isolated and other surveys upon receipt of
the order issued by DENR officials, as follows:
a) the Secretary in the case of Land Classification or Delimitation surveys and
delimitation surveys of areas proposed for reservations and other surveys not
otherwise mentioned in (b), (c), (d) and (e) of this section;
b) the Regional Executive Director (RED) in the case of Integrated Social
Forestry (ISF) projects; and public land subdivision and cadastral surveys
above 1,500 hectares, relocation/delimitation of proclaimed reservations, and
political boundary surveys and settlement of boundary disputes;

59

c) the Regional Technical Director for Lands (RTD/Lands) in the case of public
land subdivision, group settlements, and cadastral surveys up to 1,500
hectares;
d) Regional Director of Mines and Geo-Sciences (RD/Mines) in the case of
surveys for mineral claims and quarry permits;
e) Community Environment and Natural Resources Officer (CENR Officer) for
isolated surveys and subdivision of cadastral and PLS lots covered by public
land applications (DAO 38).
Section 395 - Geodetic Engineers and Junior Geodetic Engineers in private
practice shall undertake public land surveys only upon receipt of authority and
order for survey issued by the DENR Officials stated in the preceding section.
Section 396 - Geodetic engineers shall undertake surveys of private land
claims upon request of the owner/claimants thereof. In this case, the owner
or claimant shall be required to execute and submit an affidavit stating his
muniments of title to the land or the basis on which private ownership is
claimed and the particulars thereof. An authenticated copy of the title shall be
submitted with the survey returns. In the case of the original survey of
private land claims, affidavit(s) of two (2) disinterested persons residing in
the barangay where the land is located attesting to his claim shall be
submitted to form part of the survey returns.
Section 397 - No survey of any kind shall be undertaken within the classified
or unclassified public forest except with an authority/permit issued by the
Regional Executive Director. Returns of original surveys of private claims
within such area shall not be accepted for verification and approval without
such authority/permit. Survey executed within this area shall not be used as a
basis for registration or titling purposes.
Section 398- Upon receipt of an authority and order for survey from the
officials stated in Section 394 or of a request from private land owner or
claimant, the geodetic engineer shall proceed to undertake the survey in
accordance with the general provisions of PART I and the specific provisions of
PART II of this Manual which are applicable to the class of survey authorized

and ordered to be undertaken.

INVESTIGATION OF ADJOINING CLAIMS


Section 399 Before commencing the survey, a reconnaissance and sketch
of the tract to be surveyed shall be made. The names and addresses of all
persons claiming ownership of a part of the entire tract to be surveyed and of
adjoining lands shall be obtained.
Section 400- Inquiry shall be made to ascertain whether or not adjoining
properties have been granted patent or decreed. If the adjoining properties
have been decreed or titled, the holder of the plans and/or certificate of title
shall be requested to show the said papers for the purpose of determining the
relative positions of the former surveys with the tract to be surveyed.
Section 401 - Geodetic engineers shall, by legitimate means, try to convince
the applicant and the adjoining owners to reduce the number of corners of
their boundary lines, simplify the boundaries, reduce the field and office work
and minimize the cost of survey.

WHO SHALL BE NOTIFIED OF THE SURVEY


Section 402 - The owners, tenants, actual occupants, adverse claimants,
barangay officials and in general, anyone possessing or claiming interest on
lands adjoining or included in a tract of land to be surveyed shall be duly
notified of the survey.
Section 403 - The provincial treasurer and the Provincial Environment and
Natural Resources Officer shall be notified in the case of properties claimed or
owned by the provincial or the national government which are included in or
adjoin the tract to be surveyed.
Section 404 - The city or municipal mayor or treasurer shall be notified in
the case of properties claimed or owned by the city or municipality which are
included in or adjoin the tract to be surveyed.

60

Section 405 - The city or municipal engineer shall be notified when the tract
to be surveyed includes or adjoins any proposed or actual city or municipal
streets. He shall be requested to indicate the position of center lines and
desired width of the proposed or actual streets.

in Section 378 and on the geodetic engineer's certificate.

Section 406 - The district highway engineer shall be notified when the tract
to be surveyed adjoins existing public highways, such as national or provincial
roads and shall be requested to indicate the widths and center lines of the
roads as established or desired by the Department of Public Works and
Highways.

Section 413 - The adjoining owners or claimants shall be notified by


messenger or by mail, preferably registered, sufficiently in advance of the
time of survey to enable them to appear on the ground at the specified time.
The notification shall state the date or dates of survey and the time when the
party notified shall be present. Prescribed L.M.B. forms shall be used for
notification purposes.

Section 407 - The owners/claimants of private roads shall be notified to


indicate the common boundaries of the private road and the tract to be
surveyed.
Section 408 - The railroad company and its local agent shall be notified to
indicate the railroad right-of-way boundaries which are common to the tract
to be surveyed.
Section 409 - When the tract to be surveyed is near an arroyo, estero, river,
or any stream five meters or less in width, or an irrigation ditch, the claimant
or claimants of the land on the opposite bank of said arroyo, estero, river,
stream or irrigation ditch shall be notified of the survey. The names of the
parties, thus notified, and the authorized representative of the Department of
Public Works and Highways shall be indicated in the proper place on the plans
and/or in the geodetic engineer's certificate.
Section 410 - If the nearby arroyo, estero, river or any stream is more than
five meters in width and it appears after a diligent inquiry that it is not
claimed by any individual or that it is supposed to be of public ownership, the
names of the owners or claimants on the opposite bank of the arroyo, estero,
river or stream need not be indicated on the plans.
Section 411 - When the boundary of the tract to be surveyed extends to the
arroyo less than 5 meters wide, the claimants, if any, of the parcel on the
other bank of said arroyo shall be notified of the survey and their names shall
be indicated in the proper place on the authorized L.M.B. plans as prescribed

Section 412 - When the tract to be surveyed adjoins a ditch, an irrigation


canal or any other man-made channel, the claimant of said man-made
channel shall be indicated on the plan and geodetic engineer's certificate.

LOT SURVEYS
Section 414- In isolated surveys, the methods prescribed in Sections 119(c),
220 to 237 for tertiary control shall be used except when otherwise specified
in the authority and order for survey or when special instructions are issued
upon recommendation of the Director of Lands Management Bureau.
Section 415 - Corners which are not occupied and used as stations of the
tertiary traverse shall be located by side shots consisting of the azimuths and
distances from the stations which shall be part of a circuit or loop traverse.
Section 416 - The azimuths of side shots shall be read from the instrument
to the nearest one minute of arc and the distances shall be measured to the
nearest centimeter.
Section 417 - The azimuths when reduced to true bearings shall not differ
from the magnetic bearings by an amount greater than the known local
variation except in cases when local attraction exists. When local attraction is
noted, it shall be stated in the field notes with an explanation of its possible
cause. In the Philippines, the maximum local variation exceeds three (3)
degrees.
Section 418 - The stadia distance and compass bearing shall be used to
check the tape distance and azimuth.

61

Section 419 - Corners may be located by traverse, triangulation in the


manner prescribed in Sections 244 to 245 when such corners cannot be
located by side shots. The angle at the corner need not be measured.
Section 420 - Corners may also be located in tertiary surveys as follows:
a) From traverse stations by:
(1) Perpendicular offsets from fixed points on traverse lines.
(2) Two distances, preferably from two successive stations, with sketch in the
field notes to identify the point.
b) From established corners of previous surveys by:
(1) Fixed distances from at least two unaltered established corners or
markers especially in subdivision of urban lots into two or more lots. The data
obtained should appear in the field notes.
Section 421 - Control stations shall be placed as close as possible to corners
that cannot be occupied. For residential and agricultural lots, side shots shall
not exceed fifty (50) and one hundred (100) meters, respectively.
If any of the above lengths in side shots are exceeded, the computed position
of the corner shall be checked within five (5), ten (10), and twenty (20)
centimeters for residential, agricultural and marshy lands, respectively, by
another side shot from another station.
These limitations, however, shall not apply to EDM equipment for which
special instructions shall be issued by the Director of Lands.
Section 422 - All important bends along the banks of streams adjoining the
tract to be surveyed shall be located.
Section 423 - When there are several tracts to be surveyed for the survey
applicant, each tract shall be assigned a lot number which shall be
consecutive from one even if there are several sheets of the plan.
The corners of each tract shall be numbered consecutively from one in a
clockwise direction. However, no single lot or tract shall be in more than one
city or municipality or barangay.

TIE LINES
Section 424 (a) Tracts to be surveyed shall be tied by a closed circuit traverse to points
of reference as provided in Section 38, if these points are still intact on
the ground. However, corner markers of the survey itself, if it is a
previously approved/decreed/patented survey, may be used as
reference, provided a common point pursuant to Section 432 can be
established from at least three (3) available corner markers which
could be relied upon as to their permanency and stability. In case no
corner markers of a previously approved/ decreed/patented survey can
be found on the ground, at least three (3) corner markers of nearby
approved/decreed/patented survey may be used as reference provided
a common point can be established pursuant to Section 441.
(b) The tie point of the previously approved/decreed/patented survey, in
case the same shall be the subject of a subsequent subdivision,
consolidation-subdivision or amendment, shall be used as the tie point
of the resulting lots. In no case shall the resulting lots be tied to a
different tie point except when the tie point of the previously approved
survey has been obliterated, destroyed, or moved, that the resulting
lots of the subsequent survey shall be tied to nearby reference points
as enumerated in Section 38; Provided, that the new tie point and the
old tie point are in the same system; provided further that the
required Report on the Recovery of Reference Point be submitted
together with the survey returps to justify the use of another tie point
which is near the project.
(c) For original surveys and resurveys tied or connected to
approved/decreed/patented surveys as reference other than the
established point of references, the tie point of the reference survey,
provided that the reference survey has been verified to be correctly
located, shall be used as the tie point of the original survey or
resurvey.

62

(d) Reference points shall be within but not beyond two (2) kilometers
from the designated corner 1 of the tract in order to minimize linear
error of closure. Cadastral lots shall be tied to the nearest BLLM or
other boundary monuments of the cadastral project. In all cases, in
executing closed circuit traverse, no traverse line shall exceed 500
meters.
Section 425 - In residential areas, data to show the position of the tract with
respect to the block and the names and widths of the streets adjoining the
block shall be gathered.
COMMON NATURAL BOUNDARIES
Section 426 - When the common boundary between the tracts to be
surveyed and previous survey is an arroyo, estero, river or any stream, and
the strip shall be excluded as stated in Sections 310 to 312 the actual position
of said body of water shall be surveyed and compared with the former
position as determined from the previous survey.
Section 427- When the banks of the arroyo, estero, river or any stream as
located in the earlier and later surveys of unregistered land differ considerably
in position, causing the existence of small lots formed by intersecting banks,
the boundaries of the property undergoing survey along the bank shall be
made approximately parallel to those of the earlier survey if the area of any of
the small lots does not exceed ten square meters in the case of surveys
situated in residential sections of cities, one hundred square meters in the
case of surveys situated in residential sections of municipalities and one
thousand square meters in the case of surveys of agricultural or other lands
situated in other parts of municipalities or cities. The provisions) of Section
310 to 314 and Section 315 to 319 shall be observed.
Section 428 - If the areas in conflict are greater than those allowed in the
preceding section, such areas shall be considered as contested lots and
computations and plans thereof shall be prepared, except when the applicant
waives his rights thereto in writing. In which case the boundaries along the

bank of the survey in progress may be made approximately parallel to those


of the previous survey or the bank of the river observing the exclusion of the
strip for bank protection as required by law.
Section 429 - The adjustment of boundaries of tracts separated by arroyo,
estero, river or any stream shall be made by making their boundaries along
the bank approximately parallel to each other, leaving a clear space as
required by law for bank protection.

ADVERSE CLAIMS
Section 430 - All adverse claims which lie entirely or partly within a tract
undergoing survey shall be carefully sketched and indicated in the field notes
and plan of the survey as separate lots when the adverse claimants do not
desire a survey of the claims to be made.
Legitimate efforts shall be exerted to convince the adverse claimants to have
their claims surveyed.
Section 431 When the adverse claims have been previously surveyed or
are undergoing survey, such adverse claims shall be considered separate lots
and computations and plans thereof shall be prepared accordingly.
Section 432 - Connection of surveys. All surveys shall be adequately
connected to existing surveys, or the position of the survey shall be
determined by a method that will enable the survey to be shown in relation to
existing surveys to an accuracy appropriate to the circumstances. The survey
shall be adequately connected to permanent reference points existing in close
proximity to the survey.

RELATIVE POSITION OF SURVEYS


Section 433 - The relative position between adjoining or nearby previously
approved isolated land surveys and the survey in progress shall be
determined by a closed circuit traverse. It shall be checked for azimuth
through solar observation from a point of reference as defined in Section 38

63

and connecting at least three well defined and permanently monumented


corners of the previous surveys.

to what is required to be done so that the survey in question will be brought


to the standards of accuracy prescribed by these regulations.

Section 434 - In case less than three monumented corners are located, the
owner or claimant of the land previously surveyed shall be requested to
indicate the position of three or more corners, which, together with the tie
point and the monumented corner or corners found in place, shall be located
by a closed circuit or traverse loop.

COMMON POINT
Section 441 - When the previous survey and the survey in progress overlap
or adjoin each other, a common point shall be selected from among the
corners which have been located. The selection of the corner which shall be
adopted as a common point shall depend on the following:

Section 435- The corners of a previous survey to which connection is made


shall be carefully identified on the ground and described in the field notes.

(a) The permanency of the monumented corner as found in the place on the
ground.

Section 436 - The traverse connecting the corners of the survey in progress
with the previous surveys shall be computed and plotted to determine and
show the relative position of the earlier and later surveys.

(b) The degree of precision between the computed positions of the


monumented corners as found in place on the ground determined from the
data of the previous surveys and of the survey in progress.

Section 437 - When the previous survey and the survey in progress do not
overlap nor adjoin each other, the boundaries of the survey in progress shall
be surveyed as indicated by the applicant thereof.

(c) In general, a living tree, a boulder or any other object of permanent


nature used as corner in the previous survey which is identified beyond doubt
in the course of the survey in progress and which is not likely to have been
removed from its original place shall be selected as a common point in
preference to concrete stone or other monuments which may, with
comparative ease, be removed from their original location and placed
elsewhere.

Section 438 - Disclosure of discrepancies. A Geodetic Engineer shall disclose


any doubt or discrepancy associated with a survey, include in the survey
records sufficient information to assess its accuracy and give clear
descriptions of the located survey marks.
Section 439 - A check survey may be made upon instruction of the Regional
Executive Director to ensure that a survey has been performed in accordance
with these regulations and to the standards of accuracy prescribed by this
Manual.
Section 440 Where two or more geodetic engineers, are unable to agree
that a survey has been performed to the standards of accuracy prescribed in
this Manual, any geodetic engineer concerned may report the matter to the
Lands Management Services and request that an investigation be made.
If the matter is to be investigated, all geodetic engineers concerned shall be
informed of the results of the investigation; if necessary, the Regional
Technical Director for Lands shall issue directives to the Geodetic Engineer as

Section 442 - When monuments of previous surveys appear to have been


moved, such monuments shall be located and the fact recorded in the field
notes. Such monuments, if well and firmly fixed in the ground, may be used
as witness to the true corners.
Section 443 -When the position of a corner of an earlier survey and its
position as determined in a later survey differ by ten centimeters or less in
residential areas and thirty centimeters or less in agricultural areas, the
position as determined in the earlier survey shall be 3cepted and adopted as
the position of such corner in the later survey.
Section 444 - When the discrepancy in position exceeds the limits set forth

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in the preceding section, the geodetic engineer shall make such verification as
may be necessary to check the data of the survey in question. A complete
report on the discrepancies and the results of verification shall be made and
submitted to the Director of Lands Management Bureau, through the Regional
Technical Director for Lands for decision.
Section 445 -If the recovered corner of the previous survey is not identical
to its description in the plan, investigation shall be conducted by the geodetic
engineer to ascertain the cause thereof and the result of the investigation
shall be reported to the Regional Technical Director for Lands/Director of
Lands Management Bureau. -

OVERLAPPING OR ADJOINING UNTITLED SURVEYS


Section 446- When a tract undergoing survey adjoins a surveyed property
not yet patented or decreed, the common boundary line between the earlier
and later surveys need not be resurveyed entirely if the applicant of the tract
undergoing survey accepts the corners of the previous survey as common to
his property.
Section 447- When the applicant of the tract undergoing survey and the
owners or claimants of the adjoining properties agree to a common boundary
line different from the boundaries as demarcated in the previous survey, an
affidavit to that effect shall be required of each of the parties agreeing to the
new common boundary lines which shall be monumented and the costs
thereof shall be paid by the interested parties. The plan of the property
previously surveyed shall be amended accordingly.
Section 448- When the applicant of the property undergoing survey does not
accept the corners of the previous survey as common to his property,
boundary lines shall be monumented and surveyed on the ground as pointed
to by the applicant and the area in conflict shall be indicated as separate lot
on the plan of the later survey. The conflict shall also be indicated on the plan
of the earlier or previous survey, by the Lands Management
Services.

OVERLAPPING OR ADJOINING TITLED LANDS


Section 449 - The bearings and distances of the boundary lines of patented,
leased or decreed properties common to the tract undergoing survey shall be
accepted and adopted as the boundary lines of the survey.
Section 450 - Any area in conflict with patented, leased or decreed
properties shall be excluded from the tract undergoing survey.
Section 451 - The discrepancies between the measurement of the later
survey and those of the earlier patented, leased or decreed property shall be
noted and entered in the field notes of the later survey. Should the
discrepancies be sufficiently large to warrant the supposition that the survey
of the patented, leased or decreed property was erroneous, an investigation
shall be made and the results must be reported to the Regional Technical
Director for Lands for appropriate action? If there is no overlapping or
discrepancy between the later and the earlier surveys, a certification to that
effect shall be made on the prescribed field notes cover.
Section 452 - In cases of properties covered by titles containing no technical
descriptions or those with technical descriptions based on magnetic surveys,
special instructions shall be secured from the Regional Technical Director for
Lands.

ISOLATED LAND SURVEYS WITHIN CADASTRAL PROJECTS


Section 453 - Surveys of tracts situated within cadastral projects in progress
may be made by geodetic engineer in accordance with the provisions of this
manual.
Section 454 - The survey of cadastral project shall be considered as in
progress from the date the survey is ordered by the Regional Executive
Director/or Regional Technical Director for Lands until final approval of the
survey returns.
Within sixty days from the date of such order, geodetic engineers shall submit

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to the project chief executing the cadastral survey a list of his survey/s in
progress within the project.
Section 455 - After thirty days from the date of order for survey of cadastral
project, by geodetic engineers other than those executing the cadastral
survey of tracts situated within a cadastral project shall not be made except
when the isolated land surveys began prior to the date of the order for the
survey of the cadastral project.
Section 456- The field notes, computations and sketches or plans of surveys
of tracts situated within a cadastral project shall be submitted to the Land
Management Services for verification through the Chief of the cadastral
project within four months from the date of inauguration of the project.
Surveys submitted after the lapse of four months shall be accompanied with a
satisfactory explanation to the Regional Technical Director for Lands who may
accept or reject the survey for verification and approval.
Section 457 - When information is desired as to whether or not a particular
tract is included within a cadastral project, a written request shall be made by
the geodetic engineer to the Regional Technical Director for Lands stating the
names of the claimant or owner and the approximate location and area of the
tract.
Section 458 - Geodetic engineers may undertake surveys within decreed or
titled parcels inside cadastral projects free from the limitations of Sections
454 to 456. A copy of the approved survey plan shall, however, be furnished
to the cadastral project chief.

FIELD NOTES
Section 459 -Field notes and field notes cover shall be written on authorized
LMB forms and sworn to before a notary public, in case of surveys executed
by geodetic engineers in private practice and before an official authorized to
subscribe oath in the case of DENR geodetic engineers. The name of the
geodetic engineer and the date of survey must be entered on the upper and
lower left hand of each page of the field notes. The name of the manufacturer

and serial number of the instrument and tape used in the survey as well as
the number of certificate of test must appear on the upper right hand page of
the said field notes. The full name and address of the geodetic engineer, the
full name and address of the applicant, location of the land and date of survey
shall be entered on the field notes cover. The geodetic engineer shall sign his
name at the space provided thereat.
Section 460 - The field notes shall be clear, legible and easy to understand.
Notes that cannot be understood shall not be accepted. Proper names shall be
written in full.
Section 461 - All survey notes shall be recorded in the field by the geodetic
engineer or his authorized assistant performing the transit work or by a
recorder under his personal direction and responsibility.
Section 462 - Original field notes shall be written clearly in hard pencil or in
permanent waterproof ink.
Section 463 - Geodetic engineers shall record the starting and closing
azimuths or reference azimuths in the field notes. Descriptions of the points
or monuments from which the azimuths are derived shall be entered on the
right hand page,
Section 464 - Descriptions of stations and corner marks, character of
vegetation or cultivation, topographical condition of the land, the name, width
and the direction of flow of all arroyos, esteros or rivers, the strip along
arroyos, estero, river for bank protection and the names and widths of all
highways that border or cross the property undergoing survey and other facts
shall be indicated in the field notes. Old monuments which may be found shall
likewise be described fully in the field notes referring to the number of survey,
if known, and the name of the applicant thereof. Sketches shall be made on
the right hand page.
Section 465 - When the field notes of any survey occupy more than one
page, the pages shall be properly numbered and the signature of the geodetic
engineer, date of survey, names of manufacturer and numbers of the
instrument and tape shall be entered on each page of the field notes as

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required in Section 458. If the field notes contain data for more than one
parcel, for the same applicant, full information for each parcel shall be given
as required in the preceding section.
Section 466 - Field notes containing erasures of field data shall not be
accepted. If erroneous data have been entered and corrections are necessary,
the data shall be crossed out with a pencil line so that the information shall
still be legible and the correct data written above it with the initial of the
geodetic engineer and date of correction,
Section 467 -The original field notes for each survey shall be combined in
one field book. The returns of surveys for different claimants that are
surveyed in one traverse or in one system of traverses shall be submitted
simultaneously for verification and approval.
Section 468 - When the data for any survey depends on original field notes
already forwarded to the Lands Management Services, the geodetic engineer
shall make proper reference in the field book of the survey where the required
data may be found stating the survey number, the name of the claimant, and
so on.
Section 469 - Each survey mentioned in Section 466 shall have its own
geodetic engineer certificate and field notes cover.
Section 470 - When new corners are established in accordance with the
provisions of Section 420 (b), the corner numbers, lot number and survey
number of the old corners used as reference points must be entered in the
space provided for under sketches in the field notes, together with
appropriate sketches showing the relative position of the corners and the
directions of the measured distances.

COMPUTATIONS AND PLANS


Section 471 - Computations and plans of isolated land surveys shall be made
in accordance with the general provisions of Chapter VII and VIII of this
Manual and the specific provisions for each class of survey prescribed in the

following chapters.

GEODETIC ENGINEER'S CERTIFICATE


Section 472 - A geodetic engineer's certificate sworn to before a notary
public shall be prepared and submitted for each survey made for the same
claimant whether such survey contains only one parcel or several parcels.
Geodetic engineer's certificate submitted by DENR geodetic engineers shall be
sworn to before officials authorized to administer said oath.
Section 473 - Each geodetic engineer's certificate shall include only the
parcels located within the same municipalities or city. In the case of parcels
located in different provinces, municipalities or cities claimed by the same
party, separate survey number shall be assigned and a separate geodetic
engineer's certificate shall be prepared for each parcel or group of parcels.
Section 474 - The signature of the geodetic engineer shall conform with the
name appearing in his certificate as geodetic engineer. No other signature or
name shall be acknowledged as valid on plans, computations and field notes.

TRANSMITTAL OF ISOLATED SURVEYS


Section 475 - Geodetic engineers shall submit the following:
a. Letter of transmittal/ check list on prescribed form; Quality Assurance
document.
b. Survey plan: tracing cloth or diazo film showing contour lines in the
case of mineral land survey.
c. The survey order or survey authority provided for in Sections 394 395; 477, 480, 484, 489, 493, etc.
d. The original field notes completely filled in, paged and dry sealed, and
field notes cover duly notarized.
e. The original and duplicate of the complete traverse, topographic
surveys (for mineral land surveys) reference and lot data computations
duly signed by the computer and Geodetic Engineer; conversion into

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f.
g.
h.

i.

j.
k.

l.
m.
n.

o.

p.

PPCS-TM/PRS-92.
Certified geographic position and grid coordinates of the tie point
issued by the agency concerned.
The original and duplicate of the complete astronomical observation
computations related to the survey.
The original plan complete in every detail, signed and sealed by the
geodetic engineer and with conformity of the land owner in the case of
simple subdivision of the private property.
Sketch plan of the survey on tracing paper in the scale of the
projection map showing therein the geographic position of corner 1 of
the lowest numbered lot.
The geodetic engineer's certificate on authorized L.M.B. form as
required in Sections 471 to 473 inclusive.
In case of the DENR geodetic engineer, an endorsement of the
Community Environment and Natural Resources Officer concerned
mentioning, among others, the corresponding public land application
number.
The affidavit required in Section 396.
Survey notification letter on prescribed form.
In case of surveys of titled properties, the owners duplicate copy of the
certificate of title, or a true copy thereof certified by the Register of
Deeds concerned or a copy thereof verified by the Chief of the Records
Section of the DENR Regional Office concerned.
In case the survey includes previously approved surveys, the
certification of the Land Registration Authority as to the status of the
said surveys whether applied or not for registration or for titling.
In case of mineral land surveys, in addition to (a) to (h), (j), (m), the
following are required to be submitted:
1) Notarized description and field survey report on mining claim/s in
quintuplicate signed and sealed by the Geodetic Engineer;
2) Plans of consolidated claim showing other surveyed claims and
traverse stations.
3) Certification by the applicant/representative that he had witnessed
the setting of monuments of the corners and/or location posts of the

mining claim/s being surveyed.


4) Certification of the Barangay Captain or his duly authorized
representative that the survey was conducted in their area by the
Geodetic Engineer.
5) Certification by the Administrator of NAMRIA whether or not
corresponding boundary plan of mining claim/s is/are within
government reservation.
6) Sketch plan of private properties prepared by the Geodetic Engineer
concerned together with the corresponding machine copy of the title of
the land as registered by the Register of Deeds of the province or city.
(MLSR)

Section 476 - Geodetic engineers who submit advance surveys within


cadastral projects as stated in Section 454 to 456 shall submit the papers
required in isolated land surveys.
Section 477 - Upon completion of the field work the computations and
preparation of sketches or plans shall be made with least possible delay and
the survey returns shall be submitted to the Land Management Services.
Alleged non-payment of survey fees by the survey claimant shall not be
accepted as reason for the delay in the submittal.

CHAPTER X - PUBLIC LAND SURVEY'S


HOMESTEAD
Section 478 - Upon receipt of authority and order from the DENR officials
concerned as stated in Section 394 for the survey of a homestead, the
geodetic engineer, unless otherwise provided in the said authority, shall
proceed to make the survey, complying strictly with the following
requirements:
a) The boundary lines shall form, as much as possible, right angles when

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adjoining unclaimed, unoccupied public lands. When adjoining natural


features such as seas, lakes, rivers, etc. or previously approved surveys, the
boundary lines shall be marked on the ground following the provisions of
Sections 310 to 314. The forty or twenty meter stream and bank protection
shall be excluded from the survey and no patent or title shall be issued on the
same.
b) Notation and sketches shall be made in the field notes on the general
nature of the land, whether plain, hilly, or mountainous, etc., the vegetation,
natural features, improvements made by the applicants, if any, and such
other facts which in the opinion of the geodetic engineer should be known to
the DENR officials concerned.

Section 484 - The area applied for sales shall be surveyed as stated in
Section 477. The cost of the survey shall be borne by the applicant.
LEASES
Section 485 - Upon receipt of authority and order from the DENR officials
stated in Section 394, the survey of a tract applied for lease by an applicant,
the geodetic engineer, unless otherwise provided in the said authority, shall
proceed to make the survey, complying strictly with the requirements as
stated in Section 476.
Section 486 -Surveys shall be made prior to the filing of the lease
application in the CENRO.

Section 479 - A homestead shall be surveyed as a single continuous lot


situated entirely on one bank of adjoining arroyos, creeks, rivers or any
stream of five meters or more in width. It shall not be divided into two or
more lots by such natural features. This, however, is without prejudice to
existing regulations on rivers, streams, etc. bank protection.

Section 487 - Whenever possible, the length of one of the sides of


rectangular lease tracts laid out on the ground shall not exceed five hundred
meters as stated in Section 287.
Section 488 - The area applied for lease shall be surveyed as stated in
Section 477.

Section 480 Homestead surveys shall be made prior to the filing of


homestead application in the CENRO. The cost of the survey shall be borne by
the applicant.

Section 489 - The cost of the survey shall be borne by the applicant.

SALES
Section 481 - Upon receipt of authority and order from the DENR officials
stated in Section 394 for the survey of a tract applied for sale by an applicant,
the geodetic engineer, unless otherwise provided in the said authority, shall
proceed to make the survey, complying strictly with the requirements in
Section 477.
Section 482 - Surveys shall be made prior to the filing of the sales
application in the CENRO.
Section 483 - Whenever practicable, the length of one of the sides of
rectangular tracts laid out on the ground shall not exceed five hundred
meters, in the case of individual sales application subject, however, to the
provisions of Sections 288 and 310 to 314.

FREE PATENT
Section 490 - Upon receipt of authority and order from the DENR officials
stated in Section 393 for a free patent survey, the geodetic engineer shall
proceed to ascertain the following:
(a) The substantial correctness of the statements made by the
applicant in his application, copy of which shall be sent to the geodetic
engineer together with the order of surveys.
(b) The date of first occupation and cultivation and whether such
occupation and cultivation have been continuous since that date. The
information may be obtained from the applicant and witnesses in
separate interviews.
(c) The area under cultivation, area cleared for cultivation and area
remaining to be cleared or which cannot be used for agricultural
purposes.

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(d) The improvements made by the applicant on or near the tract


applied for such as trails, roads, irrigations, ditches, houses, etc.
(e) The nature and merit of adverse claim, if any.
(f) The use of land other than for agricultural purposes, such as for
grazing, fish breeding, salt panning, etc. and any other facts which in
the opinion of the geodetic engineer should be known to the
Lands Management Services.
Section 491 - The surveys shall be made in strict compliance of the
requirements as stated in Section 476.
Section 492 - Surveys with previous authority as required in Section 488
shall be made prior to the filing of the free patent application in the CENRO.
Section 493 - The cost of the surveys shall be borne by the applicant.
RECLAIMED LANDS
Section 494 - Upon receipt of authority and order from the Regional
Executive Director or Regional Technical Director for Lands for the survey of
lands which have been reclaimed from the seas, lakes, rivers, etc. by
dredging, filling or any other means, the geodetic engineer shall proceed to:
(a) Secure the conformity of the Public Estate Authority pursuant to P. D. Nos.
1084 and 1085.
(b) Monument the corners and survey the boundaries of the area reclaimed.
(c) Subdivide the area surveyed in accordance with the scheme of subdivision
which shall be included in the authority and order for survey issued by the
Regional Executive Director or Regional Technical Director for Lands.
(d) Monument all the corners of the subdivision lots.
Section 495 -The plan of subdivision shall, in general, provide for:
(a) Monuments including sub-surface reference points defining the center of
streets or the street lines to facilitate the re-establishment of street lines
when disturbed by building operation,

(b) The lot shall be of such areas as may be deemed best suited for
residential, commercial or other purposes provided that the scheme of
subdivisions be approved by the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board or
the Local Planning and Development Board concerned.
(c) In case of lots granted, donated or transferred to a province, city,
municipality or branch or subdivision of the government for the purpose
deemed by said entities to be conducive to the public interest, the area may
be of such size so as to maximize land utilization.
Section 496 - The survey and subdivision of reclaimed lands shall be made
by DENR geodetic engineers. However, geodetic engineers in private practice
may undertake survey and subdivision of reclaimed lands upon issuance of
authority by the RED or RTD. The survey of a parcel of reclaimed land shall be
at the expense of the applicant.
Section 497 - Reclaimed land surveys with previous authority as required in
Section 493 shall be made prior to the filing of the lease application in the
Land Management Bureau/Services,
FORESHORE LANDS
Section 498 - Upon receipt of authority and order from the DENR officials
stated in Section 394, for the survey of foreshore lands for lease purposes,
the geodetic engineer shall proceed to:
(a) Monument the landward boundary which, in this case, shall be twenty
(20) meters from the high tide line along the shore. The monuments shall be
connected by means of closed circuit or loop tertiary traverse.
(b) Locate the improvements made on the area applied for such as wharves,
canals, jetties, etc.
(c) Locate the streets, structures, etc., if any, which are adjacent to the tract.
(d) Access road to the sea shall always be provided.
Section 498 - The direction of the boundaries of the tracts from the
monuments marking the ends of the boundary along the high tide line
towards the sea, lake, etc. shall be determined by taking into consideration

70

the improvements of the applicant.


The area shall not exceed forty eight hectares or as may be prescribed by the
Secretary of the DENR.
Section 499 - The land granted, donated or transferred to a province, city,
municipality or branch of the government shall be the area that is actually
needed for the purpose for which it will be used.
Section 500 - The cost of the survey of foreshore lands for lease purposes
shall be borne by the applicant.

Section 507 - Marshy land surveys with previous authority as required by


Section 502 may be made at any time prior to the filing of the lease
application in the Lands Management Bureau/Land Management Services
unless the DENR Secretary directs otherwise.

OTHER LANDS AVAILABLE FOR RESIDENTIAL, COMMERCIAL OR


INDUSTRIAL PURPOSES

MARSHY LANDS

Section 508 - Upon receipt of authority and order from the DENR officials as
stated in Section 394 for the survey of lands for residential, commercial,
industrial or other productive non-agricultural purposes, as classified in
Section 58(d) of Commonwealth Act No. 141, the geodetic engineer shall
proceed to monument and survey the boundaries of the area applied for in
accordance with the information furnished by the applicant.

Section 502 - Upon receipt of authority and order from the DENR officials
stated in Section 394 for the survey of marshy lands, the geodetic engineer
shall proceed to monument and survey the boundaries of the area applied for
in accordance with the information furnished by the lease applicant.

Section 509 - The area applied for shall not exceed forty eight hectares.
However, in the case of productive lands granted, donated or transferred to a
province, city, municipality or branch of the government, shall be the area
that is actually needed for the purpose for which it will be used.

Section 503 As much as or if possible, natural objects in place, such as


trees, immovable rocks or boulders, etc. shall be used as corners of the tract.

Section 510 - The cost of the survey shall be borne by the public land
applicant.

Section 504 - The area of a marshy land tract applied for shall not exceed
forty eight hectares or as may be prescribed by the DENR Secretary. In the
case of marshy land granted, donated or transferred to a province, city,
municipality or a branch of the government, shall be the area that is actually
needed for the purpose for which it will be used.

Section 511 - Surveys with previous authority as required by Section 508


may be made at any time prior to the filing of the lease application in the
Land Management Services.

Section 505 - Strip of at least twenty (20) meters wide of swamplands or


mangroves along the shoreline facing oceans, lakes, and other bodies of
water shall be excluded from the survey as required by P.D. 705.

PUBLIC SCHOOL SITES

Section 501 - Foreshore land surveys with previous authority as required in


Section 497 may be made at any time prior to the filing of the lease
application in the Land Management Services unless the DENR directs
otherwise.

Section 506 - The cost of the survey of marshy lands shall be borne by the
applicant.

Section 512 - Upon receipt of authority and order from the DENR officials
stated in Section 394, for the survey of lands applied for by a province, city,
municipality, or other branch of the government for the establishment of
public schools or other educational institutions, the geodetic engineer shall
proceed with the survey following these requirements:

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(a) The boundaries as described in the application for survey shall be


surveyed and monumented. However, if possible, the boundary lines
shall form right angles when adjoining unclaimed, unoccupied public
lands. When adjoining natural features such as seas, lakes, rivers, etc.
or previous surveys, the boundary of the previous surveys, shall be
adopted as common to the public school sites surveys, provided, the
twenty meter strip for bank protection of rivers and creeks is excluded
from the survey.
(b) The area shall not be less than 5,000 square meter in well-drained
location that conforms with the requirements prescribed by public
school authorities.
Section 513 - All applications for public school sites filed by provinces, cities
and municipalities must be approved by the Department of Education, Culture
and Sports before the conduct of the survey.
Section 514 - The cost of surveys of public school sites shall be borne by the
applicant.
Section 515 - Public school site surveys with previous authority as required
by Section 510 may be made at any time prior to the filing of the application
for donation, sales, lease, exchange, or any other forms of concession.

for lease or sale.

SITES FOR PUBLIC CHARITABLE OR OTHER SIMILAR INSTITUTIONS


Section 519 - Upon receipt of authority and order from the DENR official
stated in Section 394 for survey of the public domain applied by a province,
city, municipality, or other branch or subdivision of the government for
charitable, philanthropic, specific, or other similar institutions, or for other
similar purposes, the geodetic engineer shall proceed with the survey as
prescribed in Sections 512 to 515.
Section 520 -The survey of the sites for charitable purposes shall be
executed at the expense of the applicant.
SITES FOR PRIVATE CHARITABLE OR OTHER SIMILAR INSTITUTIONS
Section 521 - Upon receipt of authority and order from the DENR official
stated in Section 394 for the survey of public lands applied by a private
individual or organization for charitable, philanthropic, scientific or other
similar institutions or for other similar purposes, the geodetic engineer shall
proceed with the survey as prescribed in Section 512.
Section 522 - The provisions of Sections 512 to 515 shall also be applied to
the survey of sites for private charitable or other similar institutions.

PRIVATE SCHOOL SITES


TOWNSITE BOUNDARY AND SUBDIVISION

Section 516 - Upon receipt of authority and order from the DENR officials
stated in Section 394 for the survey of the lands of the public domain applied
for by private individuals or organizations for the establishment of private
schools or other educational institution, the geodetic engineer shall proceed to
make the survey as prescribed in Section 512.

Section 523 - Upon receipt of authority and order from the Regional
Executive Director or Regional Technical Director for Lands as stated in
Section 394 for the survey of a townsite, the geodetic engineer shall proceed
to:

Section 517 - The cost of survey of private school sites shall be borne by the
applicant.

(a) Monument the corners and survey the boundaries of the area to be
reserved.

Section 518 - Private school site surveys with previous authority as required
in Section 516 may be made at any time prior to the filing of the application

(b) Locate the approximate position of roads, trails, important natural


features, etc. within the area to be reserved.

72

Section 524 - After completion of the boundary survey, a sketch plan, on a


scale of one in four thousand (1:4,000) or any multiple thereof, shall be
prepared and immediately forwarded to the Regional Technical Director for
Lands together with recommendations as may be deemed desirable.
The sketch plan shall accurately show the boundary lines, traverses and the
position of the features located as required in the preceding section.
Section 525 - A brief report shall be submitted with the sketch plan stating
the location with respect to rivers, harbors, mountains or other natural
features, approximate number of people living within the boundaries and the
extent of land claimed by them, available sources of water supply, amount
and purity, possible system of sewerage disposal and how such disposal may
affect other towns or communities.
This report shall be made from personal observation and not from the
information furnished by interested parties.
Section 526 - A topographic survey of the area to be reserved shall be made
after the boundary survey. Unless otherwise required in the authority and
order for survey, the contours shall be located at two meter interval and
plotted on a scale of one in two thousand (1:2000).
Section 527 - All private land claims within the area to be reserved shall be
surveyed and plotted on the topographic map.
Section 528 - The topographic survey map shall contain all the details,
structures and other information which may be of value in preparing the
scheme of subdivision.
Section 529 - The scheme of subdivision shall be prepared on an overlay of
the topographic survey map which shall conform with the approved land use
map and zoning ordinance of the locality.
Section 530 - The scheme of subdivision shall designate certain lots for
commercial and industrial uses, for open spaces and public uses and the
remainder, as residential lots. The lots owned by private individuals as
evidenced by titles, or as possessed or claimed by them as private property

shall be identified and indicated thereon. The lots whether public or private,
shall be numbered using a general plan or system.
Section 531 - When completed, the topographic map and the scheme or
subdivision, together with a report and recommendation, shall be forwarded
immediately to the Regional Technical Director for Lands.
Section 532 - The geodetic engineer shall be furnished with a copy of the
scheme of subdivision as approved by the Regional Technical Director for
Lands in coordination with the local development council.
Section 533 - Whenever circumstances may warrant, residential sites may
be established in the project at intervals of about 10 kilometers from each
other or from existing towns, barangays or residential sites.
Section 534 - The survey of town sites shall be made by DENR geodetic
engineers. In case it is deemed necessary to assign the survey to geodetic
engineers in private practice, an invitation to bid for the survey shall be
published once a week, for three consecutive weeks, in two or more
newspaper in general circulation to give all geodetic engineers an opportunity
to present their bids. The requirements of Sections 10 to 14, shall apply.

GROUP SETTLEMENTS
Section 535 - Upon receipt of authority and order from the DENR officials
stated in Section 394 for survey of lands to be used for group settlement
purposes, the geodetic engineer shall proceed to monument the corners and
survey the area to be reserved.
Section 536 - After the survey of the boundary, the geodetic engineer shall
prepare the scheme of subdivision under the supervision of the CENR Officer
and submit the same for approval of the concerned Regional Technical
Director.
Section 537 - The geodetic engineer shall survey the group settlement in
accordance with the approved scheme of subdivision.
Section 538 - The cost of the survey of the group settlement shall be borne

73

by the entities concerned.

DELIMITATION AND SUBDIVISION OF PUBLIC LANDS


Section 539 - Extensive areas of public land classified as alienable and
disposable shall be delimited and subdivided for disposition, excluding
therefrom the following:
(a) Lands reserved for public or quasi-public purposes.
b) Lands appropriated by the Government.
(c) Land which have been acquired and become private property.
(d) Lands on which private rights, authorized and recognized by
Commonwealth Act No. 141 or any other law may be claimed.
Section 540 - Upon receipt of authority and order for survey issued by the
DENR officials stated in Section 394, the geodetic engineer shall make a
general investigation of the area to be delimited to ascertain the existence, if
any, of lands to be excluded as mentioned in the preceding section and to
acquire knowledge of the general topography of the area to be delimited and
Subdivided.
Section 541 - The authority and order for survey shall describe the areas to
be Surveyed and specific instructions as to the size of lots, the area to be
reserved and such other requirements which may be deemed necessary in
each particular project.
Section 542 - If the land to be excluded as specified in Section 539 shall be
included in the survey as required in the authority and order for survey, the
survey shall be made in accordance with the requirements of Part IIIProvisions Governing Cadastral Land Surveys - as long as they are applicable
and consistent.
Section 543 When the area to be delimited is practically all public land on
which the applicant may not acquire perfect titles until the requirements of
law for the issuance of patent shall have been complied with, pairs of location

monuments shall be established at intervals of about six kilometers from each


other and located by at least a secondary control. The location monuments
shall be made stations of the survey control.
Section 544 - The pair of location monuments most centrally located shall be
numbered as BLLM Nos. 1 and 2 and the remaining pairs shall be numbered
consecutively from 3 and 4 and so on for the entire project.
Section 545 - After the establishment of the location monuments, the entire
area shall be subdivided into lots taking into account the actual occupation
and the purpose for which such lots shall be disposed of to the applicants.
Roads of at least ten meters wide shall be provided, taking into consideration
the topography of the land and in such a way that each lot shall adjoin a road.
A right of way of sixty meters in width shall be surveyed for any established
or proposed national or provincial road passing through the project. The
District Highway Engineer shall be consulted as to the location of the center
lines of the roads. A strip of land three meters wide in urban areas, twenty
meters wide in agricultural areas and forty meters wide in forest areas along
the banks of any stream five meters or more in width shall be preserved for
bank protection and excluded from the survey. This strip of land shall be
demarcated in accordance with Sections 310 to 313, inclusive. The bank and
the traverse stations from which the side shots were taken shall be plotted on
the plan,
Section 546 -If possible, the boundary lines shall form right angles when
adjoining unclaimed, unoccupied public lands. When adjoining previous
surveys, the boundary of the adjoining previous surveys shall be adopted as
common to the subdivision lot.
Section 547 - Before proceeding with the final survey, a tentative scheme of
subdivision plotted on tracing paper shall first be taken up with the District
Engineer/s, the Planning and Development Coordinator of the LGU and the
local representative of the Philippine Ports Authority, in case the land to be
subdivided abuts the sea, to ascertain whether any of the lots inside the
subdivision is needed for present or future public improvements, or that its
grant under Commonwealth Act 141 may unduly affect any development plan

74

for a town, barangay, port, etc. or obstruct navigation or any water route. The
scheme shall conform with the land use plan and zoning ordinance of the
locality.
Section 548 - In case some of the lots are needed for future public
improvements, the purpose for which these lots will be reserved shall be
indicated in the tentative scheme of subdivision and the lots involved shall not
be disposed of. After securing the approval of the District Engineer/s, the
chief executive officer of the LGU, and the representative of the Philippine
Ports Authority, if required, the tentative scheme of subdivision shall be
submitted to the Regional Technical Director of Lands for approval. The result
of the conference with the District Engineer's, the Planning and Development
Officer of the LGU, and the representative of the Philippine Ports Authority
shall be included in the preliminary investigation report to be made for each
lot.
Section 549 - The corners of public land subdivision lots shall be marked by
standard concrete monuments to be numbered consecutively from 1 to 999
preceded by a letter in alphabetical order starting from A. Thus: A-1, A-999,
B-1, B-999, etc.
Section 550 - The survey of public land subdivision may be assigned to
geodetic engineers in private practice.

SUBDIVISION OF PUBLIC LANDS WITHIN APPROVED


CADASTRAL SURVEY
Section 551 - Upon receipt of authority and order for survey issued by the
DENR officials as stated in Section 394, the geodetic engineer shall proceed to
make the subdivision of cadastral lots in accordance with the instructions
contained therein.
Section 552 - No public land within a cadastral case which is the subject of
cadastral registration shall be amended or subdivided except as ordered by
the Court.

CHAPTER XI - PRIVATE LAND SURVEYS


ORIGINAL, SUBDIVISION AND/OR CONSOLIDATION SURVEYS
Section 553 - Upon agreement with the owner(s), the geodetic engineer
shall proceed to make private land surveys.
Section 554 - Geodetic engineers must certify in their field notes cover
whether or not the parcels of land surveyed by them adjoin and/or cover any
previously approved surveys or decreed properties.
Section 555 - Geodetic engineers shall comply, at their own expense, with
requests from the Land Registration Authority for any amendments or
corrections that may be needed on their surveys.
Section 556 - The quality of control to be used in private land surveys shall
be as prescribed in Section 121.
Section 557 - The survey of numerous parcels comprising areas of one
thousand or more hectares shall be undertaken in accordance with the
requirements of Part III - Provision Governing Cadastral Land Surveys.
Section 558 - In the consolidation and/or subdivision lots of decreed
properties, the geodetic engineer shall execute a certificate on the field notes
cover as follows:

I hereby certify that the herein consolidation/subdivision of Lot No. ___


Survey No. _________ was executed by me with the full knowledge and
consent of the owner(s) who signed on the survey plan his/her/their
conformity.
______________________
(Name(s) of Owner(s))

_________________________
(Certificate of Title No.)

_________________________
Signature of Geodetic Engineer

75

In case of simple or complex residential subdivision, the following certification


shall be stated by the geodetic engineer concerned:

I hereby certify that the herein consolidation/subdivision of (Lot No. _______,


Survey No. _______) was undertaken by me with the full knowledge and
consent of the owner or developer.

The land owner's conformity on the plan shall apply only to simple
subdivision.
Section 559 - A separate Geodetic Engineer's Certificate in triplicate on
prescribed LMB form shall accompany each original survey submitted for
verification and approval. In the case of consolidation and/or subdivision
surveys the oath shall be accomplished on the prescribed field notes cover
only.
HOUSING SUBDIVISION SURVEY

Section 560 - Survey returns of housing subdivision surveys of decreed or


titled properties submitted to the Land Management Services for verification
and approval shall be in accordance with the pertinent provisions of Part II of
this Manual and of the implementing rules and regulations governing simple
and/or complex subdivisions under Presidential Decree 957 (Subdivision and
Condominium Buyer's Protective Decree).
Complex subdivision projects for housing development governed by P.D. 957,
Batas Pambansa (BP) 220, and other related laws shall be accompanied with
a scheme of subdivision or Site Development Plan duly approved by the Local
Government Planning and Development Office, or by the Housing and Land
Use Regulatory Board (HLURB).
A complex subdivision is defined for the purpose of this Manual as a
subdivision of a registered land wherein 30% of the land area are allocated

for street, passageway, or open spaces is delineated on the plan.


Section 561 - Licensed geodetic engineers who are commissioned by the
owner developers of a housing project shall relocate the boundary of the
whole property to be developed into housing subdivision. All boundary corners
shall be relocated strictly using the data of the previous survey. Adjoining
property owners shall be notified of the survey and must witness the resetting of new corner monuments.
Section 562 - The block boundary corners shall be marked with permanent
concrete monuments in accordance with Section 272 (d) of this Manual, and
the distance between block corners shall preferably be 250 meters. However,
if the block length exceeds 250 meters, it should not be more than 400
meters in length and shall be provided by a 3 meter alley at midlength.
Section 563 - Additional reference points with sub-surface markings shall be
established within the project/subdivision to facilitate the location of the lots
for the benefits of the lot buyers. These reference points shall be plotted on
the survey plan and their cartesian coordinates shall be part of the survey
records. Subdivision lots forming part of the open space or subdivision road
shall not be the subject of subsequent subdivision Surveys, otherwise Section
567 shall be observed. These lots should be clearly indicated on the plan.
Section 564 - The individual lot corners may be temporarily marked with
stakes to be replaced with permanent concrete monuments upon completion
of land filling or grading on the project site. The description of the lot corner
markers shall be recorded in the field notes and stated on the plan. (LAO 414)
Section 565 - The following documents shall be submitted to the Land
Management Services for verification and approval, with the survey returns
stated in Section 474:
a. Certified True Copy of Title;
b. Final Subdivision Plan consisting of the Site Development Plan, Subdivision
Scheme approved by the Local Government Planning and Development Office

76

or by the HLURB;

the correctness of the traverse and control points;

c. Copy of Environmental Compliance Certificate (ECC);

the aggregate area as per original approved surveys;

d. Conversion Clearance (from Agricultural to Residential), if applicable.

correctness of the survey plan, conformity of the subdivision with the


Final Subdivision Plan approved by offices authorized by law.

Section 566 - The subdivision plan shall be prepared in accordance with


Sections 370 to 385 and carried out in accordance with Sections 553 to 564 of
this Manual.
Section 567 - No owner or developer shall change or alter the roads, open
spaces, infrastructure, facilities for public use and/or other form of subdivision
developments as contained in the approved subdivision plan. Likewise, no
amendment survey or subdivision of a lot or lots in the approved subdivision
plan shall be accepted for verification and approval without the permission of
the Local Government Planning and Development Office or the HLURB and
written conformity and consent of the duly organized homeowners
association, or in the absence of the latter, by the majority of the lot buyers in
the subdivision.
Section 568 - In the subdivision and pursuant to the provisions of RA 1273
and PD 705, the three (3) meter easement or the twenty meter bank
protection along the banks of creeks, arroyos, esteros, or rivers which are
included in the title, shall be surveyed as a single lot and shall form part of
the open space for park and recreational areas and shall be planted to trees
or shall become tree park except when permanent improvement such as
subdivision perimeter road which cannot be planted to trees as required in
Section 2 of P.D, No. 953.
Section 569 The verification of the socialized housing subdivision shall be
focused on the supporting documents, such as:
the authenticity of the Torrens Title;

The accuracy of the preparation of the survey returns and plan, the
correctness of the metes and bounds of the subdivision lots and areas, and
other input data shall be the responsibility of the geodetic engineer.

Section 570 - The housing subdivision project shall be subjected to the Lot
Surveys Documentation System (LSDS) to check the correctness of the lot
data, and shall be encrypted under the Computerized Title Generation
(CTGEN) established and installed for the purpose in the Lands Management
Bureau/Land Management Services (LMB/LMS) and in the Land Registration
Authority/Register of Deeds (LRA/ROD) by the Housing and Urban
Development Coordinating Council (HUDCC).
Section 571 - A plan describing the boundaries of land may be made without
the performance of a survey in the field particularly the case of subdividing a
lot by connecting two old corners provided that the old corners are intact on
the ground; the boundaries of the land are defined conspicuously by walls,
shrubs and other markers, and where the information and particulars to be
shown on the plan are sufficient to satisfy the requirements in this Manual.
The survey plan bearing the conformity of the landowner may be submitted
for verification and approval with the notarized field notes cover.

SUNDRY PROVISIONS

the existence of the original survey as the basis of the original


certificate of title;

Section 572 - The survey returns shall be submitted to the Regional Land
Management Services together with the prescribed letter of transmittal or
similar form,

the conformance of the boundary data of the lots with the original
approved surveys or antecedent surveys;

Full information on the preparation and disposition of white prints, etc. shall
be provided on the upper half of the form. The lower half of the form shall be

77

filled out in the Land Management Services and returned to the geodetic
engineer as his receipt.
Section 573 - After the approval of the survey, the sepia copy of the survey
plan and the original and duplicate of the geodetic engineer certificate shall be
released to the concerned geodetic engineer or to the survey claimant. The
original plan and other records of the survey shall be retained for file in the
Land Management Services. No certified true copy of the plan for the purpose
of registration shall be issued except to the survey claimant or his heirs
provided that an affidavit stating the whereabouts of the approved tracing
cloth plan shall be submitted with the request for another copy.
The city, municipal or provincial assessors shall be furnished with the copies
of the approved plan in accordance with the provisions of R. A. No. 7160
otherwise known as the Local Government Code of 1991.
CHAPTER XII - GOVERNMENT LAND SURVEYS
FRIAR LAND ESTATES
Section 574 - Surveys affecting the Friar Land Estates shall be executed by
geodetic engineers upon authority and order from the Director of Lands or his
duly authorized representative.

BULACAN:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Binagbag
Dampol
Guiguinto
Lolomboy

5.
6.
7.
8.

Malinta
Matamo
San Marcos
Sta. Maria de Pandi

Angat, Bulacan
Plaridel, Bulacan
Guiguinto, Bulacan
Bocaue,Marilao,San Jose del
Mont & Sta. Maria,Bulacan
Polo, Bulacan
Malolos, Bulacan
Calumpit, Bulacan
Angat,Bigaa,Bocaue,Bustos,
Sta. Maria & Pandi,Bulacan

281.8099
926.4915
929.9936
5207.8943
3514.8021
11.7290
87.3289
10153.4477

CAVITE:
1. Imus
2. Naic
3. Sta. Cruz de Malabon
4. San Francisco de
Malabon
CEBU:
1. Banilad
2. Talisay Minglanilla
ISABELA:
1. Isabela

Section 575 - The Friar Land Estate are situated and known as follows:

Imus, Bacoor, Kawit &


Dasmarias Cavite
Naic & Indang, Cavite
Tanza, Cavite General Trias &
Rosario Cavite

Cebu City
Talisay & Minglanilla, Cebu
Aurora, Antater, San
Cabatuan, Isabela

Mateo,

17166.3660
7270.5635
9558.6963
11128.4573

1873.8061
8154.9058
19506.9267

LAGUNA:
Names of
Provinces

Estates

and

Location

Areas
Hectares

BATAAN:
1. Orion

Orion, Bataan

935.4741

in

1. Binan
2. Calamba
3. Sta. Rosa
OCCIDENTAL MINDORO:
1. San Jose
RIZAL:
1. Muntinglupa
2. Piedad
3. Tala

Binan, Laguna
Calamba, Laguna
Sta. Rosa, Laguna

3563.7339
13364.9758
5413.3436

San Jose, Occ. Mindoro

22484.8150

Muntinglupa, Rizal
Caloocan City
Caloocan City

2816.9507
3812.5498
6991.4314

78

TOTAL

23 Estates

154976.4930

NATIONAL GOVERNMENT LANDS


Section 576 - The National Government Lands are the following:
(a) Lands forfeited for non-payment of taxes.
(b) Lands adjudicated to the government through foreclosure proceedings.
(c) Lands acquired by the national government through forfeiture of bonds in
criminal cases or as a result of execution of judgment in civil actions.
(d) Lands acquired through expropriation proceedings, donations, purchase or
exchange when no longer devoted public uses.
(e) Lands where old structures formerly used as fortifications and known as
"cotas", "baluartes", etc. are built or situated.

in the information from the Land Management Services do not conform with
the testimony of the occupants or adjoining owners, diligent search for old
boundary marks and evidence in support thereof shall be made,
Section 581 - The survey shall indicate the boundary lines as claimed by the
occupant or adjoining owners, and as deduced from the evidence given by the
Land Management Services or the information obtained from disinterested
persons.
Section 582 - The survey shall also indicate the accurate location of the
foundation of all buildings or ruins found on the tract.
Section 583 In case there are buildings of strong materials on the land,
measurement thereof shall be taken. The front and side elevations and floor
plans shall be sketched, indicating thereon the materials used in the
construction.

(f) All other private properties of the national government acquired or held in
whatever form when not needed for public purposes.

Section 584 - The names and addresses of persons giving information and
the gist of evidence shall be taken. Likewise, the names and addresses of all
adjoining owners or claimants and occupants of the land shall be obtained.

Section 577 - The survey of national government lands shall be made by


geodetic engineers upon receipt of authority and order from the Regional
Executive Director and/or the Regional Technical Director for Lands.

Section 585 - An investigation shall be made to ascertain other facts as may


be desired and full report thereon shall be submitted together with the survey
returns.

Section 578 - Geodetic engineer hired by applicants of national government


lands shall inform the Regional Executive Director of the proposed survey,
stating the name of the applicant, location of the land applied for, and such
data which may facilitate action by the Land Management Services.

Section 586 - The plans shall be drawn at a scale that will show all essential
details. The location of all buildings shall be approximately plotted and
numbered. In no case shall the plan exceed the size of a cadastral map sheet
as prescribed in Section 351.

Section 579 - The authority and order for survey to be issued to the geodetic
engineers shall be accompanied by necessary data, sketches, and instructions
for making the survey.

Section 587 - All notes, information and plans given to the geodetic engineer
by the Lands Management Bureau/Services or acquired during the
investigation shall be submitted immediately, together with the survey returns
and required report, upon the completion of the work.

Section 580 The geodetic engineer shall bring with him to the field his
notes, information or plans given by the Regional Technical Director for Lands.
From such information and the evidence of the occupants, adjoining claimants
and government officials, he shall try to relocate the boundaries of the land in
question as originally laid out and occupied. In case the boundaries as given

Section 588 - The survey of private lands to be purchased, expropriated or


acquired in any other manner by the national government or local
government units shall be made in accordance with the requirements of

79

Chapter XI,

PROVINCIAI, GOVERNMENT LANDS


Section 589 - The survey for registration proceedings or other purposes of
lands belonging to or claimed as private property by provincial government or
of private lands acquired by said government through purchase, grant,
donation or in any other manner from individuals, partnerships, associations,
corporation or any other forms of organization shall be conducted by geodetic
engineers.
Section 590 - The survey of areas for school sites acquired from individuals,
partnership, associations, corporations or any other form of organization shall
be as in accordance with the regulations of the Department of Education,
Culture and Sports.
Section 591 - The survey of the provincial government lands referred to in
Section 590 shall be undertaken in accordance with the applicable provisions
of Chapter XI.
Section 592 - The survey of lands of the public domain to be acquired by the
provincial government from the national government shall be made by
geodetic engineers.

Section 597 - All land surveys for local governments which are not organized
as cities or municipalities shall be surveyed as in the case of the regular city
or municipal government.
CONVERSION SURVEYS
Section 598 Surveys for the conversion of graphical cadastral lots to
numerical cadastral lots shall be made in accordance with the special
instructions to be issued by the Regional Technical Director for Lands.

CHAPTER XIII - OTHER LAND SURVEYS


PROVINCIAL BOUNDARIES
Section 599- The boundaries of provinces and sub-provinces shall be
surveyed in accordance with the specific instructions which shall accompany
the authority and order for survey issued by the Regional Executive Director.
Section 600 - The authorities of the provinces separated by the boundaries
to be surveyed and of the respective adjoining municipalities shall be
consulted and requested to indicate on the ground the common boundaries.
The boundaries as defined by law or executive order creating the province
shall be located on the ground.

Section 593 - The costs of surveys of provincial government land shall be


borne by the concerned provincial government.

Section 601 -All corners accepted as common by the authorities of the


adjoining provinces and respective municipalities shall be defined by
monuments specified in Section 272(a).

Section 594 Surveys of lands for sub-provincial governments shall be


made following the same methods for provincial government lands surveys.

Section 602 - In the case of disputed boundaries, the corners shall be


temporarily defined by hard wood post or monuments.

Section 595 - The provisions of Sections 590 to 592 of this Manual shall be
applicable to the survey of city or municipal government lands.

Section 603 - The lots included within the disputed area shall be located
using transit, tape, theodolite, and/or EDM. The lot owners thereof shall be
requested to provide information as to the municipalities in which their lots
have been declared for taxation purposes.

Section 596 - The cost of the city or municipal government land surveys
shall be borne by the concerned city or municipal government.

Section 604 A sketch plan of the disputed area shall be prepared


containing the following information:

CITY AND MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT LANDS

80

(a) Each lot and corresponding lot number.


(b) Name and address of each lot owner or claimant.
(c) Municipality in which each lot has been declared for taxation purposes.
Care shall be taken to determine whether or not disputed areas are declared
in two or more municipalities.
(d) The boundaries as claimed by each province.

adjoining municipalities shall be defined by monuments as specified in Section


272(a).
Section 611 - In the case of disputed municipal boundaries, the procedure
outlined in Sections 602 to 607 shall be followed.
Section 612 - In cadastral projects the lots within the disputed area shall be
surveyed and the area shall be made as a cadastral case,

Section 605 - The claims of one province shall be indicated by heavy dotted
lines and of the other province by heavy dash lines. A heavy full line shall
mark the division between municipalities as indicated by tax declarations, Lot
lines shall be indicated by ordinary full lines. All topographical information
such as rivers, mountains, etc. that will assist the authorities in their decision
shall be shown.

Section 613 - When the areas in dispute are claimed by municipalities


situated in different provinces, the provincial authorities concerned shall be
requested to settle the dispute.

Section 606 - The local authorities shall be given opportunities to arrive at


an agreement in accordance with the Local Government Code, R.A. 7160
before a report on the dispute is forwarded to the Regional Executive Director
and the Director of Lands Management Bureau.

Section 615 - After the final decision of proper authorities, the adopted
municipal boundaries shall be monumented with standard municipal boundary
monuments as specified in Section 272 (a) and the monuments temporarily
marking the disputed boundaries shall be removed.

Section 607 - After the final decision of proper authorities, the adopted
provincial or sub-provincial boundaries shall be monumented with standard
provincial boundary monuments and the temporary markers referred to in
Section 602 shall be removed.

BARANGAY BOUNDARIES

Section 614 - If the dispute is not settled by proper authorities, the matter
shall be reported to the Regional Executive Director and the Director of Lands
Management Bureau.

Section 616 - The survey of barangay boundaries shall be made after


consultation with the barangay and municipal authorities concerned who shall
be requested to indicate the barangay boundaries.

Section 608 - The cost of the survey of disputed boundaries between


provinces shall be home by the concerned provinces.

Section 617 -All corners accepted as common by the authorities of the


adjoining barangays shall be defined by monuments as specified in Section
272(b).

MUNICIPAL BOUNDARIES

Section 618- In the case of disputed barangay boundaries, the procedure


outlined in Section 602 to 607 shall be followed.

Section 609 - The authorities of the municipalities separated by the


boundary to be surveyed shall be consulted and requested to indicate on the
ground the common boundaries. The boundaries as defined by law or
executive order creating the municipality shall, as much as possible, be
located on the ground.
Section 610 - All corners accepted as common by the authorities of the

Section 619 - In case the dispute is not settled by proper authorities, the
matter shall be reported to the Regional Executive Director and the Director of
Lands Management Bureau.
Section 620 - After the final decision of proper authorities, the adopted

81

barangay boundaries shall be monumented with standard barangay boundary


monuments and the monuments temporarily marking the disputed boundaries
shall be removed.
VERIFICATION SURVEYS
Section 621 - Whenever any approved survey is reported to be erroneous, or
when titled lands are reported to overlap or where occupancy is reported to
encroach in another property, a verification survey shall be made only by a
Geodetic Engineer in accordance with the order of the Regional Executive
Director or Regional Technical Director for Lands. The field verification shall,
among others,
a) ascertain the position and descriptions of the existing survey monuments
or marker, buildings, fences, walls, and other permanent improvements,
which are used to provide evidence of original boundaries;
b) give primary consideration to original survey marks, except where other
evidence, including original measurements, position of improvements, or
statements by occupants, suggests that the original markers were incorrectly
placed or have been disturbed;
c) ascertain the positions of buildings, fences, walls or other permanent
improvements adversely affected by the determination of the boundaries;
d) inform the parties concerned of the effect of the determination of the
boundaries and secure a statement from the parties that they have been
informed of these findings.
Section 622 - When gross errors or discrepancies in adjoining surveys are
discovered, an explicit statement of the lines found to be erroneous and other
discrepancies shall be recorded in the field notes. It shall be the responsibility
of the Geodetic Engineer to disclose any doubt or discrepancy associated with
the survey.
Section 623 - The geodetic engineer whose survey is reported to be
erroneous shall be required to make a thorough examination of the premises
and to report his findings under oath. In case he finds his survey in error, he

shall report in detail all discrepancies between the new survey and the original
survey and submit an explanation as to the cause thereof. If on the contrary,
he finds his survey correct, a joint survey with the geodetic engineer who
reported the error shall be ordered to settle the differences in findings.
Section 624 - All survey work undertaken to check boundary lines and
position of corners and to obtain common points, etc., of surveys previously
approved by the Director of Lands/Regional Technical Director for Lands shall
be designated as verification surveys (Vs.). The number of the survey to be
verified shall be given in the order for survey.
Section 625 - The provisions of Sections 621 to 624 shall apply to
verification surveys of isolated surveys and cadastral lots.

AMENDMENT SURVEYS
Section 626 - An amendment survey shall be made for the purpose of
changing the boundary lines by increasing or reducing the number of corners
of previously survey or consolidating and/or subdividing the area without
including any new area or any area already included in other surveys
previously approved by the Director of Lands/Regional Technical Director for
Lands,
Section 627 - The amendment survey for the consolidation and/or
subdivision into various lots, for registration proceedings of the area of an
original survey, may be made following the same methods prescribed for
original surveys.
Section 628 - A full explanation in writing of the reason for requesting the
amendment shall be submitted, giving the authority therefor, either as desired
by the owner or as directed by the court.
Section 629 - If the person requesting the amendment is not the owner or
claimant of the land, he shall be required to submit satisfactory proof that the
owner or claimant thereof desires the amendment.
Section 630 - If amendment is desired to conform to adjoining previous

82

surveys, the numbers of said surveys or the Land Registration Authority (LRA)
survey numbers shall be stated. Certified copies or survey plans approved by
the LRA shall be submitted with the survey returns.

decreed properties and those of the later survey of an adjoining land shall be
carefully investigated and reported to the Regional Technical Director for
Lands.

Section 631 - Amendment/subdivision of cadastral lots pending judicial


registration shall be made only upon order of the Court if the case has been
filed for compulsory registration; otherwise, the survey shall be made upon
authority and order issued by the Regional Executive Director.

Section 637 - The subdivision plan or plans of leased, patented or decreed


properties shall show the entire boundary of the original lot or lots and each
subdivision shall be treated as a separate parcel. Original lots not subdivided
shall not be shown on the plan, or if shown at all, it shall be in fine dotted
lines. Subdivision lots shall be numbered by repeating the old number
followed by the letter of the alphabet: Provided, that if the subdivision is
made in blocks, the blocks and the lots in each block shall be numbered
consecutively from 1. A subdivision plan shall contain the subdivision of one
lot only and to be assigned as distinct subdivision survey number.

Section 632 - Returns of amendment surveys submitted to the Land


Management Services for verification and approval shall include, among
others, the tracing plan, order of the court, sketch plan showing the stations
occupied, the control survey and the original field notes.

SEGREGATION SURVEYS
Section 633 - Segregation surveys are surveys for the purpose of
segregating twenty (20) per cent or less of the area of previously surveyed
large tract of public land.
Section 634 - Segregation surveys shall be made in accordance with
applicable provisions of Sections 394 to 452. The remaining area of the
mother lot shall be reflected in the footnote of the plan.
LEASED, PATENTED AND DECREED LAND SURVEYS

Section 638 - All improvements, especially those described in the title or


patent, shall be plotted on the plan of each lot of the subdivision. In the
absence of such improvements, the words "No Improvement" shall be noted
correspondingly on the plan
Section 639 - Lot descriptions shall be prepared on the prescribed Lot
Descriptions form in case they cannot be shown on the plan.
Section 640 - Surveys made under Sections 621 to 639 shall be carefully
investigated. The convergency of meridians of the different surveys shall be
considered.
REINSTATEMENT/RELOCATION SURVEYS

Section 635 - The subdivision survey of leased, patented, or decreed


properties shall be made using the bearings, distances and areas in the
original survey approved by the Director of Lands or Regional Director of the
Land Management Service and/or in the antecedent subdivision survey
approved by the Land Registration Authority (LRA), Lands Management
Bureau (formerly Bureau of Lands) or Lands Management Services, or that
appearing in the lease or title. In case of discrepancy the data in the approved
survey shall prevail. The discrepancy shall be reported for reference in
administrative or judicial correction of the title.

Section 641 - Lot corners of a previously surveyed land, patented, decreed


and titled shall be reinstated or relocated only by a qualified and experienced
Geodetic Engineer who is knowledgeable of the laws on property, land
registration, public lands and natural resources and who shall be able to
explain his survey to the satisfaction of the approving officials and to the
courts in case land conflicts are finally submitted for judicial settlement.

Section 636 - Discrepancies between the survey data of leased, patented or

Section 642 -The relocation of corners or re-establishment of boundary lines

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shall be made using the bearings, distances, and area stated in the survey
approved by the Director of Lands Management Bureau or the Region
Technical Director for Lands or written in the lease or Torrens Title.

Section 645 - The relocation of corners, re-establishment of boundary lines,


etc. of magnetic surveys, upon which valid land titles have been based, shall
be the subject of special instructions to be issued in each case,

Section 643 - The geodetic engineer as required in verification surveys,


shall:

RESURVEYS

(a) Ascertain the positions and descriptions of the existing survey


monuments, buildings, fences, walls, and other permanent improvements,
which are used to provide evidence of original boundaries;

Section 646 - A reserve is a survey made of a previously surveyed tract of


land for the purpose of voiding the original approved but undecreed survey
due to failure to include all the areas claimed by the applicant.

(b) Give primary consideration to original survey marks, except where other
evidence, including original measurements, position of improvements, or
statement of occupants suggests that the original marks were incorrectly
placed or have been disturbed;

Section 647 - Survey returns of a resurvey shall be accepted for verification


and approval only upon surrender for cancellation of the approved plan,
technical descriptions and geodetic engineer's certificate of the original
survey. An affidavit of loss and a satisfactory proof that the plan is not the
subject of any public land application or registration proceedings shall be
submitted in lieu of the approved plan.

(c) When it is positively established that a boundary survey mark has not
been placed as originally intended, re-set the mark after having recorded the
position of the mark that is to be re-set;
d) Ascertain the positions of buildings, fences, walls and other permanent
improvements adversely affected by the determination of the boundaries and
indicate the same on the plan;
(e) Inform any owner affected by the determination of the boundaries
and obtain a statement from the owner that he has been informed;
(f) Record any encroachment caused by the differences between the positions
of boundaries as determined in reinstatements relocation survey and the
original or earlier surveys.
Section 644 - The data used in monumenting or relocating corners of
approved surveys shall be submitted to the Land Management Services for
verification and approval. New corner marks set on the ground shall be
accurately described in the field notes and indicated on the original plans on
file in the Land Management Services.

Section 648 - It shall also be applied to the survey of a tract of land,


decreed or titled, whose technical descriptions are not inscribed in the title or
are no longer available in the Lands Management Bureau or the Land
Registration Authority. The corners as indicated by the landowner and the
adjoining landowners shall be surveyed. The survey shall conform to adjoining
decreed or titled properties.
Section 649 - The new survey returns shall be accompanied by a detailed
explanation why the resurvey was necessary.
Section 650 - In cases of previously decreed magnetic surveys or of surveys
whose technical descriptions cannot be reconstructed, the geodetic engineer
shall make a complete resurvey of the property as pointed out by the
applicant and described in the certificate of title, trying to relocate as many
old corners as possible of the previous survey. The survey returns shall
include the plan, geodetic engineer's certificate and a report of findings.

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TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS
Section 651 - The topographic survey of cadastral projects, irrigation
projects, estates, mineral land claims, etc. shall be made in accordance with
special instructions to be issued for the purpose.
The primary and secondary control stations, and political boundary
monuments shall be used to control the topographic survey of cadastral
projects.
Section 652 - The elevation of the BLLM No. 1 of the municipality or
cadastral project may be determined approximately by altimeter in case the
elevation cannot be obtained by more accurate methods.
Section 653 - The elevation of all primary and secondary control stations and
of the political boundary monuments shall be determined by leveling starting
from and closing at the BLLM No. 1 of the municipality or project.
Section 654 The topographic survey shall be made with transit and stadia
or by plane table or by photogrammetry or any comparable method.
Section 655 - Topographic survey shall be made in accordance with the
procedures described in standard surveying textbooks and the specifications
for the survey.

SPECIAL SURVEYS
Section 656 - Surveys for geographic and scientific investigations,
experiments and all other surveys not otherwise mentioned in this Manual
shall be made in accordance with special instructions which may be issued for
the purpose. This shall be designated as "Special Work Order" (SWO) which
cannot be a subject of titling and must be clearly stated on the plan.
Section 657 - Hydrographic surveys of canals, esteros, rivers, lakes, bays,
and other bodies of water, shall be the subject of special instructions which
shall be issued by the CGSD/NAMRIA for each case.

Section 658 - In all other surveys, detailed reports shall be submitted, in


addition to the field notes, sketches and plans, stating in full the methods of
work, difficulties and local conditions encountered and other pertinent
information.

LAND CLASSIFICATION AND DELIMITATION SURVEY


Section 659 - Upon receipt of the authority and order from the DENR
Secretary, the Forest Management Bureau (FMB), in coordination with the
National Mapping and Resource Information Authority (NAMRIA), shall
determine and prescribe the criteria, guidelines and methods for the proper
classification and survey of the public forest delimiting the alienable and
disposable areas from the forest reserves when Congress shall have
determined by law the specific limits of the public domain.
Section 660 - Sub-classification categories. The land uses for which subclassification shall be carried out within the inalienable lands of the public
domain classified as forestlands, mineral lands, and national parks under
Article XII, Section 3 of the New Constitution and as defined by the New
Constitution, P.D. 704, P.D. 705, R.A. No. 7586 (NIPAS Act), LOI 1262 and
other applicable laws shall be as follows:
1. for forestlands: agricultural, industrial or commercial, residential,
resettlement, ancestral lands, grazing, protection, production, agroforest, fish farm;
2. for national parks: natural park, strict nature reserve, natural
monument, wildlife sanctuary, protected landscapes and seascapes,
resource reserve, natural biotic areas; and
3. other categories established by law, conventions or international
agreements which the Philippine Government is a signatory.
Section 661 - Classification and sub-classification shall be done by NAMRIA,
in coordination with FMB, through the Regional Land Evaluation Parties
(LEPs). This can be done by interpretation and analysis of the most recent

85

aerial photos, satellite data as well as legal references of the subject area,
supplemented by data/information gathered from the field.
Section 662 - Exact boundaries of the permanent or forest reserves and
public forest shall be laid out and monumented on the ground at not more
than 500 meters between monuments and constructed in accordance with
Section 272(e). Wooden post 30 x 30 x 200 centimeters, buried 50
centimeters into the ground, with chiseled markings in accordance with Land
Classification marking system may be used to mark intermediate corners
established conspicuously at every 100 meters. Markers shall also be
established at the perimeter of the buffer zone at every fifty (50) meters
intervals in addition to the permanent markers or concrete monuments (PD
705, DAO 13, S-1992).
Section 663 - The positions in the PPCS-TM/PRS 92 of the boundary
monuments or markers shall be established by NAMRIA using GPS receivers
and/or conventional surveying methods. This delimitation survey shall be
plotted on a Land Classification (LC) Map at the scale of 1:50,000 using the
standard topographic map as the base map. If this scale is not practical, other
scales as may be determined by NAMRIA, may be used.
The layout and other information to be indicated on the map shall be
determined by NAMRIA. However, the international cartographic symbols for
the features such as roads, bridges, railroads, etc., shall be used. Witness
marker and other vital information that may serve as guide in future
relocation of boundary markers shall be described in the field notes.
Section 664 - The Land Classification Map shall be prepared by NAMRIA and
checked for its technical accuracy. The Land Classification Map together with
the corresponding draft DENR Administrative Order, shall be submitted
through the FMB and proper channels for approval of the DENR Secretary.
The Land Classification Map shall indicate, among others, the corner number,
geographic and cartesian coordinates in PPCS-TM/PRS 92 of corner 1, and
cartesian coordinates of the other corners, description and markings of the
corner monument or markers.

Section 665 - If the land, as classified and delimited, falls within the
territorial jurisdiction of two or more municipalities, the portion falling in each
municipality shall be designated as separate parcels (Parcel A, B, C, etc.),
respectively, and the corresponding areas are determined.
Section 666 - After the approval of the map by the DENR Secretary, copies
shall be given to the Regional Office, CENRO, PENRO, the Forest Management
Bureau, the Lands Management Bureau, and the Lands Management Services.
Section 667 - The NAMRIA shall be the repository of Land Classification
records which include fieldnotes, computations, and land classification maps
and other related documents.

BUFFER ZONES WITHIN FORESTLANDS


Section 668 - Buffer Zone: Definition - As used herein, a buffer zone refers
to a strip of land with natural or established vegetation which provides an
added layer of protection to the natural forests including mangrove forest.
Buffer zones shall be located and established in the following area (DAO 13,
S-1992):
a) Twenty-meter strips of land along the edge of normal high waterline on
rivers and streams with channels of at least five (5) meters wide or even less
than five (5) meters if the water is continuously flowing:
b) Strips of land at least fifty (50) meters in width fronting the sea, ocean or
other bodies of water and 20 meters on both sides of river channels/banks
maintained and developed to enhance the protective capability of mangrove
against strong currents, winds and high waves;
c) In storm-prone areas, mangrove forest strips 100 meters wide inward
along shoreline fronting the seas, oceans and other bodies of water and 50
meters strip river bank protection;
d) Twenty-meter strips of land outside the boundaries and immediately
adjacent to designated protected areas;
e) Twenty-meter strips of forest land adjoining ISF projects;

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f) Twenty-meter strips of land along the boundaries of reforestation projects


adjacent to private/alienable or disposable lands; and

Control Maps. Established buffer zones shall not be the subject of application
for lease or permit or any other form of alienation (DAO 13, S- 1992).

g) A buffer zone of about 100 meters of residual forest shall be established


immediately surrounding the old growth forest stands. However, when the old
growth forest stand is adjacent to natural ground features such as waterways
(rivers, streams, creeks), gullies, or ridges tops, these shall be used as
boundaries. (DAO 13, S-1992).

DELIMITATION OF RESERVATIONS, PARKS AND OTHER PROTECTED


AREAS

Section 669 - The CENROs and PENROs shall identify, with the aid of the
latest Forest Resources Condition Maps, aerial photographs and/or technical
references, potential areas as buffer zones. Areas identified shall be
demarcated on the ground by markers at every fifty (50) meter intervals at
the perimeter of the buffer zones. These shall be indicated on a buffer zone
map at the scale of 1:50,000 with the standard topographic myops as the
base maps and in PPCS-TM/PRS-92.
Section 670 - Once the boundaries of these buffer zones are identified and
marked on the ground, the perimeter survey may be done through compass
survey method or using Forestry transit and tape. However, it should be tied
to a nearby GPS station in the PPCS-TM/PRS-92 for positional location. If
there is no PRS-92 nearby, the assistance of CGSD/NAMRIA shall be sought to
establish the position of the buffer zone in the PPCS-TM/PRS-92. The compass
survey shall be checked for its accuracy and polygon closure but need not be
approved.
Section 671 - The CENRO concerned shall prepare an Administrative Order
establishing the area as a buffer zone which shall be submitted to the DENR
Secretary through proper channels, together with the map and development
plan of the area, for approval.
Section 672 - The CENRO, PENRO, Forest Management Services, Forest
Management Bureau, Lands Management Bureau, and CGSD/NAMRIA shall be
furnished with copies of buffer zone maps and approved administrative order.
The Land Management Services (LMS) shall be the repository of the map and
survey records. The LMS shall project the buffer zones in its Property Surveys

Section 673 - Upon receipt of the authority and order issued by the DENR
officials as stated in Section 394 for the survey of lands reserved or
proclaimed as National Parks and other Protected Areas, etc., NAMRIA shall
proceed to monument the corners, with the assistance of the Regional Land
Evaluation Party and the Forester assigned to the project, based on the
technical descriptions contained in the proclamation. The consecutive
boundary corners shall be inter-visible and not to exceed 500 meters from
each other. The positions of the corners shall be determined using, preferably,
GPS receivers and the metes and bounds shall be computed.
Section 674 - The political boundary of local government units as established
by law or executive order shall be located in the area. If the area falls within
the territorial jurisdictions of two or more municipalities as established by law,
the portion falling in each municipality shall be designated as Parcel A, B, C,
etc., respectively. Then the corresponding area of these parcels are
determined. The survey should also be based on the evaluation report,
inventory and sketching of the said area by the Regional Land Evaluation
Party and personnel of the Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau (PAWB).
(D.a.l., DAO 72-1, S. 1990; C.2, DAO 47, S. 1990).
Section 675- If the delimitation survey is done by authorized private
geodetic engineers capable of undertaking GPS surveys, the observed GPS
data shall be submitted to the CGSD/NAMRIA for processing, adjustment and
determination of the geographic and cartesian coordinates in PPCS-TM/PRS92. Thereafter, the geodetic engineer shall submit the isolated survey returns
as stated in Section 474 to the Lands Management Services for verification
and approval of the plan.
Section 676 - If the delimitation survey is done by the geodetic engineer

87

using conventional surveying method and instruments, the complete survey


returns as stated in Section 474 shall be submitted to the Lands Management
Services for verification and approval.
Section 677 - If the proclaimed area is in conflict with previously approved
surveys or decreed properties, the survey in that particular portion shall be
made to conform with the technical descriptions of the approved survey. (C.2,
DAO 47, S. 1990).
Section 678 - The survey shall be computed; the metes and bounds
determined and plotted on a suitable map size, preferably 100 centimeters by
120 centimeters, at a scale of 1:50,000.
Section 679 - Previously approved surveys inside the area shall be reflected
in the plan by light full lines indicating there in the survey numbers. The
unsurvey claims shall be sketched and reflected on the plan in dotted lines.
The actual land uses and permanent improvements in these private claims
shall be indicated on the plan. (C.5, DAO 47, S. 1990).

Section 680 - All corners of the boundary shall be marked conspicuously in


the ground with concrete monuments 15 x 15 x 50 centimeters in accordance
with Section 272(f),

Section 681 - After the plan has been approved in accordance with Sections
675 and 676, a copy thereof together with the numerical data of the metes
and bounds, descriptions and geographic location of the corners shall be given
to the Lands Management Bureau, Forest Management Bureau, the CENROs,
and PENROs concerned. Copies of the GPS survey plan approved by
CGSD/NAMRIA shall be furnished to the Regional Lands Management Services
for plotting in its Survey Control Map, and the Forest and Lands Management
Bureaus, the CENROs and PENROs concerned.

DELIMITATION SURVEY OF FOREST RESERVES


Section 682 - Upon receipt of authority and order from the DENR officials as
stated in Section 394 for the survey of areas declared as permanent forest
reserves, NAMRIA, with the assistance of a Forestry Officer assigned to the
project, shall proceed to monument the corners and the boundaries based on
the sketch map prepared by the Land Evaluation Parties and on the technical
information and references sourced and/or gathered from the following:
a. Technical data contained in the proclamation.
b. Photo maps or enlarged rectified aerial photographs;
c. Latest available maps and references derived from satellite images;
d. Base information supplied by the CENRO, PENRO and DENR
Regional Office;
e. Cadastral maps, latest LC Maps, and other sources of data and information
relevant for the purpose,
Section 683 - Permanent or forest reserves shall mean the mass of land of
the public domain which have been the subject of the present system of
classification and determined to be needed for forest purposes.
Section 684 - Sections 414 to 424 shall be followed in the perimeter survey
of areas delimited as forest reserves, if done using conventional survey
method and equipment. If the survey is done using GPS receivers to establish
the positions of the corners, NAMRIA shall determine the survey design and
execute the GPS Survey. If done by authorized private geodetic engineer
using GPS receivers, Section 675 shall be followed.
Section 685 - All corners of the boundary shall be monumented in
accordance with Section 272(f). Marking of corners may also be done
following the procedures under Sections 659 to 667, Land Classification and
Delimitation Survey,
Section 686 - All boundaries between permanent forest reserves and
alienable and disposable lands shall be clearly marked and maintained on the

88

ground. The corners shall be marked with concrete monuments at interval of


one hundred (100) meters but not to exceed 500 meters. Infrastructure or
roads which will serve as buffer zone shall not exceed two (2) meters in
width, exclusive of shoulders and drainage ditches. In cases wherein the
permanent forest boundary is adjacent to natural ground features such as
waterways (river, streams, and creeks), gullies, or ridge tops, these shall be
used as buffer zone. Otherwise, buffer zones shall be established in
accordance with Sections 688 to 672 (Buffer Zones within forest lands).
Section 687 - The survey shall be computed and plotted in accordance with
Sections 326 to 335, 341 to 343, and 371 to 386. The survey symbol shall be
Frb (Forest Reserve Boundary). The complete survey returns shall be
submitted to the Lands Management Services for verification and approval.
However, survey using GPS receivers shall be submitted to CGSD/NAMRIA for
verification and approval as stated in Section 675.
Section 688 - Maps of classified forest reserves shall be prepared at a
uniform scale of 1:50,000, using standard topographic maps as base maps or
as may be determined by CGSD/NAMRIA. The maps shall indicate the PPCSTM/PRS 92 grid lines. The PPCS-TM (1965) grids may be indicated by tick
marks. The Forest Management Bureau, Lands Management Bureau, the
PENRO and CENRO concerned, and the Lands Management Services in the
case of the GPS Surveys processed by NAMRIA shall be furnished with copies
of the map and boundary data.
Section 689 - When the forest reserves transcends two or more
municipalities, the portion within the boundary of each local government unit
shall be plotted on the map and designated as separate Parcels A, B, Cy etc.,
respectively. The corresponding areas are determined.

INTEGRATED SOCIAL FORESTRY SURVEY


Section 690 - Upon receipt of authority or order from the Regional Executive
Director for the perimeter survey of ISF areas, the designated geodetic

engineer, with the assistance of the Forestry Officer assigned by the RED to
the project, shall proceed to monument all corners or corners of the
prominent turns of the boundaries based on the sketches prepared by the
Land Evaluation Parties. However, the distance between two succeeding
monuments shall not exceed 500 meters and their construction shall be in
accordance with Section 272(e). (B.3, DAO 72 S. 1990; Sec. 17, PD 705, S.
1975)
The perimeter survey of ISF projects shall be done in accordance with these
rules and regulations and with an accuracy of fourth order as prescribed in
Section 55.
Section 691 - The survey shall be tied to a point of known geographic
positions in the PPCS-TM/PRS 92 by a closed traverse of tertiary precision or a
system of triangulation/trilateration using Theodolite and EDM or Total Station
Systems. Actual observations using GPS Receivers may be made on the
monumented corners and on inter-visible monumented corners for azimuth
orientation, (B.4, DAO 72 S. 1990)
Section 692 - In the case of on-going cadastral projects, the perimeter
survey of ISF areas shall be surveyed concurrently with the lot boundary
surveys in A and D areas. The ISF areas inside forestland or public forest shall
be depicted on a Social Forestry Map (SFM) and the parcels, if noncontiguous,
shall be indicated as separate Parcels A, B, C, etc., respectively.(72 DAO 72
Amd.)
The lots within the alienable and disposable areas shall be assigned
cardinal numbers (lot 1, 2, etc.) and prepared on a cadastral map (CM).
Section 693 - A strip of at least twenty (20) meters along the boundary line
of ISF areas and within the forest land shall be delineated as buffer zone
between the ISF areas and forestlands. These should be marked "X" on
immovable or fixed hard rocks or boulders with exposed surfaces of more
than one meter in diameter or trees belonging to the first group or indigenous
or living edible fruit trees. In any case, the distance between the two
succeeding marks should not exceed five hundred (500) meters, No

89

improvements shall be introduced within the zone except for dirt roads
connecting the ISF areas and the outside areas.
Section 694 - The parcellary sketching of the individual ISF awards within
the ISF areas shall be done by Administration through tachimetry methods or
by compass survey. These parcellary sketches of the individual award to each
ISF beneficiary shall be approved by the CENRO or PENRO.
Section 695 - The position of roads, trails, existing structures, important
natural features, etc., within the ISF areas and in the public forest shall be
approximately located by transit and stadia or by other approximate method.
Section 696 - After the completion of perimeter survey of the ISF area and
parcellary sketching of the farm lots cultivated by upland farmers in
cadastrally surveyed municipalities, a sketch plan shall be prepared on
authorized LMB Forms. The survey symbol shall be "SFCM - Region Code
Number - survey number". In municipalities that are not yet cadastrally
surveyed, the survey symbol shall be "SFM-Region Code Number - survey
number". The sketch plan in both cases shall show the boundary lines,
traverses, monuments and the position of the features mentioned in the
preceding section. (B.7.1, DAO 72, S. 1990, amd)
Section 697 - In the case of the on-going cadastral survey, an overlay of the
cadastral map segregating the forestland and public forest shall be prepared.
This overlay shall be prepared similar to the cadastral map in all aspects but
shall be called Forestry Cadastral Map (FCM) instead of CM.
For ISF surveys independent of cadastral survey, the map shall be called
Social Forestry Map (SFM). The perimeter survey of the ISF parcels shall be
plotted on these maps and numbered consecutively from ISF-Parcel A, ISFParcel B, etc. for areas outside a cadastral survey and ISFC-Parcel A, ISFCParcel B, etc. in cadastrally surveyed areas. No single parcel should fall in two
or more Cadastral projects or municipalities. (B.7.2, DAO 72, S. 1990)
Section 698 - The plan and other survey returns shall be submitted to the
DENR Land Management Services for verification and certification. The plan
shall be marked "NOT FOR REGISTRATION PURPOSES" in order that this

cannot be used for titling by the awardee.


Section 699 - A comprehensive report together with the survey returns shall
be submitted stating the location of the ISF areas with respect to the bodies
of water, natural features such as mountains, existing virgin forests, nearest
communities, man-made features such as dams and highways, and the
approximate population of persons living in the area. These data shall be
based on the personal observation of the survey party and not of the
occupants.

CHAPTER XIV - MINERAL LAND SURVEYS


Section 700 - Mineral land surveys are surveys of mining claims, quarry
applications, sand and gravel applications, and other mineral lands except
coal and petroleum, executed for lease, permit, license or for other purposes
pursuant to the provision of the mining laws of the Republic of the Philippines.
(MLSRR).

LODE PATENT AND LEASE SURVEYS


Section 701 - Mining claims located and registered before November 15,
1935 may be surveyed for lease purposes at the option of the applicant,
provided that in the case of the former, there must have been spent not less
than One Thousand Pesos (P1,000.00) for labor and improvements for the
development of each claim. Mining claims located and registered on or after
November 15, 1935 shall be surveyed for lease purposes any time within four
(4) years from the date of the registration thereof, or thereafter provided that
a lease application has been filed during the said period. (MLSRR)
Section 702 - Claims located and registered under Act No. 137 which were
existing and in force since January 1, 1942, and whose owners thereof filed
lease applications on or before October 28, 1950 in accordance with the
provisions of Sec. 1 (b) of Rep. Act No. 81, as amended by Act No. 215, may
also be surveyed for lease purposes. (MLSRR)

90

Section 703 - The position of corners, location posts Nos. 1 and 2, and of the
discovery post, shall be verified on the ground and compared with the
description and sketch given in the declaration of locations. All corners and
location posts shall be marked in accordance with Section 73 (g). (MLSR)
Section 704 - The distance between location posts Nos. 1 and 2 shall not
exceed three hundred (300) meters. When the distance exceeds 300 meters,
location post No. 2 shall be moved to a position on the location line at a
distance of distance 300 meters from location post No. 1. When the distance
between location posts No. 1 and 2 is less than three hundred (300) meters,
location post No. 2 shall not be moved from its place and the positions of
these posts shall govern the position of the claim.(MLSRR)
Section 705 - All boundary lines shall be run when possible. If it is
impossible
to
run
the
boundary, closed
traverse
lines
and/or
triangulation/trilateration system may be run for control and the corners shall
be set by side shots from the stations of said control.
Section 706 - When a corner is inaccessible, its position shall be defined by
two witness corners which shall be placed along the boundary lines and as
near as possible to the inaccessible point. These shall be considered as
intermediate corners of the mining claim and/shall bear numbers with the
suffixes a, b, c, etc.
In case of fractional lode claims, at least one of the boundary lines shall be as
near as possible parallel to the location line. (MLSRR)
Section 707 - After the survey, the original plan of the claim shall be
prepared complete with all the details. The title of the plan shall show the
following: name of the claim; kind of minerals contained therein; purpose of
the survey; name of the owner or holder of the claim; location, area in
hectares; date of registration of the original declaration of location; date of
registration of deed of assignment; date of registration of amended
declaration of location, if there are any; dates of issuance of the survey order
and submission of survey returns; lease application number and date filed;
and survey number. (MLSRR)

Section 708 - The reference point of the claim, as indicated on the


declaration of location or the tie point of the group of claims to which the
claim under survey is a part, should be connected with the survey and
indicated on the field notes, computations and on the working sheet plan, if
possible,
Any discrepancy found on the ground relative to the reference point shall be
stated on the descriptive report and shown on the working sheet plan that
accompanies the survey returns. (MLSRR)
Section 709 -National, provincial, and municipal roads, passing through a
lode or placer claim under patent or lease shall be surveyed and their/actual
positions shall be shown on the plan. (MLSRR)

INVESTIGATION OF DEVELOPMENT WORK AND IMPROVEMENTS


Section 710 - The improvements upon each mining claim shall be numbered
consecutively. The dimensions and character value of each improvement shall
be specified in the descriptive field report which shall be prepared and made a
part of the survey returns. (MLSRR)

GENERAL PROVISIONS FOR PATENT: PERMIT/LICENSE AND LEASE


SURVEYS
Section 711 - All mineral land surveys shall be executed by licensed and duly
bonded deputized Geodetic Engineers or by the DENR Geodetic Engineers only
upon receipt of an order of survey from the DENR officials as stated in Section
394 (d). (MLSRR)

Section 712 - Before a survey order is issued, the applicant should file within
the prescribed period, an application for order of survey in the Mines and
Geo-Sciences Regional Office on the proper form prescribed for the purpose.
The application shall be accompanied by the following:
(1) Two (2) sets of carbon copies of the original declaration of location or two

91

(2) certified copies of the same declaration of location issued by the Mines
Regional Recorder.
(2) Pertinent documents such as deed of assignment and power-of-attorney
duly registered with the Mines Regional Recorder, and in the case of
partnership or corporation, a copy of the articles of partnership or
incorporation duly registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
(3) A notarized survey service contract executed by and between the
applicant and the deputized geodetic engineer, except when the deputized
geodetic engineer is employed by the claimant and/or company interested in
the survey provided that proof of employment of the deputized geodetic
engineer is submitted. Such service contract shall stipulate, among others,
the following:
i. The name of the contracting parties;
ii. The names of the mining claims or identification of areas sought to
be surveyed;
iii. The consideration or contract price and mode of payment of the
same; and
iv. The date of the submission of the survey returns thereof through
the Regional Technical Director for Mines.
(4) Affidavit of the deputized geodetic engineer concerned, stating that he can
execute the survey of the claims and submit the returns thereof to the
Regional Technical Director for Lands through the Regional Director for Mines
and Geo-Sciences within one (1) year after receipt of survey order. Failure to
submit the survey returns within said period is sufficient cause for cancellation
of the geodetic engineer's bond and/or cancellation of the survey order, No
extension of period within which to submit the survey returns shall be allowed
unless for reasons of force majeure, admitting payment by the applicant of
not less than 20% but not more than 50% of the agreed professional fee
advanced in consideration of such representation: Provided, that this
provision on payment of the professional fee shall not apply if the deputized
geodetic engineer is an employee of the applicant and/or company interested

in the survey. No mineral land survey returns shall be accepted by the Land
Management Services without the endorsement of the Regional Director for
Mines and Geo-Sciences.
(5) A surety bond in the amount currently set by existing regulations per
application for order of survey for the approval of the Regional Executive
Director. This bond shall be forfeited for failure to execute the survey and/or
comply with the obligations as required by existing rules and regulations.
However, for survey of mining claims to be executed by the geodetic
engineers of DENR, the aforesaid requirements as enumerated in items 3, 4,
and 5 shall not be required. The corresponding survey fees as required shall
be deposited with the DENR Regional Office at the time the application for
order of survey is filed. (MLSRR)
Section 713 - Before executing a mineral land survey, the deputized geodetic
engineer or the DENR geodetic engineer shall require the applicant or his
authorized representative to show the reference point, location posts and
corners of the claim particularly for those claims registered under
Commonwealth Act 137. The survey shall not be executed until after the
claim is properly identified
Section 714 - In case the area shown to the Geodetic Engineer is other than
the area described in the declaration of location, the applicant should be
advised to file a declaration of location for a new mining claim. After the
registration of the new mining claim, a carbon copy or a certified copy of the
new declaration of location shall be forwarded to the Regional Executive
Director concerned with a request for the amendment of the survey order.
(MLSR)
Section 715 - Before starting the survey, the geodetic engineer shall notify
the DENR Regional Office concerned, the people in the region through the
Mayor of the municipality or the Chairman of the barangay where the
claim/application is located, of the date of the executive of the survey. The
notice shall contain, among others, pertinent information, an advice to any
interested person to present his opposition to the geodetic engineer and show
the corners of his mining claim/application, if there is any. (MLSR)

92

Section 716 - In mineral land surveys, all computations, plans, and maps to
be submitted to the Lands Management Services through the Mines and GeoSciences for verification and approval shall be prepared in the Philippine Plane
Coordinate System-Transverse Mercator/Philippine Reference System 1992,
using surveying instruments duly tested and certified in accordance with
Sections 15 - 37 of this Manual.

and whenever possible, consecutive monuments shall be inter-visible. (MLSRR


Amd)

Section 717 - Tie line survey shall either be a closed traverse or a system of
the triangulation/trilateration from a point of known geographic positions in
the PRS 92. The relative position between the claim undergoing survey and
other surveyed claims within one hundred fifty (150) meters of the survey in
progress, shall be determined by a closed traverse to at least two (2) existing
well defined and permanently marked corners of the former and later surveys
and should not exceed thirty (30) centimeters in the northings or eastings.
Conflicts of mining locations should also be indicated on the plan and their
corners or posts should be surveyed as much as possible. (MLSRR)

Section 721 - When the mining claim undergoing survey adjoins submerged
land, a witness corner monument along the boundary leading to the shoreline
shall be set on the ground to witness the boundary or point or corner of the
claim at the low tide level of the sea or lake. Concrete monuments, galvanized
iron pipes, fixed rocks, boulders or stakes and other monuments shall be set
to define the corners of the claim along the shoreline at low tide level.
(MLSRR)

Section 718 - The numbering of the corners shall be in the clockwise


direction. If additional corners are necessary between the corners described in
the declaration of location, these should be considered as intermediate
corners with the suffixes a, b, c, etc. (MLSRR)
Section 719 - The corners of the mining claims shall be marked with the
corresponding corner and survey number used in the computations. For
claims registered under U.S. Congress of July 1, 1902 or under CA 137, if the
numbering of the corners on the declaration of location is counterclockwise,
the mark on the monuments should either be in accordance with: the
preceding statement or with the corresponding corner numbers on the
declaration of location with the name of the mineral claim. In the latter case,
the deputized geodetic engineer should submit necessary explanation which
should be form part of the report. For claims/applications registered/filed
under P.D. 463, corners of mining claims/applications shall be defined by
monuments placed at intervals of not more than four hundred (400) meters.
When the boundary lines of the claim pass across mountains or rolling terrain,
the intermediate monuments between corners shall be established on ridges,

Section 720 The corners of the mining claim shall be concrete monuments
or cement patch on boulder, centered with a hole, spike, pipe or nail and
marked with the corresponding corner number and survey number as
indicated in the declaration of location and in the order of survey. (MLSRR)

Section 722 - When the survey covers mining claims or leases with
previously approved survey plans, an actual survey and verification of the
existence of the corners of the old survey should be undertaken. The actual
surface occupants and improvements should be verified and indicated on the
plan. Any missing corner should be relocated and monumented. The field
notes and computations should be submitted together with the survey
returns. (MLSRR)
Section 723 -Mineral reserves, which have been proclaimed closed to mining
location and other reservations established prior to the registration of the
mining claim shall be excluded from the surveys for lease, permit or license,
(MLSRR)
Section 724 Boundaries of claims under survey should be indicated as
public lands or private lands with the name of the owners, surveyed mineral
claims with corresponding survey numbers, roads, and/or natural boundaries.
(MLSRR)
Section 725 - When a scheme of triangulation or trilateration is used for
establishing points of control, the position of stations should be selected so
that well-conditioned triangle are used. By well- conditioned triangle it means

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that no angle thereof shall be less than twenty (20) degrees. (MLSRR)
Section 726 - Amendment surveys shall be executed only when ordered by
the Regional Executive Director. This order shall contain specifically the
conditions and objects sought in the required amendment. (MLSRR)
Section 727- All field notes, computations, reports of the survey and plans of
all mineral land surveys shall be submitted to the CENRO for plotting in the
CENRO index Map of Surveys. These shall then be forwarded to the Regional
Director for Mines and Geo-Sciences.
The Regional Director for Mines and Geo-Sciences shall retain the other
documents related to the mining application and forward the survey returns
to the Regional Technical Director for Land Management Services for
verification and approval. (DAO 72, S- 1990; DAO 35, S-1993)
Section 728 - The previously approved surface surveys and other
occupancies shall be plotted in dashes on the mineral land survey plans by
the Regional Surveys Division. The Regional Surveys Division shall also plot
the mineral land surveys on the cadastral map or Property Surveys Index
.
Section 729- The applicant for survey of permit or lease of mineral lands,
shall furnish the Deputized Geodetic Engineer all maps showing the location of
the survey and underground workings which shall be submitted as part of the
survey returns and for use of the Mines and Geo-Sciences. (MLSRR)
Section 730 - The survey returns should be submitted within one year from
the date of receipt of the survey order. These shall include the documents
stated in Section 466.
In addition, the following shall also be submitted:
a) Elevation and topographic survey computations
b) Descriptions and field investigation report on the mining claim in
quintuplicate signed by the Geodetic Engineer and duly notarized.
c) A consolidated plan at a scale of 1:4,000 showing the relative positions of

the surveyed mining claim(s) and other claims with existing rights at time of
the survey.
d) Other documents pertinent to the survey of mining claim.
e) Original copy of the survey order.
The survey returns without the field notes, computations, plans and the above
stated documents shall not be accepted.
Except for reasons of force majeure, failure to submit the survey returns
within one year from receipt of survey order is sufficient cause for cancellation
of the surveyor's surety bond and/or cancellation of the survey order pursuant
to Section 32 of P. D. No. 463. (MLSRR)

TOPOGRAPHIC AND UNDERGROUND ELEVATION SURVEYS


Section 731 - Survey of the surface and underground workings of mineral
lands shall be made to ascertain whether or not said workings have been
extended beyond the mines/quarry boundaries of the claim or application
defined by imaginary vertical claims passing along the surface boundaries.
Section 732 - Topographic surveys as well as underground elevation surveys
shall be done following the procedures and computations found in surveying
textbooks.
Section 733 - The following contour intervals shall be adopted to suit the
topographical conditions of the area undergoing survey,

Difference of Maximum & Minimum Elevations

Contour Intervals

99 meters or less

5 meters

100 meters and above

10 meters

Section 734 - In surveying claim which adjoins previously approved mining


surveys, the topography of the former should conform with the topography of

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the latter at common boundary and the contours should match with each
other. In case they differ, the differences should be carefully investigated and
the error of the new survey shall be corrected. However, if the error is within
the approved survey, no correction shall be made, instead a report shall be
submitted together with the survey returns. Necessary corrections may be
ordered by the Director of Mines and Geo-Sciences according to the nature of
the work and the amount of error found. (MLSRR)
Section 735 - The field notes, computations and plans of topographic and
underground elevation surveys shall be submitted as part of the survey
returns. (MLSRR)

PREPARATION OF MINERAL LAND SURVEY PLANS

gravel; latitude and longitude of all corners of mining and quarry application
claims, registered under P.D. 463.
g) The improvements and their descriptions and their extent. (MLSRR)
Section 738 - Bearings and distances shall be tabulated on the plan when
they are too numerous to be shown clearly along or near the boundary lines,
Section 739 - All plans shall show a statement certifying whether or not a
protest was raised during the survey. The format and text of the plan shall be
as prescribed by the DENR.
Section 740 - The approved original plan shall be returned to the Regional
Director for Mines and Geo- Sciences. Copies shall be retained by the Regional
Surveys Division for official file. The CENRO and PENRO concerned shall be
furnished with the copies of the approved original plan.

Section 736- Plans of mining claims shall be drawn on the isolated survey
form designed for mineral land surveys using the Philippine Reference System
of 1992 (PPCS-TM/PRS 92).

Section 741 - Symbols to be used for mineral land surveys are found in the
appendix.

Section 737 - The plan shall be clearly and neatly drawn in drawing ink
prepared in accordance with Sections 371 to 374. The following shall be
shown on the plan:

P A R T III

a) The boundaries of the claim shall be shown in full black ink heavier than
those of adjoining surveys. Stone or other permanent walls along boundaries
shall also be shown,
b) All bearings and distances in black ink,
c) Contour lines in brown ink.
d) Rivers, creeks and waterlines in blue with their respective widths.
e) Surveyed private claims and public lands, mining claims, surface
ownerships inside the mining claim being surveyed shall be indicated by
dotted lines and the boundaries between them in broken black lines, Widths
of roads, trails, streams shall/be indicated,
f) Latitude and longitude of corner 1 of plans for lode, placer, sand and

PROVISIONS GOVERNING CADASTRAL LAND SURVEYS


CHAPTER XV - FIELDWORK ON CADASTRAL PROJECTS
GENERAL STATEMENT

Section 742 - Cadastral surveys of municipalities or portions thereof and of


other extensive areas as classified in Section 3, authorized by the President of
the Philippines, shall be made by geodetic engineers upon orders of the
Regional Technical Director for Lands or Regional Executive Director pursuant
to Section 394.
Section 743 Cadastral surveys may be assigned by the Regional Executive
Director to geodetic engineers in private practice whenever such assignment,
is necessary for the prompt adjudication of titles.

95

Section 744 - Geodetic engineers who wants to enter into any contract or
negotiation with the land owners and local authorities of any municipality or
province to undertake the cadastral survey thereof shall first obtain a written
authority or permission from the Regional Technical Director for Lands or the
Regional Executive Director,
Section 745 - The technical men, field and office methods, the equipment
and supplies to be used by the said geodetic engineers in the survey of
cadastral projects shall be subject to pre-approval and strict supervision and
inspection by the authorized representatives of the Land Management
Services and the CENRO. The representative shall see to it that the
requirements of this manual and of the terms and condition of the assignment
and/or contract are fully complied with.
Section 746 Representatives of the Land Management Bureau/Services
shall check and verify the accuracy and completeness of the work on each
assigned projects to ensure that reasonable diligence and care are exercised
in the survey. A final inspection shall be made by the CENRO and LMS before
the transmittal of the survey records to the Land Management Services.
Section 747- For information and record purposes, the personnel employed
by the geodetic engineer shall be reported to the Regional Executive Director,
copy furnished the Director of Lands Management Bureau as soon as said
employee was employed in any assigned project. The personnel includes the
geodetic engineer's aides, cartographers, surveymen, linemen, tapemen,
computers, and other persons he or she may employ. No substitution of
technical personnel or reduction of personnel and equipment per Cadastral
Survey Management Plan shall be made without prior approval of the RED.
Section 748 -The unit of survey shall be the city or municipality or portion
thereof or area designated in the authority and order for survey. Cadastral
survey project number shall be secured from the Land Management Bureau.
The boundary survey shall follow the limit as defined in the law, or the
executive order creating the local government unit.

PRELIMINARY OPERATIONS
DATA OF THE SURVEY
Section 749 - The following shall be secured by the geodetic engineer from
the Lands Management Services, whenever available, in connection with the
order for the survey:
(a) Copies of projection maps on a scale of 1:4000 and/or enlargements
thereof covering the entire area of the project;
(b) Prints or tracings of approved plans and copy of computations of all
previous surveys within the project;
(c) Progress map of each adjoining cadastral project, in progress and
completed;
(d) Approved horizontal angles, distances and other data on main control
stations of adjoining projects;
(e) Approved data on provincial and municipal boundary monuments and lot
corners along the boundaries of adjoining projects; and
(f) List of approved surveys, surveys filed for registration and their status
such as decreed, pending, dismissed, etc.
Section 750 - The cost of preparing the data described in the preceding
section shall be charged to the project in the case of surveys by DENR
geodetic engineers and to geodetic engineers in private practice in the case of
surveys assigned to them.
SCHEME OF WORK
Section 751 - The following scheme of w ork on a cadastral survey project is
suggested:
(a) Post and distribute notices of survey in English, Spanish, and
Filipino languages and in the local dialect.
(b) Locate the main control lines, monument its stations and run the

96

preliminary survey in accordance with Section 132.


(c) Start the manufacture of standard concrete corner monuments,
(d) Prepare the progress and project control map from the preliminary survey
and sketch thereon the boundary of the project, locating areas in dispute
between municipalities, provinces, etc. See Sections 915 to 920,
(e) Take astronomical observations for azimuth as required to establish the
base meridian. Start the measurement of the azimuths and distances of the
main and subsidiary controls.
(f) Submit the main and subsidiary controls for verification and approval.
(g) Prepare the sketch sheets noting thereon the previous surveys and start
sketching of lots claimed. Start monumenting of the property corners and of
political boundaries.
(h) Post the "30-day notices. Notify owners or claimants to appear on the
ground, verify and approve boundaries as monumented.

(p) Prepare the barangay/case boundary of index maps and complete the
progress map.
(q) Prepare the municipal/project boundary and index map.
(r) Prepare the complete survey returns of the project.
All phases of work may be done simultaneously in different parts of the
project.
NOTIFICATION OF SURVEY
Section 752 - Copies of the general notice of the survey in Filipino, English
and Spanish languages and in the local dialect, stating the area involved and
the date of beginning, shall be distributed and posted in conspicuous places in
the barangay being surveyed and the municipal building of the municipality in
which the lands or any portion thereof are located. Copies of the notice shall
also be sent to the barangay, municipal and provincial authorities.
The general notice of survey in English is as follows:

(i) Start survey of lots and other details after approval of main and subsidiary
controls.
(j) Plot on the cadastral maps the corners as located from control stations,
connecting the corners in accordance with the sketch of the survey, Transform
previously approved surveys to PPCS/Grid-PRS 92 system.

Republic of the Philippines


Department of Environment and Natural Resources
Land Management Services, Region ____

(k) Number the lot corners in the cadastral maps according to the field notes.
(l) Prepare lot data computations.

CADASTRAL SURVEY PROJECT

(m) At the expiration of the 30-day notice, make a tracing of the cadastral
maps and verify same in the field, correcting all errors found. Post copies of
the cadastral maps in the Barangay Hall.

NO. _________

(n) Make a final check to verify discrepancies. The work shall be scheduled in
such a way that the work in localities of difficult access will be performed
during favorable weather.
(o) Complete and ink the cadastral maps.

SUBJECT: Cadastral Project No. _____


Cadastral Survey of the
Municipality of ___________________
Province of ______________________

1. Pursuant to the provisions of Section 1851 of the Administrative Code (Act


No. 2711 as amended), notice is hereby given to all persons claiming interest

97

therein and to the general public that on the _______ 19 ___ in the
municipality of _____________, province of ______________ a cadastral
survey of all lands situated within the boundaries of the said municipality will
be commenced by the _______________.
2. In accordance with Section 1853 of the said Code, the geodetic engineers
and other employees of the ______________________ shall have full
authority of law to enter upon the above mentioned lands for the purpose of
making the survey and placing monuments thereon; and it is the duty of all
persons claiming said lands or interest therein to fully inform the said
geodetic engineers and other employees concerning the boundaries of their
respective land claims.
3. Any person who shall willfully refuse to give such information or shall in
any manner interfere with the survey and placing of the monuments, or shall
alter the location of the same, or shall deface, destroy or remove the said
monuments, or remove notice of survey posted upon the lands shall be liable
to prosecution under the provision of Section 2753 of the Administrative
Code, as amended by Act no. 3077.
4.Practicing geodetic engineers are hereby requested to submit to the Land
management Services, within sixty (60) days from____________ 19
_______, a list of the isolated surveys being made within the aforementioned
cadastral project and another list of contracts for isolated surveys entered into
in good faith by them prior to __________________ . Isolated surveys not
listed as herein required will not be accepted for verification and approval.
5. Upon the completion of this cadastral survey, a petition for the settlement
and adjudication of the titles to the lands included in the said survey in favor
of all persons entitled thereto under the law will be filed by the Regional
Technical Director for Lands in the Regional Trial Court of______________.
6. The full cooperation of all land owners and others interested in the welfare
of the community is desired and requested. This cooperation may be
expressed in the form of facilities given to the geodetic engineers engaged in
the work by furnishing all desired information concerning property
boundaries, cutting lines, helping in transporting and planting monuments

and by providing such other means as may be found appropriate and feasible
in each case.

_________________________
Regional Executive Director

Section 753 The following certificate shall be attached to one copy of the
notice in each language and local dialect:

I hereby certify that on this date _____________ , 19 ______.in


accordance with the provisions of Section 1, Act 2259, as amended, I posted
a copy of the attached notice of survey at the following described points
_______________: and on the principal building in the Barangay of
__________________, Municipality of _______________ , Province of
_______________.

________________________________
Chief, _______________Cadastre
Cad= ___________________________
This signed certificate with one copy of the notice in each language and
local dialect shall be returned promptly to the Land Management Services
upon completion of the posting.

CONTROL OF THE PROJECT


Section 754 - The provisions of Sections 117 to 228, 238 to 241 and 242 to

98

246, shall govern the establishment of primary, secondary and tertiary


controls of cadastral projects.

of the barangay, municipal, city and provincial boundary monuments shall be


inscribed or chiseled under the name of the respective barangay, municipality,
city or province.

POLITICAL BOUNDARIES

Section 761 - In case a municipal boundary monument is common to two or


more municipalities, the monument number for each municipality shall be
chiseled or inscribed on the respective faces of the monument fronting the
corresponding municipality.

Section 755 - Political boundaries in the cadastral projects as defined in the


Laws or Executive Orders creating the municipalities shall be located,
monumented and surveyed. These political boundaries are:
(a) Provincial or city boundaries
(b) Municipal boundaries
(c) Barangay boundaries
Section 756 - The requirements of Sections 559 to 620 on the establishment
of political boundaries shall be also applicable to cadastral projects.
Section 757 The political boundary as defined by the law or executive
order creating the political unit shall be established on the ground. The
position of political boundary shall be determined by primary or secondary
control.
Section 758 - Political boundary monuments shall be established at the
prominent turns or angles of the boundaries and where they cross roads or
large streams. Where these boundary lines follow roads, streams or other
natural features, a monument shall be placed near their junction points.
Intermediate points along said road or natural boundary need not be
monumented but marked with other acceptable markers.
Section 759 - Municipal and barangay boundary monuments shall be
established along straight municipal and barangay boundaries at intervals at
nor more than one kilometer except when the boundary passes through forest
lands.
Section 760 - Barangay, municipal and city boundary monuments shall be
numbered consecutively from one (1) for each municipality/city. The numbers

Section 762 - The corner of the municipal boundary already defined by a


provincial boundary monument shall be given its equivalent municipal
boundary monument number without altering the inscription on the
monument and shall be indicated in the sketches, field notes and maps.
Section 763 - The corner of the barangay boundary already defined by a
provincial or a municipal boundary monument shall be assigned its equivalent
barangay boundary monument number without altering the inscriptions on
the monument and indicated in the sketches, field notes and maps.
Section 764-In the case of boundary dispute, the disputed area shall be
drawn on the sketch sheets and a report shall be forwarded to the Regional
Executive Director, copy furnished the Lands Management Bureau, th
barangay, municipal or city and provincial authorities concerned.
Section 765 - The report required in the preceding section shall include a
tracing of the disputed area as indicated on the sketch and shall show the
general claims of each municipality or province. The municipality in which
each of the affected lots are declared for taxation shall be indicated on the
sketch sheet by its initial letters. Contested areas declared in two or more
municipalities shall be determined and indicated on the sketch sheets
accordingly. The information shall be drawn on the sketch sheets in black ink
to facilitate reproduction.
Section 766 - In case the boundary dispute is not settled before the
completion of the field work of the cadastral project, the disputed area with all
the lots contained therein shall be surveyed and treated as separate cadastral
case.

99

Section 767 - In case of boundary disputes, the procedure outlined in


Sections 602 to 607, 611 to 615, 618 to 620 of this Manual and Section 118
of RA 7160 shall be followed.

NOTIFICATION TO LOT CLAIMANTS


Section 768 - The following notice shall be prepared in the local dialect, for
posting and general distribution, by the sketching party at the time the work
of defining and sketching of lot boundaries is commenced in each barangay.

PUBLIC NOTICE
_____________, _________

of

______________,

Province

Section 4 of said Act, as amended by section 9 of Act 3077 further


provides that: "Any person who shall interfere with the making of the survey
undertaken by the Bureau of Lands, or shall interfere with the placing of any
monument in connection with any such survey, or shall deface, destroy, or
remove any monument so placed, or shall alter the location of any such
monument, or shall destroy or remove any notice of survey posted on the
land pursuant to law, shall be punished by a fine of not more than P= 100.00
or by imprisonment for not more than thirty days or both."
__________________________________
Chief, Cadastral Survey Party No. ______

TO ALL PROPERTY CLAIMANTS IN THE __________________________


Of _______________, Municipality
_________________, Philippines.

"It shall be the duty of every person claiming interest in the lands to be
surveyed, or in any parcel thereof, to communicate to the geodetic engineer
in charge upon his request therefor all information possessed by such person
concerning the boundary lines of any lands to which he claims title or in which
he claims any interest."

of

You are hereby advised that the President of the Philippines has ordered
the survey and registration of all lands in the ______________ of
_____________ Municipality of ______________ Province of ___________
and that the Regional Executive Director has given due notice of the date on
which such survey shall begin, all in accordance with the provisions of Section
1 of Act No. 2259, entitled " The Cadastral Act "as amended by section 1850
of the Revised Administrative Code, Act 2711. You are therefore notified in
accordance with section 2 of said act as amended by section 1852 of the
Revised Administrative Code, Act 2711, that the undersigned will begin the
survey of the lands in the vicinity of the barangay of _______________
on____________19 _____________________
You are further notified in accordance with Section 4 of said Act as
amended by section 1854 of the Revised Administrative Code, Act 2711, that:

Section 769 Copies of this notice shall be posted in prominent and public
places and each claimant shall be furnished with a copy of the notice in the
local dialect. A copy thereof with translation in Filipino, English, and Spanish
languages shall also be posted on the main municipal and barangay buildings
at the time that the general delivery and posting is made in each barangay.
One copy in the local dialect and in Filipino, English, and Spanish shall be
transmitted to the Land Management Services with following certificate
attached thereto:

I certify that on this date ____________ ,19____ in accordance with


the provisions of section 2 of Act 2259, as amended, I have caused copies of
the foregoing notice in the local dialect to be distributed to the local claimants
of lands located in the barangay of ____________, municipality of
___________ , Province of ______________ and have caused copies of said
notice to be posted in prominent and public places in the district and copies of

100

said notice in the English, Spanish, and Filipino languages and the local dialect
were also posted in the municipal and barangay buildings of said municipality.

__________________________________
Chief, ____________Cadastral Survey Party
Cad - _______________

along borders of the adjoining sheets shall be carefully compared and checked
in order to avoid omitting or duplicating side shots during the lot survey. All
data secured shall be indicated by using the conventional symbols and signs
as prescribed for cadastral maps. The corners sketched shall be marked
temporarily by stakes until verified and monumented in the presence of
claimants. Trees shall be marked on the side opposite the lot in which they
are claimed.

LOT SKETCHES

Section 778 -The lots shall be formed such that no single lot shall fall in
more than one barangay

Section 770 - Sketch sheets on any mapping paper shall be prepared in the
same standard size as the cadastral maps in the scale of 1:4000.

Section 779 - The name of the claimant of each lot shall be written on the
sketch sheet. In case lots or portions of lots are claimed by two or more
persons, the areas in dispute shall be sketched as separate lot and the names
of all claimants shall be noted therein.

Section 771 Sketch sheets on a scale larger than 1:4000 may be prepared
for sections of the project in which the lots are too small to be shown in the
standard scale.
Section 772 All previously approved surveys shall be drawn in pencil and
all new monuments and control stations shall be inked on the sketch sheets.
Section 773 - Each sketch sheet shall be given the corresponding cadastral
map number or sectional cadastral map number.
Section 774 - Sketching parties shall secure the services of guides who are
familiar with lot boundaries and the claimants after consultation with officials
of the local government unit (LGU).
Section 775 - Lot corners, roads, rivers, streams, lakes, ponds, pools,
irrigation canals or ditches, political boundaries, railroads, etc., shall be
plotted on the sketch sheets and their local name indicated.
Section 776 - Lot corner marks and boundaries such as stone walls, trees,
stakes or monuments shall be indicated on the sketch.
Section 777 - Sketches shall be made in the field using plane table and
alidade, stadia rod or on aerial photographs. Where competent sketchmen are
available, sketches may be made by the free hand method. The boundaries

Section 780 - Streams five meters or more in width, streams less than five
meters in width through which water flows continuously and irrigation ditches
or canals shall be excluded from the lot. The property lines shall extend only
to the banks thereof excluding the mandatory bank protection and easement
as stated in Section 310 to 312. These waterways shall be indicated by their
local names as rivers, esteros, arroyos, creeks, canals or ditches as the case
maybe on the sketch sheets. The direction of flow of the water shall be
indicated by an arrow.
Section 781 - Foreshore lands shall be sketched as a separate cadastral lot
and clearly indicated on the sketches and fieldnotes as foreshore lands. The
corners that fall into the sea shall not be monumented but shall be indicated
on the sketches by appropriate survey symbols.
Section 782 - Portions of lots which fall within the right-of-way of roads as
determined by the District Engineer shall be sketched and numbered as
separate lots when claimed as private property. Such claims, however, should
be discouraged.
Section 783 - Sketches must be prepared with care especially with regard to
lots and spelling of all proper names. The name of the municipality, cadastral

101

survey number, scale and sketch sheet number shall be shown in ink on the
lower right hand border. The sketches shall be dated and signed by the
sketchmen.
Section 784 - As soon as sketching is finished and before final lot numbers
are assigned to each lot, the project shall be divided into cadastral cases
which shall be co-extensive with the barangay. Lots shall be numbered
consecutively in each cadastral case/barangay.

SKETCHING OF PREVIOUSLY SURVEYED OR PATENTED, LEASED AND


DECREED PROPERTIES

Section 785 - Sketchmen shall carry to the field the tracings of patented,
leased, decreed and previously approved surveys. All corner markers shall be
located and definitely identified as the original monuments.
Section 786 - All previous surveys contained in one sketch sheet shall be
drawn in a sheet of tracing paper. The sketchmen shall compare the plan of
the previous survey with the actual boundaries of the land as found on the
ground. Diligent search shall be made for old monuments.
Section 787 - In case of minor difference between the plan of the previous
survey and the actual boundaries thereof, the latter maybe accepted provided
the adjoining owners agree thereto and the adjoining lots are not yet
decreed/titled. In case it is evident that areas claimed are clearly outside the
boundaries as registered and not the result of errors of measurement in the
original survey, such areas shall be sketched, surveyed and numbered as
separate lots.
Section 788 - Claims inside patented or decreed properties shall be
disregarded unless supported by an order from the Regional Trial Court for
each specific claim.
In case of leased untitled properties, the adverse claim must be supported by
written authority from the Regional Technical Director for Lands or an order

from the Regional Trial Court for each specific claim before it is considered.
Section 789 The corners of patented, leased, or decreed properties, or of
previous surveys common to two or more adjoining lots shall be monumented
in case the corners were not monumented in the previous survey or in case
the monuments were not found in place. However, this requirement shall not
apply to adjoining approved cadastral projects or to corners of previous
surveys that were not required to be monumented. Corners common to only
one adjoining lot maybe monumented if the owner pays for the cost of
relocating and monumenting the said corners.
Portions of patented, leased, or decreed or previous surveys which form part
of river, estero, arroyo, creek and the mandatory stream bank protection as
stated in Sections 310 to 312 shall be sketched, and later surveyed, as
separate lots and indicated as such in the cadastral maps.

CONFLICTING CLAIMS
Section 790 -In case of disputed ownership, the sketching party shall try to
bring the claimants to an agreement in the field in order to reduce the
number of such conflicting claims. The adverse claimants shall be advised that
the Court will require them to establish their monument of title to such
dispute area.

SKETCH AND SURVEY RECORD CARD


Section 791 Sketching parties shall carry to the field sketch and survey
record cards. One card for each lot shall be prepared by the sketch party and
filled out with the information as required thereon. The spelling of the
claimant's name, his age and community tax certificate number shall be
carefully verified by the sketchman.
Section 792 - A provisional number shall be assigned by the sketchman to
each lot and indicated on the sketch and survey record card. It will be
convenient to assign for the use of one sketchman number 1 to 1,000; to

102

another, number 1001 to 2000; and so on.


Section 793 The date the lot was sketched, the name of the sketchman,
the date of appearance of applicant or agent, etc. must be entered on the
sketch card by the sketchman at the time of sketching. The applicant or his
agent shall be required to sign the certificate relative to sketching on the back
of the card, crossing out the word "survey" in the certificate.
Section 794 - Information pertaining to public, government or mineral land
applications and previous surveys shall be noted in red ink.
Section 795 - As the sketching progresses, the municipal engineer shall be
requested to indicate the centerlines and widths of all streets and roads other
than provincial roads. The corner at the points of intersection of the road and
lot boundary lines shall be monumented.
Section 796 - The District Engineer shall be notified before provincial roads
are monumented. Plans of railroad right-of-way or data on the width thereof
may be secured from the railroad company.
Section 797 - Curves of right-of-way of railways and highways shall be laid
out and monumented as required in Section 300 (a). For other curves of short
radii such as those of streets, circular plazas, etc., the laying out and
monumenting shall depend upon the plans of layout, if any, of the local
authorities.
Section 798 - These sketch and survey record cards shall, after completion,
be placed in the alphabetical file.
Section 799 - These cards shall be duplicated and the duplicate card shall be
placed in the numerical file. The geodetic engineer shall carry the duplicate
cards for completion during the lot survey.
Section 800 - Both cards shall contain the class of land, whether urban or
rural; home lots; agricultural; nature of cultivation such as riceland, copra,
vegetables, etc. the nature of claim, whether titled/patented or public land;
and the prevailing land use in accordance with Lands Management Bureau
prescribed classification scheme.

Section 801 - The claimants of parcels adjoining the project boundaries shall
be notified of the survey and shall be requested to sign the sketch and survey
record cards for their adjoining parcels during the sketching and survey. The
adjoining parcels shall be assigned adjoining lot numbers as prescribed in
Section 923.
Section 802 - A set of index cards to be known as "A" lot cards shall be
prepared for adjoining parcels (A-lots) described in the preceding section
indicating thereon the A-lot number, the names and addresses of the claimant
and his agent and the survey number, if any, of the A-lot.

MONUMENTING OF LOTS
Section 803 - All lot claimants shall be informed of the importance of
monumenting as a far reaching single feature of the cadastral project. The
value and usefulness of the surveys depend upon the permanency of the
work.
Section 804 - Concrete monuments shall be indicated upon the sketch by a
circle; stakes by the points of intersection of the boundaries. Other markers
shall be designated by names and dimensions such as "mango tree, thirty
centimeters in diameter," etc.
Section 805 - Standard concrete monuments shall be manufactured under
the direction of the geodetic engineer in charge of the cadastral project
following the provisions of Sections 272(d) and 282.
Section 806 - Standard concrete monuments defining and marking the
boundaries of cadastral lots shall be numbered consecutively from 1 to 999
preceded by a letter in alphabetical order starting from A: thus A-1, A-999; B999; etc.
Section 807 -The requirements of Sections 269 to 304 shall govern the
momumenting of lots within cadastral projects.

THE FINAL SURVEY

103

NOTIFICATION OF LOT CLAIMANTS PRIOR TO THE FINAL SURVEY


Section 808 - After the lots had been sketched and monumented and before
final lot surveys are inaugurated in a barangay, each lot claimant shall be
notified by survey notification card to appear at the premises on the stated
date of interview for the purpose of verifying the boundaries of his property
as sketched and monumented. The notification card containing the name of
the claimant, the lot number, the location of lot by barangay and the sketch
sheet number shall be delivered, preferably, by members of the party or by
mail.

Section 813 - After the claimants or his authorized representatives have


appeared and approved the lots as monumented, the following notices in
English, Spanish, Filipino and local dialect shall be posted in conspicuous
places throughout the locality and on the municipal building. The notice shall
be referred to as the "30-day notice."

Section 809- A sketch of the lot showing the adjoining lot numbers and their
claimants and the concrete monument numbers shall be drawn in ink on the
survey notification card. The lot owner/claimant shall be advised that no
answer shall be verified during the court hearings for any lot without the
corresponding survey notification card unless sufficient reason is given for its
absence. He shall likewise be advised that in case of any transfer of ownership
the card must be transferred as an integral part of the document of transfer.

All persons claiming land within the barangay of __________________


municipality of ___________________, who have not filed claim to such
parcels of lands in connection with the cadastral survey, are hereby notified to
do so at the office of the cadastral survey party within 30 days from the date
hereof and to give notice or enter such protests as the case may require to
protect their rights as claimants, or to protest against any action of the
geodetic engineer or survey made by him, in default wherefore, it shall be
understood that there are no further claims or pending protests

Section 810 - If claimants are notified by mail they shall be given at least
fifteen days advance notice. The sketches must be available for their
examination on the dates stated in the notification. Checks shall be made to
avoid mistakes in names and boundaries. The geodetic engineer or his
representative shall accompany the claimant to his land and show the
monumented boundaries. The claimant shall be encouraged to indicate his
claim/s. Controversies shall be settled if possible at this stage. The claimant
or his representative shall be requested to sign the duplicate sketch and
survey record card for the lot surveyed.
Section 811 - Before the survey notification card is served to the claimant,
the date and manner of notification shall be entered on the corresponding
sketch and survey record card for the lot in question.
Section 812 -In case a lot number is changed after the claimant has received
his survey notification card, he shall be advised and a new card indicating the
new lot number shall be issued in exchange for the old one.

PUBLIC NOTICE

________________________________
Chief of Party _____________ Cadastre
Cad- _____________

Section 814 - Upon completion of the cadastral survey, one copy of the
notice in each language and in the local dialect shall be forwarded with the
survey returns to the Land Management Services accompanied by the
following certificate:
"I hereby certify that copies of the attached notices were posted in
conspicuous places in the barangay of ________________ on
______________, 19 ______ and on the municipal building of

104

________________.

Section 821 - Whenever possible, corners shall be located by using them as


stations of tertiary controls.

_________________________________
Chief of Party,____________ Cadastre
Cad - ________________

LOT SURVEYS
Section 815 - Upon approval of the main and subsidiary controls and the
completion of lot sketching, monumenting and notification to claimants as
required in Sections 768 to 813, the survey of the individual lots therein shall
be made by conventional ground survey or photogrammetric methods of at
least tertiary precision.

Section 822 - The provisions of Sections 409 to 420 shall be followed,


whenever applicable, in locating corners of lots.
Section 823 -The side shot need not be assigned a final lot corner number at
a time it is recorded. In lieu thereof, a provisional system of numbers may be
assigned to side shots and entered on the sketch, the chain book and the
extreme left margin of the field book. The provisional series/shall be
consecutive from one for each days work.
Section 824 - The sketchman shall indicate the tertiary control on the sketch
sheet. Side shots shall be indicated by radial lines from control stations to
corners, numbering shots consecutively as provided for in the preceding
section.

Section 817- Tertiary stations for each cadastral project shall be numbered
consecutively from one. The numbers 1-1000 may be assigned to one
geodetic engineer for his use; the numbers 1001 to 2000, to a second; the
numbers 2001 to 3000, to a third; and so forth. The unused numbers need
not be accounted for.

Section 825 - The markings of corners on the ground, i.e., by monuments


(old and new), trees, stakes, etc. must be carefully verified and entered in the
field book. The number, if any, and the size of the monument must be entered
in the field book and indicated on the map. If all monuments used are of
standard size, a notation to that effect shall be made on the first page of each
field book giving the dimensions thereof. Old monuments or marks found in
place shall be concisely described indicating clearly and definitely the point to
which the measurement was made.

Section 818 - The sketches shall be carried into the field by the transit party
for the purpose of identifying lots and lot corners. A careful check of all
information thereon must be made.

Section 826 - In case an entry in the field notes is cancelled a notation shall
be made to indicate where the new data will be found. Field notes must be
clear and distinct and full details must be recorded.

Section 819 - The adjoining sketches shall be compared before the survey is
made and duplicate corners checked off. Corners outside the margin of both
sketches shall be included in only one sketch, by a semicircle in ink, to avoid
missing corners and duplication of work. Lot surveys shall be confined to the
interior limits of each sketch which shall be absolutely complete.

Section 827 The date, name of geodetic engineer and number of the
corresponding tape book shall be noted at the top of the first and last pages
of the field notes for each day's work.

Section 816 - If tertiary traverses are used to locate the lot corners, they
shall be run as required in Sections 220 to 228.

Section 820 - A sketchman shall accompany the lot survey party for the
purpose of assisting in the prompt location of lot corners.

Section 828 - The tapeman shall record taping notes on authorized L.M.B.
form. Before leaving the station from which the distances were measured he
shall furnished the geodetic engineer with the measured distances for entry in
the field notes.

105

Section 829 - The geodetic engineer shall take with him to the field the
numerical sketch and survey record card. He shall verify with the lot claimant
the data entered on the card. After completion of the survey, the name of the
geodetic engineer, the name of the claimant or his agent who appeared, the
date of appearance and the date of survey shall be noted on the card. The
signature of claimant or his duly authorized agent must be affixed on the
certificate at the back of the card.
Section 830 - After the lots are surveyed and plotted on the cadastral maps,
a tracing or white prints of each cadastral map shall be made. This shall be
used for verification of lot boundaries and corner marking and posting in the
barangay hall where the land is located. Land owners shall be given thirty
(30) days from the date of posting to report any error or mistake noted on
the white prints or tracings. Any error found in the map shall be corrected
accordingly. Whenever possible, the distance of the lot lines shall be
measured directly.
SURVEY AND REPORT ON PREVIOUSLY APPROVED SURVEYS
Section 831 - The geodetic engineer undertaking the cadastral project shall
secure the data of all previously approved surveys in the cadastral project and
of adjoining properties from the Land Management Services, the Land
Registration Authority, the Registry of Deeds of the province or city, the
landowners who may have the approved tracing cloth plan, the geodetic
engineers and surveying companies. These surveys, including their
subdivisions, shall be indicated in the cadastral survey records.
Section 832 - Tracings or sketches and lot data computations of these
surveys shall be made.
Section 833 The landowner/claimant or his authorized representative shall
be requested to indicate on the ground the corners and boundaries of the
surveyed property claimed by him.
Section 834 - If the boundaries of the property as pointed by the
owner/claimant or his authorized representative conform with the boundaries

as described in the survey or differ slightly therefrom, the previously


approved survey shall be accepted in accordance with Section 787 and
adjusted accordingly in the cadastral survey.
Section 835 - If the boundaries differ substantially and the owner or
claimant is actually claiming additional land, the additional area shall be made
as a separate cadastral lot in accordance with Section 787.
Section 836 - to combine the surveyed area and the additional unsurveyed
area in one cadastral lot, he shall be required to surrender the approved
tracing cloth plan of the survey together with an affidavit requesting the
Regional Technical Director for Lands for the cancellation of the plan. If the
approved tracing cloth plan is lost, he shall be required to submit an affidavit
to that effect and certification of the Land Registration Authority or the Clerk
of Court of the province that the land covered by the said survey plan has not
been the subject of registration proceedings.
Section 837 In case the land previously surveyed has not be titled and the
claimant wants If the claimant voluntarily excludes portion or portions of the
previous survey, the excluded area shall be numbered as separate cadastral
lot. In the case of titled or leased properties, the land owner shall be made to
execute an affidavit relative to the excluded area. ,
Section 838 - Titled and leased properties without technical descriptions;
with technical descriptions but do not form closed polygons; and with
technical descriptions from magnetic surveys shall be resurveyed. The
resurvey shall relocate the corners and boundaries of the property at the
same places where they were originally surveyed on the basis of the data and
the best evidence available.
Section 839 - Claims inside previously approved surveys not yet titled shall
be made as separate lots. Claims inside titled or leased properties shall be
disregarded unless supported by an order from the Regional Trial Court or by
written authority from the Regional Technical Director for Lands, for each
claim in accordance with Section 788.
Section 840 - in case it has been established that there is a definite

106

overlapping between previously approved surveys, the following procedures


shall be followed:
a. When the overlap is between surveys not yet titled or leased, the area in
conflict shall be made as separate cadastral lot;
b. When the overlap is between titled or leased properties, the area in conflict
shall also be made as a separate cadastral lot; and
c. When the overlap is between a titled or leased property and a property
yet leased or titled, the latter shall be amended to exclude therefrom
portion in conflict, except when there is a court order or an order from
Regional Executive Director in case of the leased property, directing
showing of the conflicted area as a separate cadastral lot.

not
the
the
the

Section 841 - Roads and streams included within previously approved


surveys shall be located and assigned separate cadastral lot numbers,
Section 842 -In case the owner or claimant of a property covered by a
previously approved survey within a cadastral project desires changes or
subdivision, he shall secure the authority from the Regional Technical Director
for Lands for each changes.
Section 843 - Common points with previously patented, leased or decreed
surveys situated within cadastral projects shall be located. The area given in
the lease, patent or title shall be accepted as final. The bearings should be
reduced to cadastral bearings either from actual shots on the ground or by
applying correction for convergency. Three or more monumented corners of
the previously approved surveys shall be located for use in comparing and
reducing the system of coordinates of old survey to the cadastral Survey.
After reducing the old survey coordinates, the old survey as reduced shall be
adopted in all computations. The provisions of Section 789 shall be complied
with.
Section 844 - The tie line of the old survey shall be reduced to the grid
system and checked on the cadastral map. However, this tie line need not fix
the location of corner one of the survey unless it cannot be otherwise
identified. Existing monuments, marks occupation or agreement of the owner

and adjoining claimants shall be given preference in determining the location


of this point and other points of the boundary. An old survey shall be
considered adjusted in the cadastral survey if its corners and boundaries are
located in the cadastral system at the same places where they were originally
surveyed.
Section 845 - A report in duplicate on previous survey shall be submitted
with the returns of the cadastral survey. The report shall be accompanied by
tracing plans showing the relation between the previous survey and the
corresponding cadastral lot or lots. Discrepancies found in previously
approved surveys of undecreed lots shall be mentioned in the report and
indicated in red ink on the lot data computation of the cadastral lot or lots.
Section 846 - This report shall be in the following form:
REPORT ON PREVIOUS SURVEYS
B.L. SURVEY................. L.R.C., NO, _____________________
Lots.........................

Surveyed for ____________________

Lots............................. Claimed by _____________________


Corners ...................... recovered. Additional land claimed along
lines ..................... or land excluded along lines....................... and all
other corners practically relocated. Tie line checked.

_______________________________
Chief of Party, ____________Cadastre
Section 847- The report on adjoining cadastre shall be made as follows :
( 712)
REPORT ON ADJOINING CADASTRE
Cad- ____________________________, Case _____________________
Corner Nos. _________________________________________________
recovered, Corner Nos. data found erroneous and subdivision made to include
portion of Lot No. ____________of Case No. ____________in Cad

107

___________________etc.

Section 848 - The adjustment/transformation of the boundaries of adjoining


cadastre shall be made in accordance with instructions to be issued by the
Director of Lands Management Bureau and/or the RTD for Lands,
Section 849 - Each report shall be signed by the Chief of the cadastral
project. The duplicate computations and report must be clear and complete.
This shall be given to the geodetic engineer assigned to assist the Court at
the hearing of the cadastral case.
Section 850 - Computations of previous surveys located within a cadastral
project which were furnished to the survey party must be preserved without
erasures, corrections or other notations thereon and must be returned to the
Land Management Services together with the returns of the cadastral survey.
Section 851 - Prints or tracings of previously approved surveys shall be
marked in red ink to indicate changes in the boundaries thereof as agreed
upon by the owners/claimants.

PUBLIC LANDS WITHIN CADASTRAL PROJECTS


Section 852 - All public land claims within a cadastral project shall be
surveyed subject to the limitations as prescribed in Chapter X, Part II of this
Manual, for each class of claim, such as homestead, lease, sale, etc., as the
case may be.
Foreshore lands, whether covered or not by appropriate public applications
shall be sketched, monumented, and surveyed #s separate cadastral lots.
Section 853 - Public land claims for which final inspection has been made
and approved shall be monumented and surveyed.
Section 854 - Information relative to illegal or unauthorized occupation or
claim on public land shall be gathered.
Section 855 - Chiefs of cadastral projects must make special reconnaissance

work to determine the extent of public lands within their projects.


Section 856 - In case private claims extend beyond the limit of cultivation
and occupation, investigation shall be made to determine the nature of the
claims. Report thereon shall be submitted to the Regional Technical Director
for Lands. A brief of the report shall be noted on the back of the sketch and
survey record card for the corresponding lot.
Section 857 - Claimants/occupants of lands of the public domain classified as
alienable and disposable shall be advised to file the appropriate public land
applications. In any case, the land shall be surveyed,
Section 858 - Claimants/occupants of lands of the public domain which are
classified as alienable and disposable may obtain advance plans of cadastral
lots upon payment of cadastral cost and related fees for use in voluntary
judicial registration. Advance plan shall be issued only after approval of the
cadastral survey or the particular case where the lot is located. The name of
the original cadastral lot or survey claimant shall be maintained in the
advance plan and it must faithfully reflect the cadastral records. No advance
plan shall be issued for one or more lots of the many lots of an original
isolated survey as all the lots shall be the subject of one registration case.
Section 859 - Upon completion of each cadastral project, a report, including
a list of lots applied for under the provisions of the Public Land Act in
numerical order, the names and addresses of the applicants and the kinds of
numbers of their applications shall be submitted to the Regional Technical
Director for Lands. Another report on the lots claimed as private property
within the public land area, giving the names of the claimants, the nature of
their claims, and the improvements made by them shall be submitted. All
relevant information tending to prove that the land is of the public domain
and the names and addresses of witnesses who can testify to this effect must
be gathered and submitted to the Regional Technical Director for Lands.
Section 860 - Private claims inside unclassified areas also called public forest
shall not be surveyed except with written authority from the Regional
Executive Director,

108

Section 861 - In case a lot claimant agrees to file an appropriate public land
application, he shall be furnished the necessary blank form which may be
obtained from the Community Environment and Natural Resources Office
(CENRO) and assisted in accomplishing the same. The application shall show
the cadastral lot number applied for and the nature of the application shall be
noted on the sketch and survey record card of the lot.
Section 862 - If the claimant is disqualified to file an application because of
restrictions imposed by the law or regulation, but insists on his claim of
private ownership, the boundaries as claimed shall be sketched, monumented
and surveyed if covered with a written authority as provided in Section 860.
The geodetic engineer shall indicate on the sketch plan the nature of the
vegetation such as virgin forest, second growth timber, cogon etc., and the
location and nature of cultivation on any portion thereof. The information shall
be placed on the cadastral map and on the supplementary index cards as
provided for in the following section.
Section 863 - A supplementary index card shall be prepared and the
required information shall be secured from the claimants and entered
thereon.
Section 864 - The following form for a supplementary card is suggested:
REPORT OF OCCUPATION OF PUBLIC LANDS
Survey No.________________________, ________________
Province Lot No. ___________ Claimant _________________
Area cultivated to _________Has., Forest ____________ Has., Second
growth
__________Has,,
Cogon
___________Has.
Occupied
since
____________Cultivated
since____________Has.
Claims
Title
by
______________Muniments of Title____________
Remarks:
_________________________________

Cad- _____________________
Other pertinent information may be included in the report.
Section 865 - The names and addresses of the adjoining owners and their
testimonies on the occupation and cultivation shall be written on the reverse
side of the card. The card shall be submitted to the Land Management
Services.
A list of "Claims of Doubtful Validity" shall also be prepared showing parcel
numbers and names of the claimants. This list shall be signed by the chief of
survey party and submitted together with the survey returns.
Section 866 - A numerical list on foreshore land sketched, monumented and
surveyed as required in Section 852 indicating the areas, application numbers
and cadastral map numbers shall be prepared in triplicate and submitted
together with the survey returns for the cadastral case.
Upon completion of the sketching of the occupied lands within the cadastre, a
report on public lands suitable for agriculture that may be applied for in the
near future and on public lands which are very mountainous or otherwise not
adopted for agricultural purposes shall be submitted to Regional Technical
Director for Lands.
Section 867 - A graphical representation of these areas shall be made on the
progress map similar to those map illustrating the area sketched and
surveyed.
Section 868 - Public lands within cadastral projects may be subdivided for
distribution to interested applicants in accordance with special instructions,
provided, the applicants are qualified under the Public Land Act.
Section 869 - The subdivision shall be made to form rectangular lots and
shall have as few corners as possible. All corners shall be monumented.
Section 870 - Public lands not desired to be subdivided shall be sketched,
monumented and surveyed as a single cadastral lot.

Chief of Party, ______________ Cadastre

109

GOVERNMENT LANDS WITHIN CADASTRAL PROJECTS


Section 871 -All government lands included within cadastral projects shall be
sketched, monumented and surveyed and assigned cadastral lot numbers.
Section 872 - Information on national, provincial or municipal government
lands within a cadastral project shall be secured from the officials concern
Section 873 - A list of national, provincial and municipal government lands
within the project shall be prepared and submitted together with the survey
returns of the project. This list shall be arranged in numerical order of
cadastral lot numbers assigned to government land, indicating the name of
the owner or claimants such as "National Government" or "Provincial
Government" or "Municipal Government".

established in these areas and BLLMs are established in accordance with


Sections 117 and 122.
Section 877 - The Pls or Gss shall be plotted on the cadastral map as one big
lot. For this purpose, the Pls or Gss boundary data shall be transformed into
the system of the cadastre.
Section 878 - Unless otherwise required in the survey order, such as in the
transformation into the PPCS-TM/PRS 92, the individual lots of the public land
subdivision or of the Gss shall not be plotted on the cadastral map.

PHYSIOGRAPHIC FEATURES
Section 879 - The provisions of Chapter VI on Physiographic Features, shall
be strictly followed in cadastral surveys.

MINERAL LANDS WITHIN CADASTRAL PROJECTS


Section 874 - All patented mineral lands within a cadastral project shall be
surveyed as regular lots of the project in accordance with the plan of each
survey as approved. All other mineral land surveys shall be projected by their
tie lines or by coordinates and indicated on the cadastral maps by dotted line.
Section 875 - A list of cadastral lots equivalent to patented mineral land
surveys and another list of other mineral land surveys within the project shall
be prepared in numerical order and submitted together with the survey
returns of the project. These lists shall indicate the mineral land survey
numbers and the owners or claimants thereof.

PUBLIC LAND SUBDIVISION AND GROUP SETTLEMENT SURVEYS


WITHIN THE CADASTRAL PROJECT
Section 876 - The main control of the cadastral project shall traverse public
land subdivision (PIs) or group settlement surveys (Gss) within the cadastral
project. Recoverable BLLMs, boundary monuments (MBMs and BBMs) shall be
made part of the cadastral main control. When there are no recovered BLLMs
or boundary monuments in the Pls or Gss, main control points shall be

ADVANCE SURVEYS
Section 880 - Advance survey of a lot pertains to the preparation of the
isolated survey returns of cadastral lots that are not yet verified and approved
or its field survey, if not yet surveyed; provided the project controls have
been approved. Chiefs of cadastral survey parties must discourage requests
for advance surveys of parcels located within the project unless the need of
the claimant for such survey is sufficiently urgent and the applicant is willing
to bear the expenses, in which case, the following procedure shall be adopted.
The survey of the property in question shall be made after the primary and
secondary controls of the project have been completed, verified and
approved. Said property and all contiguous properties shall be plotted on the
cadastral maps. Tracings shall be made from the cadastral maps showing
adjoining owners, markings of all corners and the tie lines. Geodetic
engineer's certificate shall be prepared from the sketch and survey record
card and signed by the chief of project. Lot data computations, in duplicate,
shall be prepared and checked.
Section 881 - Advance surveys shall be made only after a written authority

110

has been granted by the Regional Executive Director upon recommendation of


the Regional Technical Director for Lands.
Section 882 - The cost of the advance survey computed in accordance with
the authorized charges for isolated land surveys shall be deposited with the
DENR Regional Cashier before each survey is made.

shall be made in accordance with the provisions of Sections 189 to 204, 215
to 219, 238 to 241, 326 to 340, 344 to 348. Only approved survey controls
computations shall be used for lot data computations.

CADASTRAL LOT NUMBERS

Section 883 - The project chief shall indicate the class and survey number
assigned to the advance survey on the cadastral maps, lot data computation
sheets, sketch and survey record card.

Section 889 - The lots situated within each city, municipality or settlement
shall be numbered consecutively from one, preferably in a clockwise direction
for each project.

Section 884 - Each contested area of parcel shall be made a separate lot.

Section 890 When the cadastral project comprises only a portion of a city
or municipality, the numbering shall begin consecutively from one to the last
number for the project.

Section 885 - In case of cadastral projects assigned to and undertaken by


geodetic engineers in private practice, advance surveys may be authorized
subject to the terms and conditions agreed upon by the interested parties and
the geodetic engineers. However, if the project is covered by a contract with
the DENR, the cost of the advance survey shall be paid to the DENR Regional
Office. The requirement of Section 739 shall be strictly complied. The survey
returns shall be submitted to the Land Management Services for verification
and approval.
Section 886 - In case the survey returns of the cadastral case of the project
are already submitted for verification and approval, in compliance with the
requirements of Sections 740 and 741, the advance survey shall be prepared
and submitted based on the certified extra copies of the submitted survey.

Section 891 - When the cadastral survey of the remaining unsurveyed


portions of the city or municipality is made, the cadastral lot number shall
begin from the number next to the highest lot number of the previously
surveyed portions.
Section 892 - When portions of a completed project are transferred by law
to the jurisdiction of an adjoining city or municipality, the numbers assigned
to the lots comprised within the transferred portion shall not be used in the
other remaining portion of the cadastral survey of the city or municipality.
Section 893 - In the case of coal leases, coal revocable permits or petroleum
leases, lot numbers shall be assigned only when the tract is not within any
public or private land claims.

CHAPTER XVI - CADASTRAL COMPUTATIONS AND MAPS


ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS

LOT DATA COMPUTATIONS

Section 887 - All computations of azimuths, time, latitude, etc. shall be


made in accordance with the provisions of Sections 77 to 109 and 326 to 335.

Section 894 - The chief of the cadastral survey party or his Geodetic
engineers shall prepare lot data computations in two copies on the prescribed
Lands Management Bureau forms as stated in Section 341. Corners of each
lot shall be numbered consecutively from one in a clockwise direction. The
description and coordinates of the tie point shall be indicated thereon.

POINTS OF CONTROL
Section 888 - The computations of primary, secondary and tertiary controls

111

Section 895 - When one or more small lots are entirely inside a big lot and
the boundaries of the former do not coincide with the boundaries of the latter,
the corners of the big lot shall be numbered in such a way that in computing
the area of the big lot the areas of the small lots shall automatically be
excluded. The big lot may, however, by divided into smaller lots so that no lot
will be inside another lot.

be used as the tie point to corner one of each lot. No tie line should exceed
one thousand (1,000) meters in length.

Section 896 - In the preparation of lot data sheets for cadastral surveys,
when previously executed surveys are accepted and cadastral lots are made
equivalent thereto, the corners of the cadastral lot which are equivalent to the
corners of the previous survey shall be referred to the previous survey, giving
the corner and survey number. Corners of lots of a lower cadastral number
that are common or equivalent to the corners of surveys mentioned herein
shall be referred to the cadastral lot and not to the previously executed
survey. The survey number of the previous survey, shall in all cases, be noted
in red ink on the lot data computation sheet.

Section 900 - Lot data computation sheets shall be plainly marked with their
respective lot numbers and bound in consecutive order in books of not moro
than 100 lots

Section 897 - In all cases, except as stated earlier, lots having higher
cadastral lot numbers shall be referred to those lots having lower cadastral lot
numbers bearing the original data when equivalent corners are given on the
lot data sheet.
Section 898 - To save time in copying data of previously approved surveys
and transforming their coordinates to the system of the cadastral survey, the
method outlined below may be followed:
Example:

The kind of reference point used, its number, and grid coordinates shall be
placed in the proper column of the lot data computation sheet or lot
description sheet. The bearings and distances of the tie lines shall be
computed and doubly checked.

Section 901 - The computed grid coordinates of each lot corner shall be
checked against its plat on the cadastral maps to verify the accuracy of
computations, plotting and numbering of lot corners.
Section 902 All intersections of property lines with the boundaries of the
project and with titled or leased properties shall be computed, coordinated
and monumented.
Section 903 - If the areas of lots covered by public land applications are
within the prescribed maximum, the exact areas thereon shall be computed.
Section 904 - Any excess area may either be included in the adjoining lot
provided the maximum area for such lot is not exceeded or be considered as
a separate lot available for disposition. In the latter case, the portions to be
excluded shall be those which have not been improved or those which have
the least improvement.

If corners 1 and 2, Lot 927 are equivalent to corners 3 and 4 of Lot 3, Il1224, corners 1 and 2 of the former shall be referred directly and made
equivalent to corners 3 and 4 of the latter. Assuming that line 1 to 2 of Lot
927 is common to line 2 to 1 Lot 923, corners 2 and 1 of the latter shall be
made equivalent to corners 1 and 2 of the former, instead of corners 3 and 4
of Lot 3, Il-1224.

Section 905 - A brief description of the corner marks such as "Tree", "P.S.",
"Stone", "Rock", etc. and the concrete monument number corresponding to
each corner shall be indicated at the proper column of the lot data
computation sheet.

Section 899 - The nearest provincial, municipal, or barangay boundary


monument; BLLM or BLBM, or Global Positioning System-PRS 92 station, shall

Section 907 - A project or municipal boundary computation in duplicate shall


be prepared from all the barangay boundary computations of the project.

Section 906 - A case or barangay boundary computation in duplicate shall be


prepared for each cadastral case as required in Section 784.

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MAPS
PROJECT CONTROL MAP
Section 908 - The project control map of the cadastral project shall be
prepared on a reproducible material of stable base such as drafting film 0.003
inch with polyester or mylar base. This map shall be submitted to the Lands
Management Bureau together with the approved survey control returns
Section 909 - The project control map shall be prepared at any appropriate
scale that will allow the plotting of the entire municipality/project on a 54 x 54
centimeters with marginal lines of 50 x 50 centimeters. This shall
show/contain the following:

Province of

__________________________________________

Island of

__________________________________________

Scale
Scale)

1:________________________________________ (Graphical

PPCS-PTM/PRS 92 Zone No.


Surveyed

: From _______________________to _____________


_____________________________
Project Chief

POLITICAL BOUNDARY CONTROL MAP

(a) BCGS and BL triangulation stations; GPS-PRS 92 stations


(b) Primary control stations
(c) Secondary control stations
(d) BL Location Monuments
(e) Astronomical observation stations
(f) Other recoverable points of reference in the project
(g) Grid lines and plane coordinates; scale

Section 911 - The political boundary control map of the cadastral project
shall be prepared on a reproducible material of stable base as stated in
Section 908 approved for official use by the Lands Management Bureau. This
map shall be submitted to the Land Management Services together with the
approved political boundary control computations. A copy of this map shall be
forwarded to the Lands Management Bureau.

(i) Adjoining political subdivisions and survey projects

Section 912 - The political boundary control map shall be prepared at any
appropriate scale that will allow the plotting of the entire municipality/project
on 54 x 54 centimeters with marginal lines of 50 x 50 centimeters. This shall
show/contain the following information:

Section 910 - The project control map shall be titled as follows:

(a) BCGS and BL triangulation stations, GPS-PRS 92 stations

(h) Graticule lines and tick marks and geographic coordinates

(b) Primary control stations


(c) Secondary control stations
PROJECT CONTROL MAP OF
CAD ___________
Municipality of

_____________________________________

(d) BL Location Monuments


(e) Other recoverable points of reference in the project
(f) Grid lines and plane coordinates

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(g) Graticule lines and geographic coordinates; scale

accessible to transportation.

(h) Political subdivisions (Barangay) of the project and monuments

Section 916 - The progress map shall be prepared at a scale that will permit
the plotting of the entire municipality or project on 104 x 104 centimeters,
with marginal lines of 100 x 100 centimeters, and shall show the following:

(i) Important streams, rivers, lakes, roads, and railroad lines


(j) Forest lands and marshy lands
(k) Large tracts of lands such as haciendas and reservations, parks and other
protected areas

(a) BCGS and BL triangulation stations


(b) Primary control stations

(l) Bounded project area and aggregate areas of numbered cadastral lots.

(c) Secondary control stations

Section 913 - The political boundary control map shall be titled in the same
manner as prescribed in Section 910 except that instead of Project Control
Map Political Boundary Control Map shall be used. All other information
remain the same.

(d) BL Location Monuments

Section 914 - When the political boundary control survey returns together
with the project control survey returns are to be submitted to the Land
Management Services, for verification and approval, the political subdivisions
and corresponding monument numbers may be projected on the project
control map. This shall be titled as Project and Political Boundary Control Map.
All the other information as prescribed in Sections 909 and 912 shall likewise
be shown. Otherwise, a separate political boundary control map as prescribed
in Section 912 shall be prepared.

PROGRESS MAP
Section 915 - The progress map based on the control survey of the project
shall be made on reproducible material of stable base approved for use by the
Land Management Bureau. A white print copy of the progress map shall be
submitted once every three months to the Land Management Services
together with the periodic report for information on the progress of the
survey. The progress map for the cadastral survey of a portion of the
municipality shall have a location plan drawn to an appropriate scale. It shall
indicated the approximate distance of the project from the poblacion of the
municipality or center of the city and shall show the nearest place or point

(e) Astronomical observation stations /*


(f) Other recoverable points of reference in the project
(g) Grid lines and plane coordinates, scale
(h) Graticule lines and geographic coordinates
(i) Political subdivisions of the project and monuments
(j) Important streams, rivers, lakes, roads, and railroad lines
(k) Forest lands and marshy lands
(I) Large tracts as haciendas and reservations
(m) Adjoining political subdivisions and survey projects
(n) Other pertinent information
Section 917 - The progress map shall contain a table showing the totals for
each class of work accomplished for each month.
Section 918 - The monthly progress of sketching, monumenting and lot
surveys shall be shown separately on the progress map by miniature
sketches.
Section 919 - The progress map shall be titled in a manner similar to that
prescribed in Section 910 except that instead of Project Control Map the title
Progress Map shall be used.

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Section 920 - The progress map shall be prepared in accordance with the
prescribed form and layout.
CADASTRAL MAPS
Section 921 - Cadastral lots and other details of the cadastral survey shall
be plotted on cadastral maps on reproducible materials of stable base
approved for use by the Lands Management Bureau on 54 x 54 centimeters
with marginal lines of 50 x 50 centimeters prepared in accordance with the
Philippine Plane Coordinate System-Transverse Mercator/Philippine Reference
System 1992.
Section 922 - The names of claimants, the numbers of the concrete
monument and the description of lot corners shall be indicated on the
cadastral map except when space limitation does not permit it. The respective
lot numbers shall, in every case, be indicated thereon as nearly as possible in
consecutive and regular order.
Section 923 - Cadastral maps shall show the names of all claimants
adjoining the project boundaries as well as the lines between the adjoining
claims which shall be drawn in dash line. Adjoining unsurveyed parcels shall
be assigned consecutive numbers beginning from 1 in a clockwise direction.
These numbers shall be preceded by the letter "A", as A-1, A-2, etc. Adjoining
approved surveys shall be indicated by the lot and corresponding survey
number and name of claimant.
Section 924 - When a cadastral lot covers an area previously patented,
leased or surveyed, the relationship of the lot to the previous survey shall be
indicated on the cadastral map as follows:
(a) When the cadastral lot is equivalent to a previously approved survey, both
the cadastral number and the number of the previously approved survey shall
be shown.
(b) If the previous survey has been subdivided, the plat of the corresponding
subdivision lots shall bear the cadastral numbers and words "Portion of Lot
Survey No. L.R.C., Case No. . . .

(c) When the accepted boundaries of the cadastral lot cause rejection of the
former survey of untitled property, the cadastral plat of such lot bear the
notation.
"Resurveyed, Lot, Survey No. "
(d) The Land Registration Case (L.R.C.) number shall be noted on the plat for
all lots previously registered or for which application for registration has been
made when the numbers of the case can be positively determined.
Section 925 -The local names of natural features such as mountains and all
bodies of water, rivers, esteros, arroyos, shall be ascertained, the spelling
verified and their names indicated on the progress and cadastral maps. The
names of barangays shall be indicated within their respective boundaries.
Section 926 - Control stations shall be plotted by coordinates and side shots
therefrom, by protractor and scale or by drafting machine, if available.
Section 927 - When two adjoining cadastral projects are in progress at the
same time, the cadastral maps showing their common boundaries shall be
plotted first. Each survey party shall trace the data plotted on the cadastral
maps of the other survey party. These tracings shall be submitted together
with the survey returns of the cadastral project.

LOT AND CASE/BARANGAY BOUNDARY DESCRIPTIONS


Section 928 - Lot and Case/Barangay Boundary Descriptions in prescribed
LMB form shall be prepared for all lots and case/boundary of each cadastral
case after final verification of the corresponding lot data and case/barangay
boundary computations.

CASE/BARANGAY BOUNDARY AND INDEX MAPS


Section 929 - For each cadastral case formed in Section 784, a
case/barangay boundary and index map shall be prepared from the
case/barangay boundary computation as required in Section 906 and from the

115

pertinent cadastral, sectional cadastral and contiguous cadastral maps. This


shall be drawn at a convenient scale om drafting film or other stable
transparent material approved for use by Land Management Bureau in the
same size as cadastral map of 54 x 54 centimeters with marginal lines of 50 x
50 centimeters.

q) Grid lines and plane coordinates.

Section 930 - The case/barangay boundary and index map shall show the
following:

t) Important streams, rivers, lakes, roads, and railroad lines.

a) Lands Management Bureau survey number.

v) Location monuments and geodetic control station

b) Cadastral case number.

w) Residential sites and settlements.

c) Location of the land.

x) Large tracts such as haciendas, forest


reservations, protected areas, ancestral claims.

d) Aggregate area and number of parcels in the alienable and disposable and
the forest lands of the case; case boundary are
e) Scale (numerical and graphical).
f) Date of survey.
g) Legal authority.
h) Name and signature of the project chief; Professional GE License No.
i) Date of approval.
j) Names and signatures of recommending and approving Land Management
Services Officials.
k) PPCS-PTM/PRS 92 zone number and point of origin

r) Graticule lines and geographic coordinates.


s) Cadastral map sheet number, sectional and contiguous cadastral map
numbers

u) Political boundaries and monuments.

lands,

marshy lands and

y) Pertinent notes.
The bearing and distance of the tie line of the case/barangay boundary shall
originate from BLLM No. 1 of the project to corner 1 of the case/barangay.
Section 931 - The corners of the case/barangay boundary shall be indicated
by circles one (1) millimeter in diameter except corners defined by political
boundary monuments. Appropriate survey symbols shall be used.
Section 932 The technical descriptions of the case or barangay boundary
shall be prepared and submitted after the approval by the Regional Technical
Director for Lands of the cadastral maps and the case or barangay boundary
and index map.

l) Tie point and tie line


m) Bearings and distances of the boundary lines except when too numerous
to be tabulated on the map.
n) Description of each corner as marked on the ground.
o) Adjoining properties, surveys and names of claimants or owners of
adjoining properties.
p) Adjoining political subdivisions.

PROJECT/MUNICIPAL BOUNDARY AND INDEX MAPS


Section 933 - After the completion of all the case/boundary and index maps
of the project, a project or municipal boundary and index map shall be
prepared. This shall be based on the data of the regular progress map, the
case/boundary and index map, and the project or municipal boundary
computation required in Section 907. This shall be drawn at a convenient
scale on a stable material in the same size of cadastral map 54 x 54

116

centimeters with marginal lines of 50 x 50 centimeters.

u) Location monuments and geographic control stations.

Section 934 - The project/municipal boundary and index map shall serve as
an index of case/barangay boundary index maps. It shall define the boundary
of the project/municipality and shall show the following:

v) Residential sites and settlements.

a) Lands Management Bureau survey number.

x) Pertinent notes

b) Location of the project.

The bearing and distance of the tie line shall be determined from BLLM No. 1
to corner 1 of the project/municipality. The boundary lines of the
project/municipality shall be included in the lot descriptions of the last
case/barangay if the same cannot be tabulated on the map.

c) Aggregate area and number of parcels in the alienable and disposable and
the forest lands in the project/ municipality; case boundary area
d) Scale (numerical and graphical).
e) Date of survey
f) Legal authority.
g) Name and signatures of the Chief of Party; Professional GE License number
h) Date of approval of the project survey.
i) Names and signatures of the recommending and approving officials.

w) Large tracts such as hacienda, forest


reservations, ancestral claims, protected areas

lands,

marshy

lands

and

Section 935 - Corners of the project municipal boundary shall be indicated


by circles one (1) millimeter in diameter except corners defined by political
boundary monuments. Appropriate survey symbols shall be used.
Section 936 - In all of the foregoing maps mentioned in Section 908 to 934
prescribed survey symbols shall be used. The correct numbers of all points of
reference shall be properly indicated.

j) PPCS-PTM/PRS 92 zone number and point of origin.


k) Tie point and tie line.
l) Bearings and distances of the boundary lines except when too numerous to
be tabulated on the map.
m) Description of each corner and the tie point.
n) Adjoining surveys and political subdivisions.

CHAPTER XVII - PROJECT RECORDS AND REPORTS


FIELD BOOKS

o) Case number and name of barangay.


p) Grid lines and plane coordinates,
q) Graticule lines and geographic coordinates.
r) Mountain ranges and peaks.
s) Important streams, rivers, lakes, roads and rail roads.
t) Political boundary lines and monuments and numbers.

Section 937 - The following groups of field notes shall contain all the records
of the different phases of the survey work. These field notes shall be grouped
as follows:
(a) Astronomical observation books.
(b) Primary angle book/s.

117

(c) Primary distance books.

4. Location monuments

(d) Secondary azimuth book/s.

(b) Political boundary controls

(e) Secondary distance book/s.

(c) Tertiary control computation books

(f) Reference book for primary stations, location monuments and political
boundary monuments.

(d) Intersection and other reference computation books

(g) Certification of geographic positions of GPS/PRS92 stations used in the


survey.

(f) Old survey computation books - one copy

(h) Lot survey books.


Section 938 - Field notes shall be bound in hard field book cover made on
prescribed cardboard material for records preservation and shelf filing. The
number and name of the survey and the number of the field book shall be
indicated on the cover. The pages of each book shall be numbered
consecutively from one to not more than 150 pages which shall be written on
the upper right hand corner of the right face of the fieldnotes. The date when
the data were observed and recorded, the names of the observer and
recorder shall be entered on each page of the field book and all other blanks
shall be filled up accordingly. The field notes cover mentioned in Section 459
shall be completely accomplished and notarized and included as the preface of
each field book.

COMPUTATION BOOKS
Section 939 - All computations shall be grouped into two sets of books. One
set shall consist of all original and the other set shall consist of all duplicate
computations. Each set shall consist of the following books:
(a) Main and subsidiary control computation books of
1. Astronomical observations
2. Primary controls
3. Secondary controls

(e) Lot data computation books

Each book shall be bound in hard cloth book cover made on prescribed
cardboard material for shelf filing. It shall be properly labelled, indicating
original or duplicate as the case may be, the book number, survey number,
and name of project, and project chief/contractor.

MONUMENT DESCRIPTION BOOK


Section 940 Monument description book shall be prepared on the
prescribed L.M.B. form. It shall describe all recovered triangulation stations,
BLLM's, primary control stations and political boundary monuments and all
recovered points of reference as prescribed in Section 38. Each class of
monuments shall be entered separately in their numerical order.
Section 941 - Each monument shall be fully described, indicating the
markings, dimensions, general location (municipality and barangay) and the
surrounding features such as rivers, roads, hills, houses, streets, etc. The
coordinates as determined in the cadastral survey, the cadastral map on
which each monument falls and the grid azimuths and distances to the
nearest reference monuments or other objects and control stations shall be
indicated. Each kind of point of reference shall be grouped together and
arranged in increasing numerical order.
Section 942 - The page and field book number where the azimuths and
distances are entered to determine the location of the monument shall be
indicated on the form. All data shall be entered in black drawing ink and
checked and initialed by the chief of project.

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CHAPTER II- INAUGURATION OF SURVEY


GEODETIC ENGINEER CERTIFICATE
Section 943 A geodetic engineer's certificate, prepared on LMB prescribed
form, each bearing original signatures shall be prepared for each
case/barangay, signed by the chief of party, dry sealed, and duly notarized
and submitted as part of the survey returns. The certificate shall contain the
names of claimants of adjoining parcels (A- lots) listed in numerical order of
said adjoining parcels. The manner and date of notification relative to
contested lots shall be noted in the certificate.

FINAL REPORT ON THE PROJECT


Section 944 - A final report shall be prepared in the manner of a technical
report writing after the completion of each cadastral project. The final report
shall be in three hardbound copies made on standard size bond paper and
double spaced. Two copies shall be for the LMB Library and the third copy for
the LMS.
Section 945 - The final report on the project shall include the following:
CHAPTER I - THE PROJECT PROFILE
(a) Geographical location - Name of locality, important natural features such
as rivers, lakes, mountains, etc. with their local names.
(b) Demography - Approximate number of inhabitants, statistics on births and
deaths, natives and foreigners, local dialects, religions, schools, etc.
(c) Local history - Important historical events, places, monuments, etc.
(d) Government - Organization of local government, names of local officials.
(e) Commerce and industry - Industrial and commercial enterprises

(a) Authority and order of survey, dialogues with local and other national
officials, establishment of field office, general mobilization of personnel,
equipment and other resources, posting of notices, formal inauguration
ceremonies showing the attendance and participation of local officials and the
public.
CHAPTER III THE SURVEY
(a) Describe local conditions, difficulties, etc., encountered in establishing
base meridian, primary and secondary controls and sketching, monumenting
and lot surveys, etc.
(b)Describe methods of work which had been devised to meet local
conditions. Influenced final results in surveying operations, etc.
(c)Analyze results of the work, describe conditions which mayy have
influenced final results in surveying operations, etc.
(d)Describe in general matters regarding political boundary questions,
conflicts, etc.
CHAPTER IV- LAND QUESTIONS
(a) Describe conditions of land ownership; tenural structure, impact of land
reform.
(b) Describe the situation with regards to public, government and mineral
lands, general or special problems or questions affecting administration or the
land resources.
CHAPTER V - PARTY ADMINISTRATION
(a) Organization/staffing
(b) List of all officials and employees engaged in the work including tapeman,
sketchman and surveymen,
(c) Methods of work, field and office.
(d) Equipment, supplies and appropriations.

119

(e) Summary of statistics of the survey such as the number of barangays,


total number of lots, aggregate area, number of lots and area in each
case/barangay and others listed in item (d) of Section 930; inclusive dates of
survey; personnel turnover

(b) Lot corners on cadastral maps as plotted by coordinates versus by drafting


machine or by scale and protractor
(c) Previous surveys versus cadastral lots

(f) Project cost data


(g) Project management plan and other matters which may be deemed
worthy of mention
PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION
Section 946 -Before transmitting the survey records to the Regional
Technical Director for Lands, the verification required in Section 839 must be
performed.

TRANSMITTAL OF SURVEY RECORDS


Section 947 - The survey returns of the main and subsidiary controls
consisting of the project control/map, field books, computation books, and
other miscellaneous records shall be submitted ahead to the Regional
Technical Director for Lands for verification and approval.

The following shall also be checked:


1. COMPUTATIONS

After the completion of the cadastral survey, the following survey records
shall be carefully packed, labelled and submitted to the Regional Technical
Director for Lands:

Original versus duplicate

1. FIELD NOTES AND COMPUTATIONS

(a) Astronomical observations

(a) All the field books as grouped in Section 937.

(b) Lot data preparation for new lots and adjusted computations for
previously approved surveys

(b) All the computation books mentioned in Section 939,

(c) Tie lines and grid coordinates of tie points


(d) Tertiary controls
2. SURVEY CARDS
(a) Names of barangay or districts and cadastral map numbers versus data in
the cadastral maps.

(c) Duplicate computations of all previous surveys.


2. MAPS
(a) Progress map
(b) Cadastral maps
(c) Political Boundary Control Map

(b) Original versus duplicate sketch and survey record cards.

(d) Case/barangay boundary and index map

(c) Data on cards versus data on lot data computations.

(e) Project/municipal boundary and index map

3. DRAFTING

(f) Set of prints of cadastral maps used to verify the work as required in
Section 830

(a) Connections of corners of lots in accordance with the results obtained


from the verification required in Section 830

(g) Tracing or prints of previous surveys

120

3. SURVEY CARDS
(a) Numerical and alphabetical set of sketch and survey record cards
(b) One set of A "lot cards, required in Section 802.
4. REPORTS, LISTS AND OTHER PAPERS
(a) Certification of public notices
(b) Sheets of "30-day" notice in duplicate

is by freight, two shipments must be made. The shipment must be under two
different bills of lading, on different dates and must be properly insured.
Section 949 -The first shipment shall contain the field notes, maps, original
computations, reports and one set of sketch and survey record cards. The
second shipment shall contain the sketches, duplicate computations and
remaining papers or records of the project. Personal submittal is encouraged
for security.

(c) Reports in duplicate on all previous surveys


(d) Reports in triplicate on all public, government and mineral land
applications and corresponding cadastral lot numbers
(e) Geodetic engineer's certificate in quadruplicate required in Section 943
(f) List in duplicate of previous surveys equal to cadastral lots, accepted and
amended
(g) List in triplicate of unclaimed lots within the project and of doubtful claims
to be opposed by the National Government during registration
(h) List in triplicate of all public, government and mineral land claims within
the project
(i) List in triplicate of foreshore lands
(j) Monument description book mentioned in Section 940 to 942
(k) Project cost book (as for administration projects)
(I) Final report on the project in triplicate with hard book cover
(m) Boundary descriptions of lots, case/barangay and project/ municipality
(n) Technical descriptions of the case/barangay boundary in quadruplicate
(o) Two (2) sets of alphabetical and numerical list of claimants in
quadruplicate
Section 948 - Cadastral survey returns shall be forwarded to the Land
Management Services of the concerned DENR-Regional Office. If the delivery

COMPLETION OF CADASTRAL SKETCHING AND GRAPHICAL CADASTRE


Section 950 - Cadastral sketching and graphical cadastral projects may be
converted into, or completed as, numerical cadastral projects by performing
the remaining phases of each cadastral operation.
Section 951 - The completion/conversion survey shall be undertaken upon
issuance of a survey order by the Regional Executive Director/Regional
Technical Director for Lands. The original cadastral survey number assigned to
the cadastral sketching or graphical cadastre shall be retained minus the
letters "P", "M" or "S", as the case may be.
Section 952 - In the conversion of cadastral sketching and cadastral or
photo cadastral mapping projects to numerical cadastral surveys, specific
instructions shall be issued by the Regional Executive Director. The phases of
work to be done such as monumenting of lot corners, lot survey, ground
coordinates determination from rectified photographs/photomaps, as the case
may be, adjustment of previously approved surveys, computations and
preparation of required maps, etc., shall be specified. The required project
records and corresponding survey returns shall be submitted to the Regional
Technical Director for Lands for verification and approval.

CHAPTER XVIII - CADASTRAL COURT HEARINGS


WHO SHALLATTEND THE COURT HEARINGS

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Section 953 - Geodetic engineers shall be assigned by the Regional


Executive Director to attend court hearings for the adjudication of titles to
lands within cadastral projects,
Section 954-Geodetic engineers in private practice may attend court
hearings on behalf of their clients, subject to, and governed by, the provisions
of this chapter. They shall submit their work to the Regional Executive
Director through the DENR geodetic engineers assigned to attend the
hearings.

DATA TO BE FURNISHED
Section 955 - The geodetic engineer assigned to attend cadastral court
hearings shall be furnished by the Lands Management Services with the
following papers:
(a) Two sets of numerical and alphabetical list of claimants for each
Case
(b) Two sets of prints of plans/maps.
(c) Two sets of list of areas of all lots in each case.
(d) The report of the Land Registration Authority concerning the status of all
lots included in the registration cases if filed in the Regional Trial Court.
(e) Prints and tracings showing discrepancies between the previous surveys
and the cadastral survey. These prints and tracings are those mentioned in
Section 845.
(f) List and copy of reports on public, government and mineral land lots
situated within each cadastral project case.
(g) Prints or tracings of plans of all patented, sold, leased or decreed
properties situated within each cadastral project during or after the
completion of the cadastral survey.
() Cards of lot claimants, arranged alphabetically for each cadastral project
case. -

(i) Lot descriptions showing the numerical list of lot claimants.


(j) Other papers and records which may be necessary in each case.
Section 956 - A statement of all amendments and changes made in the
cadastral maps before the date of hearing shall be furnished the geodetic
engineer who shall call the attention of the Court thereto.

LOCATION OF OFFICE
Section 957 - The geodetic engineer assigned to attend the court hearings
shall request the Clerk of Court to provide him with accommodations in the
building where the hearings are to be held.
Section 958 - When the Judge sets the hearing of cadastral cases in a city or
municipality other than the place where the court is permanently stationed,
the geodetic engineer shall request for a reasonably spacious room to be used
as office, preferably within the building where the court will hold its session
from the concerned City or Municipal Mayor.
Section 959 - The geodetic engineer assigned to attend the court hearing
shall transfer his office to the municipality where the hearing will take place at
least thirty days prior to the date set for the hearing of the cadastral case.
Section 960 - The geodetic engineer shall coordinate with the City or
Municipal Mayor on all matters requiring mutual action relative to the
hearings. He shall request that all the claimants in the barangay within each
cadastral project case be notified to appear at the office of the geodetic
engineer and to file their answers with the Clerk of Court. Prescribed forms
may be obtained from the Clerk of Court.
GENERAL PROCEDURE OF WORK
Section 961 - Immediately upon receipt of the records mentioned in Section
955, the geodetic engineer shall indicate, on one set of prints in red ink, the
name or names of the claimant or claimants of each lot corresponding to the
numerical list of claimants for facility in checking the answers filed by each
claimant.

122

Section 962 - The marked prints, together with the lists and computations
furnished by the geodetic engineer, shall be used for checking the answers
filed by the claimants.

assistant shall verify and approve all answers before they are filed with the
Clerk of Court. Notation shall be made in red ink on all answers for lots
contested by the government.

Section 963 - The print copies on which the names of claimants are not
indicated shall be made available to the claimants, agents or attorneys by
posting these in conspicuous places, for information and identification of the
numbers and location of lots being claimed. The geodetic engineer or his
assistants shall keep these prints for future use in connection with contested
claims.

Section 968 - All changes in the names of the claimants as given in the
answers after verification is made shall be entered in the cadastral lists.

Section 964 - Before the date of the hearing of each cadastral case, the
geodetic engineer shall confer with the provincial, city and municipal treasurer
concerned to get information regarding the parcels that have been forfeited
for non-payment of taxes. These parcels must be identified on the cadastral
maps and reported to. A list of the location of the lands, the names of
claimants, the tax declaration numbers and the cadastral lot numbers shall be
prepared. The fiscal or the attorney representing the government shall be
furnished with a copy of the list with the information that said lots may be
claimed as property of the national government. A copy of the report shall be
forwarded to the Regional Technical Director for Lands for record purposes.
Section 965 - The lot number, the names of the claimants and the adjoining
owners in each answer shall be carefully verified and checked against the
prints and the list of claimants.
Section 966 - The tax declaration number given in the answer shall be
checked against the list of tax delinquents to see whether or not the land has
been forfeited for non-payment of taxes. The geodetic engineer shall examine
the monument of title. If the claim is based on purchase, he shall also
examine the basis/claim of ownership of the vendor.
Section 967 - Discrepancies between the answers and the maps and the list
of claimants shall be carefully investigated and verified. In case it is necessary
to amend or correct the answers, the interested parties shall be requested to
make the necessary correction. The geodetic engineer or his authorized

Section 969 - When two or more claimants filed an answer for the same lot,
the names of those not shown in the cadastral lists shall be entered therein
and reported to the court.
Section 970 The geodetic engineer shall ascertain the nature of each lot. A
list of all lots claimed as public, mineral or government lands shall be given to
the lawyer representing the government and the Regional Technical Director
for Lands. This list shall contain all available information regarding the nature
or basis of the claim of the government.
Section 971 - The geodetic engineer shall advise the claimants to prepare
their answers based on the data obtained from the ground or from actual
facts existing at the time of the filing of the answers.

MEMORANDUM OF HEARINGS AND REPORTS


Section 972 - The "Memorandum of Hearings and Operations" shall be
prepared in duplicate by filling out the different columns as the court hearings
progresses. The most salient incidents that have taken place during the
hearing of a cadastral lot and the status of the lot as reported by the geodetic
engineer to the lawyer representing the government or to the court shall be
entered on the column headed "Memoranda".
Section 973 - The date of the hearing of any cadastral lot and all the orders
of the court for corrections, subdivisions or investigations on any lot shall be
recorded on the corresponding column of the prescribed form.
Section 974 - A monthly report showing the progress of the court hearings
shall be submitted on the prescribed form. This shall be prepared in black
drafting ink to facilitate printing.

123

Section 975 - When there are two or more cadastral cases in a municipality,
the total in columns 7 to 11 for that municipality shall be shown.

completed, stating the reasons thereon. The expenses already incurred shall
not be refunded to the claimants.

Section 976 - The information in columns 1,2,3,4 and 5 shall be obtained


from the maps furnished by the geodetic engineer. Information in columns 6,
7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 16 shall be obtained from the memoranda required in
Section 972, the copies of the claims filed by the Director of Lands
Management Bureau and from the records of the PENRO. Information in
columns 4 and 13 shall be obtained from the clerk of court.

Section 984 - In case the lot to be subdivided is not patented or decreed, it


shall be ascertained if the subdivision survey is necessary and if the reason is
due to the negligence or fault of the interested parties. If the work to be done
is requested for the sole benefit and convenience of negligent claimants
requesting the subdivision, the cost of subdivision shall be charged against
said claimants.

SUBDIVISION OF CADASTRAL LOTS

Section 985 - The subdivision shall be made in accordance with the


agreement of the interested parties who shall be required to make the
necessary deposit to defray the cost of the survey.

Section 977 - When the hearings so require, or for any reason the judge so
desires, the geodetic engineer or at least one of his authorized assistants shall
be present at the court sessions. He shall, in addition to his other duties,
receive from the court or from the clerk thereof, all order for subdivisions or
investigations of cadastral lots under hearing.
Section 978 - No cadastral lot pending registration shall be amended or
subdivided by the geodetic engineer without written order from the court.
Section 979 - When an order of the court for the subdivision of a cadastral
lot is received, the geodetic engineer shall ascertain whether or not part of
the lot to be subdivided is included in previously patented or decreed lots.
Section 980 - When the Court orders the segregation of previously patented
or decreed tracts from a cadastral lot, the cost of the subdivision shall be
charged to the corresponding cadastral case.
Section 981 - When the lot to be subdivided is patented or decreed, the cost
of subdivision shall be borne by the applicants who shall be requested to
make a deposit with the court before any work is undertaken.
Section 982 - if the deposit is not sufficient to cover the cost of the
subdivision, additional deposit shall be made by the claimants.
Section 983 - In case the claimants fail to deposit the required additional
amount, the court shall be informed that the subdivision work has not been

Section 986 - When a lot is claimed by two or more persons and the court
finds it necessary to subdivide the said lot into portions to be adjudicated to
the claimants who have not been at fault, the cost thereof shall be charged
against the proper cadastral case.
Section 987 - The claimants shall be advised that no technical descriptions
or tracing plan will be furnished to them unless the proportionate post of the
cadastral survey is paid.
Section 988 - When a subdivision or correction is necessary as a result of
incorrect survey by the party who executed the cadastral survey through no
fault of the claimants, the cost thereof shall be charged against the cadastral
project case.
Section 989 - Consolidations and/or subdivisions which are necessary for
public interest or requested for the direct benefit of a municipality, province,
city, or the national government, or ordered by the court, shall also be made
and the cost thereof shall be charged against cadastral case.
Section 990 - In the event that the claimants required to defray the cost of
the consolidation and/or subdivision surveys ordered by the court fail to make
the necessary deposit, the geodetic engineer shall report the matter in writing
to the court with the recommendation that the case be dismissed or the
claimants be ordered to make the deposit.

124

Section 991 - ln the subdivisions of cadastral lots, subdivision corners along


the original cadastral lot boundary lines shall be located as pointed out and
agreed upon by the interested parties. The geodetic engineer shall submit a
written report to the court attaching copy of the approved subdivision survey
of the lot.
Section 992 - The grid azimuth of these subdivision surveys shall be derived
from the lot corner monuments in place on the ground. In cases where two
monuments are not inter-visible, a circuit traverse, of which three or more
monuments shall be occupied as traverse stations, may be run using an
assumed azimuth. The traverse shall be computed and the azimuths and
distances between the monuments shall be determined and compared with a
similar determination between the same monuments from the cadastral data
to determine the correction to be applied to the assumed azimuth. In general,
monuments as far as the condition of the work will allow, shall be occupied as
stations.
Section 993 - Astronomical observations for azimuth may be used but the
azimuth shall be corrected for the convergency of meridians between the
central meridian of the zone and the place of observation to reduce the
astronomical azimuths to grid azimuths.
Section 994 - In consolidation and/or subdivision surveys of cadastral lots,
no geodetic engineer certificate shall be submitted with the survey returns.

ORDER OF THE COURT


Section 995 - Upon receipt of the cadastral records, the geodetic engineer
assigned to attend the court hearings shall prepare the lists of lot reported by
the Administrator of the Land Registration Authority and those amended by
the cadastral survey in three groups as follows:
(a) Cadastral lots that are subdivision of patented, leased or decreed parcels
of lands,
(b) Cadastral lots that differ slightly from the old survey,

(c) Cadastral lots that are portions of patented, leased or decreed parcels
subdivided by cases barangay boundaries.
Section 996 - Cadastral lots that include portions of registered and
unregistered land shall be divided in accordance with the order of the court.
Section 997 - The tracing referred to in Section 845 shall be consulted to see
to it that points of the previous surveys that have been recovered are
identical to the corresponding points in the cadastral survey.
Section 998 - Beds of streams included in previous surveys shall be made
separate lot or lots for the purpose of providing bases of action for the
adjudication of such tracts to the national government.
Section 999 - In areas where the value of the land is comparatively high, as
in the poblacion or highly developed barangays, any linear error exceeding 10
centimeters in the position of the corner between the previously patented,
leased or decreed survey and the cadastral survey, shall be carefully
investigated on the ground. This is to ascertain whether or not a subdivision,
correction or amendment of the cadastral lot must be undertaken.
Section 1000 - All orders of the Court, including the assignment of lot
numbers to the subdivision lots, shall be strictly followed. The final subdivision
lot numbers shall be assigned by the regional office concerned to be
confirmed later by the Court.
Section 1001- If in the course of the subdivision survey, it is found that
additional amendment is necessary, the matter shall be immediately reported
to the Court. The survey returns shall not be transmitted to the Regional
Technical Director for Lands without the written order of the Court for the new
survey. The survey shall be made in a manner that the technical description of
the adjoining lots will not be affected.
Section 1002 - If an amendment of the survey of the adjoining lot is
necessary, the interested parties shall request the Court for the said
amendment. In case decision on the adjoining lots had already been
rendered, the Court shall be requested to modify the decision accordingly.

125

LOT
REPORTS AND OTHER PAPERS

MADE

LOT
NUMBERS

NOS.

Section 1003 - All reports to be submitted to the Court shall be made in


triplicate, two copies to be given to the Court and the third, together with the
other papers of the cadastral case, shall be retained by the geodetic engineer
to be transmitted to the Land Management Services upon the termination of
the court hearings.
Section 1004 - All reports on subdivisions or amendments of cadastral lots
shall be accompanied by sketches of the lots subdivided or amended.
Section 1005 - The survey returns of the subdivisions or amendments of
cadastral lots shall consist of a copy of the order or the decision of the court,
field notes, computations, sketch plans of the lots subdivided and a copy of
the report of the geodetic engineer to the court after the surveys were made.
Section 1006 - At the termination of the cadastral hearings a final report of
all the changes made in the lots of the cadastral case shall be submitted to
the Court.
Section 1007 - The form of final report shall be as follows:
IN THE REGIONAL TRIAL COURT OF ____________________________

17

205

Subdivisio
n
-do-

17-A

Bienvenido
Cruz

17-B

Ariel Reyes

205-A

Shirley Nejal

Decreed in LRC
No.1456

205-B

Ivy Reyes

Under Cadastral Act

306

-do-

306-A

Warlito Quirimit

Decreed
No.4432

in

LRC

505

-do-

505-A

Arnel Padua

Decreed
No.2023

in

LRC

505-B

Ramon
Mendoza

Decreed
No.2334

in

LRC

804-B

Public Land

Under Cadastral Act

804-C

Marlea Muez

804

-do-

Manila, Philippines, November 24, 1994.


Privadi J.G. Dalire

CADASTRAL CASE NO. _______________________________________


L.R.C. RECORD NO. ___________ CADASTRE NO. ________________

Geodetic Engineer
Assigned to attend the Court

THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES, applicant.

Section 1008 - Upon completion of the necessary survey work on cadastral


lots, the following records shall be immediately forwarded to the Regional
Technical Director for Lands:

FINAL REPORT
TO THE HONORABLE COURT:
The undersigned geodetic engineer has the honor to submit the following
changes made in the lots of the above numbered cadastral case as ordered by
the court, viz:
CAD

CHANGES

RESULTING

NAME OF
CLAIMANTS

REMARKS

(a) Field notes,


amendments.

sketches

and

computations

of

the

subdivisions

or

(b) A copy of the court order for subdivision, amendment or investigation with
the corresponding reports and sketches.
(c) A copy of the final report to the court as required in the preceding section.

126

Section 1009 - After the termination of court hearings on a cadastral case,


one set of "Memorandum of Hearings and Operation" duly accomplished and
the report of the Land Registration Authority shall be forwarded to the Lands
Management Bureau. Duplicates shall be retained in the Regional Lands
Management Services.

(h) Mineral Resources Development Decree of 1974, P.D. 463,

Section 1010 - All records not mentioned in the preceding section shall be
retained as permanent records of the concerned Provincial Environment and
Natural Resources Office (PENRO).

(i) The Philippine Water Code, P.D. 1067.

COST OF COURT HEARINGS


Section 1011 - The geodetic engineer assigned to attend the court hearings
shall keep a record of costs as required by regulations.

(i) The Forestry Reform Code, P.D. 705.


(j) The Subdivision and Condominium Buyers' Protective Decree, P.D. 957.
(k) Urban Land Reform Decree, P.D. 1517.

(m) The Property Registration Decree, P.D. 1529.


(n) The Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law, R.A. 6657.
(o) The Local Government Code; R.A. 7160
(p) Batas Pambansa Bilang 220
(q) R.A. 1273, P.D. 953

PART IV

REPEAL OF REGULATIONS

MISC E L L A N EOUS

Section 1013 - The Manual for Land Surveys in the Philippines issued under
Lands Administrative No. 4 series of 1980 as it is hereby revised and all
previous Manual of Instructions, Circular Letters, Office Circulars, and other
regulations, numbered or unnumbered, inconsistent with this revised Manual
of Land Surveying Regulations in the Philippines are hereby repealed.

CHAPTER XIX - LEGISLATION AND REGULATION


LAWS
Section 1012 - The laws and decrees involving land questions, surveys and
geodetic engineers are the following:
(a) The Cadastral Act No. 2259 as amended.

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF GEODETIC ENGINEERS

(b) Act No. 3240 as amended.

AND JUNIOR GEODETIC ENGINEERS

(c) Act No. 3327 as amended.

Section 1014 - A Geodetic Engineer or Junior Geodetic Engineer engaged in


survey work shall;

(d) Revised Administrative Code, Act No. 2711, as amended.


(e) The Public Land Act, C.A. No. 141, as amended.
(f) The geodetic engineering Law, R.A. No. 4374, as amended by P.D. 202 and
P.D. 335,
(g)The Agricultural Land Reform Code, R.A. No. 3384 as amended.

a) ensure that the survey is performed in accordance with provisions of laws,


these Regulations, and to the standards or accuracy prescribed;
b) ensure that any part of a survey not performed by the Geodetic Engineer
personally is performed by Junior Geodetic Engineer for whose work the
Geodetic Engineer accepts responsibility;

127

c) ensure that: the survey is carried out under the immediate personal
supervision of a Geodetic Engineer who shall attend in the field to provide the
necessary supervision in carrying out of the Survey in accordance with these
Regulations and any relevant directives issued by the DENR; that only
qualified and highly trained assistant shall be allowed to handle the
instruments under his supervision and for whose work the Geodetic Engineer
accepts responsibility;
d. ensure that with a survey method or equipment which he employs in
performing a survey he can demonstrate that such method or equipment is
capable of achieving the purpose of the survey and the appropriate standards
of accuracy: Provided that when such method or equipment involves a
departure from or variation of any directive issued by the DENR, he shall
submit a report and shall include in the records of the survey full information
so as to state clearly the method or equipment used;
e) ensure that the rules and regulations issued by the Professional
Regulations Board of Geodetic Engineering governing the practice of Junior
Geodetic Engineers are strictly observed; and
f) ensure that the Code of Ethics for Geodetic Engineers and Junior
Geodetic Engineers have been faithfully observed.
Section 1015 - Geodetic Engineers who have been Chief of Survey Party
from commencement to the completion of a large survey project requiring at
least secondary precision or fourth order accuracy, or licensed geodetic
engineer who had worked as assistant in such a project from commencement
to completion as per records of the Lands Management Bureau or Land
Management Services, or geodetic engineers of the DENR who have held
positions equivalent to chief of party, may execute cadastral survey subject to
the authority or order which may be issued by the Regional Executive Director
(RED) or the Regional Technical Director for Lands (RTD/Lands) in accordance
with Section 394.
Section 1016 - Only licensed Geodetic Engineer shall execute
relocation/reinstatement of the boundaries of decreed and/or titled lands as

well as the verification of property boundaries subject of litigation; Provided,


that if the survey is not performed personally by the Geodetic Engineer but by
a licensed Junior Geodetic Engineer under his direct supervision, the former
must accept responsibility of the work and he shall sign the records of the
survey and the plan.

VIOLATIONS OF REGULATIONS AND PENALTIES


Section 1017 - (a) Violations
(1) Violations of any provisions of this Manual by the Geodetic Engineer,
Junior Geodetic Engineer, and survey contractors shall be sufficient ground for
the Regional Technical Director for Lands to deny the acceptance for
verification and/ or approval of any survey made by him. In case he is in the
service of the DENR, he shall further be subject to administrative action which
the RTD/Lands, the Regional Executive Director and/or the Director of Lands
Management Bureau may deem justifiable under the circumstances.
(2) In case of approved surveys executed by Geodetic Engineer or Junior
Geodetic Engineer in private practice, the matter shall also be referred to the
fiscal and/or the Board of Geodetic Engineering for whatever disciplinary
action the fiscal and/or the Board may find necessary to take in the case in
relation to the Code of Ethics of Geodetic Engineers, the provisions of the
Geodetic Engineering law, RA 4374, as amended, and to the provisions of
other laws, without prejudice to the cancellation of the survey; Provided, that
any official or employee of the DENR found abetting or knowingly helping
directly or indirectly in the approval of any survey in violation of the
provisions of this Manual shall be subject to disciplinary action which the
Secretary may find necessary. The cost of field and office verifications of
erroneous surveys shall be charged against the Geodetic Engineer or Junior
Geodetic Engineer concerned,
(b) Penalties for surveys conducted by unauthorized persons.
(1) Penalties shall be those prescribed by laws, by the Board of Geodetic
Engineering, and those prescribed or may be prescribed later by the DENR,

128

(2) Any person who shall, without permit to survey from the Secretary of the
Regional Executive Director, enter any forest lands, whether covered by a
license agreement, lease, license, or permit, or not, and conduct or undertake
a survey for whatever purpose shall be liable to Imprisonment of not less than
four (4) years, in addition to the confiscation of the implements used in the
violation of Section 73, PD 705, including the cancellation of his professional
license, if any.
(3) Any public officer or employee who knowingly surveys, classifies, or
recommends the release of forest lands as alienable and disposable lands
contrary to law, shall, after administrative proceedings, de dismissed from the
service with prejudice to re-employment, and upon conviction, suffer
imprisonment of not less than one (1) year and a fine pursuant to Section 74,
PD 705. The survey, classification and release of forestlands shall be null and
void,
(4) Administrative sanctions such as blacklisting or denial of the acceptance of
surveys may be imposed on the Geodetic Engineer or Junior Geodetic
Engineer who violates the provisions of this Manual. A list of Geodetic
Engineers or Junior Geodetic Engineers who violate the Manual will be
periodically provided by the Lands Management Service to the Lands
Management Bureau and other concerned agencies.

amendments to this Manual is necessary, the same shall be issued in the form
of administrative orders.
Section 1019 - Survey regulations and specifications governing national
geodetic network controls, hydrographic and other kinds of surveys not
covered by this Manual shall be provided in a separate Manual.
Section 1020- The Lands Management Bureau as the policy-making arm of
the DENR in the effective and efficient management, surveys, disposition of
public A & D lands, government-owned lands and other lands not falling under
the jurisdiction of other government agencies, in coordination with the other
agencies performing surveys, shall continue to study these instructions,
develop and recommend new standards and operating procedures consistent
with the advancement of surveying science and technology,

EFFECTIVITY OF MANUAL
Section 1021 -This Manual of land Surveying Regulations shall take effect
fifteen (15) days after publication in the Official Gazette.

VICTOR. O. RAMOS
SUPPLEMENTARY AND MANDATORY REGULATIONS

Secretary

Section 1018 - Whenever additional or supplementary regulations or

129