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[Assignment – SET1 & SET2]
Name : P. Srinath SMDUE ID : 520923307 Center : Mehbub College Campus, Secunderabad Subject Code : MB0022 Subject : Management Process & Organizational Behavior
ASSIGNMENT – MBA – SEM I – Subject Code: MB0022 – SET 1
1. “Today managers need to perform various function s”:
Elaborate the statement.
Managers create and maintain an internal environment, commonly called the organization, so that others can work efficiently in it. A manager’s job consists of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling the resources of the organization. These resources include people, jobs or positions, technology, facilities and equipment, materials and supplies, information, and money. Managers work in a dynamic environment and must anticipate and adapt to challenges. The manager looks after more than one function. Therefore, managerial practices used successfully in big firms cannot be blindly used in small-scale units. Basic managerial functions in large and small business are the same. But the manner in which these functions should be carried out can be different. Managing starts with planning. A manager with a definite and well defined plan has more chances of success than another who tries to start an enterprise without planning. According to Killen” planning is the process of deciding in advance what is to be done‚ who is to do it‚ how it is to be done and when it is to be done’’. Planning involves thinking and decision and is, therefore, called a logical process. Planning is a continuous process as changes in plans have to be made from time to time to take care of changing environment. Many a times, a vague approach is adapted to planning in a small firm. There is a false impression that small firms are uncomplicated and do not require planning. The small-scale manager does not want to engage his employees in the planning process due to the desire to keep the secrets with him. Personal accountability for results, lack of expert staff and not having planning skills are other major obstacles for planning in small firms. The owner or manager of a small enterprise is too involved in day-to-day operation to try planning before commencing actual operation. But they need pre-planning most because small firms have limited resources to conquer their upcoming problem and cannot afford to finance losses that can take place while adjusting to unanticipated happenings/changes. A manager needs an enterprise which can achieve the business objectives. During the function of organizing he leads human resources to successful completion of the project, arranging the functions and activities into different levels in the organization structure, thus facilitating the assignments of personnel according to their capabilities, skills and motivation. According to Peter F. Drucker the process of organizing consists of three steps - activities analysis, decisions analysis and relation analysis. (i). Activities Analysis: It consists of the following:
a) Determining the main functions for achieving the objectives of the firm. b) Various sub-functions in each major function. c) Amount of work in each major function and its sub-function. d) The position required to perform the activities.
(ii) Decisions Analysis: It consists of the following: a) Choosing the basis of departmentalization so that functions could be grouped into specialized units. Generally, functional departmentalization is appropriate for small-scale units. Customers, Products and territories are other important base of departmentalization. b) Choosing the type of organization structure departments are incorporated into a formal structure. so that
(iii) Relations Analysis: The authority, responsibility and accountability of every position and its relationship with other positions are clearly defined. Various positions are manned with persons having the necessary education, training, experience and other qualifications. To obtain best possible benefit from each employee it is necessary to delegate functions as far-down in the organization as possible. Owners of small firms are often reluctant to delegating authority to their employees even though they expect them to do all functions allocated to them that require authority. For effective completion of tasks, it is necessary that responsibility accompanies the necessary authority. DIRECTING: - In directing a manager has to supervise, guide, lead and motivate people so that they can achieve set targets of performance. In the process of directing his subordinates, a manager ensures that the employees fulfill their tasks according to the set plans. Directing is the executive function of management because it is concerned with the execution of plan and policies. Directing commences organized action and sets the whole organizational machinery into action. It is, therefore, the life giving function of an organization. This is the area where the mastery of the art and science of management is put to test. A manager’s leadership style determines the work atmosphere and culture of the organization. Above all, he must motivate employees by setting a good example, setting practical targets of performance and providing satisfactory monetary and non- monetary benefits. In directing a manager has to perform the following tasks: (a) Issuing orders and instructions (b) Supervising workers (c) Motivating i.e. inspiring to work efficiently for set objectives 3|Page
(d) Communicating implementation.
(e) Leadership or influencing the actions or employees CONTROLLING: - Controlling is a process of ensuring that the ‘organization is moving in desired direction’ and ‘progress is being made towards achievement of goals’. The answer to a profitable organization is the skill of the owner or manager to control operations. He has to establish standards of performance, procedures, goals and budgets. With these guides, he supervises job progress, workers performance and the financial condition of the business.
The controlling function of the owner manager includes: Setting of standards: - Control presumes the existence of standards against which actual results are to be evaluated. Standards cannot be control on their own, but they are the targets against which actual performance can be measured. Therefore they should be set clearly and accurately. They should be precise, adequate, and feasible. Measurement of actual performance: - The actual performance is measured and evaluated in comparison with the set standards. Preferably measurement should be such that variation may be identified in advance of occurrence and prevented by suitable action. Where work involved is of quantitative nature measurement of performance is not difficult. But when the work is not quantifiable measurement becomes difficult. Periodical reports test checks and audits are helpful in precise measurement of performance Analysis of variances: - Comparison of actual performance with standards will reveal variation. Variations are analyzed to identify their cause and their impact on the organization. Corrective action can be possible only where the causes of the problem spots have been identified. Clarification may be called for sudden variation. Taking corrective action: - Control means action on the basis of measurement and evaluation of results. Wherever possible, self-determining device should be used for bringing back actual results in line with the standards. Standards should be revised wherever necessary. Other steps to prevent deviations can be reorganization, improvements in staffing and directions etc. The real meaning of control lies in the commencement and follow-up of remedial action. At this stages control unites with planning. TIME MANAGEMENT: - In managing an enterprise time is of essence especially for a small scale manager who has to perform the dual role of a manager as well as of a manager in his business. The manager can bring
substantial changes in his firm’s performance by managing time more efficiently. Management of time involves the following steps. (i) Time Analysis: First of all a systematic study is made to find out the proportion of total time spent by the manager and his workers on different activities. Finding Critical Activities: Critical or vital activities should receive greater time. Activities taking more than the justified time need to be identified. Irrelevant or time wasting activities should be eliminated. Time Allocation: A time schedule should be prepared. Proper time should be allocated to each activity. The tasks one wants to do but for which he does not have time should be noted. Stick to Time Schedule: The most difficult step in time management is to complete each activity within the schedule time period. For this purpose, it is necessary to delegate task to subordinates, to organize every workday and to continuously evaluate the time management system
Essentially, management implies distinct processes of Planning, Organizing, Directing, and Controlling resources both human and material, to achieve an identified objective.
2. “Skills are the tool for performance”-Explain various management skills.
Management in all business and human organization activity is simply the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources. Basic Skills of management the main functions of the management are: planning, organizing, controlling, leading. Planning: specifying goals to be achieved and preparing how to meet them analyzing current situation, gathering and analyzing information’s Organizing: devising and allocating roles for respective position within the managers scope of work obtaining and allocating resources delegation assigning duties and responsibility to subordinates for results defining the roles and authority of personnel Leading: motivating people to high performance, directing and communicating with people assisting and inspire then toward achieving team and organizational goals
Controlling: set and monitor performance the standard of progress toward goals identifying performance problems by comparing data against standards control tools such as scheduling, charting techniques, standard operating procedures(SOP), budgeting, disciplinary actions etc. then besides those functions are important there have three management skills are important also which are technical, human, and conceptual skills. Technical skills: ability to understand and use the techniques, knowledge and tools to equipment of a specific discipline or department Human skills: interpersonal enable a manager to work effectively through people Conceptual skills: important for top-level managers who must develop long range plans for future gave a direction to managers to determine the organization as unified whole and understand each part of the overall organization interacts with other department or parts.
3. What is negotiation? Explain the process of negotiation. Negotiation is a dialogue intended to resolve disputes, to produce an agreement upon courses of action, to bargain for individual or collective advantage, or to craft outcomes to satisfy various interests. It is the primary method of alternative dispute resolution. Negotiation occurs in business, nonprofit organizations, and government branches, legal proceedings, among nations and in personal situations such as marriage, divorce, parenting, and everyday life. The study of the subject is called negotiation theory. Professional negotiators are often specialized, such as union negotiators, leverage buyout negotiators, peace negotiators, hostage negotiators, or may work under other titles, such as diplomats, legislators or brokers. Negotiation typically manifests itself with trained negotiator acting on behalf of a particular organization or position. It can be compared to mediation where a disinterested third party listens to each side’s arguments and attempts to help craft an agreement between the parties. It is also related to arbitration which, as with a legal proceeding, both sides make an argument as to the merits of their "case" and then the arbitrator decides the outcome for both parties. There are many different ways to segment negotiation to gain a greater understanding of the essential parts. One view of negotiation involves three basic elements: process, behavior and substance. The process refers to how the parties negotiate: the context of the negotiations, the parties to the negotiations, the tactics used by the parties, and the sequence and stages in which all of these play out. Behavior refers to the relationships among these parties, the communication between them and the styles they adopt. The substance refers to what the parties negotiate over: the agenda, the issues (positions and - more helpfully - interests), the options, and the agreement(s) reached at the end. Another view of negotiation comprises 4 elements: strategy, process and tools, and tactics. Strategy comprises the top level goals - typically including relationship and the final outcome. Processes and tools include the steps that will be followed and the roles taken in both preparing for and negotiating with the other parties. Tactics include more 6|Page
detailed statements and actions and responses to others' statements and actions. Some add to this persuasion and influence, asserting that these have become integral to modern day negotiation success, and so should not be omitted. Skilled negotiators may use a variety of tactics ranging from negotiation hypnosis, to a straight forward presentation of demands or setting of preconditions to more deceptive approaches such as cherry picking. Intimidation and salami tactics may also play a part in swaying the outcome of negotiations. Another negotiation tactic is bad guy/good guy. Bad guy/good guy tactic is when one negotiator acts as a bad guy by using anger and threats. The other negotiator acts as a good guy by being considerate and understanding. The good guy blames the bad guy for all the difficulties while trying to get concessions and agreement from the opponent. This is a unique combination framework that puts together the best of many other approaches to negotiation. It is particularly suited to more complex, highervalue and slower negotiations. Prepare: Know what you want. Understand them. Open: Put your case. Hear theirs. Argue: Support your case. Expose theirs. Explore: Seek understanding and possibility. Signal: Indicate your readiness to work together. Package: Assemble potential trades. Close: Reach final agreement. Sustain: Make sure what is agreed happens. There are deliberately a larger number of stages in this process as it is designed to break down important activities during negotiation, particularly towards the end. It is an easy trap to try to jump to the end with a solution that is inadequate and unacceptable. Note also that in practice, you may find variations on these, for example there may be loops back to previous stages, stages overlapping, stages running parallel and even out of order. The bottom line is to use what works. This process is intended to help you negotiate, but do not use it blindly. It is not magic and is not a substitute for thinking. If something does not seem to be working, try to figure out why and either fix the problem or try something else. Although there are commonalities across negotiations, each one is different and the greatest skill is to be able to read the situation in the moment and adapt as appropriate. 4. Explain Classical Conditioning Theory? Classical conditioning is a form of associative learning that was first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov. The typical procedure for inducing classical conditioning involves presentations of a neutral stimulus along with a stimulus of some significance. The neutral stimulus could be any event that does not result in an overt behavioral response from the organism under
investigation. Pavlov referred to this as a conditioned stimulus (CS). Conversely, presentation of the significant stimulus necessarily evokes an innate, often reflexive, response. Pavlov called these the unconditioned stimulus (US) and unconditioned response (UR), respectively. If the CS and the US are repeatedly paired, eventually the two stimuli become associated and the organism begins to produce a behavioral response to the CS. Pavlov called this the conditioned response (CR). Popular forms of classical conditioning that are used to study neural structures and functions that underlie learning and memory include fear conditioning, eyeblink conditioning, and the foot contraction conditioning of Hermissenda crassicornis. Types Forward conditioning - Diagram representing forward conditioning
The time interval increases from left to right. During forward conditioning the onset of the CS precedes the onset of the US. Two common forms of forward conditioning are delay and trace conditioning. Delay Conditioning: - In delay conditioning the CS is presented and is overlapped by the presentation of the US Trace conditioning: - During trace conditioning the CS and US do not overlap. Instead, the CS is presented, a period of time is allowed to elapse during which no stimuli are presented, and then the US is presented. The stimulus free period is called the trace interval. It may also be called the "conditioning interval" Simultaneous conditioning: - During simultaneous conditioning, the CS and US are presented and terminate at the same time. Backward conditioning: - Backward conditioning occurs when a conditioned stimulus immediately follows an unconditioned stimulus. Unlike traditional conditioning models, in which the conditioned stimulus precedes the unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned response tends to be inhibitory. This is because the conditioned stimulus serves as a signal that the unconditioned stimulus has ended, rather than a reliable method of predicting the future occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus. The onset of the US precedes the onset of the CS. Rather than being a reliable predictor of an impending US (such as in Forward Conditioning), the 8|Page
CS actually serves as a signal that the US has ended. As a result, the CR is said to be inhibitory. Temporal conditioning: - The US is presented at regularly timed intervals, and CR acquisition is dependent upon correct timing of the interval between US presentations. The background, or context, can serve as the CS in this example. Unpaired conditioning: - The CS and US are not presented together. Usually they are presented as independent trials that are separated by a variable, or pseudo-random, interval. This procedure is used to study nonassociative behavioral responses, such as sensitization. CS-alone extinction Main article: - Extinction (psychology): - The CS is presented in the absence of the US. This procedure is usually done after the CR has been acquired through ‘Forward conditioning training’. Eventually, the CR frequency is reduced to pre-training levels.
5. How are culture and society responsible to build value system? A value system is a set of consistent ethic values (more specifically the personal and cultural values) and measures used for the purpose of ethical or ideological integrity. A well-defined value system is a moral code. The values identify those objects, conditions or characteristics that members of the society consider important; that is, valuable. One or more people can hold a value system. Likewise, a value system can apply to either one person or many. Groups, societies, or cultures have values that are largely shared by their members. The values identify those objects, conditions or characteristics that members of the society consider important; that is, valuable. A personal value system is held by and applied to one individual only. A communal or cultural value system is held by and applied to a community/group/society. Some communal value systems are reflected in the form of legal codes or law. The values of a society can often be identified by noting which people receive honor or respect. Values are related to the norms of a culture, but they are more general and abstract than norms. Norms are rules for behavior in specific situations, while values identify what should be judged as good or evil. Flying the national flag on a holiday is a norm, but it reflects the value of patriotism. Wearing dark clothing and appearing solemn are normative behaviors at a funeral. They reflect the values of respect and support of friends and family. Different cultures reflect different values. "Over the last three decades, traditional-age college students have shown an increased interest in personal well-being and a decreased interest in the welfare of others. Values seemed to have changed, affecting the beliefs, and attitudes of college students. Members take part in a culture even if each member's personal values do not entirely agree with some of the normative values sanctioned in the culture. This reflects an individual's ability to synthesize 9|Page
and extract aspects valuable to them from the multiple subcultures they belong to. If a group member expresses a value that is in serious conflict with the group's norms, the group's authority may carry out various ways of encouraging conformity or stigmatizing the non-conforming behavior of its members. For example, imprisonment can result from conflict with social norms that have been established as law.
6. Write short notes on • • Locus of control Machiavellianism
Locus of Control: It is a term in psychology which refers to a person's belief about what causes the good or bad results in his or her life, either in general or in a specific area such as health or academics. Locus of control refers to the extent to which individuals believe that they can control events that affect them. Individuals with a high internal locus of control believe that events result primarily from their own behavior and actions. Those with a high external locus of control believe that powerful others, fate, or chance primarily determine events. Those with a high internal locus of control have better control of their behavior, tend to exhibit more political behaviors, and are more likely to attempt to influence other people than those with a high external locus of control; they are more likely to assume that their efforts will be successful. They are more active in seeking information and knowledge concerning their situation. One's "locus" (Latin for "place" or "location") can either be internal (meaning the person believes that they control their life) or external (meaning they believe that their environment, some higher power, or other people control their decisions and their life). Machiavellianism: Machiavellianism has tremendous influence on modern business communities, especially in the U.S.A. and European countries. Businessmen today, it is said, prefer to follow the directions of pragmatism and expediency rather than the dictates of individual conscience. In principles and practices, Indian management by and large follows the Western line. Therefore, the question arises whether Machiavellian influences are perceptibly high on Indian managers. This question is more relevant in the light of a few surveys conducted on the ethical attitudes of Indian managers. These identified a clear contrast between their expressed behaviour and wanted attitudes. The present study on the attitudes of managers from the major cities of India concludes that Niccolo Machiavelli inspires and influences Indian managers, but has not become the final determinant in their decision-making. Machiavellianism is also a term that some social and personality psychologists use to describe a person's tendency to deceive and manipulate others for personal gain. Machiavellianism is one of the three personality
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traits referred to as the dark triad, along with narcissism and psychopathy. Some psychologists consider Machiavellianism to be essentially a subclinical form of psychopathy.
ASSIGNMENT – MBA – SEM I – Subject Code: MB0022 – SET 2
1. “Halo effect and selective perception are the shortcuts in judging others” Explain.
Individuals have a tendency to use a number of shortcuts when they judge others. An understanding of these can be helpful toward recognizing when they can result in significant distortions. Halo Effect: The halo effect [Murphy & Anhalt, 1992] occurs when we draw a general impression on the basis of a single characteristic. For example, while appraising the lecture, students may give prominence to a single trait, such as enthusiasm and allow heir evaluation to be tainted by how they judge the instructor on that trait which stood out prominently in their estimation of that person. Research suggests that it is likely to be most extreme when the traits to be perceived are ambiguous in behavioral terms, when the traits have moral overtones, and when he perceiver is judging traits with which he or she has had limited experience. Selective Perception: Any characteristic that makes a person, object, or event stand out will increase the probability that it will be perceived. It is impossible for an individual to internalize and assimilate everything that is seen. Only certain stimuli can be taken in selectively. Selectivity works as a shortcut in judging other people by allowing us to “speed-read” others, but not without the risk of drawing an inaccurate picture. The tendency to see what we want to see can make us draw unwarranted conclusions from an ambiguous situation.
2. Explain “Emotional Intelligence”
The importance of both emotion and intelligence in making decisions and achieving success in life was well accepted in ancient India. A concept of
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‘Sthitha Prajna’ [emotional stability] similar to the concept of emotional intelligence can be traced in the second chapter of ‘Sri mad Bhagavat Gita’ , in a specific conversation between lord Krishna and Arjuna in a situation of kurukshetra battle field. Before the battle started Arjuna was in deep sorrow and pity, found his close relatives, friends and respected gurus in enemy side. The win the battle he was supposed to kill those beloved ones. He got confused about his rightful duty. Due to this heat of non-strength, he refused to join the battle. In this context lord Krishna who played the chariot to Arjuna advised him to become the steady minded person. He also told that an individual achieved his/her goal only when the mind becomes steady, poised and balanced. This concept talks about a unique interdependence between emotion and intelligence for effective decision making which was most essential in excelling in every sphere of life. Similar views on the role of emotional intelligence as a learning process for achieving a balanced personality in different stages of life on an intergenerational basis has been depicted in Vedas. In Particular, Dr. Radha Krishnan, in his book mentioned that the attitude of Vedas is one of trust tempered by criticism. This view aptly points out the need for emotional intelligence in everyday life to become more emotionally balanced and functional individuals in society. Emotional intelligence is an aggregate of individual’s cognition of own and others’ emotions, feelings, interpretation and action as per environmental demand to manipulate the consequences which in turn result in a superior performance. So having high emotional intelligence doesn’t mean that the person never panics or loses his/her control. It does mean that he/she brings own feelings under control and channels them into productive behaviors. The most popular and accepted mixed model of emotional intelligence is the one proposed by Goleman. He viewed emotional intelligence as a total of personnel and social competencies. Personnel competencies determine how we manage ourselves, where as social competence determines how we handle our interpersonal relationships. Personnel Competence: It comprises of three dimensions of emotional intelligence, such as self-awareness, self-regulation and motivation. Selfawareness is the ability of an individual to observe him/herself and to recognize a feeling as it happens. Self-regulation is the ability to control emotions and to redirect those emotions that can have negative impact. Motivation is the ability to channelize emotion to achieve a goal through selfcontrol and by moderation impulses as per the requirement.
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Social Competence: It compromises of two dimensions namely, empathy and social skills. Empathy is the ability to feel and get concerned for others, take their perspective and to treat people according to their emotional reactions. Social skills are the ability to build rapport and to manage relationships with people. People having the skill are very effective persuasiveness and team management. Social skills are the culmination of all other components of emotional intelligence. Goleman’s Emotional Intelligence Model
3. “A group formation passes through various stages.” Explain various stages of group formation.
The important stages through which the group formation passes are described below. i. Forming: In this stage the members are entering the group. The main concern is to facilitate the entry of the group members. The individuals entering are concerned with issues such as what the group can offer them, their needed contribution, similarity to their personal needs, goals and group goals, the acceptable normative and behavioural standards expected for group membership and recognition for doing the work as a group. ii. Storming: This is a turbulent phase where individuals try to basically form coalitions and cliques to achieve a desired status within the group. Members go also through the process of identifying to their expected role requirements in relation to group requirements. In the process, membership expectations tend to get clarified, and attention shifts toward hurdles coming in the way of attaining group goals. Individuals begin to understand and appreciate each other’s interpersonal styles, and efforts are made to find ways to accomplish group goals, while also satisfying individual needs. 13 | P a g e
Norming: From the norming stage of group development, the group relay begins to come together as a coordinated unit. At this point, close relationship develop and the group shows cohesiveness. Group members will strive to maintain positive balance at this stage. iv. Performing: The group now becomes capable of dealing with complex tasks and handling internal disagreements in novel ways. The structure is stable, and members are motivated by group goals and are generally satisfied. The structure is fully functional and accepted at this stage. Group energy makes a transition from members focus on getting to know and understand each other to performing. For permanent work groups, performing is the last stage in their development. v. Adjourning: A well-integrated group is able to disband, if required, when its work is accomplished, through in itself it maybe a painful process for group members, emotionally. The adjourning stage of group development is especially important for the temporary groups that are rampant in today’s workplaces. Members of these groups must able to convene quickly, do their jobs on a tight schedule, and then adjourn often to reconvene later, whenever required. Groups do not always proceed clearly from one stage to the next. Sometimes several stages go on simultaneously, as when groups are storming and performing. Groups may at times regress to earlier stages. Another problem is that it ignores organisational context. For instance, a study of a cockpit crew in an airliner found that, within 10 minutes, three strangers assigned to fly together for the first time had become a high performing group. The rigid organisational context provides the rules, task definitions, information and resources required for the group to perform effectively.
4. “Power is the ability to make things happen in the way an individual wants, either by self or by the subordinates. The essence of power is to control over the behaviour of others”. Explain the various bases of power.
Power can be categorised into two types: Formal and informal. a. Formal Power: It is based on the position of an individual in an organisation. Formal power is derived from either one’s ability to coerce or 14 | P a g e
reward others or is derived from the formal authority vested in the individual due to his /her strategic position in the organisational hierarchy. For example a manager can threaten to hold the pay hike. Such coercive power is the extent to which a manager can deny desired rewards or administer punishments to control other people. The presence of unions and organisational policies on employee treatment can weaken this power base significantly. Formal power may be categorised into 4 types which are as follows: a.1. Coercive Power: The coercive power base is being dependent on fear. It is based on the application, or the threat of application, of physical sanctions such as the infliction of pain, the generation of frustration through restriction of movement, or the controlling by force of basic physiological or safety needs. In an organisation one can exercise power over another if they have the power to dismiss, suspend, demote another assuming that the job is valuable to the person on who power is being unleashed. a.2. Reward Power: The opposite of coercive power is reward power. It is the extent to which a manager can use extrinsic and intrinsic rewards to control other people. Examples of such rewards include money, compliments, promotions etc. Utilising rewards to achieve influence varies according to the skills of the manager. a.3. Legitimate Power: It stems from the extent to which a manager can use subordinates internalised values of beliefs that the boss has a right to command to control their behaviour. Legitimate power represents a special kind of power a manager has because subordinates believe it is legitimate for a person occupying the managerial position to have the right to command. The lack of this is legitimacy will result in authority not being accepted by subordinates. Thus this type of power has the following elements: • • • It represents the power a person receives as a result of his/her position in the formal hierarchy. Positions of authority include coercive and reward powers. It encompasses the authority of a position by members of an organisation.
a.4. Information Power: This type of power is derived from access to and control over information. When people have needed information, others become dependent on them. Normally, higher the level, the more information would be accesses by managers.
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b. Personal Power: Personal power resides in the individual and is independent of that individual’s position. The bases of personal power are expertise, rational, persuasion and reference. b.1.Expert Power: It is the ability to control another person’s behaviour by virtue of possessing knowledge, experience or judgement that the other person lacks, but needs. A subordinate obeys a supervisor possessing expert power because the boss ordinarily knows more about what to be done or how it is to be done than subordinate. However the table may turn upside in case the subordinate knows more than the boss. This holds true in many cases where the boss heavily depends on juniors for technologically oriented support. b.2.Rational Power: It is the ability to control another’s behaviour, since through the individual efforts; the person accepts the desirability of an offered goal and a viable way of achieving it. This involves explain the desirability of expected goal and showing how specific actions will achieve these goals. b.3. Reference Power: It is the ability to control another’s behaviour because the person wants to identify with the power source. In this case, a subordinate obeys the boss because he or she wants to behave, perceive, or believe as the boss does. The subordinate attempts to avoid doing things that would interfere with the pleasing boss-subordinate system. This is based on what the individual represents a path toward lucrative future. b.4.Charismatic Power: This is an extension of reference power stemming from any individuals personality and inter personnel style. Others follow because they can articulate attractive visions, take personal risks, demonstrate follower sensitivity etc. Dependency is the key to power. • • Three • • • The greater B’s dependency on A, the greater the power of A over B. Dependency, inversely proportional to the alternate sources of supply. factors that are responsible for dependency are: Importance Scarcity Non-suitability
5. Explain the Organizational Development Process. A typical Organizational Development Process can be divided into the following phases:
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Problem Identification: The first step in OD process involves understanding and identification of the existing and potential problems in the organisation. The awareness of the problem includes knowledge of the possible organisational problems of growth, human satisfaction, the usage of human resource and organisational effectiveness. Data Collection: Having understood the exact problem in this phase, the relevant data is collected through personnel interviews, observations, the usage of human resource and questionnaires. Diagnosis: OD efforts begin with diagnosis of the current situation. Usually, it is not limited to a single problem. Rather a number of factors like attitudes, assumptions, available resources and management practices are taken into account in this phase. There are four steps in organisational diagnosis: Structural Analysis: Determines how the different parts of the organisation are functioning in terms of laid down goals. Process Analysis: Process implies the manner in which events take place in a sequence. It refers to the patter f decision making, communication, group dynamics and conflict management patterns within organisations to help in the process of attainment of organisational goals. Function Analysis: This includes strategic variables, performance variables, results, achievements and final outcomes. Domain Analysis: This refers to the area of the organization for organizational diagnosis. Planning and implementation: After diagnosing the problem, the next step of OD, with the OD interventions, involves the planning and implementation part of the change process. Evaluation and Feedback: Any OD activity is incomplete without proper feedback. Feedback is a process of relaying evaluations to the client goup by means of specific report or interaction.
6. Write a short note on “Stress Management”
High or low levels of stress sustained over long periods of time can lead to reduced employee performance, thus this requires action by management.
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Individual approaches: Effective individual strategies include implementing time management techniques, increasing physical exercise, relaxation training, and expanding the social support network. Practicing time management principles also leaves as an important element in managing stress, such as: • Making daily lists of activities to be accomplished. Prioritizing activities by importance and urgency. • Scheduling activities according to the priorities set. • Handling the most demanding part of your job during the high part of your cycle when you are most alert and productive. Noncompetitive physical exercise has long been recommended as a way to deal with excessive stress. Practicing relaxation techniques like hypnosis, yoga, meditation etc. Organizational approaches: • • • • • • Improved personnel selection and job placement leading to right person job fit there by reducing chances of non performance and stress level. Use of realistic goal setting, redesigning of jobs to reduce stress. Training in stress management. Increased employee involvement reduces stress level. Improved organizational communication helps in creating transparency in organisation and reducing confusion and stress levels. Establishment of corporate wellness programs is an important concept in managing stress. This rejuvenates and refreshes them from time to time leading to increased productivity with renewed energy.
Suggested frame work for Stress Management: As there is positive side of stress which provides drive and excitement and motivation for individuals to push themselves o achieve more in their lives in the fulfilment of their set goals. Managing stress should be given importance rather than eliminating it. a. Find optimum stress level for an individual: There is no single level of stress that is optimal for each individual. We all are motivated, distressed by different levels of simulation in a given situation. How much resilience a person can exhibit while handling stressful situations, would vary across individuals as they are likely to differ in their psychological
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responses to it. Researchers have shown the following regarding the capabilities of handling stress: • The person who enjoys arbitrating disputes and moves from job site to job site would be stressed in a job which was stable and routine. • Our personnel stress requirements and the amount which we can handle before we succumb to stress changes with age. • Many illnesses are related to unrelieved stress. If one is experiencing stress symptoms, he has gone beyond the optimal stress level, and then it is necessary to reduce stress. b. Managing stress better: Identifying unrelieved stress and being aware of its effect on an individual’s life is insufficient for reducing its harmful effects. There are two choices in this regard- either change the source of stress and/or change your reaction to it. This can be done by following the below path: Become aware of stressors and the emotional and physical reactions: Notice what causes distress, ignoring them is not a solution. Listing out all the events that cause distress is important. Recognizing what can be changed: Is it possible to change stressors by avoiding or eliminating them completely? Can their intensity be reduced? Is it possible to shorten an individual’s exposure to stress? Reduce the intensity of emotional reactions to stress: The stress reaction is triggered by our perception of danger, physical danger or emotional danger. Work at adopting more moderate views; try to see the stress as something you can cope with rather than something that overpowers us is a solution for reducing stress, internally. Learning to moderate our physical reactions to stress: Slow, deep breathing will bring your heart and respiration back to normal. Relaxation techniques can reduce muscle tension. Electronic biofeedback can help you gain voluntarily control over such things as muscle tension. However these alone cannot do the job. Learning to moderate these reactions on our own is a desirable solution in the long run. Build our physical reserves: Exercising for cardiovascular fitness, three to four times a week. Eating well balanced and nutritious meals are a must. Avoiding nicotine, excessive caffeine and other stimulants will be helpful. Being consistent with the sleep schedules; helps in reducing stress to a large extent. • Maintaining emotional reserves: • • • • •
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Developing some mutually supportive friendships and stable relationships help in sharing bottled up emotions and reduce stress. Expecting some frustrations, failures and sorrows as part of life can make us gear up mentally in handling stressful situations rather than succumb to them.
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