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Presence of

Oxalate
ions in
Guava
A Chemistry
Investigatory Project
ANIRUDH KAPTIYAL
XII-A
BOARDS ROLL NO2016-2017

EXAMINE
R

LAB INCHARGE

Certificate

his is to certify that ANIRUDH KAPTIYAL of


class 12th has satisfactorily completed the
project in chemistry on Presence of Oxalate
ions prescribed by the CBSE course in the
academic year 2016-17. I have examined the
project and hereby accord my approval of it as a
study carried out and presented in the manner
required for its acceptance. This does not
necessarily endorse or accept every statement
made or opinion expressed or conclusion drawn,
but only signifies the acceptance of the project for
the purpose it is submitted for.

PGT Chemistry

Head of institute

Acknowledgement
I place my sincere thanks to my
chemistry teacher Mrs. Nargis khan for
her guidance and advices to complete
my work successfully. I also thank our
principal Mrs. Shakuntala for providing
me all the facilities to finish the project
on time.
I also take this opportunity to place
on record my deep gratitude to my
sister for helping me throughout this
project .
Last but not least I thank my parents
for their encouragement and support in
my humble venture.

Contents
o
Certificate
o
Acknowledgement
o Aim of the project
o Introduction
o Theory
o Requirements
o Chemical
Equations
o Procedure
o Precautions
o Observations
o Calculations
o Conclusions

-To study the presence of


oxalate ions in guava fruit at
different stages of ripening.

AI
M
Introduction

uava is a common sweet fruit found in


India and many other places around
the world. Guavas are plants in the
Myrtle family (Myrtaceae) genus
Psidium (meaning "pomegranate" in Latin),
which contains about 100 species of tropical
shrub. On ripening it turns yellow in color. Rich
in vitamin C, this fruit is a rich source of oxalate
ions whose content varies during the different
stages of ripening.
Guavas have a pronounced and typical fragrance, similar to lemon
rind but less in strength.

What is oxalate?

t is a carboxylic acid, primarily found in plants and animals. It is


not an essential moleculeand is excreted fromour body,
unchanged. Our body either produces oxalate on its own or
converts other molecules like Vitamin C to oxalate. External
sources like food also contribute to the accumulation of oxalate in
our
body. The oxalate
present in the body is
excreted in the form of
urine as waste. Too
much of oxalate in
our
urine results in a
medical
condition called
hyperoxaluria,
commonly referred to as kidney stones. Diet
is looked upon as a preventive measure in
addition to medication to treat kidney stones.
O

Theory
xalate ions are extracted
from the fruit by boiling
pulp with dilute H2SO4.
The oxalate ions are
estimated volumetrically,
by titrating the solution
with KMnO4 solution. A
reagent, called the
titrant, of a known
concentration (a standard
solution) and volume is used
to react with a solution
of the analyte or titrand,
whose concentration is not known. Using a calibrated burette or
chemistry pipetting syringe to add the titrant, it is possible to
determine the exact amount that has been consumed when the
endpoint is reached. The endpoint is the point at which the
titration is complete, as determined by an indicator. This is
ideally the same volume as the equivalence point.

he volume of added titrant at which the number of


moles of titrant is
equal to the number
of
moles of analyte, or
some multiple
thereof (as in polyprotic acids).
In
the classic strong acid-strong
base titration, the endpoint of a
titration is the point at which
the
pH of the reactant is just about equal to 7, and often when the
solution takes on a persisting solid colour as in the pink
of phenolphthalein indicator.

Requirements
(A) Apparatus
100 ml measuring flask
Pestle & Mortar
Burette

Funnel
Filter Papers

Weighingmachine

Beaker

(B)

Chemicals

1. dil. H2SO4
2.

3. (N/10)
KMnO4
solution

4.
5.

Guava fruits at
different stages

(C)

6.
Chemical
Equations
7. Molecular Equations
8. 2KMnO4+ 3H2SO4K2SO4+
2MnSO4+2H2O + 4[O]
9. HOOC-COOH.2H2O +[O] 600C
700C2CO2+ 2H2O x 5
10. 3KMnO4+ 3H2SO4+5 HOOCCOOH.2H2O

11.
K2SO4+
2MnSO4+ 18H2O + 10CO2
12.
13.
14.
15. Ionic Equations
16. MnO4-+16H++ 5e-Mn2++ 4H2O
x2
17. C2O42CO2+ 2e-x 5
4+
22+
18. 2MnO + 16H + 5C2O4 2Mn
+8H2O + 10CO2

21.

19.
20.
Procedure
22.

(1) Weighed 50 g of fresh guava and


crushed it to a fine pulp using pestle
and mortar.
(2) Transferredthecrushed pulp to a
beaker and added about 50 ml dilute
H2SO4 to it.

(3) Boiled the content for about 10


minutes. Cooled and filtered the
contents in a 100 ml measuring flask.
(4) Made up the volume 100 ml by
adding ample amount of distilled water.
(5) Took 20 ml of the solution from the
flask and added 20 ml of dilute
sulphuric acid to it.
(6) Heated the mixture to about 600 C
and titrated it against (n/10) KMnO4
solution taken in a burette till the end
point had an appearance of pink colour.
(7) Repeated the above experiment with
50 g of 1day, 2 day and 3 day old
guava fruits.
23.
24.
25.

26.
27. Precautions
i. There should be no parallax while
taking measurements.
1.
Spillage of chemicals should
be checked.

(2) Avoid the use of burette having a rubber


tap as KMnO4attacksrubber.
(3)In order to get some idea about the
temperature of the solution touchthe flask
with the back side of your hand. When it
becomes unbearable totouch, the required
temperature is reached.
i. Add about an equal volume of dil.
H2SO4to the guava extract tobe
titrated (say a full test tube) before
adding KMnO4.
(4)Read the upper meniscus while taking
burette reading withKMnO4 solution.
(5)In case, on addition of KMnO4a brown ppt.
appears, this showsthat either H2SO4has not
been added or has been added
ininsufficient amount. In such a case, throw
away the solutionand titrate again.
28.
29.

Observations

30.
1. Weight of the guava fruit for each
time was 50 g.

2. Volume of guava extract taken for


each titration was 20 ml.
3. Normality of KMnO4 solution was
(1/10).
4. END POINT: Colour Changes to
pink
31.
32. Guava
Solution

33. Bure 34. Final


tte
Reading
reading
Initial

35. Volu
me of
KMnO4

37. Raw

38. 150

39. 18

40. 132

42. Semiripened

43. 150

44. 13

45. 137

36. Concu
rrent
Reading

41. 136.06

47. Ripene 48. 150


d

49. 10.8

50. 139.2

52.
53. Calculations

1) For raw guava


54. N1V1 = N2V2
55. N1 x 10 = (1/10) x132

56. 1/10 x Normality of oxalate = (x/100) =


strength of oxalate in fresh guava extract= normality
x Eq. mass of oxalate ion
57.
= 1.32/100 x 44g/litre of diluted
extract
58. =0.581g L-1
2) For semi ripened guava (1 day old).
59. Strength of oxalate in one day old guava extract
60.
= (1.37 /100) x 44g/litre of diluted
extract
61.
=0.603g L-1
3) For ripened guava
62. Strength of oxalate in fresh guava extract
= ( 1.39/100) x 44g/litre of diluted extract
63.
= 0.612g L-1
64.

65.

RESULTS

(a) The normality of oxalate ions of;


66.
(i) Fresh guava solution is = 1.32 ml
67. (ii) Semi-ripen guava solution is = 1.37 ml
68.
(iii) Ripened guava solution is = 1.39ml
(b) The strength of oxalate ions of;
(i) Fresh guava solution is =0.58ml
(ii)
Semi-ripened guava is =0.60 ml
(iii)
Ripened guava is = 0.61 ml

69. Conclusions
70.
71. The content of oxalate ions in guava
was found to be 59.67 per cent, which is
close to the literature value of 60 percent.

72. It was also noticed that the content


of oxalic ions grows with ripening of
guava.
73.
74.
75.

76.

77.

78.
79. Bibliography
1.Search engines used:
www.google.com
www.wikipedia.com
www.reader.google.com

www.labs.google.com
www.quora.com
2. Practical Chemistry by Laxmi Publications.
3. The Family Encyclopedia by Dorling Kindersley.
80.