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12-12-2015

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

ACADEMIC WRITING

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

KINDS OF ESSAYS

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

KINDS OF ESSAYS
Argumentative essays
essays: to express writers point of view
towards an issue in the world
Cause & Result essays
essays: to analyze the relationship between
a cause and its results or vice versa
Classification essays
essays: to classify sub-groups in a main
group according to their characteristic.
essays to compare or to contrast
Comparison & Contrast essays:
two subjects
essays to tell readers the nature of
Example (or definition) essays:
the given topic by giving examples

12-12-2015

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

KINDS OF ESSAYS
essays to tell readers how to do something or how
Process essays:
something is operated from the beginning to the end
essays to tell reader the content of a chart, a
Chart/Graph essays:
graph, or a statistics
Satirical essays
essays: to criticize a politic or economic policy
with satirical tone of language
essays to analyze something in a
Analyzing literature essays:
short story or a novel

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

FROM PARAGRAPH TO ESSAY


A paragraph is a group of sentences discussing one
idea.
Topic sentence
Supporting sentences
Concluding sentence

An essay is a group of paragraphs discussing one topic.


Introductory paragraph (introduction)
Supporting paragraphs
Concluding paragraph (conclusion)

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

FROM PARAGRAPH TO ESSAY


Topic sentence

Introductory paragraph

Idea/Aspect/Example/Stage 01

Supporting paragraph 01

Introducing sentence
Expanding sentence(s)
[Proving sentence(s)]
Concluding idea/aspect/stage 01

Idea/Aspect/Example/Stage 02

Introducing sentence
Expanding sentence(s)
[Proving sentence(s)]
Concluding idea/aspect/stage 02

Idea/Aspect/Example/Stage 03

Concluding sentence

Topic sentence
Expanding sentences
[Proving sentences]
Concluding sentence

Supporting paragraph 02

Topic sentence
Expanding sentences
[Proving sentences]
Concluding sentence

Supporting paragraph 03
.

Concluding paragraph

12-12-2015

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

ESSAY
What is a good essay?
A good essay is a group of paragraphs discussing one
and only one topic,
topic. concisely,
concisely. logically,
logically. structurally,
structurally.
coherently,
academically,. and convincingly.
coherently. academically
one and only one topic: if not, it lacks of unity
concisely: if not, it is wordy, a lot of redundancies, boring
logically: if not, it is incredible
structurally : if not, readers get difficulties to acquire
coherently: if not, it is unsmooth, readers get difficulties to follow
academically: if not, it is just informal
convincingly: if not, writers get NO SUCCESS

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

COHERENCE

1. Repeat the key words or phrases (use synonyms and


antonyms; avoid repeating same words, phrases)
2. Develop from the least to the most important event,
aspect, from the nearest to the farthest item, etc.
3. Use transitions
4. Use parallel structure
5. Use appropriate pronouns
6. Apply cohesion

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

PARALLEL STRUCTURE
- Usually, the children spend the summer weekends playing
ball in park, swimming in the neighbour's pool, eating ice
cream under the tree, or camping in the backyard.
- Ellen likes to hike, attend the rodeo, and take afternoon
naps.
- John Taylor Gatto criticizes public schools because they are
compulsory, government-funded, and destructive.
- John Taylor Gatto criticizes public schools because they
require students to attend, receive money from the
government, and destroy students humanity.

Very important for writing thesis statements

12-12-2015

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

APPROPRIATE PRONOUNCE
1. The generic YOU
- When you come to the class, you can see immediately a
teacher desk right opposite to the door.
- In the class, the teacher desk is right opposite to the door.

2. Appropriate pronounce
- No one realizes when their time is up. (wrong)
No one realizes when his or her time is up. (awkward)
None realize when their time is up.

3. Ambiguity
Tom said Jim lost his wallet.
The union workers were angry with their supervisors because
of the size of their pay raise.

4. Pseudo subjects

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COHESION
A sentence is a group of words expressing a complete
thought.
(1)She saw a boat sinking. (2)On the sinking boat, a boy was
crying in vain. (3)She swam immediately to the middle of the river.
(4)The boat was at the middle of the river. (5)She wanted to save the
boy. (6)She swam with her most powerful strength.

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

She saw the boat sinking: introducing the action


On the sinking boat, a boy was crying in vain: prerequisite
She swam immediately to the middle of the river: time
The boat was at the middle of the river: place
She wanted to save the boy: purpose
She swam with her most powerful strength: manner

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

COHESION
A sentence is a group of words expressing a complete
thought.
(1)She saw a boat sinking. (2)On the sinking boat, a boy was
crying in vain. (3)She swam immediately to the middle of the river.
(4)The boat was at the middle of the river. (5)She wanted to save the
boy. (6)She swam with her most powerful strength.

Understanding that the boat was sinking, she, immediately,


swam with her most powerful strength to the middle of the river
where the boat was sinking to save a boy who was crying for help
in vain.
Understanding that the boat was sinking, she, immediately,
swam with her most powerful strength to the middle of the river to
save a boy who was crying for help in vain.

12-12-2015

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

COHESION
(1)The

(2)It

hotel is famous.
is one of the most well-known hotels
in the country. (3)The latest international dancing competition
was held at the hotel. (4)The hotel spent a lot of money to
advertise the event. (5)Because the hotel wanted to gain
international reputation. (6)But not many people attended the
event.

(1)The hotel, which is one of the most well-known hotels in this


region, wanted to promote its image around the world by
hosting the latest international dancing competition. (2)Although
the event was widely advertised, not many people participated in
the competition.

(1)The

latest international dancing competition was held at the


hotel, which is one of the most well-known hotels in this region.
hotel spent a lot of money on advertising the event since it
wanted to enhance its international reputation; however, it failed
to attract many people.
(2)The

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

COHESION
(1)New Zealand consists principally of two islands. (2)The
southern is the larger of these but the northern is the more highly
populated. (3)New Zealand is situated between latitudes 34S and
47S. (4)The Maoris were the dominant inhabitants of New
Zealand until the end of the eighteenth century. (5)The country
began to be colonised by the British then. (6)The Maoris resisted
them fiercely at times. (7)The Maoris' valour and physique have
been much admired. (8)The Maoris are now a peaceable people.
(9)At one time they were divided into many tribes. (10)These were
often at war with each other. (11)The tribal system scarcely exists
among them. (12)The Maoris have a tradition. (13)Their name means
'indigenous. (14)According to this tradition they originally came
from an island called Hawaiki. (15)Some people have identified it
with Hawaii.

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

ACADEMIC LANGUAGE
Faced with the companys grim financial reality, both
groups agreed that the talks about the companys efficiency
problems had achieved a very good result. Advice from
outside said the company could bring about big change by
increasing the amount of goods produced per hour. The
unions accepted this comment but suggested the gains would
be reached faster if management came up with better policies
as well as buying better equipment. Management said
spending on equipment had gone up by 15% during the 1990s
but they agreed to look into this issue. The reaction to the
talks was pretty good and has resulted in everyone getting on
better at work.

(Flesch Kincaid Grade Level 11.8)

12-12-2015

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

ACADEMIC LANGUAGE
Faced with = After considering / Upon examination
grim financial reality = the unfavorable fiscal situation
groups = negotiating parties
talks = discussions
a very good result = a mutually beneficial result
Advice from outside said = External advice
bring about = realise / achieve
big change = a significant expansion in total production
increasing the amount of goods produced per hour = becoming more efficient
comment = recommendation / assertion
reached faster = further realized
came up with = formulated / developed
better policies = developed increasingly flexible shiftwork
buying = purchasing
better equipment = more technologically advanced
said = asserted / contended / stated
spending = expenditure / the fiscal outlay
gone up = grown / increased / risen
look into = investigate / evaluate
talks = discussions / negotiations
pretty good = positive / favourable
everyone getting on better at work = improved workplace relations

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

ACADEMIC LANGUAGE
Upon examination of the unfavorable fiscal situation,
both negotiating parties agreed that the discussions about the
company's efficiency problems had achieved a mutually
beneficial result. External advice suggested the company
could achieve a significant expansion in total production
by increasing efficiency. The unions accepted this
recommendation but suggested the gains would be further
realized if management formulated increasingly flexible
shiftwork policies as well as purchasing more technologically
advanced equipment. Management asserted the fiscal
outlay on equipment had increased by 15% during the 1990s
but they agreed to evaluate this issue. The reaction to the
negotiations was positive and has resulted in improved
workplace relations.

(Flesch Kincaid Grade Level 19.2)

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

Introductory paragraph
Supporting paragraphs
Concluding paragraph

One topic sentence


Supporting sentences
One concluding sentence

KINDS OF PARAGRAPHS
IN AN ESSAY

12-12-2015

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

KINDS OF INTRODUCTION
According to Smalley, R. L. & Ruetten, M. K. (1982) in
Refining Composition Skills Rhetoric and Grammar for ESL
Students, there are four kinds of introductory paragraphs;
consisting of

a) Turn-about,
b) Dramatic entrance,
c) Funnel, and
d) Quotation.

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

KINDS OF INTRODUCTION
According to Oshima, Alice & Ann Hogue (2006) in Writing
Academic English (4th ed.), there are two kinds of introductory
paragraphs; consisting of

a) Funnel introduction, and


b) Attention-getting introduction; this kind
consists of:
- Dramatic, Interesting or Funny Story,
- Surprising, Statistics or Facts, and
- Historical Background

12-12-2015

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

KINDS OF INTRODUCTION
In fact, the number of kinds of introductory paragraphs differs
from a course-book to one another; for example the Academic
writing course of the University of Victoria lists up to seven
kinds of introductory paragraphs

1) Funnel,
3) Survey,
5) Question,
7) Definition.

2) Anecdote,
4) Quotation,
6) Setting a Scene, and

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

KINDS OF INTRODUCTIONS

o
o
o
o
o

FUNNEL
TURN-ABOUT
DRAMATIC ENTRANCE
QUOTATION
MIXED

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

PURPOSES OF INTRODUCTIONS

introduce the theme of the essay


introduce the writers point of view towards the theme
of the essay
indicate the pattern the essay is going to develop
capture readers interest

12-12-2015

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

PARTS OF INTRODUCTIONS
General statement
o introduce the general topic of the essay,
o capture the reader's interest.

Thesis statement
o is normally the last sentence in an introductory paragraph;
o states the theme of the essay;
o mention to the writers point of view toward the topic (implicitly
or explicitly);

o may list subtopics or subdivisions of the main topic or


subtopics, in some way, indicate the pattern of the
organization of the essay.

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

THESIS STATEMENT

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

KINDS OF A THESIS STATEMENT


general thesis statement
o The thesis statement mentions to something general relating
to the points on which the essay is going to develop; for
example:
Living in a dormitory offers several advantages to first-year
students.

specific thesis statement


o The thesis statement mentions concretely to the points on
which the essay is going to focus; for example:
A college degree in international business requires a
knowledge of business procedure and a knowledge of cultural
differences.

12-12-2015

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

THESIS STATEMENT CONSTRAINS


MUST be a complete sentence
The advantages of getting Master degree before having a job.

NOT an announcement
Below, I would like to discuss the reason why I scare of the dark.
In this essay, I am going to discuss the reason why students should
wear uniform when coming to their school.

NOT mentioning to a fact (statement)


Ho Chi Minh City is a big city with ten million people.
Ho Chi Minh City is a populous one.

NOT a question or an embedded question


Why do we wear uniform when coming to our school?
To make the issue clearer, people should examine the reasons why
women should not join the army.

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

THESIS STATEMENT CONSTRAINS


NEVER more than one topic discussed
My vacation in San Francisco was a lot of fun, and I liked visiting
the wine country in California, too.
Going to colleges in the Midwest can be fun, and I have found that
living in a suburb of a large city is the best way to live while at
college.
Living in a big city, people not only enjoy its advantages but have to
endure its disadvantages as well.
The action of some beer looters happening on 4 December 2013
is a disgusting and blameworthy one. (a good thesis statement)

NEVER use lets structure


Lets discuss the disadvantages of living in a big city.

NEVER use imperative sentences

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

PURPOSES
PURPOSES
OF THESIS
OF INTRODUCTIONS
STATEMENTS

introduce the theme of the essay


introduce the writers point of view towards the theme
of the essay
indicate the pattern the essay is going to develop
capture readers interest

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12-12-2015

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

PURPOSES OF THESIS STATEMENTS


introduce the theme of the essay
o For getting the best results for their learning, these
differences should concern students greatly before these
students make their decision. (Topic: Comparing or
contrasting learning English at universities and at language
centers.)
o In fact, crossing out these practical issues, the training
curricula and methods of domestic and abroad universities
are completely different, which impacts seriously on
students further purposes. (Topic: Comparing or
contrasting studying university training programs domestic
and abroad.)

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

PURPOSES OF THESIS STATEMENTS


introduce the theme of the essay
o However, it will be unfair when mentioning to only the
negative effects that stress impacts on our body, this
phenomenon also gives us positive effects to our both
mental and physic. (Topic: Stress)

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

PURPOSES OF THESIS STATEMENTS


introduce the writers point of view towards the
theme of the essay
o However, when the issues relating to the environment are
concerned, this means of transportation should be banned
from moving in Ho Chi Minh City. (Topic: Should
motorbikes be banned from moving in Ho Chi Minh City?)
o However, when some of the ill effects that this state-of-theart device impact on these people mentally and physically
are concerned, this device should be kept away from
teenagers. (Topic: Should teenagers be allowed to use
cellphones?)

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Lecturer: V Duy Minh

PURPOSES OF THESIS STATEMENTS


indicate the pattern the essay is going to develop
o However, when some of the ill effects that this state-of-theart device impact on these people mentally and physically
are concerned, this device should be kept away from
teenagers. (Topic: Should teenagers be allowed to use
cellphones?)
o Among these advantages, the most important ones relate to
entertaining for relax, learning to improve knowledge and
finding a good job. (Topic: Advantages or disadvantages
for living in a big city.)

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

PURPOSES OF THESIS STATEMENTS


indicate the pattern the essay is going to develop
o In the story, uttering She will kill herself, and that it
would be the best thing for her, the narrator displays
internal conflicts that paralyze not only Miss Emily but also
the townspeople. (Topic: Analyzing the internal conflicts in
the story A Rose for Emily of William Faulkner.)
o In fact, crossing out these practical issues, the training
curricula and methods of domestic and abroad universities
are completely different, which impacts seriously on
students further purposes. (Topic: Comparing or
contrasting studying university training programs domestic
and abroad.)

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

Funnel
Turn-about
Dramatic entrance
Quotation
Mixed

KINDS OF INTRODUCTION

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Lecturer: V Duy Minh

FUNNEL
o Most frequently used for
the short essay,
o Begins with a broad,
GENERAL STATEMENT
general statement about the
topic,
NARROW
o Follows with narrower,
DOWN
more specific statements
about the topic,
o Final sentence is thesis
THESIS STATEMENT
statement, in which the theme of the
essay is mentioned and, if possible, the body of the essay is
outlined.

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

TOPIC: Differences between learning English


at a university and language centers

FUNNEL

General statement When deciding to learn English, students have always

stood in front of two options, a university or a


language center. Very often, the first reason for these
students relates to their free time; they choose a
university or a language center depending on their
proper schedule. Also, students have often paid
attention to the last result they get when finishing
these courses, concretely the degree or the certificate,
rather than the teaching purposes of these courses.
Focus on the topic Actually, when the teaching purposes are considered,
given
the two courses have many differences in the way of
teaching. For getting the best results for their
Thesis statement
learning, these differences should concern students
Essay theme
greatly before these students make their decision.
Expanding
general idea

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

TOPIC: Analyzing the aspects of understanding,


sympathy, hatred, and envy in Roman Fever of
Edith Wharton.

FUNNEL

General statement Published in 1920, The Age of Innocence, a novel

telling about the relationship of a man, Newland


Archer, with two ladies, paved Edith Wharton a way
Focus on the topic to Pulitzer in fiction in the next year. Written later,
given
Roman Fever, a short story, is also under such alltime topic. The story, however, is a little bit different
when exposing the relationship between two ladies,
who are old friends and who both, in their
Thesis statement maidenhood, loved a man. It is in such relationship,
which is mixing up friendship with rivalry, that
Outline the body understanding, sympathy, hatred, and envy are
exposed completely.
Essay theme

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Lecturer: V Duy Minh

FUNNEL

TOPIC: Culture shock

General statement Moving to a new country can be an exciting, even


exhilarating experience. In a new environment, people
Expanding
general idea
somehow feel more alive. Seeing new sights, eating new

food, hearing the foreign sounds of a new language, and


feeling a different climate against your skin stimulate
your senses as never before. Soon, however, this sensory
bombardment becomes sensory overload. Suddenly, new
experiences seem stressful rather than stimulating, and
Focus on the topic delights turns into discomfort. This is the phenomenon
given
known as culture shock. Culture shock is more than jet
lag or homesickness, and it affects nearly everyone who
enters a new cultures tourists, business travelers,
Thesis statement diplomats, and students alike. Although not everyone
experiences culture shock in exactly the same way,
Essay theme
Outline
the body many experts agree that it has roughly five stages.

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

TOPIC: How Steinbeck show the American Dream to


be impossible to be achieved in Of Mice and Men

FUNNEL

During the Great Depression of the 1930s, thousands of


Americans lost their jobs and their homes when farms and businesses
failed and unemployment and poverty exploded. As a result, many were
set adrift to wander and to seek work in strange places. This
rootlessness created a jarring contrast to the ideal of the American Dream
that so many Americans had been led to believe that if you work hard
enough, you can create your own fortune. In his novel, Of Mice and
Men, set in the 1930s, John Steinbeck portrays several of these lonely,
drifting characters who are struggling under the difficult times of the
Great Depression. The novel illustrates the emotions, hopes, and
disappointments of these characters, who opt out of the belief in owning
property and being a member of a community because of the miseries
that they suffer every day. In Of Mice and Men, Steinbeck uses the
emptiness of the ranchers lives to show the American Dream to be
nothing more than a myth that is impossible to be achieved.

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

TURN-ABOUT
o Appropriate to Argumentative essay most;
o Begins with a counter-argument;
o Follows with narrower, more specific statements about the
counter argument;
o Final sentence is thesis statement
o theme of the essay
o writers point of view towards the theme
o if possible, outline the organization of the essay body

o Typical language is However, Anyway, But, Yet, etc.

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Lecturer: V Duy Minh

TOPIC: Should or should not let teenagers use


cell phones?

TURN-ABOUT

Counter-argument Nowadays, using cell phones is very popular in the

teenager community. Cell phones provide these


young people with a wonderful means meeting all of
their demands. The teenagers use cell phones to
contact with their friends, with their parents, to search
the materials for their learning, to make friends to
other people all over the world, to listen to music, to
watch films, to check emails, and to do hundreds of
other activities that their parents are unable to
Confirming
imagine. It seems that this multifunction device is, to
counter-argument some extent, more important than any friend or any
relative of them. However, when some of ill effects
Thesis statement
that this state-of-the-art device impact on these people
mentally and physically are concerned, this device
Theme
Ws point of view should be kept away from teenagers.
Expanding
counter-argument

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

TOPIC: Should or should not ban motorbikes


from moving in Ho Chi Minh City?

TURN-ABOUT

General idea

Nowadays, there is a hot debate on the issue that


motorbikes should be banned from moving in Ho Chi
Counter-argument Minh City. Many experts believe that prohibiting this
common means of transportation is unreasonable.
Expanding
They point out that the street system, which is very
counter-argument complicate and very small, is suitable for small
vehicles as motorbikes only. Moreover, the city
commuters income still has some limits for other
kinds of vehicles, while the public transportation still
gives them a lot of convenience when moving in the
city. Therefore, these experts claim that stopping this
Confirming
counter-argument kind of vehicles to move in the city is really illogical.
Thesis statement Anyway, when the issues of causing traffic accidents as
well as of polluting the environment are taken into
Outline the body
Ws point of view careful consideration, giving motorbikes a prohibition
from moving in the city is the best solution.

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

TOPIC: Should or should not ban motorbikes


from moving in Ho Chi Minh City?

TURN-ABOUT

Counter-argument Nowadays, many traffic experts have suggested

banning motorbikes from moving in Ho Chi Minh


City. These experts claim that this means of
transportation not only causes a lot of tragic accidents
but worsens the city environment. Furthermore, some
people believe the prohibition will encourage the city
commuters using public means of transportation as
other developed countries. To some extent, these ideas
Confirming
counter-argument prove that they are reasonably. However, taking a view
Thesis statement on the street system of the city, on the poor condition of
Outline the body our public transportation, and on the city commuters
convenience, this common means of transportation
Ws point of view should not be banned from moving in this city.

Expanding
counter-argument

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Lecturer: V Duy Minh

DRAMATIC ENTRANCE
o In someway, this kind of introductory paragraph is opposite to
the Funnel and forms a triangulation from the top to the
bottom,
o Appropriate to some topics asking the writers to express their
point of view towards a worldwide issue,
o Begins with an event really having happened in our real world
that the readers already knew,
o Expanding the event broader and broader,
o Final sentence is thesis statement,
in which the theme is mentioned and, in some ways, the body of the
essay is outlined.

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

TOPIC: Stress
(cause & effect essay)

DRAMATIC ENTRANCE

Dramatic event

On 14 December, Adam Lanza, an American veteran,


took a gun into a school and shot death 40 students in
Expand dramatic the school. After that, he killed himself also. This
event to general
traumatic incidents shocked all people in the world.
idea
No one wants such a terrible action to happen again
and hundreds of researchers swarmed to the case to
Focus on the topic study the causes for the tragic action. All of these
researchers, then, came to the consensus stating that it
was the effects of the modern phenomenon of stress,
Thesis statement
which makes our kidney secretes adrenalin. When the
hormone of adrenalin secretes too much under the
Essay theme
pressure of our current social issues, this phenomenon
happens and causes our body to lose the control.

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

TOPIC: Climate change

DRAMATIC ENTRANCE

Dramatic event

These days, the United States of America, the most


developed country in the world, is suffering a fierce
snow storm, which makes the climate drop down to a
utopia temperature of -50o. Thousands of Americans
Expand dramatic have died in the storm. Many scientists, unfortunately,
event to general
have predicted that this case is just the beginning for
idea
changes in the world climate and pointed out that the
Focus on the topic culprit is the very human being. They have said that
the snow storm, and other unable-to-predict climate
phenomena, comes from the greenhouse effect which
is impacted by our development. Human beings
Thesis statement
activities, under the brand of development, are,
Essay theme
therefore, the causes for such an awful climate as
well as others which will come on the day after
tomorrow.
tomorrow

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Lecturer: V Duy Minh

TOPIC: Climate change

DRAMATIC ENTRANCE

Dramatic event

In September 2015, the US government had to


promulgate the emergency situation of drought in
California which caused a series of forest fires.
Ironically, in the same month, India experienced its
worst flood, which induced over 600 farmers to
Expand dramatic suicide when their harvest disappeared in the flow of
water. El Nino, immediately, was blamed by all of
event to general
the researchers in the world for the different
idea
Focus on the topic situations in our planet. This phenomenon is believed
to be caused by the climate change, which raises the
temperature of our planet. More ironically, such a
Thesis statement
climate change, which are damaging our planet
seriously, has caused by the so-called development of
the human kind.

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

QUOTATION
o Appropriate to some topics relevant to literature, for example,
asking the writers to analyze a short story,
o Also developed in the way of a funnel introduction,
o Begins with a saying, a quotation expressing a broad, general
point of view towards the topic,
o Follows with narrower, more specific statements about the
point of view and approaching the topic,
o Final sentence is thesis statement,
in which the theme is mentioned, and, if possible, the body of the
essay is outlined.

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

TOPIC: Analyze Emilys situation when the


narrator think, She will kill herself. and it is
the best thing for her.

QUOTATION

Quotation

Under the laurels of the 1950 Nobel Prize, William


Faulkner said, problems that human heart in conflict
with itself alone can make a good writing
Expand quotation because only that is worth writing about. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------to general idea
----------------------------------------------------------------Focus on the topic -------------------------------------------------. A Rose
for Emily is also written under such distinctive and
recurrent theme. In the story, uttering She will kill
Thesis statement
herself, and that it would be the best thing for her,
the narrator displays internal conflicts that paralyze
Essay theme
Outline the body
not only Miss Emily but also the townspeople.

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Lecturer: V Duy Minh

TOPIC: Analyze the feeling of the Major in In


Another Country of Hemingway when he fails to
accomplish his desire.

QUOTATION

Quotation

It was until 1952 in The Old Man and the Sea that
Ernest Miller Hemingway wrote A man can be
destroyed but not defeated, but such attitude had
been very often exposed in his pre-1930 published
Expand quotation works. -------------------------------------------------------to general idea
----------------------------------------------------------------.
Focus on the topic Published in 1927 in the collection Men Without
Women, In Another Country, one of his best-known
short stories, also referred to such attitude. In the
story, the Major always tries to adapt to normal life to
express his belief, A man can be destroyed but not be
defeated. However, it is in such efforts that the most
Thesis statement
tragic situation occurs to the Major when he fails to
Essay theme
accomplish his desire.

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

MIXED
o Combine two ways to develop an introductory paragraph above
into one; for example:
o
o
o
o

Quotation and Turn-about,


Dramatic entrance and Turn-about;
Quotation and Funnel,
Funnel and Turn-about

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

TOPIC: Stress
(cause & effect essay)

FUNNEL & TURN-ABOUT

General statement These days, replying the increase of working and

social pressures, stress turns to be the most common


phenomenon in the 22th century people. This
Narrow down
general idea and phenomenon raises when our body reacts to the
Counter-argument pressures coming from outside and naturally secretes
the adrenalin. When the adrenalin comes to some
extent, the sufferers will lose their control mentally and
fail to control what they are going to do. Annoyance,
hot temper, or nervousness is the first sign. Violence
may come later. In some serious cases, the sufferers can
violate criminal actions or kill themselves. Clearly,
Confirming
counter-argument stress is always considered the culprit of many negative
Thesis statement effects putting on the sufferers. However, it will be
unfair when mentioning to only the negative effects that
Essay theme
stress impacts on our body, this phenomenon also gives
Outline the body us positive effects to our both mental and physic.

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12-12-2015

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

Example essay (definition essay)


Argumentative essay
Cause & Result essay
Comparison - Contrast essay
Classification essay

KINDS OF ESSAYS

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

EXAMPLE ESSAY
General idea
Introduction

Funnel (should be)

Expanding general idea


Focusing on the given topic
Thesis statement
Topic sentence example 01

Supporting
paragraph 01
(Example 01)
Supporting
paragraphs

Expanding sentences example 01


Concluding sentence example 01

Transition (word, phrase, clause, sentence)


Topic sentence example 02

Supporting
paragraph 02
(Example 02)

Expanding sentences example 02


Concluding sentence example 02

Repeating general idea


Conclusion

Repeating main ideas in the body


Concluding sentence

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY
Introduction

Supporting
paragraphs

Counter-argument
Turn-about (should Expanding counter-argument idea
Confirming the counter-argument idea
be)
Thesis statement
Topic sentence for reason 01
Supporting
Expanding reason 01
paragraph 01
Proving reason 01
(Reason 01)
Concluding reason 01
Transition (word, phrase, clause, sentence)
Topic sentence for reason 01
Supporting
Expanding reason 01
paragraph 02
Proving reason 01
(Reason 02)
Concluding reason 01
Repeating counter-argument

Conclusion

Repeating main ideas in the body


Concluding sentence (writers point of view)

19

12-12-2015

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

CAUSE & RESULT ESSAY


Introduction

Supporting
paragraphs

Funnel or
Dramatic entrance
(should be)
Supporting
paragraph 01
(Result of cause
01)

General idea (a CAUSE or a RESULT)


Expanding general idea
Focusing on the topic
Thesis statement (RESULTS or CAUSES)
Topic sentence for result or cause 01
Expanding result of cause 01
Result of cause 01
Concluding result or cause 01

Transition (word, phrase, clause, sentence)


Topic sentence for result or cause 02
Supporting
Expanding result of cause 02
paragraph 02
(Result of cause
02)

Result of cause 02
Concluding result or cause 02

Repeating general idea


Conclusion

Repeating main ideas in the body


Concluding sentence

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

COMPARISON - CONTRAST ESSAY


Introduction

Supporting
paragraphs
(have TWO
paragraphs)

Funnel (should be)

Supporting
paragraph 01
(Subject 01)

General idea
Expanding general idea
Focusing on the topic
Thesis statement (characteristics)
Topic sentence for Subject 01
Characteristics 01 of Subject 01
Characteristics 02 of Subject 01
Concluding Subject 01

Transition (word, phrase, clause, sentence)


Topic sentence for Subject 02
Supporting
Characteristics 01 of Subject 02
paragraph 02
Characteristics 02 of Subject 02
(Subject 02)
Concluding Subject 02
Repeating general idea

Conclusion

Repeating main ideas in the body


Concluding sentence

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

COMPARISON - CONTRAST ESSAY


Introduction

Supporting
paragraphs
(usually have
THREE
paragraphs)

Funnel (should be)

Supporting
paragraph 01
(Characteristic 01)

General idea
Expanding general idea
Focusing on the topic
Thesis statement (characteristics)
Topic sentence for characteristic 01
Subject 01 with characteristic 01
Subject 02 with characteristic 01
Concluding characteristic 01

Transition (word, phrase, clause, sentence)


Topic sentence for characteristic 02
Supporting
Subject 01 with characteristic 02
paragraph 02
Subject 02 with characteristic 02
(Characteristic 02)
Concluding characteristic 02
Repeating general idea

Conclusion

Repeating main ideas in the body


Concluding sentence

20

12-12-2015

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

CLASSIFICATION ESSAY
Introduction

Supporting
paragraphs
(have THREE
paragraphs)

Funnel (should be)

Supporting
paragraph 01
(Subject 01)

General idea
Expanding general idea
Focusing on the topic
Thesis statement (characteristics)
Topic sentence for Subject 01
Characteristics 01 of Subject 01
Characteristics 02 of Subject 01
Concluding Subject 01

Transition (word, phrase, clause, sentence)


Topic sentence for Subject 02
Supporting
Characteristics 01 of Subject 02
paragraph 02
Characteristics 02 of Subject 02
(Subject 02)
Concluding Subject 02
Repeating general idea

Conclusion

Repeating main ideas in the body


Concluding sentence

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

CLASSIFICATION ESSAY
Introduction

Supporting
paragraphs
(usually have
THREE
paragraphs)

Funnel (should be)

Supporting
paragraph 01
(characteristic 01)

General idea
Expanding general idea
Focusing on the topic
Thesis statement (characteristics)
Topic sentence for characteristic 01
Group 01 with characteristic 01
Group 02 with characteristic 01
Concluding characteristic 01

Transition (word, phrase, clause, sentence)


Topic sentence for characteristic 02
Supporting
Group 01 with characteristic 02
paragraph 02
Group 02 with characteristic 02
(characteristic 02)
Concluding characteristic 01
Repeating general idea

Conclusion

Repeating main ideas in the body


Concluding sentence

Lecturer: V Duy Minh

THANK YOU FOR LISTENING

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