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What is Archaeology?
The word archaeology is ancient Greek in origin.
Its simple meaning is the study of everything
Archaeology is the scientific study relating to
peoples of the past. The study also deals with the
culture and their relation with the environment.
The main aim of the archaeological study to
understand how humans in the past to interacted
with their environment & to preserve this history
for present & future learning. They include the
study of the buildings, monuments & other
material relics.

What is Archaeology?
Today, archaeology is a systematic and scientific
approach to collecting, classifying and interpreting
physical remains.
Archaeologists examine objects from left behind
from a society.
This is where archaeology comes in studying the
material remains of the past to learn about how
people lived. Thereby helping to fill the gaps
left by only studying written records.
archaeologists study the past.

What is Archaeology?
These objects often relate to everyday life
particularly unimportant details of life
that are not recorded in written records.

We can learn more about what life was

like for the average person in a society
from archaeological evidence than from
written records, which are usually
concerned with the wealthy and
important people of a society.
Archaeology is critical for gaining an
understanding of people who did not
leave written records behind.

Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley

2500 BC to 1500 BC the Harappan Civilization developed in the
Indus River valley.

The named derives from one of the two discovered cities Harappa and Mohenjo Daro ("Mound of the Dead)

Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley

This map shows the layout of
Mohenjo-Daro, one of the
principal cities of the Indus Valley
civilization. The larger eastern
area contained the residential
and commercial sections of the
city, which were laid out in a grid
of large rectangular blocks.

Rising more than twenty feet to the west stood the citadel, built on a mound of
mud brick and rubble. Fortified by a brick wall and towers, the citadel contained
the citys shrine, assembly hall, baths, and granary.

Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley

Both cities were planned with Wide Streets, Water Systems,
Public Baths, and Brick Sewers.

Ruins of Harappa

The Great Bath

Early Civilizations in the Indus River Valley

Each city had a strong central fortress, or citadel, on a brick

Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro

Harappa granary

Looking at Sources
For each object:
Describe the object
What is it made of?
What is its purpose?
Is it archaeological evidence or a written source or both?
What can it tell you about the people who made and used it?
Is the object most helpful in finding out about:
daily life
culture & beliefs
social and political life?

The Skills of the Archaeologist

An Archaeologist:
investigates the past

identifies material evidence

asks questions of sources
collects evidence and observes
classifies evidence, placing it in its correct context of time
and place
interprets evidence and draws conclusions
evaluates material evidence and makes judgements about it
communicates and explains theories about the past

How the Architecture involve with

Architecture is a great relevance, architecture can contribute
to archaeology in many ways, for example through the study
of formal arrangement of buildings, construction techniques
and settlement patterns.
Both disciplines take into account the way societies
organized and transformed landscape, topography, and the
general environment.
Formal arrangements are the way buildings were distributed,
while settlement patterns studies deals with the general
overview of the settlement distribution.
Hence, archaeology and architecture both concern broad
traditions, thoughts, and ideas of the ancient peoples.

Architecture in archaeology
The first manifestation of architecture taking a role in
archaeology was the development of household archaeology,
the merging of settlement archaeology and activity area

This discipline treated the household as the basic socioeconomic

unit and focused on the house, and the artefacts found within it,
as a reflection of the social and economic structure of the culture
or community.
Spatial analyses used in settlement archaeology were

adopted for more micro scale examination of material remains.

Archaeologists began to use material remains, their spacing, and
knowledge of the culture to determine what activities were being
performed, where, and by whom. Ethno archaeology had been
utilizing similar methods to find the nature of social relations
within the domestic unit and other hidden symbolic elements