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Comparison of Modern and Conventional Construction Techniques for Next Generation: A Review

Comparison of Modern and Conventional Construction


Techniques for Next Generation: A Review
Pradip Ajugiya

Prof. J. J. Bhavsar

Final year M.Tech. Student, Construction


Engineering and Management,
B.V.M.Engineering College, Vallabh
Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India

Associate Professor, P. G. Coordinator,


Civil Engineering Department,
B.V.M.Engineering College Vallabh
Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India

Dr. Jayeshkumar Pitroda


Associate Professor, Civil Engineering Department
B.V.M.Engineering College, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India
Abstract: The growth of new technologies in the Construction Industry is expected have an impact on the way
construction is performed in the future. Modern Techniques of construction are about better products and
processes. They aim to enhance construction efficiency, quality, user satisfaction, environmental performance,
sustainability and the predictability of delivery timescales. A research proposition that has arrive from
literature review on use of new construction techniques for increase the productivity is, Conventional
construction practices applied for construction industry in India is not efficient and effective or conventional
construction techniques need to improve according to world trend. The paper here presents a detailed literature
review on the modern construction techniques and comparison of it with conventional techniques.
Keyword: Modern Techniques, Construction Industry, Conventional Techniques, Comparison, Next Generation

1. INTRODUCTION
When all over the world due to increase of population and availability of home loans from bank, it
demands of dwelling is raise then boosting the supply of home is highest priorities of construction
industry. This reduces the construction time and this is only possible when new construction techniques
are adopted by industry.
The rate of housing supply in the world, such as in Asia where considerable growth is forecast, is
lower than Government would prefer. High demand for housing in this era is pushing up prices, making
it more challenging for key workers and those on low income to find suitable accommodation. The
development of affordable private sector dwellings is outside the control of Government so the focus
has been on stimulating the innovative and new construction techniques to increasing the rate of
housing supply.
The techniques being introduced into real estate sector differ significantly from so called
conventional construction techniques such as brick and block, modern techniques of construction are
about better products and processes. The term modern techniques of construction embrace a numbers of
approaches involving off-site manufacture or assembly, 3D concrete printing, automation and robotics.
Modern Techniques of construction are, therefore, more broadly based than a particular focus on
product. They engage people and process to seek improvement in the delivery and performance of
construction.

2. CRITICAL LITERATURE REVIEW


The following are the previous research review based on modern techniques of construction and
comparison with conventional techniques.
Gann D. et al. (1993) explored that changing construction technologies against the background of
future trends in UK housebuilding and suggested that shortages of traditional skills, together with
needs to comply with stringent environmental regulations, may well direct to future housing programs
depending on extensive use of new technologies. He is also stated that Industrialized housing
construction techniques have been used successfully in some countries. (5)
Morales G. et al. (1999) studied both Japan and US basic construction activities, research and
development, social implications, automation technology, and construction robots economic
feasibility. He also found that robotics technology has improved productivity, quality, safety, work

Comparison of Modern and Conventional Construction Techniques for Next Generation: A Review

conditions, environment, and reduced construction time, labor, hard work and costs. Productivity and
quality in single tasks robots have successfully been achieved when a specific work is repetitive. (14)
Wakisaka T. et al. (2000) described that big canopy method for high rise reinforced concrete building
construction as all-weather automated construction system and found that it ensures good quality,
improves the working and environmental conditions, reduces the construction time, manpower, and
wastes, and improves overall productivity. (19)
Khoshnevis B. et al. (2004) found that Conventional techniques of construction of large structures
slows the rate of growth in construction industry and stated that Contour Crafting(CC) has the potential
for immediate application in low income housing and emergency shelter construction. He is also stated
that construction of luxury structures with exotic architectural designs involving complex curves and
other geometries, which are expensive to build using manual approach, is another candidate application
domain for Contour crafting. (10)
Yamazaki Y. et al. (2004) discussed future direction of management of innovative technologies
toward construction innovation. He also stated that for future construction industry, technology and
knowledge fusions are key methodologies and to promote technology and knowledge fusions,
information technology should be viewed as key technology for project-based construction firms. (20)
Kadir A. et al. (2006) concluded that the difference in actual labour productivity between conventional
and IBS was mainly contributed by the cycle time (difference of 76 per cent) rather than the crew size
(difference of 18 per cent). He is also described that shorter cycle time implies that total project
construction time would also be reduced, hence minimizing management overhead and meaning that
owners can occupy their house early. He is also suggested that as the number of unit house increased,
the actual labour productivity improved due to learning effect and economies of scale. (1)
Sardn Y. et al. (2010) Stated that the Modern methods of construction (MMC) are suggested to deal
more effectively with uncertainties inherent in traditional construction regarding e.g. time, defects,
safety, environmental impact, costs, profits and lifecycle performance. He is also found some attributes
which are challenge roles, responsibilities and put new demands on different stakeholders of the
construction process, which contribute to uncertainty for both client and contractor. (18)
Bock T. et al. (2011) showed that automated con -and deconstruction systems often are combinations
of horizontal and vertical sequences which are exactly what characterize todays ship production. He is
also found that shipyard technology is highly advanced and individual, customized ships are built with
a high degree of automation. (3)
Kamar A. M. et al. (2011) suggested Industrialized Building System (IBS) represent the
prefabrication and industrialised construction concept and stated that IBS should move up the degree of
industrialization from prefabrication to reproduction through innovation and the mass-customisation
concept which is vital to open building system agenda can only be achieved through the adoption of
automation in the level of industrialization. (8)
Abulfahem M. F. et al. (2012) studied and analyzed methods of prefabricated construction and the
relationship between the customer and the factory and considered a set of general guidelines for
building design which should be adopted as standards in building mass production industry according
to all the data and information acquired in this research and with the respect of architectural and civil
engineering standards in construction industry. (2)
Zavala M. E. A. et al. (2012) stated that it is important to improve the construction industry and take it
to the next level, to automation and found that because of social, economic, and development reasons,
the introduction an application of new technologies in construction are not only feasible but is going to
be the next trend in the close future. (21)
Hasegawa Y. et al. (2012) suggested that the productivity of construction industry is not good enough
as advanced manufacturing industry and also found the trend of relationship between those of
construction related technologies progress and labour productivity increment.

Comparison of Modern and Conventional Construction Techniques for Next Generation: A Review

Chan T. et al. (2012) identified the construction cost-construction technology choice approach and
developed working cost-technology model, which will provide the construction industry with a much
needed tool to evaluate the most appropriate options to deliver residential, commercial and institutional
buildings, especially for rapidly developing economies facing constraints of labour, capital or
resources. (4)
Pachon A G. et al. (2012) suggested guidelines which shows a set of parameters in three stages:
before, during and after construction. He is also found the impacts (benefits and drawbacks) of having
automated construction sites, which are evaluated from economical, technical and logistical
perspectives, giving insight on whether or not investing in an automated system is convenient giving
the specific conditions of a site and company interests. (15)
Jain S. et al. (2013) found the potential use of automation products in infrastructure Construction in
India and discovered that India has large potential for use of automation products and Indian firms are
ready for use of automated products. He is also found that all type of firm uses 60% or more manually
controlled machine which can go to higher automation levels i.e. tele-operated machines, computer
controlled machine and cognitive robots and Both small firms and large firms of India have greater
potential for adopting automation products. (6)
Kyjakov L. et al. (2014) analysed the modern techniques of constructions, and points to one of their
components, specifically to modular constructions and examined their design and also shows the
benefits that come with this of type modern techniques of constructions. (11)
Pachon A. G. et al. (2014) stated that there are Four aspects which are introduced as the main drivers
for the successful completion of the project: definition of the problematic situation, relevant available
innovations, operational implementation and the guidance towards an envisioned state of the industry.
He is also investigated about the deficiencies faced in construction industries around the globe. (16)
Mohd Nawi M. N. et al. (2014) stated that the contrasting concepts of IBS and MMC, and concludes
that ill-defining the MMC(Modern Method of construction)-IBS (Industrialized building system) terms
leads to misunderstanding, uncertainty and prejudice of the IBS concept and its benefits, which will be
detrimental to efforts promoting the use of IBS in the construction industry and suggested that that
there is need for a standardization of terminology is paramount, to ensure accurate understanding of its
advantages as well as to provide certainties with the risk and barriers related to IBS, especially for a
developing country such as Malaysia which is just beginning to embrace the IBS techniques to efforts
made in its construction industry. (13)
Karke S. M. et al. (2014) compared merits and demerits by using a conventional timber formwork
system and modern formwork systems and stated that Traditional formwork for concrete construction
normally consisted of bespoke solutions requiring skilled craftsmen and often had poor safety features
and gave slow rates of construction on-site and huge levels of waste inefficient and unsustainable
while Modern formwork systems, which are mostly modular, are designed for speed and efficiency. (9)
Jozef S. et al. (2015) done socio-economic survey and found that users give the greatest significance
on operating costs of the building and quality and comfort of living, less significance was observed on
construction technology and time of construction, and the least significance for users places on
ecological aspects and Investment cost on building procurement. (7)
Mesro P. et al. (2015) stated that key to the successful performance of the enterprise is undoubtedly
the effective cost management and suggested according to the current business conditions, it is
necessary to have information on the cost of corporate performance and the shift from traditional to
modern calculation methods that allow assignment of costs according to actual performance of their
causes, activities. (12)
Patil H. C. et al. (2015) identified the effect of world trend on construction technique and discuss the
evolution of building construction with respective of time scale and stated that Modern construction
mostly caters to function or utility, economy, safety and distinction as a landmark structure in the order
of priority. (17)

Comparison of Modern and Conventional Construction Techniques for Next Generation: A Review

3. CONCLUSIONS
Based on Literature Review the following conclusions are derived.
1. Mass customization covered most of industries in the world economy and had a great feedback
from the customers, especially in prefabricated building construction industry, because of the
integration of advanced information and technology in prefabricated building construction
industry (Robotics and advanced equipment).
2. It is important to improve the construction industry and take it to the next level, to automation. For
developing countries, it would be a real challenge, but actions have to be taken before the
technology we have now gets obsolete. It is not only about solve poverty and save money, it is
also about improve the quality of the buildings. Modularity specially could be the clue to archive
those goals. With mass production of units and modules will be cheaper in order the provide
housing and building to the less fortunate, and improve or attach more systems and technological
gadgets to the ones that can afford it. This means cost could be reducing for the ones that need it,
and improvements could be attached for the ones that can afford them.
3. With the fast growing development and integration of ambient assistive technology, the smart
environment with context awareness, user friendly and flexibility to perform daily tasks for the
users of all kinds is fostering day by day. In addition, life expectancies are getting higher, and
people with disabilities are expected to contribute, grow more active and productive in the daily
life than they could before. It presents more challenges for architects and designers to endorse
these demands and progresses through the products or the environments they create.
4. The new high-rise residential buildings, cable-stayed bridges, under water construction, towers,
aircraft hangers and solar powered buildings, pavilions are the examples demonstrating why, what
and how of construction technology. Similarly, materials like concrete, composites, admixtures,
fibres, high-strength steel, aluminium, stainless steel and metal alloys have all become part of
construction technology with choice being optimized for economy and performance. Modern
construction techniques mostly cater to function or utility, economy, sustainability, safety and
distinction as a landmark structure in the order of priority.
5. India has very large potential use of automation products in infrastructure construction. As all type
of firm uses 60% or more manually controlled machine which can go to higher automation levels
i.e. tele-operated machines, computer controlled machine and cognitive robots. Both small firms
and large firms of India have greater potential for adopting automation products.
6. For future construction industry, technology and knowledge fusions are key methodologies. To
promote technology and knowledge fusions, information technology should be viewed as key
technology for project-based construction firms. Introduction of advanced IT systems are well
depending on the levels of fusions among information technology and construction technology.
7. The use of modular and pre-fabricated construction is having an impact in the commercial and
regional residential sector more than in mainstream or metropolitan residential construction. The
implementation of new technologies could accelerate rapidly if housing codes (sustainability) are
raised. Vehicles incorporating GPS, laser and radar detection sensors, wireless communication
networks and vehicle controllers will initially be operated by a supervisory computer in an on-site
Operations Centre.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The Authors thankfully acknowledge to Dr. C. L. Patel, Chairman, Charutar Vidya Mandal, Er. V.
M. Patel, Hon. Jt. Secretary, Charutar Vidya Mandal, Prof. (6) Indrajit Patel, Principal, B.V.M.
Engineering College, Dr. Anand Metre, Assistant Professor, Chemical Engineering Department,
GCET College, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India for their motivations and infrastructural support
to carry out this research.

Comparison of Modern and Conventional Construction Techniques for Next Generation: A Review

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Comparison of Modern and Conventional Construction Techniques for Next Generation: A Review

AUTHORS BIOGRAPHY
Pradip Ajugiya received his Bachelor of Engineering degree in Civil
Engineering from the C. K. Pithawalla college of Engineering and
Technology (Surat), Gujarat Technological University, in 2015. At present,
he is final year student of Master's Degree in Construction Engineering and
Management from Birla Vishvakarma Mahavidyalaya (An Autonomous
Institute), Gujarat Technological University.
Prof. Jaydevbhai J. Bhavsar received his Bachelor of Engineering degree in
Civil Engineering from the Birla Vishvakarma Mahavidyalaya, Sardar Patel
University in 1978. In 1986 he received his Master's Degree in Building
Science and Technology from University of Roorkee. He joined Birla
Vishvakarma Mahavidyalaya Engineering College as a faculty where he is an
Assistant lecturer of Civil Engineering Department with a total experience of
32 years in the field of Research, Designing and education. He is guiding
M.Tech. (Construction Engineering & Management) Thesis work in the field
of Civil/ Construction Engineering. He has published many papers in National
Conferences and International Journals.
Dr. Jayeshkumar R Pitroda received his bachelor of engineering degree in
Civil Engineering from Birla Vishwakarma Mahavidyalaya Engineering
College, Sardar Patel University in 2000. In 2009 he received his masters
degree in Construction Engineering and Management form Birla
Vishwakarma Mahavidyalaya Sardar Patel University. In 2015 he received his
Doctor of philosophy (Ph.D.) degree in Civil Engineering from Sardar Patel
University. He joined Birla Vishwakarma Mahavidyalaya Engineering
College as a faculty in 2009, where he is Associate Professor of Civil
Engineering Department with a total experience of 16 years in the field of
research, designing and education. He is guiding M.Tech. (Construction
Engineering and Management) thesis work in the field of Civil / Construction
Engineering. He has published many papers in National / International
Conferences and International Journals. He has published seven Research
Books in the field of Civil Engineering, Rural Road Construction, National
Highways Construction, Utilization of Industrial Waste, Fly Ash Bricks,
Construction Engineering and Management, Eco-friendly Construction.