You are on page 1of 37





Book Referred by :
1. HVDC Power Transmission by Colin Adamson and Hingorani N G

Earlier cable was installed in France and England
This type of cables were made in Impergnated paper it is used in industrial still
Cables based on polythene insulation are strongly used and subject to research.



Stress Distribution is depends on Permittivity of the


Stress Distribution is depends on Insulation resistance

Maximum stress always depends on conductor surface Maximum stress always depends on conductor surface
Depends on outer dielectric medium
Dielectric strength is less

Dielectric strength is maximum

Temperature behavior is limited by physical behavior

Temperature behavior is limited by Dielectric strength


There is basic electric strength that is never achieved in any system, because of the
order of millions of volt per centimeter.
For impregnated cables under are the effective intrinsic strength is not known with
any accuracy, but is certainly in of 2 millions volts per cm.
For good industrial insulation ,values are usually somewhat below 5.10degree V,
rms at 50 c/s and which clearly does not set an limit for the foreseeable future.
The limit in practice with a.c. is determined by the onset of discharges in voids in
C, represents the capacitance of gas-lled hole in a solid dielectric,

Cb that of the solid dielectric which is in series with it that of the mass of dielectric which is
in parallel with the CrCb combination.
The gas may have a permittivity than the mean permittivity of the dielectric,
If now with voltage V kV across whole system, the gas in the hole breaks down, the voltage
across C, will fall very rapidly the discharge will then extinguish but during the discharge
energy will be released in void, with the possibility of some damage.

Practical dielectrics
Only two basic types of dielectric merit serious consideration for high voltage d.c.
These are impregnated paper and polythene.
Other dielectrics, such as vulcanized rubber and PVC., are available but are not
considered to be sufficiently developed or having suitable characteristics for
highly stressed and economic high voltage d.c. cables.

Further it can be classified as

Impregnated paper
Mass and Pre-impregnated Soil type
Gas-filled pre-impregnated dielectric
Oil filled impregnated paper

Impregnated paper
This consists basically of insulating paper, dried and thoroughly
impregnated with a compound to give a high electric strength.
This type of dielectric is divisible in to three further classes
Mass and Pre-impregnated Soil type dielectric
Gas-filled pre-impregnated dielectric
Oil filled impregnated paper

Mass and Pre-impregnated Soil type dielectric

Conductor is insulated with un impregnated paper

It is subsequently dried in VACUO and then impregnated with an insulating oil which is
viscous but down to room temperature.
The cable is provided with a lead sheath to prevent water affecting the dielectric, and
armor is provided if required.

In the pre-impregnated type of cable the papers comprising the dielectric are dried
and pre-impregnated in sheet form on a special machine with a compound which is
solid throughout the working temperature range.
Subsequently, the paper rolls are slit into pools and applied to the cable conductor under
a molten compound having a high solidifying point.
Both types of dielectric in this category are suitable only for voltages up to 33 KV a.c.,
with limited dielectric stresses and temperature ratings

Gas-filled pre-impregnated dielectric

This type of dielectric consists of pre-impregnated papers applied to the conductor in air
with gaps between edges of adjacent turns of paper.

After the cable and joint terminations have been completely installed the dielectric is
charged with nitrogen gas to a pressure of 200 lb/sq in.
The lead sheath being reinforced with thin metal tapes to withstand this pressure.
This type of dielectric is used for alternating voltages from 33 kv up to about 275 kv the
dielectric stress rating is 100 KV/cm, and the temperature rating is 85degree C.
The cable Dielectric is non-draining up to the maximum service temperature and because
of di electric design no sheath distension occurs.

Oil filled impregnated paper

In this case the conductor is lapped with un impregnated papers and subsequently, after
vacuum drying the whole cable, it is sheathed prior to nishing the drying in vacuo.

The cables are provided with oil conservators at the ends for transport to site.
To allow for oil expansion with temperature changes and after the joints and scaling ends
have been installed completely, oil reservoirs or conservators are connected at suitable
points, such as the terminations.

When the cable is heated the expanded oil flows longitudinally along the cable structure
via the hollow conductor, or via the padding spaces in a multi core cable, to these
The dielectric stress rating is of the order of l00 kV/cm, Since all the spaces between
papers in the dielectric are filled with oil and the ionization stress is high

Insulation resistance characteristics of dielectrics
In d.c. cable dielectrics, the voltages and electrical stresses are distributed according to
the insulation resistance values

The typical relation between these factors for an impregnated paper dielectric.
As can be seen the insulation resistance of the impregnated paper is highly and stressdependent whilst that of polythene is less so.
it should be emphasized that the values given are specic test values and considerable
variations may exist for other samples.
Rubber is somewhat less dependent generally, but PVC is highly temperature-dependent.

Stress Distribution and inversion of stress with temperature

With no temperature gradient in the dielectric the insulation resistance values are uniform
except for the limited variations with stress value at any point is inversely proportional to
the radius of the point in the dielectric, as for the ac case

. log

Where, = = Dielectric stress at radius

X is the radius of the point considered in the dielectric

r= radius of conductor

R= Outer radius of the dielectric

Effects of gas pressure on dielectrics

Where voids are present in the case of impregnated paper, gas filled and also
polythene dielectrics.
The effect of super imposed gas pressure is to raise the dielectric Strength
The ionization or discharge stress of a gas space varies as the pressure there in,
and raising the gas pressure to say 200 lb/sq in has a marked effect.
In the case of gas-lled dielectric an increase of 25 per cent is obtained on the d.c.
short-time break-down values.
For polythene dielectrics. the application of pressure from the conductor to an
external reinforced dielectric tends to compress the voids as well as charging them
with gas at a high pressure.

Economics of d.c. cables compared with a.c.

The dc electric stress rating of the dielectric is approx to 2 to 2.5 times that of the ac.

So far as current-rating is concerned, there are only the ohmic losses in thc dc cable to be
seriously considered compared with ohmic, dielectric and sheath.
In a.c case, but the temperature of thc d.c. cable is limited by stress inversion to a value
lower than with the a.c. case.

lt should be noted that d.c. is particularly applicable to long submarine cable transmission
where the cable cost ratio is high
Due consideration in the dc case must be given, however, to problems such as migration
of impregnating compound, movement of the cables on the seabed due to too low a
ratio of weight/diameter, etc., under the effect of currents which may affect the economic

Introduction to System Simulation

The planning design and operation of power systems requires the detailed study of
various options and prediction of the system performance.

The latter involves simulation of the system both in steady state and transient conditions.
For AC systems, the AC network analyzer has been replaced by digital programs to carry
out load flow and stability studies.
Although the use of transient network analyzer (TNA), for the study of harmonic voltages
and electro magnetic transients is still prevalent, digital programs such as EMTP are
increasingly used.

System stimulation Philosophy and tools

Large and complex systems are usually described by nonlinear models and thus are not
tractable for analytical approaches.

Simulation is the only tool for predicting accurately the system performance under
various operating conditions or when subjected to certain disturbances.
For large systems, a great number of various case studies have to be carried out and there
is a strong incentive to keep the costs and time required to carry out these studies
The methodology that is normally employed is to keep the models simple enough to fit
the type of studies without sacrificing accuracy.

There are a number of tools that can be employed for the simulation of a dynamic system.
These are as follows:

1) Physical simulator which is a miniature model of the system

2) Analog computer
3) Hybrid computer
4) Parity simulator
5) Digital computer.
The requirements of a good simulation tool are as follows:
1) Ease of maintenance

2) Accuracy of solution
3) Flexibility of use
4) Reduced cost
5) Ease of setting up

6) Real time simulation


The design of a HVDC system requires a number of system studies, some of which
are aimed at determining the following :
1. DC power transfer under various normal and contingency conditions
2. Reactive power requirements
3. Fundamental frequency overvoltage's
4. Post-fault DC power recovery
5. Stability improvements through power modulation or emergency controller

6. Sub synchronous torsional interactions

7. Insulation coordination
8. DC terminal arresters
9. AC and DC filter design
10. Controller requirements under normal and faulted system conditions

Some of these studies can be performance using :

AC/DC load flow program
AC/DC transient stability program.

However, the limited experimentation that has been carried out shows
that transient stability models give reasonable results if they are modified
In what follows, the detailed dynamic simulation of HVDC systems using
various simulation tools is reviewed. In particular, physical model (HVDC
simulator), digital simulator and parity simulator are considered.

Physical Model (HVDC Simulator)

A HVDC simulator is similar to TNA (Transient Network Analyzer) which is
used to determine overvoltage in AC systems due to switching surges and load
A HVDC simulator has adequate numbers of scaled models of 6 and 12
pulse converters for two (or more) terminals of 9. bipolar HVDC Scheme.
The valve is modelled by a single thyristor.
The DC simulator ratings are in the range of 20 to l0O V DC, 0.2 to 1A DC and it
operates at power frequency, 50 or 60 Hz.

The DC line/cable is represented by adequate

number of pi sections.
The simulators include representation of
sophisticated converter controls.
The controls are usually capable of
realistic performance during transients such as
AC faults and commutation failures.
Some DC simulators include electronic models
of synchronous machines with
representing detailed models of torsional
Scaled models of static compensators (Thyristor
controlled reactor, (TCR) and thyristor switched
Stray capacitances and inductances are not modelled in a HVDC simulator and it is primarily
to assess control system behavior and temporary overvoltage of frequencies below 1000Hz
Some of the problems that can be studied using a DC simulator are as follows:
The development of concepts and equipment for control and protection of HVDC systems. This
includes the following:
(i) Control of power, current and extinction angle in two terminal and multiterminal DC
(ii) Evaluation of the control performance under AC anti DC faults.
(iii) Evaluation of overcurrent and overvoltage stresses in various components of
system, particularly valves, DC reactor, DC lines or cables.

Analysis of various AC/DC system interactions which include

(i) HVDC operation with weak AC systems
(ii) Sub synchronous frequency torsional oscillation
(iii) Damping introduced through power, modulation
(iv) Analysis of AC and DC harmonics.

In addition, a HVDC simulator is also useful for

3. confirming computer models used in stability programs and
4. operator training and as an educational tool.
5. speed up the studies that have to be performed.

To summarize, the applications of a DC simulator are:

1. insulation coordination
2. testing of controllers and their optimization
3. evaluation of surge arrestor ratings
4. harmonic analysis
Development of new concepts and devices such as control and protection in
MTDC systems, DC breakers, forced commutation, etc.
A modern DC simulator is equipped with data acquisition and processing system
based on a micro or mini computer. It also has an events sequencer to coordinate
breakers, etc. for transient studies.

Parity Simulator
The principle of parity simulation has been used in electronic models of
synchronous machines that are used with some DC simulators.
However, this principle was first formulated by J .G. Kassakian at M.I.T. in
According to him, a parity simulator is essentially a synthetic breadboard which
electronically simulates the physical terminal characteristics of each network
element rather than its mathematical input/output relationship.
For example, consider an inductor whose terminal behavior is described by the

Where the terminals 1-1' and 2-2' are input and

output pairs, respectively.
A voltage to current converter is employed together
with a local feedback loop to establish input
The resulting model has only one terminal pair
which exhibits one to one correspondence with the
terminals of the inductor.
Such terminal equivalents can be established for
other circuit elements such as transformers,
thyristor, etc.
This interconnection has the same topology as the
network under study, that is, it exhibits topological
parity with the system being simulated.

The major advantages of a parity simulator are as follows:

It avoids the drawback of an analog computer simulation in which the identity of individual
components is lost.
The analog computer models the mathematical equations for the entire system.
Change in the topology of the system requires reformulation of the system equations which can
be quite tedious in the simulation of power electronic circuits.
The advantages of an analog computer in terms of change in time scaling are retained while
eliminating the drawbacks mentioned above.
The principle of parity simulation permits hybrid structures, that is the combination of passive
elements along with the parity simulated devices.
For example, resistances and capacitors can be represented by scaled physical models in a
parity simulator.
This exibility can simplify the arrangement of the circuits and reduce costs.
Parity simulator is more exible than a physical simulator in terms of the range of component
parameters, and yet it is very compact.

Digital Dynamic Simulation

In the initial stage of development, digital simulation was used mainly for
specific studies such as fault analysis (to determine stresses on thyristor valves),
harmonic analysis and design of controllers.
The present trend is to develop digital simulation as a general tool for a variety of studies.
While it is not expected that a digital simulator will replace a physical simulator, in the
near future, it might do so eventually.

Presently, digital simulation is considered as a supplement to the studies performed on a

physical simulator.

The main advantages of a digital simulation are as follows:

Easy transportability and maintenance.
Every utility can have a computer program, while only a few establishments can have physical
However, it must be noted that the use of digital programs also requires some skill
and experience in analyzing and interpreting the results and preparing the data.
Reduced cost of simulation.
With the availability of inexpensive micro or mini computers, it is possible to have dedicated
computers for DC simulation and the costs are drastically reduced.
Flexibility in terms of representing any component of the system. It is possible to develop a
digital simulator with most general model of a component, that is feasible.
The parameters of this model can be varied over a wide range.

Some of the disadvantages are as follows :

1. Increased simulation time.

Presently available software of simulation requires large amounts of
computer time. The ratio of computer time to real time varies from 100 to
I000 depending on the extent of simulation. Improvements in hardware,
computer architecture and numerical methods can reduce this ratio in future.
2. Lack of adequate mathematical models.
This is particularly true of many nonlinear components such as transformers,
control equipment, surge arrestors, etc.
3. Numerical problems can crop up in the simulation which may not be predictable
in advance.
Thus there could be doubts on the final results. Use of numerically stable
methods of integration, use of double precision arithmetic should go a long
way in minimizing such problems.
4. Lack of interactive capability.
To get a feel of what is happening and have control over the process of
simulation, it is necessary to develop interactive capabilities where the user
can see the results during the progress of simulation, interrupt and restart.


HVDC system consists of many components that are
common to AC systems, such as transformers,
reactors, capacitors, surge arrester and transmission

The major equipment that is unique to DC systems is

the converter bridge and its controller.
The valve winding can be modelled as a voltage
source (proportional to the voltage at the converter
bus) in series with the leakage impedance of the
transformer. Thus the converter is decoupled from the
AC system.
The effect of the converter on the AC system is to
inject current sources at the converter bus, which are
dependent on the currents through the valve windings.

In the approach, the transformer

impedance is a part of the AC system.


The DC current ows through series connected converter bridges, smoothing reactors and
the DC line.
This is a modular approach in which AC and DC systems It will be decoupled using
dependent current and voltage sources.
The major problem now is to develop the model of a converter bridge.
The varying topology of the converter circuit due to turning on and off of valves in the
bridge complicates the analysis.

Valve and Converter Model

It has been generally agreed that a valve can be represented by a controllable switch in
parallel with the snubber circuit
The switch is closed when the valve tums on and is open when the valve tums off.
The dynamics of turn on and turn off process can be usually neglected.
Ignoring the snubber circuit also does not introduce errors if high frequency phenomena are
A simple method of modelling a switch is to replace it by a variable resistance or
An advantage of this approach is that the topology of the converter remains invariant, while
the parameters are time dependent.
However, the major drawback of this approach is that it can lead to numerical instability
problems or require very small step sizes for integration.

An alternate approach is to use the so-called method of subroutines where the

various sets of equations corresponding to the different combination of conducting valves
are stored and selectively used.
Unfortunately, the number of possible combinations of conducting valves (including
normal and abnormal modes) is quite large.
A simplification that is possible here is to identify the pattern or similarity in the different
sets of equations, thereby reducing the amount of storage required.
A better approach is to use graph-theoretic analysis in formulating the converter
The problem here is to find the best (or most efficient) way in which the equations can be
By specifying the DC current as an external variable, (not an unreasonable assumption)
the converter mode! can be simplified.
The turn off a valve occurs at a instant when the current through the valve goes to zero
The loss of forward blocking capability due to inadequate commutation margin can also
be simulated without difficulty

Controller Model
The instant of turn-on of a valve is controlled by the gate pulses applied to the individual
thyristor in a valve.
In steady state, the firing signals are generated time interval of T/p seconds where T is the
period of the AC voltage and p is the pulse number.
The instant of firing is determined by the firing controller (gate pulse generator) which is
invariably of equidistant pulse control (EPC) type. The input to the firing controller is
obtained from the current controller or extinction angle controller.
One of the problems in digital simulation is the lack of adequate details on controllers
which are treated as proprietary information by Manufactures. There are attempts being
made to standardize the controller blocks in a similar manner as has already been done
for voltage regulators and governors.
However the DC controllers tend to be more complex than controllers used elsewhere.