I~-:------------=---'''''''''''~-~~

'''''---------''''''''--''''''---- ---- -------- - ------------- ---------

ARMY EQUIPMENT SUPPORT PUBLICATIONS

UK RESTRICTED

2350-P-100-201 J,UNE 1983

t This information is released by the UK Governme!'lt to the recipient Government lor C>efence purposes only"

3.. This information may be disclosed only within the Defence Department of Hie recipient Government, e;<G-eJi't as otherwise: autnorized !;Iy Ministry of Defence (Army).

4. This information may be subject to I'lrivately 0wned riglhts.

CONDITLONS OF RELEASE

2. This information must be aecereec the same aegree of security protection as tbst aecerded thereto by the UK Government.

TANK, COMBAT, 120-mm GUN, <; CHALLENGER

OPERATING INf'OAMATION

- ..... -

Reprinted Apr 87 incorporating Amdt 1 to 4 inc

'Ti"lIS DOCUMENT IS THE: PF.lQPERTY OF HER BRITANNIC MAJE:STY'S GOVE:FlNMENT. afld is issued for the information of such perscns onl ¥ as need to knew its contents in the GOU rse of trrei r official d uties. Any person fi nd ing Ih is document should han€! it in to a Sritisl'l forces unrl er tc a police station for its safe return to tne MIN ISHW OF DEFENCE, (Sy I), MAIN BUILQING, WHITEHALL, LONDON SWIA 2HB with raarticlJlars of how and where found. THE UNAUTHQRIZED F.lETENTION OR OESiRUCTION OF THE DOCUMENT IS AN OFFENCe: UNDIZR THE OFFICIAL SECRETS ACTS OF 1 !'Jl1~193R (When rel-easefll to persons outside Government service. this document is issued en a personal basis aM! tlie feGipient to whom it is entruste€i in confidence. with in the provision s of the Offiefal Secrets Acts 1 S'11-1!'JS9, is perSGmally responsible for its sMe Gustody and for seeing that it'S contents are iliselosed only to autMorized persens).

1J4597/171

UK R~STRICT~D

Page (i)/(ii)

BY COMMAND OP THE DEFENCE! COUNCIL

~~ ......

Ministry of Defence

Sponsor ref: D/GS(OR)17 136/14/1 PUBLICATIONS AUTHORITY Quallty Assurance Directorate (Ordnance) Royal Arsenal West Woolwich, SE1S SST

RESUSCITATION

TREATMENT OF THE NON-BREATHING CASUALTY

Safeguard yourself when removing casualty from hazard.

II casualty still in contact with electricity. and the supply cannot be isolated. stand on dry non-conducting material (rubber mal wood. linoleum).

Use rubber gloves. dry clothing. length of dry rope Dr wood to pull Dr push casualty away from the hazard.

o

SHOUT FOR HElP. TURN OFF WATER. GAS OR SWITCH

OFF ELECTRICITY IF POSSIBLE

.. 2 REMOVE FROM DANGER:

WATER. GAS. ElECTRICITY. FUMES. ETC.

00 this immediately. If not possible don't waste time searching for a tap Dr switch.

PINCH THE NOSE COMMENCE VENTILATION FOUR GOOD INFLATIONS MOUTH-TO-MOUTH

LOOSEN NECKWEAR

TILT HEAD BACKWARDS AND PUSH CHIN UPWARDS

CONTINUE INFLATIONS UNTIL RECOVERY OF NORMAL BREATHING

REMOVE OBVIOUS OBSTRUCTION TO BREATHING

If casualty is not breathing start ventilation at once.

IF CHEST DOES NOT RISE RE-CHECK AIRWAY. REMOVE OBSTRUCTION AND RE-INFLATE

HEART HAS STOPPED BEATING LAY ON BACK ON FIRM SURFACE (eg FLOOR).

COMMENCE EXTERNAL CHEST COMPRESSION AND CONTINUE

and then after every three minutes. Continue external chest compression and mouth-to-mouth ventilation until a nonnal pulse is felt and colour improves.

WHEN NORMAL BREATHING COMMENCES PLACE CASUALTY IN RECOVERY POSITION

I

Keep casualty at rest Remove on a stretcher. Watch closely.

particu larly for difficulty in breathing. lightly cover with blankets or

other materials.

CONTINUE INFLATIONS UNTIL RECOVERY OF NORMAL BREATHING

MOD Form 656 DGDQA

ARMY EQUIPMENT SUPPORT PUBLICATION

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AMENDMENT RECORD

Amdt Incorporated
Date
No, By (Signature)
1 Incorporated
2
in
3
4 r~rnt
/i:
5 @Jj.J~---- l! "
" , !/.c..'(.Z;:")
6 9if7~-:' -- I,?;\I "
;::'.-"" -~-- I -t ~ 1
P_' (r . . ,... . -I t c !<;
7 :J~ 7/ I~ __________ { .~ ., !-{..,
711. / ~f2rt: 1,.- r f" (,._ 1(,.
8 .rc» Li ~ _../ " t)d')c
yl'f./ It-
9 ~L~- ~ "
J117/1 / :../ / (.' /~.
10 h~:1./L, ~~I
11 'LtIt/jjf_J Itt) 11%./4.1
12 c J'J;7 . ):'/ ~~'"
)
I I ,
13 Jj\;i\Jv ';'~~.
" ~(
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31 Jun 83

UK RESTRICTED

Amdt Incorporated
No. By (Signature) Date
32
33
34
35
36
37 ,
38
39 i
40 I
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
1-'
49 I
50
51
52
53 I
54
55
56
57
58 I
I
59 I
60
61
62 I Page iii/iv

ARMY EQUIPMENT SUPPORT PUBLICATION

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CONTENTS

2350-P-100-201

1

PRELIMINARY MATERIAL Page

TITLE PAGE i/ii

AMENDMENT RECORD iii/iv

CONTENTS (this list) .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS vii

WARNINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix

CAUTIONS x

PREFACE xi

ASSOCIATED PUBLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi

SECURITY INSTRUCTIONS FOR CHOBHAM ARMOUR xi

Immediate action drill in the event of damage xi

VEHICLE INTRODUCTION AND DATA xii

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii

Data ... .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . xii

DESTRUCTION OF EQUIPMENT TO PREVENT ENEMY USE xv

General

Destruction .

Degree of damage .

Priorities for destruction .

Spare parts , .

Method of destruction .

Mechanical .

Burning (Warning) .

Gunfire (Warning) .

EVACUATION OF CASUALTIES .

EMERGENCY RESUSCITATION .

Table

1 2

Gear, speed and turning radii .

Priorities for destruction .

Fig

Frontispiece Three quarters front view

Oct 88(Amdt 8)

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xv xv xv xv xv xv xv xvi xvi xviii

Mod Form 442

xiv xvii

xiii

Page v

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ARMY EQUIPMENT SUPPORT PUBLICATION

CONTENTS (continued)

OPERATING INFORMATION

PART 1 - AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEM

Chapter 1 - Fire Fighting Equipment Chapter 2 _ Hull and Fittings Chapter 3 _. Main Engine

Chapter 4 _ Cooling System Chapter 5 _ Fuel System

Chapter 6 - Generating Unit Engine Chapter 7 _ Transmission and Brakes Chapter 8 - Final Drives

Chapter 9 - Suspension, Tracks and Sprockets Chapter 10 - Electrical System

Chapter 11 - Vehicle Operation

PART 2 - FIGHTING SYSTEMS

Chapter 1 - Fighting Comnpartment, Turret and Cupola Chapter 2 - Electrical System

Chapter 3 - Armament

Chapter 4 - Gun Control Equipment Chapter 5 - Optical Fire Control System Chapter 6 - Computerised Sighting System Chapter 7 - Ammunition

Chapter 8 - NBC Filtration and Ventilation System

PART 3 - COMMUNICATIONS

Chapter 1 - Harness Operating Information

PART 4 - STOWAGE AND TOOLS

Chapter 1 - Stowage and tools

.. PART 5 - TANK, DRIVER TRAINING

Chapter 1 - Fire fighting equipment Chapter 2 - Hull and fittings

Chapter 3 - Observation and control cabin Chapter 4 - Electrical system

Chapter 5 - Vehicle operation

Chapter 6 - Harness operation

Chapter 7 - Stowage

Page vi

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Jul91(Amdt 13)

,

ARMY EQUIPMENT SUPPORT PUBLICATION

e
A
AF
AFV
Ah
AM
ATU
AUTO
AUX
AV
AV (filter)
BCC
bhp
BI
BKIN
.. BMS
BOT
BREC
C
cct
Cdr
CFCB
co-ax
CW
D.C.
deg
DIP
Dvr
ECC
etc
F
F"F2, etc
FIE
Fig
FIP
FM
FPA
ft
FV/GCE
gal
GB
GCA
GCE
gen
GPMG
GU
GUE
GUESB
h
HF
HMJB
HP
HRJB
HISet
HSLO
HT Oct 88(Amdt 8)

l,

UK RESTRICTED

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ampere

audio frequency Armoured fighting vehicle ampere hour

Amplitude modulation Aerial tuning unit Automatic

auxiliary

Armoured vehicle Anti-vapou r

British Cornmunication Corporation (now Racal/BCC) brake horse power

Battle Intercom

B;-eak in

Battery master switch box Breech opening tool

Breech ring electrical contact Centigrade

circuit

Commander

Commander's fire control box co-axial

Continuous wave

direct current

degree

Driver's instrument panel driver

emergency crew control etcetra (and so on) Fahrenheit

Fuse 1, Fuse 2 etc

Fuel injection equipment Figure

Fuel injection pump Frequency modulation firing pin assembly foot or feet

Fighting vehicle gun control equipment gallon

gearbox

Gearbox Controller, Automatic Gun control equipment generator

General purpose machine gun Generating unit

Generating unit engine

Generating unit engine switchboard hour

high frequency

Hull main junction box High Powered

Hull rear junction box Handset

High Frequency Single Set Low Power Output High Tension

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Page vii

2350-P-100-201

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Htg
hyst
Hz
IC
II
IMH
IPU
JB
kg
KHz
km
km/h
kNm
kN/m2
.. KPa
kVa
kw
Ib
Ibf/in2
L.H.
LSB
m
MAN
mbar
MBT
ME
MECU
MESB
MG
MHz
MK
ml
mm .......
MRS
NBC
Nm
N/m2
No.
NORM
OMC
OP
PA
PSU
RBJ
REB
REM
rev/min
rf
RH
SOP
SS
SSB
STH
SWG
TCVR
temp comp
TRF LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS (continued) heating

hydro-static

Hertz

Intercom

I mage Intensifier

Inlet Manifold Heater Intercom Personal Unit Junction box

kilogram

kilohertz

kilometre

kilometres per hour kilonewton metre kilonewtons per square metre kilopascal

kilovolt amperes

kilowatts

pound

pounds per square inch left hand

Lower side band metre

manual

millibar

Main Battle Tank Main engine

Main engine control unit Main engine switchboard Machine gun

Megahertz

Mark

millilitre

millimetre

Muzzle reference system

Nuclear - Bacteriological - Chemical Newton metre

Newtons per square metre Number

Normal

Overriding Master Control Oil pressure

Power Amplifier

Power supply unit

Rotary base junction Rebroadcast

Remote

Revolutions per minute radio frequency

right hand

Standard Operating Procedure Servicing Schedule

Single Side Band

Slim Tank Helmet

standard water gauge Transceiver

temperature compensator Tuner Radio Frequency

Page viii

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ARMY EQUIPMENT SUPPORT PUBLICATION

Oct 88(Amdt 8)

ARMY EQUIPMENT SUPPORT PUBLICATIONS

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS (continued)

TU AAM TX

UHE USB

V

VHF

VIU

W

WKG W/L

yd

Tuning Unit, Antenna Automatic Matching Transmitter

Ultra high efficiency Upper Side Band volt

very high frequency Vehicle Interface Unit Watt

Working

warning light

yard

WARNINGS

(1) ON EACH OCCASION THAT THE VEHICLE IS TO BE MOVED, THE COMMANDER AND DRIVER ARE TO CHECK THAT THE DRIVER'S DOOR IS HELD SECURELY BY ATTEMPTING TO SWING THE DOOR SHUT AND ENSURING THAT THE SAFETY PLUNGER IS IN THE EXTENDED POSITION.

(2) TO PREVENT DAMAGE TO HEARING, EAR DEFENDERS ARE TO BE WORN BY ALL PERSONNEL WORKING ON OR NEAR THE VEHICLE WHILE THE MAIN ENGINE IS RUNNING.

(3) BEFORE THE ACCESS DOORS ARE CLOSED THE AIR INLET VALVE MUST BE CLOSED TO PREVENT THE ENGINE DRAWING AIR THROUGH THE FIGHTING COMPARTMENT. FAILURE TO DO SO MAY CAUSE INJURY TO EARDRUMS AND ACCESS DOORS TO CLOSE VIOLENTLY WITH A GUILLOTINE ACTION.

(4) DO NOT RELEASE THE COOLANT FILLER CAP WHILE THE ENGINE IS RUNNING OR BEFORE THE COOLANT TEMPERATURE HAS FALLEN BELOW 200 DEGREES F (93 DEGREES C). OTHERWISE SEVERE SCALDING CAN RESULT.

(5) THE INLET MANIFOLD HEATER, BATTERY HEATING SYSTEM, TANK LASER SIGHT AND OTHER ITEMS OF EQUIPMENT PRODUCE HIGH VOLTAGES WHICH CAN BE LETHAL. DO NOT TAMPER WITH THIS EQUIPMENT.

(6) A RISK OF FIRE ANDIOR EXPLOSION EXISTS WHEN REFUELLING VEHICLES FITTED WITH RUBBER PADDED TRACKS, BY EITHER PUMPS OR PLASTIC CONTAINERS, DUE TO THE PRESENCE OF STATIC ELECTRICITY. THIS RISK ALSO APPLIES WHEN REFUELLING OR DRAINING NEAR AN OPERATING RADAR SET OR OTHER HF TRANSMITTERS - THE HAZARD VARIES WITH THE POWER OFTHE EQUIPMENT SO UNIT STANDING ORDERS MUST BE RIGOROUSLY APPLIED. THE VEHICLE MUST, THEREFORE, ALSO BE EARTHED WHEN CARRYING OUT REFUELLING OR FUEL TANK DRAINING OPERATIONS.

(7) HANDLING L5A4, L7A1 and L8A1 SMOKE GRENADES IS POTENTIALLY DANGEROUS WITHIN TWO METRES OF RADIO ANTENNAE DURING TRANSMISSION. ENSURE THAT TRANSMITTERS WITHIN THIS RANGE ARE SWITCHED OFF BEFORE LOADINGI UNLOADING GRENADES.

Jun 83

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WARNINGS (continued)

(8) TANK LASER SIGHT: PULSES OF LASER LIGHT ARE INVISIBLE TO THE EYE. DAMAGE TO THE EYES WILL RESULT IF PERSONNEL GAZE DIRECTLY AT THE OBJECTIVE PRISM EMERGENT FACE WHEN THE LASER IS ACTIVE, OR AT ANY REFLECTING OBJECT IN THE PATH OF THE LASER BEAM.

CAUTIONS:

(1) Run the engine at 800 rev/min for 3-5 minutes, to allow the engine to partially cool before switching off.

~ (2) DO NOT depress, ie 'BLIP' the accelerator pedal before switching off, as this may cause ..... serious damage to the turbo-chargers.

(3) The tank laser sight is not to be removed unless it requires repair.

(4) The gun barrel must be in the crutch or the gun control equipment switched on before moving the vehicle.

Page x

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I .

ARMY EQUIPMENT SUPPORT PUBLICATIONS

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2350-P-100-201

PREFACE

1. Service Users should forward any comments concerning this publication through the channel

prescribed in AESP 01 00-P-011-013.

2. Throughout this handbook any reference to right or left is as seen from the rear of the vehicle

looking forward.

3. The subject matter of this publication may be affected by Defence Council Instructions. If possible, amendments are issued to correct this publication accordingly. When an instruction contradicts any portion of this publication the Instruction is to be taken as the overriding authority.

SECURITY INSTRUCTION FOR CHOBHAM ARMOUR

ASSOCIATED PUBLICATIONS

4. Refer to CAT 1 (AESP No 2350-P-100-101).

IMMEDIATE ACTION DRILL IN THE EVENT OF DAMAGE

5. The construction and content of Chobham Armour (CA) must be protected from unauthorised access during peacetime. Any damage which reveals the internal layout of the armour packs must be concealed IMMEDIATELY.

6.1 Halt

6. In the event of an accident causing damage to Chobham Armour, the tank crew, or person in

whose charge the tank is, will immediately take the following action:

6.2 Cover the sensitive area with canvas/tarpaulin/cam net or local materials. Pick up any sensitive fragments of armour material or debris which may have resulted from the accident. Dispose of them inaccordanc with security instructions.

6.3 Post a guard to remain with the tank until necessary repairs have been effected or the tank has been recovered.

6.4 Report the incident up the chain of command.

7. On receipt of information that CA in its charge has been damaged, a unit should:

7.1 Report the accident to the nearest workshop specialist team authorised to carry out work on CA.

7.2 Report the incident up the chain of command.

7.3 Prepare a written report of the incident for the appropriate G2 staff.

Jun 83

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Page xi

2350-P-100-201

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ARMY EQUIPMENT SUPPORT PUBLICATIONS

VEHICLE INTRODUCTION AND DATA

INTRODUCTION

8. The Challenger is a main battle tank carrying a crew of four -commander, driver, gunner and

loader/operator.

9. The main armament is a 120 mm gun, stabilised in both traverse and elevation. A co-axially mounted 7.62 mm machine gun and a similar machine gun on the commander's cupola form the secondary armament. Multi-barrelled smoke grenade dischargers are located externally, on each side of the turret.

10. The layout of the tank is conventional with a forward compartment forthe driver, a central fighting compartment which is enclosed by the turret and a rear compartment to house the powerpack and final drives.

11. The driver's seat, access door and periscopes are designed to enable the vehicles to be driven 'opened up', or 'closed down' with the driver in the reclining position.

12. The fighting compartment extends the width of the hull. A turret turntable is located on rollers within the fighting compartment and rotates with the turret. The commander and gunner are located on the right of the turret and the loader on the left. A cupola at the commander's station provides all round vision and incorporates periscopic sights for day or night use. The turret can be rotated through 360 degrees by electrical power or by hand and carries the armament, gun control equipment, radio sets, ammunition ready rounds and the ventilation/NBC equipment. Provision is made to Incorporate a thermal imaging observation gunnery system.

13. The rearmost compartment houses the powerpack beneath removable armoured decking and louvres. The powerpack is a combined unit, designed to be readily removed for replacement or repair, which incorporates the engine, transmission unit, cooling and lubrication systems. Located on the left of the powerpack is the generating unit engine (GUE) which may be operated independently to provide electrical power when the main engine is not running.

14. An automatic gearbox provides four forward and three reverse speeds. A manual gear range selector is located at the driver's position. Steering is provided by a hydro-static steer unit incorporated within the transmission unit and controlled by levers on either side of the driver's seat. The main brakes are hydraulically operated by a foot pedal while the vehicle is in motion or mechanically, by a lever, for parking.

15. The vehicle is supported, on its tracks, by twelve rubber tyred road wheels, six on each side. Each road wheel has its own fully independent Hydro-gas suspension unit, combining the functions of a spring and shock absorber. The tracks are adjustable for tension and are supported, along the top run by rubber tyred rollers. Removable skirting plates provide some protection to the wheels, suspension and hull sideplates.

DATA

16. The following data is included to assist the vehicle crew. For more comprehensive data summary refer to CAT 1 (AESP No 2350-P-100-101).

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Three quarter front view

.. '

~ 17. Weights

Combat, loaded (c/w ammo, fuel, CES

items crew stowage but not crew) 62 tonne (61 ton)

Training (combat loaded weight less

ammo) . .. . . .. .. .. . 60.9 tonne (59.9 ton)

18. Bridge load classification

Combat, loaded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 70

19. Dimensions

Length overall, gun forward .

Length overall, gun in crutch .

Height to top of commanders sight hood

Width overall .

Ground clearance (nominal)

20. Performance

Maximum road speed . " .

Vertical obstacle .

Maximum gradient Trench crossing Shallow fording

21. Nominal ground pressure

Combat, loaded .

22. Tracks

Length of track on ground .

Track width .

Number of links

Oct 88(Amdt 8)

UK RESTRICTED

11,560 mm 9,800 mm 2,950 mm 3,510 mm

500 mm

56 km/h 0.90 m 58%

2.8 m 1.07 m

97.7 kPa

(37ft10in) (32 ft 2 in) ( 9 ft 8 in) (11 ft 6 in) ( 1 ft 8 in)

(35 mile/h) nominal (2 ft 11 % inches)

(30 degrees) vehicle moving (9 ft 2 in)

(3 ft 6 in)

(14.13Ibf/in2)

4790 mm (15 ft 9 in)

650 mm (25.6 in)

92 per track

Page xiii

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ARMY EQUIPMENT SUPPORT PUBLICATION

23. Power pack Main engine

Idling speed .

Governed speed (normal) .

Rating (gross) .

Rolls Royce CV 12 TCA 1200, No 3, Mk 4A, 12 cyl, 60 degree VEE 4 stroke, compression ignition

550/660 rev/min

2,300 rev/min

1200 BHP (895 kW) at 2,300 rev/min

24. Generating unit engine .

Governed speeds

Idling .

Charging (normal running) .

Cold starting " .

Coventry Climax H30 No 4 Mk 18H

800/850 rev/min 1900/2100 rev/min 3,100 rev/min max

25. Gearbox

TN 37 No 1 Mk 3, Epicyclic with 4 forward gears and 3 reverse gears.

.. 26. Gear, speed and turning radii

The maximum speed and minimum turning radius in each gear based on an engine speed of 2300 rev/min is given in Table 1.

TABLE 1

MAXIMUM SPEED MINIMUM TURNING RADIUS
GEAR km/h miles/h m it - inches
1 13 8 9.5 31 - 2
2 22 14 15.5 50 - 10
3 34 21 24.0 78 - 9
4 56 35 39.5 129 - 7
R1 14 9 10.0 32 - 10
R2 22 14 15.5 50 - 10
R3 36 22 25.5 83 - 8 27. Capacities

Refer to CAT 6 - MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE (AESP 2350-P-100-601)

28. Batteries

Hull

In the hull, four 12 volt UK/6TN, No 4 Mk 3 batteries in series/parallel provide 200 Ah of power for engine starting and general electrical services.

Turret

The turret is provided with two 12 volt UK/6TN, No 4, Mk 3 batteries in series giving 100 Ah of power. These are sufficient for a nominal 8 hours silent watch and in emergency conditions can supply emergency power for the fighting equipment.

Page xiv

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2350-P-100-201

DESTRUCTION OF EQUIPMENT TO PREVENT ENEMY USE

GENERAL Destruction

~ 29. Destruction of the equipment, when subject to capture by the enemy, will be undertaken by the user arm, ONLY WHEN, in the judgement of the unit commander concerned, such action is necessary in accordance with orders of, or policy established, by the Army or Divisional Commanders.

30. The reporting of the destruction of the equipment is to be done through command channels.

Degree of damage

31. The degree of damage inflicted, to prevent the equipment being used by an enemy, shall be as follows:

31.1 Methods of destruction should achieve such damage to equipment and essential spare parts, that it will not be possible to restore the equipment to a usable condition in the combat zone either by repair or by cannibalization.

31.2 Classified equipment must be destroyed in such degree as to prevent, whenever possible, duplication, or determination of operation or function by the enemy.

31.3 Any classified documents, notes, instructions or other written material pertaining to function, operation, maintenance or employment, including drawings or parts lists, must be destroyed in a manner to render them useless to the enemy.

Priorities for destruction

32. The priorities for destruction should be considered as follows:

32.1 Priority must be given to the destruction of classified equipment and associated documents.

32.2 When lack of time and/or means prevents complete destruction of equipment, priority is to be given to the destruction of essential parts, and the same parts are to be destroyed on all like equipment.

32.3 A guide to priorities for destruction of the equipment is shown in the Table.

METHODS OF DESTRUCTION

Spare parts

33. The same priority, for destruction of the component parts of a major item necessary to render the item inoperable, must be given to the destruction of similar components in spare parts storage areas.

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Page xv

34. The following information is for guidance only. Of the several means of destruction, those most generally applicable are as under.

Mechanical

35. This requires an axe, pick, crowbar or similar implement. The equipment should be destroyed in ... accordance with the priorities given in the Table.

2350-P-100-201

UK RESTRICTED

ARMY EQUIPMENT SUPPORT PUBLICATION

Burning

WARNING

DUE CONSIDERATION SHOULD BE GIVEN TO THE HIGHLY FLAMMABLE NATURE OF GASOLINE AND ITS VAPOUR. CARELESSNESS IN ITS USE MAY RESULT IN PAINFUL BURNS.

, .. 36. This requires gasoline, oil or other flammables.

36.1 Remove and empty the portable fire extinguishers.

38.2 If quantities of combustibles are limited, smash all vital elements, such as switches, instruments and control levers.

36.3 Place ammunition and charges in and about the equipment so that the greatest damage will result from the explosion.

36.4 Pour gasoline and oil over the equipment. Ignite by means of an incendiary grenade fired from a safe distance, by a burst from a flame thrower, by a combustible train of suitable length or other appropriate means. Take cover immediately.

Gunfire

37. When destroying the equipment by gunfire proceed as follows:

37.1 Remove and empty the portable fire extinguishers.

37.2 Smash all vital elements as outlined in sub-paragraph 36.2.

WARNING

FIRING ARTILLERY AT RANGES OF 500 YARDS OR LESS, AND FIRING RIFLE GRENADES OR ANTI-TANK ROCKETS SHOULD BE FROM COVER.

37.3 Destroy the equipment by gunfire, using tank guns, self-propelled guns, artillery, rifles using rifle grenades or launchers using anti-tank rockets.

38. I n general, destruction of essential parts, followed by burni ng, will usually be sufficient to render the equipment useless. However, selection of the particular method of destruction requires imagination and resourcefulness in utilization of the facilities at hand under the existing conditions. Time is usually critical.

39.1 Selection of a poi nt of destruction that will cause greatest obstruction to enemy movement and also prevent hazard to friendly troops from fragments of ricocheting projectiles which may occur incidental to the destruction by gunfire.

39. If destruction is ordered, due consideration should be given to:

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Oct 88(Amdt 8)

39.2 Observance of appropriate safety precautions.

ARMY EQUIPMENT UK RESTRICTED

SUPPORT PUBLICATION

2350-P-100-201

~ TABLE 2 - PRIORITIES FOR DESTRUCTION

EQUIPMENT PRIORITY PARTS
(1 ) (2) (3)
VEHICLES (including 1 Fuel injector/pump/carburettor/distributor/fuel tanks/fuel
tanks and engineer lines
equipment) 2 Engine block and cooling system
3 Tyres/tracks and suspension
4 Mechanical or hydraulic system
5 Instruments and control boxes
(1 ) Optical parts
(2) Mechanical components
6 Body/Hull
GUNS 1 Breech, breech mechanism and spares
2 Recoil mechanism
3 Tube
4 Sighting and fire control equipment (including infra-red)
(1 ) Optical parts
(2) Mechanical components
SMALL ARMS 1 Breech mechanism
2 Barrel
3 Sighting equipment (including infra-red)
4 Mounts
RADIO 1 Transmitter (oscillators and frequency generators) and
IFF equipment
2 Receiver including IFF equipment
3 Remote control units, or switchboard (exchanges) and
operating terminals
4 Power supply and/or generator set
5 Antennae
6 Tuning units/heads Oct 88(Amdt 8) UK RESTRICTED

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EVACUATION OF CASUALTIES

This information will be added when available.

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TANK, COMBAT, 120 mm GUN

CHALLENGER

PART 1

AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEM

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Chapter 1

FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT

CONTENTS

Para

General

2 Portable fire extinguishers

4 Fixed fire extinguisher system

7 Control handles

8 Alarm system

11 Alarm system warning lights

12 Fire warning horn

13 Alarm system test switch

Operation (Warning)

14 To use a portable extinguisher

15 To operate the fixed fire extinguisher system

17 Alarm system

Action in the event of fire

18 All fires

20 External fires, driver's and fighting compartment fires

22 Power pack compartment fires

User maintenance

24 To check the portable extinguishers

25 To check the fixed extinguisher system

27 To test the alarm system

28 To change a warning lamp

Fig Page

1 2 3

Portable fire extinguisher .

Fixed fire extinguisher system .

Alarm system components .

2 3 4

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GENERAL

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FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT

1. Portable and fixed fire extinguishers, of the BCF vapourising liquid type, are provided on the vehicle. The fixed system is specifically installed to combat fire in the power pack compartment. An alarm system is installed which will give an audible and visual warning if severe overheating or fire occurs in the powerpack compartment.

Portable Fire Extinguishers

2. There are four portable fire extinguishers (Fig 1) provided on the vehicle. Two inside the vehicle

and two outside, located as follows:

2.1 One on each forward track guard, to the right and left of the driver's position.

2.2 One in the driver's compartment, on the right side stowage rack.

2.3 One on the turret wall to the left of the loader's position.

3

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1 Test indicator

2 Discharge nozzle and striker

3 Striker knob and test indicator

Fig 1 Portable fire extinguishers (alternative types)

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3. The basic type of extinguisher issued, under the service reference, may incorporate two alternative types of discharge nozzle and test facility as shown in Fig 1. The extinguishers are fully interchangeable and suitable for combatting all types of fire. One type has a combined striker knob and test i nd icator (3), the alternative type has a test i nd icator (1) incorporated separately in the end of the body. Operating instructions are marked on each extinguisher.

Fixed Fire Extinguisher system

4. The fixed fire extinguisher system consists of two cylinders (Fig 2(2)) each containing 2.27litres (4 pints) of liquid BCF, mounted by their discharge heads as a manifold located at the left rear of the driver's compartment. A securing plate is fitted over the tops of the cylinders to hold them in position. The plate is clamped by two through bolts fixed in the mounting bracket. The securing plate allows access to a pressure test disc (1) at the top of each cylinder.

5. The discharge manifold is connected to piping which is secured around the inside of the power pack compartment. The piping is perforated so that the discharged BCF vapour is spread evenly throughout the compartment.

6. The fixed extinguisher system is operated manually by means of a cable operated mechanism. Discharge of the cylinders can be effected from outside the vehicle or from the driver's com partment.

Pressure test disc 2 B C F cylinders

3 Operating handles (driver's compartment)

4 Operating handles (external)

Fig 2 Fixed fire extinguisher system

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Control handles

7. Two control handles (Fig 2(3» are positioned to the left of the driver's seat, mounted on the BCF bottles securing bracket. Two externally located handles (4) are positioned in recesses, one in each sponson sideplate. When one external handle OR one driver's compartment handle is operated, one BCF bottle will be activated discharging its contents into the power pack compartment. The second bottle is discharged by operating either of the remaining unused handles.

1 Guard

2 Warning light (fighting compartment) 3 Flasher unit

4 Control box

5 Test switch

6 Warning horn

7 Warning light (driver's compartment)

Fig 3 Alarm system components

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Alarm system

8. The basic components of the alarm system are a sensing element loop in the power pack compartment, a control box (Fig 3(4)) with test switch (5), a warning horn (6), a flasher unit (3) and two warning lights (2) and (7).

11.1 Fighting compartment fire warning light - (2) on top of the warning light flasher unit (3) on the right hull side plate.

9. In the event of overheating or fire in the power pack compartment, the sensing element loop will cause the alarm system to operate. The warning horn will sound, the warning lights will flash and a buzz will be heard in the connected headphones of the crew.

10. The control box (4) is mou nted in the rear right corner of the fighti ng compartment. A test switch (5) located on the box enables the continuity, insulation resistance of the sensing element and integrity of the circuit and warning lights to be checked. The system will not signal a fault if a short circuit or failure occurs in the power supply or control box, therefore, it is essential that the system be tested regularly.

Alarm system warning lights

11. The warning lights have red lenses and are located as follows:-

11.2 Driver's fire warning light - (7) to the right front of the driver's position adjacent to the compartment interior light unit.

Fire warning horn

12. Thewarning horn (6) is located in the near left cornerofthefighting compartment. The horn will sound if the sensing element circuit is activated, or tested, irrespective of the battery master switch position, ON or OFF.

Alarm system test switch

13. The test switch (5) is located on the alarm system control box. When the switch is moved to the TEST position the system should function as though a fire hazard has been detected. The switch is spring-loaded to the OFF position and must be held in the TEST position when in use.

OPERATION

WARNING:

IF (BCF) EXTINGUISHERS HAVE BEEN USED INSIDE THE VEHICLE, THE CREW MUST NOT RE-ENTER UNTIL ALL FUMES HAVE DISPERSED.

To use a portable extinguisher

14. Proceed as follows:-

14.1 The extinguisher (Fig 1) must be held with the discharge head downwards.

14.2 Take up the most suitable position for fighting the fire before operating the extinguisher.

14.3 Strike the striker knob (3) or discharge nozzle (2) (depending on type) on a hard surface.

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14.4 From a position as near the fire as possible, direct the spray first at the seat of the nearest flames, sweeping from side to side and progressing the spray over the fire area, leaving no flames behind.

14.5 During the whole operation the extinguisher must be held head downwards until empty, although it may be tilted through an angle of up to 45 degrees out of vertical. The rate of discharge cannot be controlled, so that once discharge has started it will continue until the extinguisher is completely empty.

14.6 Discard the empty container and obtain a replacement as soon as possible.

To operate the fixed fire extinguisher system

15. To operate the fixed fire extinguisher system, either one of the internal handles or one of the external handles, must be turned anti-clockwise and pulled out to its fullest extent. The rate of flow from a cylinder cannot be controlled and once the seal is broken the cylinder will discharge completely. If the fire persists after one cylinder has been discharged the other should be activated.

16. Discharged cylinders must be replaced with charged ones as soon as possible.

Alarm system

17. The alarm system is fully automatic in operation. When the hull battery master switch is ON, all audible and visual warning devices will operate in the event of fire or overheating. With the battery master switch OFF only the warning horn will operate. The system response to the test switch is also governed by the position of the battery master switch in the same way.

ACTION IN THE EVENT OF FIRE All fires

18. In all cases of fire:-

18.1 Stop the vehicle.

18.2 Stop the engines.

18.3 Turn the battery master switches to OFF.

18.4 Remove the portable extinguishers from the vehicle, evacuate the vehicle and close all hatches.

19. The senior person present will take charge of the fire fighting and direct operations according to the nature of the fire.

External fires, driver's and fighting compartment fires

20. Use the portable extinguishers.

21. For a fire ln the driver's or fighting compartment open one hatch, discharge one extinguisher into the com partment, then close the hatch. Wait for 1 0 mi n utes before re-open ing unless the fi re is seen to persist. In which case another extinguisher must be used.

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Power pack compartment fires

22. If the warning alarm system operates or flames or smoke are seen in the compartment, discharge one cylinder of BCF using the fixed extinguisher system and cover the louvres with a tank sheet. If after the first cylinder has been discharged the fire persists operate the remaining cylinder.

23. If no warning is given but flames or smoke are seen, investigate carefully. If investigation is impracticable or if smoke persists or increases, discharge one fixed BCF cylinder and allow adequate time for flames to be stifled, before opening any compartment cover to investigate.

Note:

Before operating the fire extinguisher, consideration should be given to the possible cause of the smoke. Allowance should be made for smoke from surplus oil, new engine paintwork, new insulation on the exhaust systems and any other normal vapour.

USER MAINTENANCE

To check the portable extinguishers

24. Proceed as follows:-

24.1 Remove each extinguisher from its bracket and inspect for damage.

24.2 Check that the extinguisher is charged, depending on type, as follows:-

24.2.1 Check the striker knob. If it has been pushed in or can be rotated between finger and thumb the extinguisher must be discarded and a replacement obtained.

24.2.2 Apply thumb pressure to the test disc on the end of the extinguisher body. If the disc remains indented the extinguisher must be discarded and a replacement obtained.

24.3 Check that the discharge nozzle is not obstructed.

24.4 Check the mounting brackets for serviceability before replacing extinguishers.

Note:

The extinguishers are sealed and the discharge heads cannot be unscrewed.

To check the fixed extinguisher system

25. Check the system as follows:-

25.1 Check that each extinguisher cylinder is fully charged by applying thumb pressure to the indicator disc (Fig 2(1)) on top of the cylinder. If the disc remains indented the cylinder must be changed - REPORT.

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25.2 Check that the cylinders are secure in their mounting.

25.3 Check that the operating cables are correctly connected.

26. The task of changing the fixed cylinders must be carried out by a qualified tradesman, not by crew members.

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To test the alarm system

27. To check that the alarm system is functioning correctly:-

27.1 Turn the hull battery master switch to ON.

27.2 Connect the headphones to the radio control boxes.

27.3 Move the fire alarm test switch (Fig 3(5» to the test position hold and check that:-

27.3.1 The warning horn sounds.

27.3.2 A warning buzz is heard in all connected headphones.

27.3.3 Both warning lights flash.

27.4 Release the test switch.

27.5 Should the warning signals fail to function, REPORT.

27.6 Should the warning signals continue to function after the test switch is released, withdraw the fuse identified FIRE WIRE 15A from the battery master switch box and REPORT.

To change a warning lamp

28. Both warning lights (Fig 3(2)(7» are fitted with 26v, 24W SCC lamps.

28.1 Turn the battery master switch to OFF.

28.2 Remove the protective guard (1) (fighting compartment light only).

28.3 Unscrew the domed lens from the light.

28.4 Remove the bayonet fixing lamp from its holder.

28.5 Check that the spring-loaded contact is satisfactory, then fit a new lamp.

28.6 Screw on the domed lens, taking care that the threads are correctly engaged.

28.7 Test the light and if satisfactory refit the protective guard.

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Chapter 2 HULL AND FITTINGS

CONTENTS

Para

General

DRIVER'S COMPARTMENT

10 Driver's access door

13 Safety stop (Warning)

Operation of the driver's door and stop

14 To open the door

15 To close the door

16 To open the door in an emergency

17 User maintenance

18 Driver's safety switch (Warning)

19 Driver's seat

Seat controls

20 Seat and backrest control lever

21 Horizontal adjustment control

22 Headrest height control

23 Headrest angle control

24 Back frame release

Seat control operation

25 To adjust the seat for height

26 To adjust the backrest angle

27 To adjust the seat horizontally

28 Headrest height adjustment

29 Headrest angle adjustment

30 To lower the backframe from the rear

31 To drop the backframe in an emergency

32 To raise the backframe

User maintenance

33 To remove the driver's seat

34 To replace the driver's seat

35 Driver's controls and instruments

36 Steering levers

37 Brake pedal

38 Parking brake

39 Accelerator pedal

40 Driver's gear selector

41 Emergency gear engagement lever and GUE controls

42 Generating unit engine (GUE) switchboard

43 Main engine switchboard

44 Speedometer

45 Dual start switch

46 Horn button

47 Fire alarm warning light

48 Hull battery master switch box

49 Driver's instrument panel

50 Driver's periscopes and mounting

52 Periscope mounting AFV No 6 Mk 1

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CONTENTS (continued)

Para

54 Driver's periscope AV No 36 Mk 1

To remove and fit the periscope

55 To remove the periscope

56 To fit the periscope

57 Driver's night vision periscope

61 Controls

62 To remove and fit the night vision periscope

63 Operation

64 User maintenance

65 Cleaning

66 Periscope washer and wiper

68 Controls

69 Operation

User maintenance

72 To fill the washer tank

73 Wiper blades

74 Drinking water tank

76 Projectile and stowage racks (Warning)

80 To remove and refit the left side rack

81 To remove and refit the right side rack

82 Driver's compartment ventilation

84 Drain plug

POWER PACK COMPARTMENT

86 Top deck

88 Front deck

93 96 97 98 99 101 102 104

Rear deck

Removing and replacing the deck (Warning) Removing the decks

Replacing the decks

Air intake (main engine)

To fit the air intake cover Exhaust oullets (main engine)

To fit the exhaust oullet covers

105 Hull floor access plates

EXTERIOR FITTINGS

108 Skirting plates

110 To remove and replace the skirting plates

111 Gun depression rail

112 Mirrors

113 Stowage

114 Bollard hooks

115 Lashing eyes

116 Lifting eyes

117 Towing equipment

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Fig

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

CONTENTS (continued)

Driver's access door .

Driver's door operating mechanism .

Safety plunger .

Driver's safety switch .

Driver's seat controls .

Driver's seat removal

Driver's compartment .

Driver's instrument panel .

Driver's periscope mounting .

Periscope driver's AV No 36 Mk 1 .

Night vision periscope .

Driver's periscope wiper motor .

Washer and drinking water tanks .

Projectile and stowage rack .

Stowage rack .

Driver's ventilation .

Top deck arrangement .

Air intake and exhaust outlet covers .

Hull floor drain and access plates .

Exterior hull fittings (rear) .

Exterior hull fittings (front) .

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Page

5 7 8 9 10 12 15 17 18 19 21 23 24 26 27 28 29 31 32 34 35

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HULL AND FITTINGS

GENERAL

1. The hull is a welded steel fabrication comprising a number of compartments.

2. The driver's compartment is located in the front of the hull beneath an armoured glacis plate. Access to the compartment is through a hatch in the glacis plate, above the driver's seat. The hatch is closed by a door which is operated and secured from inside the vehicle. A periscope, located to the rear of the hatch, beneath an armoured guard, is provided for use by the driver when operating "closed down" in the reclining position.

3. A specially designed fully adjustable driver's seat is installed in the driver's compartment to allow alternative driving positions and to enable the driver to be evacuated through the fighting compartment in an emergency.

Note:

A brief description of the driver's controls is included in this chapter - full operating information for individual controls is located in the chapter describing their related system.

4. The fighting compartment is located to the rear of the driver's compartment. There is no dividing bulkhead and some limited access exists only when the turret is correctly positioned. A roller bearing race bolted to the roofplate supports the turret assembly. Information relating to the fighting compartment and its related equipment and systems is to be found in Part 2 of this publication.

5. The power pack compartment is located at the rear of the hull and isolated from the forward portion of the vehicle by a sealed bulkhead. The compartment houses the main propulsion powerpack, the generating unit engine and the necessary related system components. Access points, air intake and exhaust louvres are arranged in the top decking, enclosing the compartment. Additional cover plates and draining facilities are also provided on the underside of the hull.

6. Fabricated fuel panniers form part of the hull structure along the top sides of the power pack compartment. Armoured filler caps and bolt-on covers provide access to the flexible bag fuel tanks contained within the panniers.

7. Gun depression rails are fitted on the top deck of the power pack compartment and the fuel

panniers.

8. The individual suspension units, idlers and track adjusters are bolted directly to the hull structure. To provide some ballistic protection to the suspension and running gear, detachable skirt plates are fitted to the track guards and outrigger brackets.

9. Towing and lifting facilities are provided at the front and rear of the hull in the form of bollard hooks and lugs. Stowage facilities fitted to the hull include brackets and lugs to secure tools and an enclosed stowage bin.

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DRIVER'S COMPARTMENT

Driver's Access door

10. The driver's hatch opening is closed by a heavy armoured access door (Fig 1 (3)), arranged to swing open or closed horizontally. The door pivots about an actuating mechanism located in a cylindrical housing mounted to the right of the driver's position. Incorporated in the housing are counter balance springs to enable the door to rise clear of the hatch opening when the door is opened. A single operating handle (10) is used to move the door horizontally, to raise, lower and secure onto the hatch seal. A secondary clamp (6), located on the left of the driver, is also used to secure the closed door to ensure complete sealing.

11. An emergency release catch (1) incorporating a shear pin allows the door to be released from outside the vehicle in an emergency situation.

12. When the door is closed a shaped seal fitted around the hatch opening ensures good sealing to prevent the entry of moisture and for use in NBC combat conditions. In the fully open position an indentation on the underside of the door engages a peg (12) on the glacis plate to provide positive location.

SAFETY STOP

13. A safety stop (2) located i m med iately in front of the driver is fitted to prevent accidental closi ng of the driver's access door. The cylindrical stop is raised and lowered vertically, by a small operating lever on the underside of the glacis plate, thus restricting any movement of the door. The stop MUST be extended whenever the door is moved to the open position.

2

1 Emergency release catch 2 Safety stop

3 Driver's door (closed)

4 Driver's periscope hood

5 Padlock lugs 6 Clamp

7 Clamp handle 8 Handle

9 Safety Stop operating lever 10 Door operating handle

11 Driver's door (open)

12 Locating peg

Fig 1 Driver's access door

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WARNING

IF NOT PROPERLY SECURED, THE DOOR MAY SWING CLOSED ACCIDENTALLY WHEN THE VEHICLE IS MOVED WITH POSSIBLE FATAL CONSEQUENCES. BEFORE MOVING THE VEHICLE, WHEN DRIVING 'HEAD OUT', THE DRIVER MUST CHECK THAT THE SAFETY STOP IS EXTENDED AND LOCKED AND THE DOOR PROPERLY SECURED.

Operation Of The Driver's Door And Stop

To Open The Door

14. To open the door and engage the safety stop proceed as follows:

14.1 Lift the locking clamp handle (Fig 2(4)) to the horizontal position and rotate the handle rearwards.

14.2 Release the retaining catch (11) by turning it upwards to clear the operating handle (12).

14.3 Pull the operating handle (12) rearwards. The door will rise due to the action of the counter balance springs.

14.4 Move the operating handle (9) forward to swing the door open. Continue to move the handle forward and to the right until the door is fully open and located on the peg on the glacis plate.

14.5 Lower the retaining catch (10) to lock the handle (9).

14.6 Extend the safety stop - pull the knob (Fig 3(2)) on the lever (3) and rotate the lever to the forward position (d). Release the knob and ensure that the lever (3) is firmly secured by the locking pins (4).

14.7 Before attempting to leave the compartment check that the driver's safety switch (Fig 4) is in the SAFE position.

To close the door

15. To close and secure the door proceed as follows:-

15.1 Retract the safety stop - pull out the knob (Fig 3(2)) on the lever (3) and move the lever to the rearmost position (a). Release the knob and ensure that the lever (3) is firmly secured.

15.2 Release the catch (Fig 2(10)) by turning it upwards to clear the operating handle (9).

15.3 Move the operating handle (9) to the left and rearward to lift the door off the retaining peg and swing it closed.

15.4 When the door is directly over the hatch opening, push down on the handle (12) so that the cam profile (13) on the handle contacts the housing. Continue the movement until the handle is fully forward and the door seated.

15.5 Lower the catch (11) to lock the handle (12).

15.6 Rotate the locking clamp handle (4) to the left until the engaged position is felt. Pull the handle down to a vertical position to clamp the door securely.

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1

.. Emergency release lug (bottom)

2 Shear pin

3 Emergency release lug (top) 4 Clamp handle

5 Clamp assy

6 Clamp wedge 7 Door (closed) 8 Door (open)

9

U4597/23A

9 Operating handle (door raised position) 10 Retaining catch (to lock open)

11 Retaining catch (to lock closed)

12 Operating handle (door closed and locked position) 13 Cam

(a) Movement to release and raise the door (b) Movement to swing the door open)

Fig 2 Driver's door operating mechanism

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Fig 3 Safety plunger

To open the door in an emergency

1

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1 Plunger 2 Knob

3 Lever

4 Locking pins

(a) Retracted position

(locking pins disengaged) (b) Safety plunger components (c) Plunger partially extended (d) Fully extended and locked

16. The door may be opened from the outside in an emergency as follows:

... 16.1 Turn the clamp (Fig 2(5)) to clear the door by striking the wedge (Fig 2(6)) with a suitable instrument.

16.2 Strike the protruding arm of the top release lug (3) to the right to shear the pin(2).

16.3 Strike the lower release lug (1) to free the door mechanism. The door should rise sharply, to clear the hatch recess.

16.4 Pull the door open using the handle on the upper surface.

WARNING

BEFORE MOVING THE VEHICLE, WHEN DRIVING 'HEAD OUT', THE DRIVER MUST CHECK THAT THE SAFETY STOP IS EXTENDED AND LOCKED AND THE DOOR PROPERLY SECURED. IF NOT PROPERLY SECURED, THE DOOR MAY SWING CLOSED ACCIDENTALLY WHEN THE VEHICLE IS MOVED WITH POSSIBLE FATAL CONSEQUENCES.

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User Maintenance

17. Check and service as follows:-

17.1 The door recess must be kept clean and the seal free from oil or grease and in good condition.

17.2 The door clamp (4) must be kept clean and lightly oiled.

17.3 The safety stop recess (Fig 3) must be kept free from accumulated dirt and the stop plunger lightly oiled.

Driver's safety switch

WARNING

.. THE DRIVER MUST NOT ENTER OR LEAVE HIS COMPARTMENT OR PASS INTO THE .....

FIGHTING COMPARTMENT, UNLESS THE SAFETY SWITCH IS IN THE SAFE POSITION. PAUSE FOR TWO SECONDS AFTER PUTTING THE SWITCH TO SAFE.

18. The safety switch (Fig 4) mounted to the left of the hatch opening above the instrument panel, is provided to enable the driver to prevent powered traverse of the turret when necessary. The switch must be placed up in the SAFE position to prevent the power traverse being used. In the LIVE position the turret will operate normally.

Fig 4 Driver's safety switch

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Driver's seat

19. The seat is designed for driving in the "opened up" position, or in the "closed down" position with the driver reclined and using the periscope. A full range of adjustments for seat position, height, backrest and headrest angles are incorporated. A small hinged pad attached to the inside, rear edge of the hatch opening acts as a shoulder support when driving "opened up".

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Seat controls

20. Seat and backrest control lever - The control lever (Fig 5(10)) performs the dual function of adjusting the seat and backrest assembly for height, and the backrest for angle.

21. Horizontal adjustment control - Forward and rearward movement of the seat assembly (2) is controlled by the centrally located foot pedal (1).

22. Headrest height control - A handwheel (7) is used to control height adjustments of the headrest.

23. Headrest angle control - Angular movement of the headrest is spring biased to the maximum angle position and locked in the required position by the handwheel (5).

1 Foot pedal

2 Seat assembly 3 Shoulder rest 4 Headrest

5 Headrest angle control 6 Release handle

7 Headrest height control

8 Back frame

9 Release lever

10 Seat control lever

Fig 5 Driver's seat controls

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24. Back frame release - The back frame (8), supporting the shoulder rest (3) and headrest (4) can be dropped to give access from the rear of the compartment, by operating the release handle (6). Alternatively, in an emergency, the driver can operate release levers (9) located on both sides of the seat frame.

Seat control operation

To adjust the seat for height

25. Ensure that the access door is correctly secured in the open position.

25.1 Movethe control lever (Fig 5(10)) downwards to release the seat lock. By easing the weight of the body on or off the seat the height can be adjusted.

25.2 When the seat is at the desired height release the lever and ensure that the seat mechanism locks securely.

To adjust the backrest angle

26. To adjust the backrest angle proceed as follows:

26.1 Lift the control lever (10) to unlock the backrest mechanism.

26.2 Use body weight to adjust the backrest angle, forwards or backwards.

26.3 Release the lever to lock the backrest at the required angle.

To adjust the seat horizontally

27. To adjust the seat horizontally proceed as follows:-

27.1 Depress the foot pedal (1).

27.2 Move the seat forwards or backwards to the desired position.

27.3 Release the pedal and ensure that the locking mechanism is fully engaged.

Headrest height adjustment

28. To adjust the headrest height proceed as follows:

28.1 Release the headrest locking clamp by turning the handwheel (7) anti-clockwise.

28.2 Move the headrest up or down as required.

28.3 Lock the headrest in position by turning the handwheel (1) firmly clockwise.

Headrest angle adjustment

29. To adjust the headrest angle:

29.1 Release the headrest by turning the handwheel (5) anti-clockwise.

29.2 Use the weight of the head to ease the headrest into a comfortable position.

29.3 Lock the headrest by turning the handwheel clockwise.

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To lower the backframe from the rear

30. To lower the backframe from the rear proceed as follows:

30.1 Pull upwards on the release handle (6) located on the backframe.

30.2 Lower the backframe to the horizontal position.

To drop the backframe in an emergency

31. To drop the backframe in an emergency proceed as follows:

31.1 Simultaneously lift both release levers (9).

31.2 The backframe will drop down under its own weight.

To raise the backframe

32 Lift the backframe upwards until it locks firmly in position.

1 Seat carriage 2 Slot

3 Securing screws (typical)

4 Rear rollers 5 Seat frame 6 Stop pin

7 Front rollers 8 Foot pedal

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Fig 6 Driver's seat removal

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User maintenance

To remove the driver's seat

33. To remove the driver's seat proceed as follows:

33.1 Remove the quick release stop pin (Fig 6(6)) from the front top edge of the seat frame side (5).

33.2 Hold down the foot pedal (8) and move the seat forward until the rear rollers (4) emerge from the slots (2) in the frame.

33.3 With the turret suitably positioned -lift the carriage (1), and seat, clear of the frame and pass it out of the vehicle via the turret and loader's hatch.

33.4 If it is necessary to remove the seat frame assembly (5), remove the six securing screws (3)

and pass the frame out through the turret and loader's hatch. .

To replace the driver's seat

34. Adopt reverse procedure to that described in paragraph 33. When refitting the seat carriage (1) to the frame (5) ensure that the rear rollers (4) pass over the frame and down through the slots (2).

Driver's controls and instruments

35. The d river's controls, instrument panels and the layout of the d river's com partment is depicted in Fig 7. The operation of the controls and instruments, identified in the following paragraphs, is described in detail in the parts of this book covering the equipment they control.

Steering levers

36. Two steering levers (Fig 7(19)(27)), located on either side of the driver's seat, provide the directional control of the vehicle. The steering mechanism and operation is described in Chapter 7.

Brake pedal

37. Main vehicle braking is controlled by the centrally mounted pedal (23).

Parking brake

38. The parking brake lever (29) and its associated ratchet mechanism is located on the driver's left.

Accelerator pedal

Driver's gear selector

39. An accelerator pedal (22) located to the right of the brake pedal is linked electrically to the Main Engine Control Unit (MECU). The progressive depression of the pedal increases engine speed.

40. The gear selector (15) is located at seat level to the right of the driver. The selector is electrically connected to the Gearbox Controller Automatic (GCA), enabling the driver to preselect ranges of gears to suit driving conditions. A description of the gearbox and its operation is located in Chapter 7.

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1

Emergency gear engagement lever and GUE controls

41. A group of three levers (20) are located forward of the gear selector. The left and centre levers control the generating unit engine and the right lever emergency gear engagement.

Generating Unit Engine (GUE) switchboard

42. The generating unit engi ne switchboard (35), located to the rear of the driver's instrument panel, contains the necessary switches to start and operate the generating unit.

Main engine switchboard

43. The main engine switchboard (12), located on the right of the driver, contains the controls for starting the main engine.

Speedometer

44. The speedometer (9) records in kilometres per hour the road speed of the vehicle. It incorporates a total distance recorder and a trip distance recorder. Thetrip recorder can be reset to zero by turning the RESET control clockwise.

Dual start switch

45. The dual start switch (13) is mounted on the main engine switchboard support bracket. The switch is used to select either of the dual starter motors in turn, if required.

Horn button

46. A road warning horn operating button (1) is mounted on the forward end of the GUE switchboard.

Fire alarm warning light

47. The fire alarm warning light (7) gives warning by flashing should fire occur in the powerpack compartment .

.. Hull battery master switchbox

48. The battery master switchbox (17) is located on the floorplate to the right of the driver. The switch box incorporates the battery master switch for the hull batteries, the intervehicle starting and inspection light sockets, battery heating controls and the 'charge' and 'discharge' warning lights.

Driver's instrument panel

49. The instrument panel (Fig 7(2)) and (Fig 8) embodies the following instruments, switches and warning lights; the use and full function of each is described in greater detail in subsequent chapters.

49.1 Dimmerswitch - (Fig 8(2)) controls the intensity of the panel lights, warning lights and also the warning lights on the main engine and generating unit engine switchboards.

49.2 Periscope washer switch - (3) operates the driver's periscope washer.

49.3 Periscope wiper switch - (4) controls the driver's periscope window wiper.

49.4 IR sight switch - (5) controls the power supply to the driver's image intensified night vision periscope.

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13

14

\

I

I

/

/

/

18

u-597/28

1 Horn button 10 Air cleaner restriction 17 Hull battery master switchbox 26 Hull batteries (left)
2 Instrument panel indicator (main engine) 19 Steering lever (right) 27 Steering lever (left)
3 Safety switch 11 Sight window heater switch 20 GUE and emergency gear controls 28 Connecting chain (parking brake)
4 Air diffuser (when fitted) 21 Distilled water bottle stowage 29 Parking brake lever
5 Alarm warning light 12 Main engine switchboard 22 Accelerator pedal 30 BCF cylinders
6 Interior light 13 Dual start switch 23 Brake pedal 31 Periscope stowage rack
7 Fire alarm warning light 14 Stowage rack 24 Footrest 32 Fire extinguisher operating handles
8 Fire extinguisher 15 Gear selector 25 Projectile and stowage rack 33 Parking brake release button
9 Speedometer 16 Inter-com control box 34 Brake fluid reservoir
35 GUE switchboard Fig 7 Driv r's compartment

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49.5 ALARM warning light - (7) is a red light to draw attention to a fault condition in one or more of the automotive systems. When the light flashes the driver must check for a fault warning indication on the instrument panel or MAIN and GUE switchboards. The light will remain activated until the fault is rectified and/or the circuit reset. A second light is located on the glacis plate in front of the driver.

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49.6 Alarm reset switch graph 49.5).

(6) is used to reset the Alarm warning light circuit (see para-

49.7 OP BRAKE warning light - (8) has an amber lens and illuminates to give warning of:-

49.7.1 Loss of steering and brake.servo hydraulic pressure.

49.7.2 Blocked filters in the gearbox hydraulic pressure line.

49.8 GB OIL TEMP warning light - (9) has an amber lens and illuminates to give warning of overheating of the gearbox oil

49.9 HYST BOOST warning light - (10) has an amber lens and illuminates when hydrostatic pressure, required to operate the steering mechanism is dangerously low.

49.10 Lighting switches - (12) the five switches located at the front lower end of the panel control the external vehicle lighting circuits. The switches control the headlights, side/taillights, headlight dipping, blackout and convoy light. Each switch is annotated accordingly.

49.11 MAIN BEAM warning light - (11) has a blue lens and illuminates when main beam is selected on the headlight dip switch.

49.12 Tachometer- (14) indicated fig ures which, when multiplied by 100, give the main engine crankshaft speed in revolutions per minute.

49.13 COOLANT LEVEL warning light - (15) has a green lens and illuminates to give warning when coolant level is low.

49.14 Coolant temperature gauge - (16) indicates figures which, when multiplied by 10, gives the coolant temperature in degrees F.

49.15 Fuel gauge switch - (17) has two positions enabling the fuel level in the right and left

side tanks to be monitored by means of the single fuel contents gauge.

49.16 Fuel gauge - (18) indicates the amount of fuel remaining in either the left or right fuel tank, as selected by the fuel gauge switch.

49.17 Gun position indicator - (19) indicates to the driver, the position of the gun relative to the vehicle. A similar instrument is located in the turret, adjacent to the commander's position.

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49.18 Panel lights - (13) eleven panel lights are provided to illuminate the instruments. Spare warning light lamps and caps (21) are located towards the rear of the panel.

49.19 Fuses - (20) Four fuses are located in the rear end plate of the panel. For details of the circuits protected by the fuses refer to Chapter 10.

49.20 Spare warning lights - (21) spare warning lamps and lenses are located on the end plate above the fuse holders.

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(4 off)

17

15

14

1 (typical/11 off)

Spare panel lights 9 GB OIL TEMP warning light 16 Coolant temperature gauge
2 Dimmer switch 10 HYST BOOST warning light 17 Fuel gauge switch
3 Periscope washer switch 11 MAIN BEAM warning light 18 Fuel gauge
4 Periscope wiper switch 12 Lighting switches (5 off) 19 Gun position indicator
5 IR Sight switch 13 Panel lights (typical of 11) 20 Fuses (4 off)
6 Alarm reset switch 14 Tachometer 21 Spare warning lights (3 off)
7 Alarm warning light 15 COOLANT LEVEL warning 22 Spare alarm warning light
8 OP BRAKE warning light light
Fig 8 Driver's instrument panel Jun 83

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11

1 (5 off)

UJ597!29

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Driver's Periscopes and Mounting

50 The driver's position is equipped with a single periscope mounting, located to the rear of the access door. The mounting (Fig 9) is designed to accommodate either the periscope AV NO.36 Mk 1

~ for daylight use, or the night vision periscope AVII L 14A 1. .....

51. The periscope mounting is designed to enable the upper window of the sight in use to protrude through an aperture in the glacis plate, protected by an armoured cover (Fig 9(1)). An electrically operated washer system and twin blade wiper is provided to keep the sight window clean. In later vehicles an integral sight window, with its own heating element, is fitted in the armoured cover (1). The electrical heating element is controlled by a switch in the driver's compartment (Fig 7(11)).

Periscope mounting AFV No.6 Mk 1

52. The periscope mounting (Fig 9) is a frame bolted to the glacis plate. The periscope in use is located vertically in the frame and supported by two pawls (3) and a swing bar (7) secured in position by clamp bars (9) and nuts (8).

10

1
1 Cover, external 6 Arm, swing bar
2 Brow pad 7 Swing bar
3 Pawl 8 Clamp nut
4 Pin 9 Clamp bar
5 Index plate 10 Pawl release lever
<r: 2

3

6

Fig 9 Driver's periscope mounting

U 4373/29

53. The movable brow pad (2) is normally in the lower position when the periscope is in use. When removing the periscope from the mounting, the brow pad is moved to the raised position, as illustrated, and held in position by the pin (4) and index plate (5).

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54. The periscope (Fig 10) is primarily intended for day use and consists of an object prism and an ocular prism contained in a casing. A window (1), sealed to prevent the entry of water, protects the object prism. Hinged to the lower casing is a blackout shutter (4), provided to cover the ocular prism to prevent light from inside the vehicle being reflected to the outside. Two screws, painted red, in the lower casing, are sealing screws and must not be interfered with.

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Driver's Periscope AV No.36 Mk 1

1--..

U437J /172

To remove and fit the periscope

55. To remove the periscope:

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1 Window
2 Casing
3 Sealing ring
4 Blackout shutter
5 Ocular prism Fig 10 Periscope driver's AV No 36, Mk 1

55.1 Push the brow pad, (Fig 9(2)), of the mou nti ng, to the left, disengag i ng the pin (4) from the index plate. Move the brow pad to the upper position. The pin will engage the upper hole in the index plate.

55.2 Unscrew the clamp nuts (8) and push the swing bar forward to the horizontal position. The swing bar will be retained in this position by engaging a notch in the swing bar arm (6).

55.3 Support the periscope with the right hand. With the left hand, swing the pawl release lever (10) down to the vertical position, and lower the periscope clear of the mounting.

56. To fit the periscope:

56.1 Check that the sealing ring (Fig 10(3)) around the flange of the periscope is serviceable.

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56.2 With the swing bar (Fig 9(7)) in the forward position and the brow pad (2) in the upper position, insert the periscope into the mounting aperture. Push the periscope upwards until it is supported by the pawls (3).

56.3 Push the swing bar slightly forward, then swing it down. It may be necessary tq lift the arm (6) before the bar can be moved.

56.4 Position the swing bar under the periscope and tighten the clamp nuts (8).

56.5 Lower the brow pad.

Driver's Night Vision Periscope

... 57. The night vision periscope (Fig 11) is a passive night vision instrument designated 'Armoured Vehicle Image Intensified' (AVII) L14A1. The periscope is intended for use during the hours of darkness to enable the vehicle to be driven without artificial light sources. In an emergency the periscope can be used in daylight by reducing the size of the iris (first click setting) and allowing the light entering the instrument to pass through a neutral density filter.

58. Two filters are issued with each periscope. One is a training filter, fitted into a yellow painted mount, used to simulate 'night operation' daylight training. The other is a nuclear flash filter, fitted into an olive painted mount, for protection of the user and periscope image intensifier (II) tube, when this hazard is anticipated. The filters are attached directly over the objective lens by means of toggle catches when in use and stored in individual pouches, when out of use.

59. The image brightness can be adjusted to suit conditions and .the user. An automatic device protects the instrument against excessive brightness but exposure to bright light must be restricted to emergency conditions, as this shortens the life of the II tube.

60. A heating element located on the inner surface of the eyepiece window, when energised from the vehicle electrical supply, prevents misting. A power supply for the periscope is taken from a lead and socket (Fig 12(3)) stowed on a dummy plug above the periscope wiper motor.

Note:

The periscope unit is hermetically sealed and on no account must the red painted screws (Fig 11 (1 )) in the casing be interfered with.

Controls

61. The following controls are used for the periscope and its associated electrical supply.

61.1 Power supply switch - The power supply to the periscope unit is controlled by a switch identified IR SIGHT (Fig 8(5)) located on the driver's instrument panel.

61.2 Power supply plug and socket - A plug (Fig 11 (7)). located on the right of the eyepiece connects the periscope to the vehicle power supply via the socket and lead (Fig 12(3)).

61.3 Image brightness and ON-OFF switch - The control knob (Fig 11 (3)) is provided to switch the periscope on and off and to adjust the image brightness. As the knob is rotated a number of operating positions may be selected, each indicated by a 'click'. Rotating the knob anticlockwise, the first 'click' turns the instrument 'on'. The second 'click' introduces a dark filter and selects an aperture suitable for daylight conditions. Further rotation of the knob progressively opens the iris aperture allowing more light to enter the instrument in poor conditions.

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61.4 Heater ON-OFF switch - Eyepiece heating is controlled by the switch (6) on the right side of .... the periscope. The switch has two positions, the upper position for 'OFF' and the lower for 'ON'.

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3

Desiccator screws
2 Object lens window
3 Control knob
4 Fuse holders
5 Fault indicator light
6 Heater switch
7 Power supply plug
8 Eyepiece .....
7 B

Fig 11 Night vision periscope

61.5 Warning Light - The red warning light (5), located above the eyepiece will glow if a short circuit occurs within the instrument. This indicates that the II tube is operating on a secondary circuit and will do so only for a limited time.

61.6 Circuit protection - Two fuses in holders (4) situated forward of the power supply plug protect the internal circuits of the periscope. Further protection, to the vehicle circuit, is provided by a circuit breaker identified FL located on the hull main junction box.

To Remove and fit the night vision periscope

62. To remove and fit a night vision periscope, proceed as previously described (paragraphs 55 and 56) for the AV No.36 Mk 1 periscope. Before removing or fitting ensure that the periscope power supply switch (Fig 8(5)), the periscope ON/OFF switch (Fig 11(3)) and heater switch (6) are all in the OFF position. Before removing the periscope disconnect the power supply socket from the plug (7). When not in use the power supply socket (Fig 12(3)) must bestowed on the dummy plug provided . ..c:

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Operation

63. To operate the night vision periscope proceed as follows:

~ 63.1 Connect the power supply socket (Fig 12(3)) to the plug on the periscope.

63.2 Turn the control knob (Fig 11 (3)) anti-clockwise until it 'clicks', thus turning the instrument on and selecting the emergency daylight mode.

63.3 In poor lighting conditions, continue to rotate the control knob until acceptable image brightness is achieved. Should illumination increase, and the control not be corrected, the excessive light will cause the picture to turn white and become temporarily unusable. Continued abuse will result in permanent damage.

63.4 If misting of the eyepiece (8) occurs move the heater switch (6) to the ON position.

63.5 Should the red fault indicator warni ng light (5) illuminate, switch off as soon as practicable and REPORT.

63.6 To switch OFF the periscope, turn the control knob (3) fully clockwise.

User Maintenance

64. The periscopes are sealed instruments which must not be stripped or tampered with in excess of the instructions given in the handbook.

Cleaning

65. Clean the periscopes glass surfaces with clean water and dry with a clean soft cloth, kept especially for the purpose. Care must be taken to avoid scratching glass surfaces when cleaning. Do not remove mud or dirt in a dry condition.

Periscope wiper and washer

66. The periscope window is provided with twin wiper blades driven through gearing by an electric motor (Fig 12(6)). located adjacent to the periscope mounting. The drive mechanism incorporates a clutch which automatically disengages if an obstruction causes overloading.

67. A washer unit, comprising a pump (Fig 13(1)). a water tank (3) and jet nozzle (8) enables the window to be washed by a jet of water outside the hull. The water tank is of the flexible type, located on a tray above the right charge bin, to the rear of the driver. The tank is filled via a flexible hose and funnel.

Controls

68. The following controls are used for the wiper and washer systems and thei r associated electrical circuits.

68.1 Wiper motor switches- Two switches control the wiper motor:-

68.1.1 A switch (Fig 8(4)) located on the driver's instrument panel, identified PERI WIPE. The switch has two positions upwards for 'OFF' and downwards for 'ON'.

68.1.2 A push/pull switch (Fig 12 (4)), located on the wi per motor. Pullout to start, push in to stop the wipers.

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1 Periscope clamp screw 2 Wiper, parking lever

3 Socket, power supply, driver's

night vision

4 Wiper ON/OFF switch

5 Plug, power supply, wiper motor 6 Wiper motor

Fig 12 Driver's periscope wlper-motor

68.2 Wiper Parking lever - The lever (Fig 12(2)), to the/left of the wiper motor, is provided to park and to manually operate the wiper blades. When the lever is in the fully forward, parked position, the wiper motor switch (4) is locked in the 'OFF' position.

68.3 Washer ON/OFF Switch - The washer pump/is controlled by a switch, identified PERI WASH (Fig 8(3)), located on the driver's instrument panel. The switch is spring-loaded to a central 'OFF' position and must be held down to activate the washer pump.

68.4 Circuit protection - The electrical circuit to the wipers and washer system is protected by a circuit breaker identified FL located on the main hull junction box.

Operation

69. Before the washer or wiper systems can be operated the battery master switch must be in the 'ON' position.

To operate the washer

70. To operate the washer put the battery master switch to 0[\1.

70.1 Move the washer switch (Fig 8(3)) downwards and hold.

70.2 When washing is complete, release the switch.

To operate the wiper

71. To operate the wiper put the battery master switch to ON.

CAUTION:

The wiper must not be operated if the window is covered with dirt or mud. This must be washed off by operating the washer system.

71.1 Move the parking lever (Fig 12(2)) towards the rear, away from the parked position.

71.2 Put the switch (Fig 8(4)), on the instrument panel down to the 'ON' position.

71.3 Start the wiper by pushing the switch handle (Fig 12(4)) inwards.

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71.4 To stop the wiper, pull the switch handle (4) outwards. Move the parking lever (2) down and forward to the parked position when a positive click should be felt.

User Maintenance

To fill the washer tank

72. To fill the washer tank proceed as follows:

72.1 Unclip the filler funnel and hose (Fig 13(2)) from its stowage clip. Pass the hose through the driver's hatch so that the funnel is above the level of the tank (3).

72.2 Unscrew the filler plug (6) from the funnel (5) and fill the tank with clean water. Check the water level at intervals by observing the level in the filler hose. Care should be taken to ensure that dirt, oil or grease does not enter the tank.

Washer pump

2 Washer tank filler 3 Washer water tank 4 Filler tube

5 Funnel 6 Plug

7 Drinking water tank

8 Washer jet nozzle 9 Tap

10 Draw off hose

Fig 13 Washer and drinking water tanks

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72.3 When the tank is full, screw the filler plug (6) into the funnel and secure the hose (4) in the spring clips.

Note:

During frost precaution periods, use a water/antifreeze solution as laid down in the Maintenance Schedule (Cat 6).

Wi per blades

73. Periodically check the condition of the wiper blades; the rubber blades must be proud of the supporting metal arm. If the blades are badly worn, damage may be caused to the periscope window. Badly worn blades must be reported and replaced.

Drinking water tank

74. A drinking water tank (Fig 13(7)) of the flexible bag type is located on a tray above the left charge bin. The tank is filled by means of a filler hose (4) and funnel (5) permanently attached to the tank top. A screwed plug (6) is fitted to the funnel (5) to prevent spillage. When not in use the filler hose is stowed in a spring clip.

75. Water is drawn off by means of a flexible hose (10) and tap (9). The hose (10) is routed to the rear of the tank (7) and the end, complete with tap, secured in a spring clip until required.

Projectile and stowage racks

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WARNING:

THE PROJECTILE AND STOWAGE RACKS MUST BE LOCKED IN POSITION, EXCEPT WHEN SERVICING THE HULL BATTERIES.

76. Stowage facilities are provided on both sides of the driver's position for personal and vehicle equipment and a small number of projectiles for the main armament.

77. On the left side a projectile rack (Fig 14) is located above the hull batteries. Three cylindrical spaces (3) are provided for projectiles, which are clamped in position by operating the handwheel (1). Towards the rear of the rack is a stowage space (8) for personal items. A tray (2) above the rack is used for periscope stowage.

78. A rack (Fig 15) located above the right side hull batteries is intended for the stowage of rations and equipment as per the approved stowage diagram. A net (2) is used to secure the stowed items. A portable fire extinguisher stowage bracket (9) is fitted to the inner edge of the rack.

79. Both stowage racks (Figs 14 & 15) are provided with quick release securing devices, to enable them to be removed when servicing the batteries.

To remove and refit the left side rack

80. Proceed as follows:-

80.1 Remove any projectiles or stowed items from the rack (Fig 14).

80.2 Remove the quick release pins (4)(7) at the front and rear of the rack.

80.3 Move the rack slightly to the rear to disengage the locating pin (5).

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1 Handwheel

2 Stowage tray (periscope) 3 Projectile stowage

4 Quick release pin 5 Locating pin

6 Batteries

7 Quick release pin

8 General stowage space

Fig 14 Projectile and stowage rack

80.4 Lift the rack from the mounting brackets and remove from the vehicle through the driver's hatch.

80.5 To refit the rack, adopt the reverse procedure. After refitting check that the locating pin (5) is properly engaged in the support bracket, the quick release pins (4)(7) are in place and any projectiles put back in the rack are firmly secured.

Note:

In early vehicles the front mounting is secured by a long threaded pin and not a quick release pin (4).

81. Proceed as follows:-

To remove and refit the right side rack

81.1 Remove the fire extinguisher (Fig 15(9)) and any stowed items from the rack (3).

81.2 Unscrew and remove the long securing bolt (6).

81.3 Move the rack (3) rearwards until the locating pins (5)(11) at both ends become fully disengaged.

81.4 Lift the rack clear of the mounting brackets and remove from the vehicle through the driver's hatch

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1 Forked brackets 2 Net

3 4

5 Locating pin (rear) 6 Securing bolt

7 Support bracket (rear) 8 Batteries

Fig 15 Stowage rack

81.5 To refit the rack - position the rack above and to the rear of its installed position.

9 Fire extinguisher and stowage bracket

10 Support bracket (front) 11 Locating pins (front)

Rack Lug

81.6 Guide the pins (11) on the front end of the rack into the forked brackets (1) and the pin (5) on the underside into the lug (4) of the rear support bracket (7). Move the rack fully forward until the pins are fully engaged.

Driver's compartment ventilation

82. Ventilation air at the driver's position is provided via a fixed diffuser (Fig 16(3»), located above the brake pedal, and adjustable diffusers (1) on the driver's left. Air is supplied to the diffusers by means of ducting, and the rotary base junction, from the NBC and ventilation pack in the turret.

83. The main diffuser box (2) incorporates two swivelling outlets (1) to enable the direction and quantity of air to be adjusted. A respirator connector (6) is located between the diffuser outlets. A blanking cap is provided to cover the connector (6), when not in use.

Drain plug

84. A drai n plug (Fig 19(8» located in the hu II floor, to the left and forward of the d river's seat, can be unscrewed from inside or outside the hull. The drain plug enables the forward portion of the hull, incorporating the driver's and fighting compartments, to be drained of extraneous water.

85. The plug (8) is provided with a hexagonal head or socket which is accessible from the underside of the hull. A tommy bar hole (6) enables the plug shaft to be turned from inside the driver's compartment. When unscrewed the plug is prevented from passing through the drain hole by a retaining disc (5). The disc can be removed if required by removing the screw (4).

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1 Adjustable diffusers 2 Main diffuser box

3 Fixed diffuser 4 Brake pedal

5 Charge bin (left huIJ) 6 Respirator connector

Fig 16 Driver's ventilation

POWER PACK COMPARTMENT Top deck

86. The top deck (Fig 17), covering the power pack compartment, comprises two separate sections, front (12) and rear (21). Hinged louvres or access covers in both portions enable all regular, minor, servicing tasks to be performed with the deck structure in position.

87. Major servicing tasks and repairs require the complete removal of the front and rear decks. To remove the decks (12)(21) requires the use of a suitable crane or lifting appliance but no tools are needed.

Front deck

88. The front deck (12) incorporates six maintenance openings. Four have hinged circular covers, each secured by a simple turnbutton type catch. The four covers give access to the following maintenance items:

88.1 GUE oil filler and dipstick access (14) - also affords access to GUE air cleaner restriction indicator.

88.2 Coolant filler access cover (11) - gives access to the power pack coolant header tank filler cap.

88.3 Fuel solenoid override access cover (15) - enables the override device to be easily accessible in an emergency.

88.4 Main engine oil filler access cover (18) - gives access to the combined dipstick and oil filler.

89. A rectangular cover (13) located on the left forward end of the front deck gives access to the GUE air cleaner. The cover lifts clear of the opening and is secured by two lugs and a single catch.

90. Access to the main engine air cleaner is via the single piece, rectangular cover (19) located adjacent to the air intake grille (20). The cover lifts clear of the opening and is secured by lugs at its forward end and a single catch at the rear.

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Radiator access louvres 8 Air inlet louvres (fixed) 15 Fuel solenoid over-
(hinged) 9 Lifting lugs (rear deck, ride access
2 Rear compartment access front) 16 Lifting lugs
louvres (hinged) 10 Radiator access louvres 17 Ventilation air inlet
3 Louvre catches and (hinged) 18 Main engine oil
securing pins 11 Coolant filler access filler access
4 Deck securing catches and 12 Front deck 19 Main engine air
securing pins 13 GUE air cleaner access cleaner access
5 Lifting lug (rear) 14 GUE oil filler and 20 Main engine air intake
6 Air outlet louvres (fixed) dipstick access grille (hull breathing)
7 Rear compartment access 21 Rear deck
louvres (hinged) Fig 17 Top deck arrangement 91. A small rectangular grille (17) provides an air inlet for powerpack ventilation.

92. Three lifting lugs (16) are provided to enable the deck to be lifted using a three legged sling. The front deck incorporates a portion of the gun depression rail but does not include the main engine air intake grille (20) which is bolted to the hull structure. Five catches (4) are used to secure the complete front deck (12) in position. Each catch (4) handle issecured in the locked position by means of a quick release pin and a fixed stop.

Rear deck

93. The rear deck (21) incorporates the inlet and outlet louvres for cooling air.

94. The forward, outer, louvres (1 )(10) are hinged at their rear edge and open to afford access to the radiators. Four smaller louvres (2)(7) at the rear are hinged to open forwards giving access to the compartment and cooling fans. With each pair, the outer louvre overlaps the inner and is secured by a catch and quick release pin (3).

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95. The front edge of the rear deck (21) is held in position by the overlapping front deck and is secured at the rear by two catches (4). The two catches securing the rear hinged louvres (2) (7) are also utilised to hold down the rear edge of the deck. Three lifting lugs (5)(9) are provided to enable the rear deck to be lifted using a three legged sling.

Removing and replacing the deck

WARNING:

BEFORE LIFTING THE TOP DECKS, CLEAR THE VEHICLE AND WORKING AREA OF ALL PERSONNEL NOT REQUIRED TO ASSIST WITH THE OPERATION. ALL SUCH LIFTING OPERATIONS MUST BE PROPERLY SUPERVISED.

96. To remove and replace the deck sections is a task requiring specialist equipment and will only be carried out by the vehicle crew with REME assistance and supervision.

Removing the decks

97. To remove the decks:

97.1 Traverse the turret gun right, to give the best possible clearance.

97.2 Release all deck securing catches (4) including those securing the rear hinged louvres (2)(7).

97.3 Connect the lifting sling shackles to the front deck lifting lugs (16).

97.4 Stand clear while the front deck is lifted clear and deposited on the ground. Detach the lifting sling shackles from the deck lugs.

97.5 Connect the lifting sling shackles to the rear deck lifting lugs (5)(9).

97.6 Stand clear while the deck is lifted clear and deposited on the ground. Detach the lifting gear.

Replacing the decks

98. To replace the decks:

98.1 Ensure that the personnel, tools and equipment are clear of the compartment.

98.2 Lift the rear deck (21) in position first and then the front deck (12),

98.3 Secure the decks, starting with the forward catches and working to the rear. Ensure that all quick release pins are properly inserted thus securing each catch - see Fig 17 item 4.

Air Intake (main engine)

99. The hull air intake, to the main engine air filter, is protected by an armoured louvre (Fig 17(20» located to the right of the front deck.

100. In order to prevent the ingress of water, into the air cleaner, when washing down, or when the vehicle is out of use, a canvas cover is provided. The cover (Fig 18(2» is attached to the face of the louvres (13) by hooks and buckles.

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Hooks 8 Lugs
2 Air intake cover 9 Exhaust outlet housing
3 Retaining hoops 10 Exhaust cover (secured)
4 Buckles 11 Exhaust outlet (left)
5 Buckle 12 Exhaust outlet (right)
6 Exhaust cover (loose) 13 Air intake louvres
7 Securing strap 14 Later type exhaust outlets Fig 18 Air intake and exhaust outlet covers

To fit the air intake cover

CAUTION:

The cover must be removed before the engine is run with the hull breathing mode selected.

101. To fit the cover proceed as follows:-

101.1 Unroll the cover (Fig 18(2)) and pass it, strap end fi rst, from front to rear, under the retaining hoops (3).

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1 Gearbox boost filter access 2 Gearbox access

3 Main engine oil drain access 4 Screw

5 Retaining disc

6 Tommy bar hole

U4597/35

7 Driver's compartment floor 8 Drain plug, forward hull

9 Coolant drain access

10 GUE oil drain access

11 Fuel (base tank) drain access

Fig 19 Hull floor drain and access plates

101.2 Engage the two eyelets at the forward end over the hooks (1).

101.3 Thread the straps through the buckles (4) and draw the cover tight and flat over the louvres.

Exhaust outlets (main engine)

~ 102. Two mai n eng i ne exhaust outlets (Fig 18( 11) (12)) are located one on each hu II sponson. There are two types of outlets which incorporate vanes to direct the exhaust gases away from the vehicle. The second (later) type of exhaust outlets are shown in Fig 18(14)).

103. Fabric covers (6) are provided to close the earlier type of outlets when the vehicle is out of use or being washed down.

To fix the exhaust outlet covers

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CAUTION

The exhaust outlet covers must be removed before the engine is started.

104. To fit the outlet covers to the earlier type of outlets- position the covers (6) as depicted in (Fig 18). Draw the securing strap (7) through the buckle (5) and tighten so that the edge of the cover

(10) fits tightly around the outlet (9) and the retaining lugs (8). ....

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Hull floor access plates

105. Six openings are provided in the underside of the hull floor (Fig 19) to give access to the powerpack and generating unit engine for maintenance purposes. Each opening is closed by a coverplate, bolted in position, within a protective surround, and sealed by a gasket.

106. The access plates are located in the hull floor as follows:-

106.1 An access plate (Fig 19(2)). at the centre rear, is located beneath the gearbox drain.

106.2 An access plate (1) located on the left, rear of the hull, gives access to the gearbox boost filters. A pin fitted to the plate prevents incorrect location of the plate onthe hull seating.

106.3 An access plate (11) on the left side gives access to the fuel base tank drain.

106.4 An access plate (10) on the left side is located beneath the GUE oil tank drain plug.

106.5 The rectangular access plate (3) gives access to the main engine sump drain plug, oil cooler drain plug and the oil reservoir drain plug.

106.6 The circular access plate (9). to the left of the engine drain plate, gives access to the cooling system drain.

107. When the access cover plates are removed the gaskets must be checked for condition and serviceability before they are refitted. Damaged gaskets must be replaced.

EXTERIOR FITTINGS Skirting plates

108. Four skirting plates (Fig 20(7)) are fitted to each side of the vehicle to afford some ballistic protection to the running gear and suspension. Each plate is secured at the top by bolts and located at the bottom edge by outrigger brackets (9). The securing bolts screw into captive nuts located on the sponson structure. The lower edge of the plates incorporate welded tongues (10) which engage horizontal pins on the outrigger brackets (9).

109. A rectangular opening in the third plate (from the front). on each side, is intended for useasa step to assist access to the top deck.

To remove and replace the skirting plates.

CAUTION:

Do not mix skirting plates with those of other vehicles: they are not interchangeable and must not be modified to fit.

110. When the skirting plates are removed during repair or maintenance tasks they must be replaced in the same position, on the same vehicle. Proceed as follows:-

110.1 Working on one plate at a time: Using a suitable socket spanner and wrench remove the securing bolts (11) at the top of the plate.

110.2 Lift the plates clear of the supporting outrigger brackets (9) and place them to one side.

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11 0.3 Replace the bolts (11) in the captive nuts for safe keeping.

l

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1 Gun depression rail 5 "A" frame leg
2 Gun crutch 6 Towing swivel
3 Lashing eyes 7 Skirting plates
4 Towing beam 8 Lifting eyes 9 Outrigger brackets 10 Tongue

11 Securing bolts

Fig 20 Exterior hull fittings (rear)

110.4 When replacing the skirting plates, adopt the reverse procedure. Do not tighten the securing bolts fully until all plates are in position so that adjustments can be made. Tighten all bolts securely.

Gun depression rail

111. The gun depression rail (Fig 20(1)) prevents accidental damage to the vehicle structure or gun when the gun is traversed to the rear at maximum depression. The rail carries a heavy rubber moulding and extends around the entire rear top deck.

Mirrors

112. Rear view driving mirrors may be fitted, when required, on arms and brackets (Fig 21 (2)) located on both trackguards.

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Stowage

113. Provision is made, on various parts of the hull, to accommodate tools, track spares, jerrycans and other equipment. All such stowage must be carried out according to the stowage diagrams contained in PART 4 of this publication.

Bollard hooks

.114. A pair of bollard hooks, for towing and recovery purposes, is located at the front of the vehicle (Fig 21 (3)) on the toe plate. The hooks pivot on removable 'drop end' pins which are drilled to accept split pins for added security.

lashing eyes

iJ"· WARNING

THE LASHING EYES ARE NOT TO BE USED FOR TOWING.

115. Three lashing eyes are provided to enable the vehicleto be secured during transportation. Two are located high on each side of the rear plate (Fig 20(3)) and a single eye (Fig 21 (4)) is welded at the centre of the front toe plate.

1 Lifting eyes

2 Mirrors and brackets 3 Bollard hooks

4 Lashing eye

5 Spiash rail

3

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Fig 21 Exterior hull fittings (front)

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lifting eyes

116. Four lifting eyes enable the complete vehicle to be lifted when required. Two are positioned at the front of the vehicle (Fig 21 (1)), inboard of the trackguards and two at the rear. The rear lifting eyes (Fig 20(8)) are located beneath the outer, rearmost, opening louvres of the rear deck. The louvres must be opened to give access to the lifting eyes and left open during lifting operations.

Towing equipment

117. The vehicle is equipped with two steel wire tow ropes, carried on either side of the hull, and certain component parts of a rigid, "A" frame, towing attachment.

118. The "A" frame components, a towing beam (Fig 20(4)), one "A" frame leg (5) and a towing swivel (6) are stowed on the rear of the vehicle. The components carried enable any two vehicles to have the necessary parts to make up a rigid "A" frame towing attachment, so that one can tow the other.

119. Because of the overall weight limitations, the towing beam and "A" frame are of light construction and are designed to use only in good conditions. They are NOT to be used for:

119.1 Recovery (unditching or de-bogging).

119.2 Towing long distances across country.

119.3 Towing a tank with a locked or damaged track.

120. Instructions for assembling the "A" frame and towing the vehicle are contained in Chapter 11 -Vehicle Operation.

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Chapter 3 MAIN ENGINE

SUB CHAPTER

3-1 MAIN ENGINE AND POWER PACK INSTALLATION

3-2 MAIN ENGINE LUBRICATING SYSTEM

3-3 MAIN ENGINE INDUCTION AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS

3-4 MAIN ENGINE FUEL, INJECTION SYSTEM

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Chapter 3-1

MAIN ENGINE AND POWER PACK INSTALLATION

CONTENTS

Para

1 General description

4 Main engine

6 Starter motors

7 Main engine control unit

Controls and Instruments

9 Accelerator pedal

12 Main engine switchboard

14 Dual start switch

16 Tachometer

User maintenance

17 Accelerator pedal

18 Power pack identification

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Fig Page

2 3 4 5

Power pack installation .

Power pack, front right .

Power pack, front left .

Accelerator pedal .

Main engine switchboard and dual start switch .

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MAIN ENGINE AND POWER PACK INSTALLATION

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

1. The main engine is combined with the transmission unit and the major cooling system components to form a single power pack unit. The installation of the power pack in the power pack compartment at the rear of the vehicle hull is depicted in Fig 1. The power pack is designed to be easily removed, for repair or replacement, with a minimum of dismantling. When installed in the vehicle, with the top decks in place, only limited access to the power pack is available, mainly to items requiring frequent periodic servicing.

2. Theengine (Fig 1) is located at the front of the powerpack with the transmission unit bolted rigidly to it, with the output muff couplings in alignment with the final drives at the rear of the hull. Above the transmission unit are the radiators (2)(5), charge air coolers and transmission oil coolers (3). To the rear, and beneath, the radiators and coolers are three cooling fans and their associated housings. To the right of the installed powerpack is the main engine air cleaner (17) and on the left the generating unit engine (10).

3. For information appertaining to the cooling system refer to Chapter 4 and for the gearbox and

steer units refer to Chapter 7.

Note:

All instructions for engine starting end operation are contained in Chapter 11 - VEHICLE OPERATION.

Main engine

4. The engine is a twelve cylinder, Vee configuration, liquid cooled, four stroke, compression ignition type designated CV12 TCA. The engine is fitted with two turbo-chargers, charge air coolers and an inlet manifold heater.

5. External views of the engine and associated major components appear in Fig 2 and Fig 3. For convenience the right and left banks of cylinders, facing forward, are designated "A bank" and "8 bank" respectively. The engine lubrication system, induction and exhaust systems and the fuel injection system are covered in the subsequent sub-chapters 3-2,3-3 and 3-4.

Starter motors

6. The engine is started by means of twin electric starter motors. One starter motor is located on each side of the engine. The starter motors are operated by a push button switch on the main engine switchboard. A separately mounted dual start selector switch enables a faulty motor to be isolated if necessary.

Main engine control unit (MECU)

7. All primary engine functions, governing speed, fuel metering and inlet manifold heating are controlled electronically. The electronic circuits controlling these functions are housed within the main engine control unit (MECU) which is located on the fighting compartment side of the power pack/fighting compartment bulkhead.

8. The MECU controls the fuel injection system, governor and inlet manifold heater, in relation to information fed into the unit from the accelerator pedal mechanism, the gearbox controller and sensors monitori ng engine speed, engine boost pressure and various engine temperatures. There are no mechanical controls relating to the main engine.

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1 Thermostat housing (right) 7 Turbo-charger (left)
2 Radiator (right) B Exhaust ejector (left)
3 Change air and transmission 9 Coolant header tank
oil coolers 10 Generating unit engine
4 Inlet manifold heater 11 Fuel filters
5 Radiator (left) 12 Engine "8" bank
6 Thermostat housing (left) 13 Oil filters
Fig 1 Power pack installation 14 Fuel injection pump 15 Engine "An bank

16 Oil filler and dipstick

17 Main engine air cleaner 1 B Air intake

19 Exhaust ejector (right) 20 Turbo-charger (right)

CONTROLS AND INSTRUMENTS Accelerator Pedal

9. The accelerator pedal (Fig 4) is linked electrically to the main engine control unit (MECU) and transmits speed demand signals to the MECU to increase or decrease the engine speed within the range of 600-1200 rev/min. Engine speeds above 1200 rev/min are controlled by the electronic governor and are related to the load on the engine and accelerator pedal demand.

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4

1 Thermostat housing (right) 6 Generator 10 Muff coupling (right)
2 Dust extraction duct 7 Transmission oil heat 11 Guide block
3 Turbo-charger (right) exchanger 12 Brake actuator
4 Air inlet 8 Transmission unit 13 Fan frame
5 Engine "A" bank 9 Rear mounting
Fig 2 Power pack, front right 10. The pedal coverplate (1) can be.rernoved for servicing. Pedal movement is limited by the stop nut (5), the setting of this nut must not be tampered with.

11. The progressive depression of the pedal increases engine speed, releasing the pedal decreases speed.

Main engine switchboard

12. The following main engine controls and warning lights are located on the main engine switchboard (Fig 5):-

12.1 Reset switch - (1) is provided to reset the main engine generator control circuits. The switch is spring-loaded to retu rn to the centre position when released from the RESET position. Refer to Chapter 10 - Electrical system for a full description.

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12.2 FP and FCOS switch - (2) controls the main engine fuel pump and the fuel cut-off valve.

12.3 MECU and GB switch - (3) activates the main engine control unit and the gearbox controller. The switch has two positions and is moved down for ON.

12.4 W/L switch - (4) controls the following circuits:-

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Oil and fuel filters 6 Radiator (left) 12 Coolant pump
2 Fuel injection pump 7 Turbo-charger (left) 13 Inlet manifold heater
3 Radiator (right) 8 Muff coupling (left) fuel/air pump
4 Inlet manifold heater 9 Dust extraction duct 14 Engine oil heat exchanger
5 Transmission oil and air 10 Transmission oil filters 15 Engine "B" bank
charge coolers 11 Coolant header tank 16 Front mounting Fig 3 Power pack, front left

12.4.1 Main engine starter circuit, thus preventing the engine being started until the warning lights are in operation.

12.4.2 Driver's instrument panel warning lights - GB oil temp: coolant level: HYST BOOST: OP BRAKE.

12.4.3 Main engine switchboard, oil pressure warning light (9).

12.5 IMH auto switch - (5) controls the inlet manifold heater.

12.6 Generator warning light - (7) Fitted with a red lens - is illuminated when the MECU GB switch (3) is in the ON position, and is extinguished when the engine is started and the main engine generator comes "on line". The light illuminates if a main engine generator fault occurs while the engine is running.

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12.7 Starter switch - (8) is a push button switch for starting the main engine.

12.8 Oil pressure warning light - (9) fitted with an amber lens illuminates to give warning of main engine oil pressure dropping to a dangerously low level.

Pedal coverplate

2 Coverplate securing screws 3 Linkage

4 Transducer 5 Stop nut

Fig 4 Accelerator pedal

13. Where necessary, a complete description of the preceding switchboard controls is included with the relevant system chapter or sub-chapter.

Dual start switch

14. The dual start switch (Fig 5 (6)) is located adjacent to the main engine switchboard. The switch has three positions and is spring-loaded to the centre. I n the central position both main engine starter motors operate simultaneously when the starter button (8) is pressed.

15. If a fault occurs in one starter motor, the defective motor can be isolated by moving the switch (6) to either the "A" or "8" position, thus enabling the serviceable motor to be operated independently.

Tachometer

16. The tachometer is located on the driver's instrument panel. The instrument indicates figures which, when multiplied by 100, give the main engine crankshaft speed in revolutions per minute. The tachometer dial is illuminated by two internal lamps.

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Reset switch (Generator)
2 Fuel pump and fuel cut-off
switch (FP & FCOS)
3 Main engine control unit and
gearbox controller switch
(MECU & GB)
4 Warning light switch (WIL)
5 Inlet manifold heater switch
(IMH AUTO)
6 Dual start switch
7 Main engine generator
warning light
8 Starter switch
9 Low oil pressure
warning light Fig 5 Main engine switchboard and dual start switch

USER MAINTENANCE Accelerator pedal

17. Lubricate the accelerator pedal linkage as follows:

17.2 Lubricate, with an oil can, the linkage clevis pins (3).

17.1 Unscrew the cover plate securing screws (Fig 4(2)) and remove the coverplate (1).

17.3 Refit the coverplate (1) .

.. 18. Power pack identification

18.1 To assist in equipment management Challenger power packs are identified by the letters 'PP' followed by a three digit number. These markings are stamped on top of the coding frame at the rear left-hand side.

maintenance is required.

18.2 To avoid over maintenance check power pack identification number to ensure that

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Chapter 3-2

MAIN ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM

CONTENTS

Para

1 General description

3 Reservoir and filler

4 Oil pumps

5 Heat exchanger

6 Filters and pressure relief valve

Instruments

8 Low oil pressure warning light

9 Alarm warning light

User maintenance

10 To check the main engine oil level

11 To change the main engine oil filters (Caution)

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Fig Page

1 2 3 4 5

Main engine lubrication diagram .

Low oil pressure warning light (ME Switchboard) .

Oil filler and dipstick .

Main engine oil and coolant drain plugs .

Main engine oil filters .

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1

MAIN ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

1. The main engine lubrication system operates on the dry sump principle with oil pressure fed to the crankshaft, camshaft, idler gear bearings, turbo-chargers and fuel injection pump. All lubrication system components are located on, or within the engine. The system is designed to ensure that the engine is adequately lubricated irrespective of the attitude of the vehicle during normal military operations.

2. The system comprises an oil reservoir, scavenge and pressure oil pumps, filters, pressure relief valve and a heat exchanger (cooler). The total capacity of the lubrication system is 91 litres (20 gallons), including the oil reservoir capacity of 55 litres (11.45 gallons). A breather for the system is located atthe rearof "A" bank, beneath the turbo-charger. The block diagram depicted in Fig 1 shows the flow of oil in the lubrication system

Resenfoir and filler

3. The oil reservoir is located on the lower right side of the engine immediately adjacent to the sump. Internal passages between the sump and reservoir accommodate the flow of oil between the sump, oil pumps and reservoir. An extension bolted to the reservoir incorporates a filler and dipstick. The dipstick is located within the filler, beneath the cap. The filler cap is accessible through a circular hinged cover in the front, top deck. Water and spilt oil are allowed to drain to the hull, by way of a collecting channel and pipe located around the filler.

Oil pumps

4. Three oil pumps are located within the engine sump, at the front of the engine, driven by gears from the crankshaft. Two pumps scavenge oil from the sump and return it to the reservoir and one provides oil at pressure to the various moving parts.

~ Heat exchanger

5. Oil passing from the oil pump to the engine components, via the filters, is cooled by a twin element heat exchanger mounted on the left side of the sump. Coolant circulated by the cooling system, acts as the cooling medium and passes through both heat exchanger elements.

Filters and pressure relief valve

6. Four disposable canister type oil filters are located at the front of the engine, to the right of three similar fuel filters. All oil under pressure from the oil cooler, to the engine moving parts, passes through the filters. Each canister element incorporates a valve which allows oil to bypass the element should it become clogged.

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7. Mounted beneath the filter block is the pressure relief valve. The valve is located in a housing bolted to the front of the engine and is designed to prevent oil pressure in the system exceeding 4 bars (58 Ibf/sq in).

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OIL FILTERS (4)

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Filtered oil at pressure.

~;~tw~ Return from relief valve.

_ Unfiltered oil at pump pressure.

Return to reservoir via sump.

- - - - - - --
SUMP
- - - -
~ ,. ~ ,

SCAV SCAV PRESS A
PUMP PUMP PUMP
~
~ , ~ , fa!..
II"'"" • FUEL
B I INJECTION A
BANK ~ PUMP BANK
...oIlIII I h.
~ lIP"
.4 ~ .4 ~
~ TURBO ., , TURBO ~
CHARGER CHARGER -,

,

,

.. ,',

M.E.HEAT

EXCHANGER

OIL RESERVOIR

Fig 1 Main engine lubrication diagram

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U4597/50A

Part 1 Chap 3-2 Page 3

----------------------------------~--

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INSTRUMENTS

Low oil pressure warning light

8. A warning light (Fig 2(2)) fitted with an amber lens - illuminates to give warning when engine oil pressure falls to a dangerously low level. During engine starting, the light will illuminate when the W/L switch (1) is put to ON and go out when the engine has been rotated and oil pressure has built up to an acceptable level. The light will only operate when the hull battery master switch is ON.

~ Note

The low pressure warning light also serves as a 'press to test' switch for checking bulb and circuit

continuity. .....

1

2

_MAIN

1 Warning light switch

2 Low oil pressure warning light

Fig 2 Low oil pressure warning light (ME Switchboard)

U4597/54

Alarm warning light

9. When the main engine low oil pressure warning light (Fig 2(2)) is illuminated the alarm warning lights on the driver's instrument panel and in front of the driverwill also be activated. Fordetails of the systems protected by the alarm warning light and its operation refer to Chapter 10.

USER MAINTENANCE

To check the main engine oil level

10. Proceed as follows:

10.1 Position the vehicle on level ground.

10.2 Open the access cover (Fig 3(1)). Open the filler cap (3) by depressing the tee handle (2) and turning it through 90 degrees anti-clockwise before lifting it out.

10.3 Withdraw the dipstick (4). wipe it re-insert it, ensuring that it is fully inserted then withdraw it and check the reading. The level should be between the high (H) and low (L) marks. If the level is below the low mark, top up to the low mark.

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10.4 Replace the dipstick (4) and filler cap (3).

10.5 Run the engine at 800-1000 rev/min for five minutes. Stop the engine and wait ten minutes.

10.6 Recheck the oil level. If below the high mark, add oil to bring the level up to the high mark. The distance between the high and low marks represents a quantity of 231itres (5 gallons).

10.7 Check that the dipstick is properly positioned. Replace the filler cap, ensuring that the pins on the centre spindle locate in the socket (5), depress the handle (2) and turn it through 90 degrees clockwise, then release. Close the access cover and secure it with the catch.

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Note:

In later vehicles a modified oil filler cap (3) may be used which has an expanding portion in place of the bayonet socket (5).

Access cover 2 Tee handle

3 Filler cap 4 Dipstick

5 Socket

Fig 3 Oil filler and dipstick

The main engine canister type filters are particularly vulnerable to damage. An indentation of 3 mm (Ys inch) on the top of the canister could render the by-pass valve inoperative allowing

unfiltered oil to by-pass the filter. ,.

To change the main engine oil and filters

~ CAUTION

11. This task should be carried out with the top decks removed. The vehicle should be on level ground and with the oil hot, soon after the engine has been running.

11.1 Open the oil filler cap (Fig 5(6)).

11.2 Remove the engine oil drain access cover (Chapter 2 - Fig 19(3)) exposing the three oil drain plugs (Fig 4).

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11.3 Position a suitable container beneath the drain plugs.

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11.4 Unscrew and remove the reservoir drain plug (Fig 4(4)); when flow ceases, remove the sump drain plug (3); when flow ceases, remove the oil cooler drain plug (2) to drain the remaining oil.

11.5 Refit and tighten all three drain plugs, after checking that they are serviceable.

11.6 Remove the four filter canisters (Fig 5(4)), on the right of the bank of seven at the front of the power pack. Unscrew each filter, keeping it upright to avoid spillage, and discard. Remove

and discard the unserviceable ring seal (3). .....

Note

Use a filter removal tool if the filters cannot be unscrewed by hand.

VEHICLE REAR

1 Coolant drain plug

2 Oil cooler drain plug

Part 1 Chap 3-2 Page 6

3 Sump drain plug

4 Reservoir drain plug

Fig 4 Main engine oil and coolant drain plugs

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.. 11.7 Check that the sealing faces (1) are clean.

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11.8 Lightly smear the new canister seal (3) with engine oil before screwing the new filters into place. Screw each filter down until the seal (3) just contacts the sealing face, then tighten a further three-quarters of a turn by hand. DO NOT OVER TIGHTEN.

11.9 Refill the reservoir to the high mark (H) on the dipstick. Replace the filler cap.

11.10 With the MECU switch in the off position, crank the main engine for periods of 10 to 15 seconds followed by a pause of 10 to 15 seconds, to allow the starters and batteries to recover. Crank until the main engine oil pressure warning light goes out.

1 Sealing faces
2 Screw thread
3 Canister seal
4 Filter canisters
5 Filler cap 11.11 Run the engine 800-1000 rev/min for five minutes. Stop the engine, check for leaks, and wait ten minutes. Top up the reservoir as necessary - to the high mark on the dipstick.

11.12 Refit the hull floor access plate after checking that the gasket and bolts are in good

condition. .....

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Fig 5 Main engine oil filters

5

U4597!52

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Chapter 3-3

MAIN ENGINE INDUCTION AND EXHAUST SYSTEM

CONTENTS

Para

1 General description

4 Air inlet and valve

5 Air cleaner

7 Turbo chargers

9 Charge air coolers

10 Inlet manifold heater (Warning)

12 Exhaust system and dust extractors

Controls and Operation

14 Air inlet valve (Warning)

18 Main engine air cleaner restriction indicator

20 Inlet manifold heater switch

User maintenance

22 To clean or change the air cleaner element

23 Exhaust ejector drain pipes

Induction and exhaust system, schematic layout .

Air inlet valve .

2 5 6 6 7

2 3 4 5

Air cleaner restriction indicator IMH switch - ME switchboard

To remove the Main engine air cleaner element

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INDUCTION AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS'

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

1. The main engine air induction and exhaust systems are closely related and interdependant. The induction system ensures that sufficient quantities of filtered air, at the appropriate pressures and temperatures for combustion, are provided for the engine under all running and starting conditions.

2. Air for' engine breathing is drawn into the induction system either through the fighting compartment or through louvres in the top deck, as desired. The principle components of the induction system are, an aircleaner, air inlet valve, a pair of turbochargers, charge air coolers and an inlet manifold heater. A schematic layout of the induction and exhaust systems is shown in Fig 1.

3. The exhaust gases from the main engine are utilised to drive the turbines of the turbochargers

and, by means of dust extractors, scavenge the main air cleaner.

12

Wii. Air ~_ Exhaust

U4597!44

Exhaust ejector 5 Inlet manifold heater 9 Inlet manifolds
2 Turbochargers 6 Exhaust ejector 10 Air inlet valve
3 Charge air coolers 7 Dust extraction duct 11 Air cleaner
4 Transmission oil coolers 8 Exhaust manifolds (one 12 Armoured louvres
bank only shown) Fig 1 Induction and exhaust systems, schematic layout

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Air inlet and valve

4. Airentering the induction system does so via armoured louvres Fig 1 (12)) above the aircleaneror through the fighting compartment, by way of an opening in the rear bulkhead. A manually operated valve (10) in the bulkhead enables the fighting compartment inlet to be closed when the vehicle is operated closed down. A flexible fabric cover is used to close the hull louvres (12) when required (referto Chapter2 paragraph 101). Both intakes form part of an integral duct, built into the front, right side, of the power pack compartment leading to the air cleaner.

Air cleaner

5. All air entering the main engine induction system passes through a two stage air cleaner (11). Large dust particles are removed by the first stage of the cleaner which comprises a bank of cyclone tubes and vanes. Dust removed by the first stage falls to a hopper at the bottom of the air cleaner and is removed by the dust extractors.

6. The air cleaner second stage is a removable rectangular filter element. The element is constructed of layers of synthetic felt contained by a metal frame with mesh sides. For cleaning purposes the element may be withdrawn from the air cleaner, vertically through an access cover in the top deck armour. A restriction indicator, located in the driver's compartment, is connected by a pipe to the air cleaner second stage casing.

Turbochargers

7. Two turbochargers (2), one for each bank of engine cylinders, draw air from theaircleaner and compress it before it enters the inlet manifolds. Each turbocharger comprises a turbine rotor and compressor rotor mounted on a common shaft. The turbine is driven by the engine exhaust gases, from its associated exhaust manifold, thus causing the compressor rotor also to rotate.

8. The turbocharger rotors revolve at very high speeds and operate at high temperatures. The

bearings within each unit are lubricated from the main engine lubrication system.

Note:

The turbochargers are easily subject to damage if the engine operating procedures ere not closely followed, the engine MUST be at idling speed when switching off. Misuse can result in the rotors running on at high speed after the engine has stopped, with insufficient lubrication, thus causing serious damage to the bearings.

Charge air coolers

9. Air under pressure from the turbochargers passes through a charge air cooler (3) on route to the inlet manifolds. The cooler comprises two heat exchanging elements, each accepting air from its respective turbocharger, with a common divided outlet. Each element is located beneath a portion of the transmission oil cooler and incorporates air passages and cooling surfaces through which the combustion air passes. Cooling air is drawn, by the cooling fans, down through the deck louvres, through the oil cooler and charge air coolers. In this way the temperature of the combustion air from the turbochargers is reduced before entering the inlet manifolds.

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Inlet manifold heater

WARNING:

THE INLET MANIFOLD HEATER SYSTEM HAS A HIGH ENERGY IGNITER WHICH PRODUCES VOLTAGES WHICH CAN BE LETHAL. DO NOT TAMPER WITH THIS EQUIPMENT.

10. In order to assist with engine starting from cold and to provide some automatic control of the emission of white smoke, an inlet manifold heater (5) is incorporated in the induction system. The inlet manifold heater (IMH) (5) is located in the air passage between the charge air coolers and the inlet manifolds.

11. The IMH incorporates a burner nozzle which is supplied with accurately metered quantities of fuel and air by an electrically operated pump unit mounted on the engine. When in operation, the burner is ignited by a high energy electrical igniter. The operation of the IMH is controlled automatically by the Main Engine Control Unit (MECU) acting on information provided by the

. manifold boost pressure and various engine temperature sensors. A switch located on the Main engine switchboard may be used to isolate the IMH when not required.

Exhaust system and dust extractors

12. Exhaust gases from the exhaust manifolds of the engine pass, via the turbochargers, to atmosphere through trunking and louvres on each side of the hull. Immediately prior to passing through the hull wall the gases pass through exhaust ejectors (1 )(6) which incorporate dust extractors. A drain pipe fitted to each ejector enables water entering the outlet louvres to escape into the hull.

13. Within each exhaust ejector is an integral nozzle and venturi. The passing exhaust gases create a vacuum in the outer portion of the ejector which is utilised to scavenge dust from the air cleaner. Both exhaust ejectors (1 )(6) are connected by a common duct (7) to the dust hopper at the bottom of the air cleaner.

CONTROLS AND OPERATION Air inlet valve

WARNING

BEFORE THE ACCESS DOORS ARE CLOSED, THE AIR INLET VALVE MUST BE CLOSED TO PREVENT THE ENGINE DRAWING AIR THROUGH THE FIGHTING COMPARTMENT. FAILURE TO DO SO MAY CAUSE INJURY TO EARDRUMS AND ACCESS DOORS TO CLOSE VIOLENTLY WITH A GUILLOTINE ACTION.

14. The air inlet valve depicted in Fig 2 is located to the right side of the fighting compartment bulkhead. The valve MUST BE CLOSED whenever the vehicle is operated with the access doors closed - thus preventing the engine drawing its induction air through the interior of the fighting compartment and turret.

15. For normal running, with the vehicle in operation "opened up", the valve will be in the OPEN position. In this condition it must be noted that the engine will still draw air through the rear deck louvres unless the fabric cover (Chapter 2 - paragraph 101) is fitted. The cover MUST be removed before the valve is closed, with the engine running.

16. To open the valve

16.1 Release the locking catch (Fig 2(4)).

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1 Valve flap

2 Fire alarm test box 3 Grille

4 Locking catch

5 Operating handle

Fig 2 Air inlet valve

U4597!46

17. To close the valve

16.2 Push the handle (5) towards the grille (3) to its full extent to fully open the valve flap.

17.1 Pull the handle (5) until the valve flap (1) is seen to close fully.

17.2 Engage the locking catch (4) and move it to the horizontal position.

Main engine air cleaner restriction indicator

18. A restriction indicator (Fig 3), located above the speedometer, gives visual warning should the air cleaner become clogged, by displaying a red signal in the indicator window (3). When the air cleaner is operating correctly, the indicator will show a clear window.

19. To reset the indicator, press the reset button (2) in the end of the unit.

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Speedometer 2 Reset button 3 Window

4 Instruction labe!

Fig 3 Air cleaner restriction indicator

Inlet Manifold Heater switch

20. The Inlet Manifold heater switch (Fig 4(1)) is located on the main engineswitchboard and has two positions annotated OFF and IMH AUTO. In the OFF position the IMH will not operate under any circumstances. With the switch in the, lower, IMH AUTO position the IMH will operate entirely automatically according to climatic and engine operating conditions.

21. The use of the switch during engine starting and operating is described in Chapter 11 - VEHICLE OPERATION.

USER MAINTENANCE

To clean or change the air cleaner element

22. Proceed as follows:-

22.1 Traverse the turret to give maximum access to the air cleaner access cover (Fig 5(1 )).

22.2 Turn the securing catch and remove the cover (1).

1

- MAIN J) ENGINf ~

Inlet manifold heater switch (lMH AUTO)

Fig 4 IMH switch - ME switchboard .....

rCl Oil PRESSURE

REVERS-€. lHIS PlAH fOR G£,..fIl:ATOR ENGII'-E

GENERATOR 0

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1 Access cover 5 Dee rings
2 Handnuts 6 Air cleaner outlet casing
3 Clamp bolt tee heads 7 Element
4 Projections 8 Air flow direction arrow Fig 5 To remove the Main engine air cleaner eler,nent

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22.3 Clean the top of the air cleaner casing, slacken tile elo"'-r;pr,,:!arnp handnuts (2) and disengage the tee heads of the clamp bolts (3).

22.4 Separate the air cleaner outlet casing (6) sufficiently to enable the projections (4) on the element to pass clear, when the element is lifted out.

22.5 Lift out the filter element (7), using the "D" rings (5) and keeping the element as square as possible.

22.6 Lay the element horizontal with the air flow direction arrow (8) pointing upwards (ie dirty side down), then rock the element gently to dislodge the dust. Care must be taken not to damage .... the upper panel face, as this forms a seal in the air cleaner.

22.7 Check the condition of the seal and the cleanliness of the air cleaner casing and 1 st stage elements - remove any dirt that is present and accessible.

22.8 Refit the filter element (7), with the instruction plate uppermost and flow direction arrow (8) pointing towards the engine.

22.9 Draw the air cleaner outlet casing (6) towards the element (7) and engage the clamp bolt heads (3) in their seats. Tighten the clamp nuts (2) evenly and firmly. DO NOT OVERTIGHTEN.

22.10 Replace the air cleaner access cover and secure using the catch.

Exhaust ejector drain pipes

23. When the power pack is removed, for any repair or maintenance task, check that the exhaust ejector drain pipes are clear. The pipes are not accessible with the power pack in position.

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Chapter 3-4

MAIN ENGINE FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM

CONTENTS

Para

1 General description

3 Fuel injection pump

6 Governor

9 Fuel cut-off valve

12 Filters

Controls and Instruments

14 FP and FCOS switch

16 Fuel cut-off valve manual override (Warning)

User maintenance

17 To change the fuel filters (Warning)

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Fig Page

1 2 3

Fuel injection system .

FP and FCOS switch - ME switchboard .

Main engine fuel filters

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Page 1

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MAIN ENGINE FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

1. The main engine fuel injection system (Fig 1) comprises, twelve injectors (one per cylinder), a fuel injection pump and governor, a fuel cut-off valve and a bank of fuel filters. The system is supplied with fuel from the vehicle tanks by the system, described in Chapter 5, which also provides fuel to the GUE.

2. Filtered fuel is supplied by the bank of three filter elements to the fuel injection pump and also the

inlet manifold heater fuel pump.

1 Governor 2 Clip

3 Fuel cut-off valve

4 Fuel injection pump (FIP) 5 Injectors

6 Filtered fuel to FIP and cut-off valve

7 Filtered fuel to inlet manifold heater

8 Spill return line from FIP and injectors

9 Spill return line from
inlet manifold heater
10 Unfiltered fuel from tanks
11 Filter manifold
12 Filters
13 Spill return pipes
14 Fuel cut-off valve stem ..... Fig 1 Fuel injection system

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Fuel injection pump

3. The fuel injection pump (FIP) (4) is located centrally between the two banks of cylinders and is driven by a gear train from the rear of the engine. The pump is of the "in-line" plunger type having twelve plungers, supplying an accurately metered quantity of fuel to each injector.

4. The pump is pressure lubricated from the engine lubrication system.

5. Fuel is supplied to the fuel injection pump, from the filter bank on the continuous circulating

principle, with unwanted fuel returning to the tanks via a spill return.

Governor

6. The operation of the fuel injection pump is controlled by the electronic governor (1) located at the forward end of the unit. The governor incorporates an electronically controlled actuator which is connected mechanically to the fuel control mechanism of the pump.

7. Two engine speeds are maintained automatically by the governor, via the F.I.P., the maximum full load speed and the idling speed. The speed range in between these parameters is controlled by signals from the MECU and is dependant on the input from various sensors and the position of the accelerator pedal.

8. A sensor is also incorporated within the governor to sense the rotational speed of the fuel pump

camshaft, and hence engine speed. Signals from this sensor are transmitted back to the MECU.

Fuel cut-off valve

9. All fuel entering the fuel injection pump passes through a solenoid operated cut-off valve. The valve (3) opens when the electrical solenoid is energised and is spring-loaded to the closed position.

10. The valve is energised when the switch marked FP & FCOS is put to the "ON" position, thus starti ng the fuel lift pu m ps and allowi ng fuel to enter the F.I. P. When the switch is put to "OFF", or if an electrical failure occurs, the cut-off valve will close, interrupting the flow of fuel.

11. In an emergency the cut-off valve can be opened manually and retained open by a spring clip provided (2).

Filters

12. A ban k of th ree fi Iters (12) of the disposable can ister type, is located at the front of the eng i ne, to the left of four similar oil filters. All fuel passing to the fuel injection pump (4) and inlet manifold heater system is routed through the filter elements.

13. The filters are mounted on a common manifold which incorporates all of the necessary connections with the vehicle fuel system, the fuel injection system and the inlet manifold heater.

CONTROLS AND INSTRUMENTS FP & FCOS switch

14. The fuel cut-off valve is controlled by a switch (Fig 2 (1)) designated FP & FCOS, located on the main engine switchboard. The valve solenoid is energised, allowing fuel to flow to the fuel injection pump, when the switch is put down to the ON position.

15. The switch also controls main engine fuel system fuel lift pump.

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Fuel cut-off valve manual override

WARNING:

THE TURRET EMERGENCY ENGINE STOP SWITCHES Will NOT FUNCTION WITH THE FUEL CUT-OFF VALVE SOLENOID OVER-RIDDEN.

16. I n the event of a failure of the valve solenoid or its associated electrical circuit the fuel cut-off valve may be opened manually as follows:-

16.1 Open the circular access cover, located in the centre of the front, top, deck. Refer to Chapter 2 - Fig 17.

16.2 Raise the valve stem (Fig 1 (14)), by grasping the knob.

16.3 Insert the clip (2) under the knob (as shown).

Fuel pump and fuel cut-off solenoid switch

(FP & FCOS)

ill OIL PRESSURE

REVERSE THIS rLATE fOR GEMR .... TOR Er-;GI~~

GENERATOR 0

Fig 2 FP & FCOS switch - ME switchboard

Notes:

(1) The override clip is attached to the valve body by a wire strop to prevent loss.

(2) The override clip must be removed, once the emergency is resolved or, to stop the engine ......

USER MAINTENANCE

WARNING:

WHEN WORKING ON THE FUEL SYSTEM All SWITCHES MUST BE IN THEIR OFF POSITIONS AND HATCHES OPENED TO DISPERSE FUMES. All NECESSARY FIRE PRECAUTIONS MUST BE STRICTLY APPLIED.

To change the fuel filters

"17. This task should be carried out with the top decks removed. The hull battery master switch and

all switches on the main engine switchboard must be in the OFF position. .....

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1 Sealing faces 2 Screw thread 3 Canister seal 4 Seal

5 Filter canisters

Fig 3 Main engine fuel filters

UJS97!SS

17.1 Remove the th ree fi Iter can isters (Fig 3(5)), on the left of the bank of seven at the front of the power pack. Unscrew each filter, keeping it upright to avoid spillage, and discard. Remove and discard the seal (4).

Note

Use a filter removal tool if the filters cannot be unscrewed by hand.

17.2 Check that the sealing faces (1) are clean and fit a new seal (4) on each centre spigot.

"17.3 Lightly smear the new canister seal (3) with fuel oil before screwing the new filters into .... place. Screw each filter down until the seal (3) just contacts the sealing face, then tighten a further three-quarters of a turn by hand. DO NOT OVER TIGHTEN.

17.4 Put the hull battery master switch (BMS) and the FP & FCOS switch to ON. This will start the fuel pump, open the fuel cut-off valve, and prime the system.

17.5 Check for fuel leaks.

17.6 Put the BMS and FP & FCOS switches to OFF.

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Chapter 4 COOLING SYSTEM

CONTENTS

Para
1 General description
9 Radiators
12 Thermostats
13 Coolant pumps
14 Header tank
15 Heat exchangers
16 Main cooling fans
19 Auxiliary fan
Controls and instruments
21 Coolant temperature gauge
23 Coolant level warning light
24 Alarm warning light
User maintenance
25 To raise and lower the radiators
26 To raise a radiator (Warning)
27 To lower a radiator
28 To check coolant level (Warning)
~ 29 To drain the system (Warning)
33 To refill the system (Warning)
34 To fill main engine system
35 To bleed the main engine system
36 To fill and bleed the generating unit engine
41 To lubricate the fan drive shaft
42 To check the fan belts
44 Radiators
Fig 2 3 4 5 6

Cooling system (diagrammatic) .

Layout of cooling fans and drives .

Cooling system instruments - driver's instrument panel .

Radiator (left) and auxiliary fan .

Header tank, filler and bleed points .

Main engine oil and coolant drain plugs .

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3 4 5 7 9

13/14

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COOLING SYSTEM

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

1. Excess heat generated by the main engine, transmission and generating unit engine (GUE) is dissipated by means of a liquid/air transfer cooling system. The primary, liquid, cooling system shown in Fig 1 is common to the main engine and the generating unit engine. A secondary means of heat dissipation is provided by a flow of air passing through two radiators. This airflow is generated by three engine driven fans located at the rear of the powerpack.

2. The liquid cooling system has a capacity of 136.5 litres (30 gallons) of water/antifreeze

.. mixture. The system incorporates a coolant pump (Fig 1 (8)), header/expansion tank (7), two' radiators (5) and two heat exchangers, for the engine oil (11) and transmission oil (3). Coolant is circulated by the pump (8) through the two heat exchangers, for the engine oil (11) and transmission oil (3), through the water jackets of the engine cylinder banks (1) and on to the radiators (5) before returning to the pump intake. The system is pressurised to a maximum of 1.03 bar (15Ibf/sq in) at

operating temperature. ......

3. Two thermostats (6) incorporated in the system close when the system is cold, preventing full circulation of the coolant until normal operati ng temperature is reached. Bypass ports adjacent to the thermostats provide only a limited passage for the coolant, thus ensuring a quick warm up.

4. The generating unit engine (GUE) cooling system is connected into the powerpack cooling system by means of two self sealing, quick disconnect, couplings (9)(10). This enables the main powerpack or GU E to be discon nected and/or removed without the loss of coolant or the need to drain the systems.

5. Provision is made to drain the system by means of a threaded plug located at the lowest point in the system, beneath the main engine oil heat exchanger. A removable circular access plate, accessible from under the vehicle, is provided in the hull floor beneath the plug .

.. 6. The liquid cooling system is designed to be self venting, with a number of vent pipes permanently

connected from various parts of the system to the header/expansion tank. Vent screws are provided in the system to assist in removing air locks, particularly when refilling the system. They are fitted to both radiators, the main engine thermostat housings, the GUE thermostat housing and the GUE return pipe.-oC

7. In order to provide some cooling air flow, when only the GUE is running, a small auxiliary fan is

located beneath the left radiator. The fan is driven direct from the GUE via a flexible shaft.

8. A temperature sensor located to the rem of the engine 'B' bank is connected to a temperature gauge on the driver's instrument panel. A sender unit mounted within the header tank operates a warning light on the instrument panel if coolant level falls to an unacceptable level.

Radiators

9. The cooli ng system radiators (Fig 1 (5)) are located horizontally above the rear of the powerpack and immediately beneath the forward hinged louvres of the rear deck. Each radiator is mounted on trunnions which enable it to be raised to the vertical position, to give access to the powerpack compartment for maintenance purposes. Coolant passages pass through the trunnions and are not disturbed when the radiators are moved.

10. A stay on each radiator secures it in the raised position for safety when work is in progress.

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12

11

... ~, ..

1

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3

1 Engine cylinder banks
2 Balance pipe
3 Transmission oil heat exchanger
4 Coolant sub-frame
5 Radiators
6 Thermostats
7 Header/expansion tank
8 Coolant pump
9 GUE coolant supply coupling
10 GUE coolant return coupling
4 11 Engine oil heat exchanger
12 Drain plug .; :::' .

, :.,.

2 ' " '". ') .'

" 'f'- I

Fig 1 Cooling system (diagrammatic)

,"', .

, .

5

U4597/58

11. The radiators and their associated trunnions are mounted on a supporting structure above the pack. Parts of the structure, designated the coolant sub-frame (4) are utilised as fluid passages, connecting the radiators to other system components. A balance pipe (2) ensures an even flow of coolant between the radiators.

Thermostats

12. Two wax type thermostats (6) are fitted, one in each radiator trunnion housing, bolted to the radiator end tank. The thermostats are set to be fully open when an operating temperature of 81 degrees C (178 degrees F) is reached

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Coolant pump

13. The coolant pump (8) is located on the lower left side atthe rearofthe engine and driven by gears from the timing case. The pump has one inlet, from the radiators, and two outlets one to each bank of engine cylinders.

Header tank

14. A combined header and expansion tank (7) is mounted above the exhaust manifold of "8" cylinder bank. The header tank incorporates the coolant filler and cap, a pressure/vacuum relief valve and the sender unit for the coolant low level warning circuit. The filler cap is accessible through a hinged cover on the front, top deck, for normal daily servicing.

Heat exchangers

15. Two heat exchangers form part of the liquid cooling system. The engine oil heat exchanger (11) is located on the left side of the engine. A similar heat exchanger (3), mounted vertically, is located on the right side of the engine and is used to control the temperature of the transmission oil. The transmission heat exchanger (3) is incorporated in the transmission oil system in addition to two oil coolers (air cooled) located above the charge air coolers.

Main cooling fans

16. The configuration of the main cooling fans and drives is shown in Fig 2.

U4597/59

1 Transmission oil and air charge coolers 6 Main fans
2 Drive shaft lubricating nipples 7 Drive belt (left fan)
3 Main fan drive shaft B Auxiliary fan drive
4 Radiator (right) 9 Auxiliary fan
5 Drive belt (right fan) 10 Radiator (left) Fig 2 Layout of cooling fans & drives

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17. Three mixed flow fan assemblies (6) are mounted on a frame at the rear of the powerpack. The centre fan is driven by a shaft, direct from a power take-off on the gearbox. The drive shaft (3) is fitted with two universal joints to accommodate vertical mis-alignment. Both outside fans are belt driven from the centre fan by two positive drive, toothed, belts (5)(7). A torque limiting device is incorporated in the power take-off unit as a safeguard to prevent damage if the fans become damaged or seized. All three fans have pre-packed bearings which need no additional lubrication. Tension of the drive belts is set on initial fitting and no adjustment is required during normal use.

18. The outer fans draw air in through the deck louvres, down through the radiators and expel it, out through the rearmost deck louvres. The centre fan draws air in through the centre, forward, deck louvres, down through the transmission oil coolers and charge air coolers, over the gearbox and out through the rearmost deck louvres.

Auxiliary fan

19. A small fan (9) is fitted on a hinged mounting frame, beneath the left radiator, the fan is intended to provide an air flow through the radiator matrix when only the GUE is running.

20. The fan is driven by a flexible drive shaft (8) coupled to the generating unit engine. The fan mounting frame is fitted below the radiator ard when the latter is raised for maintenance purposes the fan may also be hinged upwards. To facilitate this a quick disconnect coupling is fitted to the fan end of the flexible drive (8). Once disconnectec the fan and frame may be raised and clipped to the radiator, thus giving complete access to the compartment below. The fan bearings and flexible drive

~ require no servicing. The cable must be stowed in the clip provided on the left wall, adjacent to the footplate.

CONTROLS AND INSTRUMENTS Coolant temperature gauge

21. The coolant temperature gauge (Fig 3 (3)) is located on the driver's instrument panel and indicates figures, which when multiplied by ten, gives the coolant temperature in degrees F. The gauge is connected electrically to a sensor fitted at the rear of the engine. The engine thermostat fully opens at 81 deg C (178 deg F) and the maximum coolant temperature must not exceed 93deg C

(200 deg F). ....

Alarm warning light Coolant level warning light Coolant temperature gauge

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Fig 3 Cooling system ins'_uments - driver's instrument panel

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22. The gauge will operate when the following switches are put to "ON":-

22.1 The hull battery master switch and the W/L switch on the Main engine switchboard.

OR

22.2 The hull battery master switch and the W/L, FP and GEN INTERLOCK switches on the GUE switchboard.

Coolant level warning light

23. The warning light annotated COOLANT LEVEL (Fig 3 (2)) on the driver's instrument panel has a green lens and illuminates when the coolant level in the header tank becomes unacceptably low. The warning light has a "press to test" facility and the circuit will be "switched ON" in parallel with the coolant temperature gauge - Refer to paragraph 22.

Alarm warning light

24. When the coolant low level warning light (2) is illuminated the alarm warning light (1) will also be activated. For details of the systems protected by the alarm warning light and its operation refer to Chapter 10.

USER MAINTENANCE

To raise and lower the radiators

CAUTIONS

(1) Do not move the vehicle with radiators in the raised position.

(2) Do not block deck louvres with stowed items or camoflauge nets.

25. Raising and lowering the radiators is necessary togain access to the power pack compartment below and to ensure that the radiator matrix is clear of any accumulated leaves or other debris. The instructions which follow describe the procedure for raising and lowering the left radiator, which incorporates the auxiliary fan. For the right radiator adopt the same procedure, ignoring the instructions relating to the fan.

To raise a radiator

WARNING:

STOP THE GUE BEFORE ATTEMPTING TO RAISE THE LEFT RADIATOR.

26. Proceed as follows:

26.1 If the left radiator is to be raised, stop the GUE.

26.2 0 pen fu Ily both sections of the hinged ai r intake louvre (Fig 4(7)), above the relevant radiator.

26.3 Release the two securing catches (2), by turning them to one side.

26.4 Lift the radiator (11), to the vertical position, using the handles (1) provided on the protective grille. Lock the radiator in position by sliding the stay lock sleeve (6) downwards.

26.5 Reach under the fan (10) grasp the flexible drive coupling (8), depress both catch levers,

and pull down the coupling to release it from the fan. ....

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Handles 6 Stay locking sleeve 11 Radiator (raised)
2 Securing catches and nuts 7 Armoured deck louvre 12 Catch
3 Fan frame 8 Drive coupling - disconnected (a) Radiator lowered and secured
4 Fan coupling 9 Flexible fan drive (b) Radiator raised -
5 Stay 10 Auxiliary fan fan in working position Fig 4 Radiator (left) and auxiliary fan

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26.6 Stow the fan drive (9) in the clip provided.

26.7 Raise the fan frame (3) and secure it to the radiator with the catch (12).

To lower a radiator

27. Proceed as follows:

27.1 Release the fan frame catch (12) and lower the frame.

27.2 Hold the fan with one hand, reach under the fan with the other hand and re-connect the fan drive. Push the coupling (8) fully into engagement ensuring that the coupling catches are located in the groove on the fan coupling (4).

27.3 Support the radiator (11), slide the stay lock (6) upwards, and pull the stay (S) outwards to unlock. Lower the radiator to the horizontal position.

27.4 Reposition the radiator securing catches (2) and tighten the nuts.

27.S Close and secure the armoured deck louvres (7) ensuring that the deck catch securing pins are in place.

To check coolant level

WARNING:

DO NOT RELEASE THE COOLANT FILLER CAP WHILE THE ENGINE IS RUNNING 'OR BEFORE THE COOLANT TEMPERATURE HAS FALLEN BELOW 93 DEGREES C (200 DEGREES F) OTHERWISE SEVERE SCALDING CAN RESULT.

28. Coolant level may be checked through the access cover in the front top deck - refer to Chapter 2 Fig 17.

28.1 Open the deck access cover (Fig S (9)).

28.2 Unscrew the wing nut (8) on the filler cap (7). Open the filler cap and check that coolant level is within SOmm (2 inches) of the filler cap seat. Top-up, if necessary, using the correct strength anti-freeze solution. DO NOT use undiluted anti-freeze.

28.3 If the level is very low investigate for leaks.

28.4 Ensure the filler cap seal is clean and serviceable. Close and secure the filler cap and access cover.

To drain the system

29. Proceed as follows:-

29.1 Open the armoured louvres above both radiators. Raise the radiators and secure the stays - see paragraph 2S-26.

29.2 Open tne coolant filler cap (Fig S (7)). Note warning (para 28).

WARNING:

BEFORE PERSONNEL ARE ALLOWED UNDER THE VEHICLE, THE PARKING BRAKE MUST BE FULLY APPLIED AND THE VEHICLE SECURED AGAINST MOVEMENT.

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1 Bleed screws (both radiators)4 GUE coolant supply coupling 7 Filler cap
2 Header/expansion tank 5 GUE coolant return coupling 8 Securing wing nut
3 Pressure/vacuum relief valve 6 GUE coolant return bleed screw 9 Filler neck
10 Thermostat housing
(a) View through deck opening plugs Fig 5 Header tank, filler and bleed polnts

29.3 Remove the circular access cover, under the hull, to expose the coolant drain plug (Fig 6 (1)).

29.4 Place a suitable container beneath the drain plug - a capacity in excess of 136.4litres (30 gallons) will be required. Unscrew the drain plug (1) to release the coolant, the plug is captive and cannot be completely removed.

29.5 When coolant draining is complete, replace and tighten the drain plug, ensuring that the sealing washer is in good condition.

29.6 Refit the access cover.

29.7 Lower and secure the radiators, close the filler cap.

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~ 30. Check that the coolant low level warning light is working, for main engine and generating unit engine, by using the main engine and generating engine switchboards.

Main engine switchboard

31. To check the coolant low level warning light proceed as follows:

31.1 Put the hull battery master switch to 'ON'.

31.2 Put the W/L switch to 'ON'.

31.3 Check on the drivers instrument panel that:

31.3.1 The coolant low level light glows.

31.3.2 The alarm warning light flashes.

Generating unit engine switchboard

32. To check the coolant low level warning light proceed as follows:

32.1 Put the hull battery master switch to 'ON'.

32.2 Put the W/L switch to 'ON'.

32.3 Put the FP switch to 'ON'.

32.4 Put the INTERLOCK GEN switch to 'ON'.

32.5 Check on the drivers instrument panel that:

32.5.1 The coolant low level warning light glows.

32.5.2 The alarm warning light flashes.

Note

If the system is to be left empty, place a NO COOLANTsign on the hull battery master switchbox.

To refill the system

WARNING

BEFORE PERSONNEL ARE ALLOWED UNDER THE VEHICLE, THE PARKING BRAKE MUST BE FULLY APPLIED AND THE VEHICLE SECURED AGAINST MOVEMENT.

CAUTIONS

(1) Failure to completely fill and bleed all air from the cooling system will cause premature failure of main and generator unit engines.

(2)

The following procedure must be followed whenever the cooling system has been disturbed for repairs or replacement of assemblies.

(3)

Both the main and generating unit engine systems must be filled and bled separately, before being connected together.

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