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Homework 1
General Comment. Doing and understanding homework problems is critical to your success in this
or any other upper division math course. Homework problems will involve concepts we have discussed in
class but will often challenge you to apply these concepts in new ways; i.e., to develop your problem solving
skills. In order to succeed at this process, it is important for you to be willing to spend time thinking about
problems and to seek help when you need it, which might be often. You should expect to spend a significant
amount of time each week outside of class working on problems with your classmates and discussing problems
with me during office hours.

Part 1 (Turn-in problems). The following problems will be due on Thursday, January 24.
1. p1.2.2

Write the zero vector in M34 (F ) .

2. p1.2.15
Let V = {(a1 , a2 , . . . , an ) : ai R for i = 1, 2, . . . , n} ; so V is a vector space over R by
Example 1. Is V a vector space over the field of complex numbers with the operations of coordinatewise
addition and multiplication?
*** Note: On problem p1.3.8 below, just do parts (a), (c), (e), and (f ).
3. p1.3.8
Determine whether the following sets are subspaces of R3 under the operations of addition and
scalar multiplication defined on R3 . Justify your answers.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)

W1
W2
W3
W4
W5
W6

=
=
=
=
=
=

{(a1 , a2 , a3 )
{(a1 , a2 , a3 )
{(a1 , a2 , a3 )
{(a1 , a2 , a3 )
{(a1 , a2 , a3 )

(a1 , a2 , a3 )

:
:
:
:
:
:

a1 = 3a2 and a3 = a2 }
a1 = a3 + 2}
2a1 7a2 + a3 = 0}
a1 4a2 a3 = 0}
a1 + 2a2 3a3 = 1}

5a21 3a22 + 6a23 = 0

Is the set W = {f (x) P(F ) : f (x) = 0 or f (x) has degree n} a subspace of P(F ) if n 1?
4. p1.3.11
Justify your answer.
5. p1.3.13
Let S be a nonempty set and F a field. Prove that for any s0 S, the set
W = {f F (S, F ) : f (s0 ) = 0} is a subspace of F (S, F ).
Prove that a subset W of a vector space V is a subspace of V if and only if 0 W and
6. p1.3.18
ax + y W whenever a F and x, y W.

Part 2 (Practice Problems). The following problems will not be collected. However, doing and
understanding them is important for your success in the course.
7. p1.2.17
Let V = {(a1 , a2 ) : a1 , a2 F } , where F is a field. Define addition of elements of V
coordinatewise, and for c F and (a1 , a2 ) V, define
c(a1 , a2 ) = (a1 , 0).
Is V a vector space over F with these operations? Justify your answer.
8. p1.3.15
Is the set of all differentiable real-valued functions defined on R a subspace of C(R)? Justify
your answer.
Prove that if W is a subspace of a vector space V and w1 , w2 , . . . , wn are in W, then
9. p1.3.20
a1 w1 + a2 w2 + + an wn W for any scalars a1 , a2 , . . . , an .
Let F1 and F2 be fields. A function g F (F1 , F2 ) is called an even function if g(t) = g(t)
10. p1.3.22
for each t F1 and is called an odd function if g(t) = g(t) for each t F1 . Prove that the set of all even
functions in F (F1 , F2 ) and the set of all odd functions in F (F1 , F2 ) are subspaces of F (F1 , F2 ).
2

Homework 2
Part 1 (Turn-in problems). The following problems will be due on Thursday, January 31.
*** Note: On problem p1.4.4 below, just do parts (b) and (d).
11. p1.4.4
For each list of polynomials in P3 (R), determine whether the first polynomial can be expressed
as a linear combination of the other two. Justify your answers.
(a) x3 3x + 5, x3 + 2x2 x + 1, x3 + 3x2 1
(b) 4x3 + 2x2 6, x3 2x2 + 4x + 1, 3x3 6x2 + x + 4
(c) 2x3 11x2 + 3x + 2, x3 2x2 + 3x 1, 3x3 + x2 + 3x 2
(d) x3 + x2 + 2x + 13, 2x3 3x2 + 4x + 1, x3 x2 + 2x + 3
(e) x3 8x2 + 4x, x3 2x2 + 3x 1, x3 2x + 3
(f) 6x3 3x2 + x + 2, x3 x2 + 2x + 3, 2x3 3x + 1
12. p1.4.13
Show that if S1 and S2 are subsets of a vector space V such that S1 S2 , then
span S1 span S2 . In particular, if S1 S2 and span S1 = V, deduce that span S2 = V.
13. p1.5.2
Determine whether the following sets are linearly dependent or linearly independent. Justify
your answers.

 

1 2
1
1
(b)
,
in M22 (R)
1
4
2 4


(d) x3 x, 2x2 + 4, 2x3 + 3x2 + 2x + 6 in P3 (R)
(e) {(1, 1, 2), (1, 2, 1), (1, 1, 4)} in R3

Let u and v be distinct vectors in a vector space V. Show that {u, v} is linearly dependent if and
14. p1.5.9
only if u or v is a multiple of the other.
15. p1.5.10
Give an example of three linearly dependent vectors in R3 such that none of the three is a
multiple of another. Clearly demonstrate why your example works.
16. p1.5.12

Prove Theorem 1.6 and its corollary.

Part 2 (Practice Problems). The following problems will not be collected. However, doing and
understanding them is important for your success in the course.
*** Note: On problem p1.4.3 below, just do parts (b) and (d).
17. p1.4.3
For each of the following lists of vectors in R3 , determine whether the first vector can be
expressed as a linear combination of the other two. Justify your answers.
(a) (2, 0, 3), (1, 3, 0), (2, 4, 1)
(b) (1, 2, 3), (3, 2, 1), (2, 1, 1)
(c) (3, 4, 1), (1, 2, 1), (2, 1, 1)
(d) (2, 1, 0), (1, 2, 3), (1, 3, 2)
(e) (5, 1, 5), (1, 2, 3), (2, 3, 4)
(f) (2, 2, 2), (1, 2, 1), (3, 3, 3)
18. p1.4.7
In F n , let ej denote the vector whose jth coordinate is 1 and whose other coordinates are 0.
Prove that {e1 , e2 , . . . , en } generates F n .

Homework 3
Part 1 (Turn-in problems). The following problems will be due on Thursday, February 7.
*** Note: On problem p1.6.2 below, just do parts (a) and (b).
19. p1.6.2

Determine which of the following sets are bases for R3 .

(a) {(1, 0, 1), (2, 5, 1), (0, 4, 3)}


(b) {(2, 4, 1), (0, 3, 1), (6, 0, 1)}
(c) {(1, 2, 1), (1, 0, 2), (2, 1, 1)}
(d) {(1, 3, 1), (2, 4, 3), (3, 8, 2)}
(e) {(1, 3, 2), (3, 1, 3), (2, 10, 2)}
*** Note: By using appropriate theorems, problems p1.6.4 and p1.6.5 can be done without
doing any calculations.
20. p1.6.4

Do the polynomials x3 2x2 + 1, 4x2 x + 3, and 3x 2 generate P3 (R)? Justify your answer.

21. p1.6.5
answer.

Is {(1, 4, 6), (1, 5, 8), (2, 1, 1), (0, 1, 0)} a linearly independent subset of R3 ? Justify your

Let u, v, and w be distinct vectors of a vector space V. Prove that if {u, v, w} is a basis for V,
22. p1.6.12
then {u + v + w, v + w, w} is also a basis for V.
23. p1.6.14

24. p1.6.19

Find bases for the following subspaces of R5 , and show your supporting work.
W1

W2

(a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 , a5 ) R5 : a1 a3 a4 = 0

(a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 , a5 ) R5 : a2 = a3 = a4 and a1 + a5 = 0

Complete the proof of Theorem 1.8.

25. p1.6.i
Recall that W = {f P2 (R) : f (2) = 0} is a subspace of P2 (R) (you need not prove this, since
its truth is implied by a previous homework problem).
(a) Find a linearly independent subset L of W that contains two elements, and prove that L is linearly
independent.
(b) Prove that your set L from part (a) is a basis for W, and then state the dimension of W.

Part 2 (Practice Problems). The following problems will not be collected. However, doing and
understanding them is important for your success in the course.
26. p1.6.7
The vectors u1 = (2, 3, 1), u2 = (1, 4, 2), u3 = (8, 12, 4), u4 = (1, 37, 17), and
u5 = (3, 5, 8) generate R3 . Find a subset of the set {u1 , u2 , u3 , u4 , u5 } that is a basis for R3 .
27. p1.6.20

Let V be a vector space having dimension n, and let S be a subset of V that generates V.

(a) Prove that there is a subset of S that is a basis for V. (Be careful not to assume that S is finite.)
(b) Prove that S contains at least n vectors.

Homework 4
Practice Problems. The following problems will not be collected. However, doing and understanding
them is important for your success in the course.
28. p2.1.1
Label the following statements as true or false. In each part, V and W are finite-dimensional
vector spaces over F, and T is a function from V to W.
(b) If T(x + y) = T(x) + T(y), then T is linear.
(e) If T is linear, then nullity(T) + rank(T) = dim W.
(f) If T is linear, then T carries linearly independent subsets of V onto linearly independent subsets of W.
Let T : R3 R2 be defined by T(a1 , a2 , a3 ) = (a1 a2 , 2a3 ). Prove that T is a linear
29. p2.1.2
transformation, and find bases for both N(T) and R(T) . Then, compute the nullity and rank of T and verify
the dimension theorem. Finally, use the appropriate theorems in this section to determine whether T is
one-to-one or onto.
*** Note: On problem p2.1.9 below, just do parts (a) and (b).
30. p2.1.9
linear.

In this exercise T : R2 R2 is a function. For each of the following parts, state why T is not

(a) T(a1 , a2 ) = (1, a2 )


(b) T(a1 , a2 ) = (a1 , a21 )
(c) T(a1 , a2 ) = (sin a1 , 0)
(d) T(a1 , a2 ) = (|a1 |, a2 )
(e) T(a1 , a2 ) = (a1 + 1, a2 )
31. p2.1.10
Suppose that T : R2 R2 is linear, T(1, 0) = (1, 4), and T(1, 1) = (2, 5). What is T(2, 3)? Is
T one-to-one? Justify your answer.
32. p2.1.12
Is there a linear transformation T : R3 R2 such that T(1, 0, 3) = (1, 1) and
T(2, 0, 6) = (2, 1)? Justify your answer.
33. p2.1.14

Let V and W be vector spaces and T : V W be linear.

(a) Prove that T is one-to-one if and only if T carries linearly independent subsets of V onto linearly
independent subsets of W.
(b) Suppose that T is one-to-one and that S is a subset of V. Prove that S is linearly independent if and
only if T(S) is linearly independent.
(c) Suppose that = {v1 , v2 , . . . , vn } is a basis for V and T is one-to-one and onto. Prove that
T() = {T(v1 ), T(v2 ), . . . , T(vn )} is a basis for W.
34. p2.1.16
Let T : P(R) P(R) be defined by T(f (x)) = f (x). Recall that T is linear. Prove that T is
onto but not one-to-one.

Homework 5
Part 1 (Turn-in problems). The following problems will be due on Thursday, February 21.
35. p2.1.3
Let T : R2 R3 be defined by T(a1 , a2 ) = (a1 + a2 , 0, 2a1 a2 ). Find bases for both N(T)
and R(T) . Then, compute the nullity and rank of T and verify the dimension theorem. Finally, use the
appropriate theorems in this section to determine whether T is one-to-one or onto.
36. p2.1.4

Let T : M23 (F ) M22 (F ) be defined by


T

a11
a21

a12
a22

a13
a23

2a11 a12
0

a13 + 2a12
0

Find bases for both N(T) and R(T) . Then, compute the nullity and rank of T and verify the dimension
theorem. Finally, use the appropriate theorems in this section to determine whether T is one-to-one or onto.
*** Note: On problem 2.1.7 below, just prove properties 1 and 2.
37. p2.1.7

Prove properties 1, 2, 3, and 4 on page 65 of the text.

38. p2.1.18
Give an example of a linear transformation T : R2 R2 such that N(T) = R(T) . Demonstrate
that your example works.

Homework 6
Part 1 (Turn-in problems). The following problems will be due on Thursday, February 28.
39. p2.2.3
Let T : R2 R3 be defined by T(a1 , a2 ) = (a1 a2 , a1 , 2a1 + a2 ). Let be the standard
ordered basis for R2 and = {(1, 1, 0), (0, 1, 1), (2, 2, 3)} . Compute [T] . If = {(1, 2), (2, 3)} , compute
[T] .
40. p2.2.5

Let



 
 
 

0
0 1
0 0
0 0
=
,
,
,
0
0 0
1 0
0 1


=
1, x, x2
1
0

= {1}

(a) Define T : M22 (F ) M22 (F ) by T(A) = At . Compute [T] .




f (0) 2f (1)
(b) Define T : P2 (R) M22 (F ) by T(f (x)) =
. Compute [T]
.
0
f (3)


1 2
(e) If A =
, compute [A] .
0
4
(f) If f (x) = 3 6x + x2 , compute [f (x)] .
For each of the following parts, let T be the linear transformation defined in the corresponding
41. p2.3.4
part of Exercise 5 of Section 2.2. Use Theorem 2.14 to calculate the following vectors.


1 4
(a) [T(A)] , where A =
.
1 6
(b) [T(f (x))] , where f (x) = 4 6x + 3x2 .
42. p2.2.i

Define T : R3 R3 by T(x1 , x2 , x3 ) = (2x1 + x3 , x1 + x2 , 2x2 + x3 ).

(a) By doing appropriate calculations, show that {v1 } is a basis for N(T) , where v1 = (1, 1, 2).

(b) By row-reducing the matrix to the right, write down vectors v1 , v2 , and v3
1 1 0 0
3
such that = {v1 , v2 , v3 } is an ordered basis for R . (Note that v1 is the
1 0 1 0
same vector as in part (a).)
2 0 0 1

(c) Let w2 = T(v2 ) and w3 = T(v3 ). Calculate w2 and w3 , and explain why {w2 , w3 } must be a basis for
R(T) .

(d) Find an ordered basis = {w1 , w2 , w3 } for R3 (i.e., one that includes the vectors w2 and w3 from part
(c)).
(e) Calculate [T] . If your answer is correct, the matrix should have lots of zeros in it!
Let V be a vector space, and let T : V V be linear. Prove that T2 = T0 if and only if
43. p2.3.11
R(T) N(T) . (Note: T0 is the zero tranformation defined by T0 (v) = 0 for all v V.)

Part 2 (Practice Problems). The following problems will not be collected. However, doing and
understanding them is important for your success in the course.


a b
44. p2.2.4
Define T : M22 (R) P2 (R) by T
= (a + b) + (2d)x + bx2 . Let
c d

 
 
 



1 0
0 1
0 0
0 0
=
,
,
,
and
= 1, x, x2 .
0 0
0 0
1 0
0 1
Compute [T] .
Let V be a vector space with the ordered basis = {v1 , v2 , . . . , vn } . Define v0 = 0. By
45. p2.2.10
Theorem 2.6, there exists a linear transformation T : V V such that T(vj ) = vj + vj1 for
j = 1, 2, . . . , n. Compute [T] .
7

Homework 7
Part 1 (Turn-in problems). The following problems will be due on Thursday, March 7.
46. p2.4.2
For each of the following linear transformations T, determine whether T is invertible and justify
your answer.
T : R2 R3 defined by T(a1 , a2 ) = (a1 2a2 , a2 , 3a1 + 4a2 ).
T : R2 R3 defined by T(a1 , a2 ) = (3a1 a2 , a2 , 4a1 ).
T : R3 R3 defined by T(a1 , a2 , a3 ) = (3a1 2a3 , a2 , 3a1 + 4a2 ).
T : P3 (R) P2 (R) defined by T(p(x)) = p (x).


a b
(e) T : M22 (R) P2 (R) defined by T
= a + 2bx + (c + d)x2 .
c d




a b
a+b
a
(f) T : M22 (R) M22 (R) defined by T
=
.
c d
c
c+d

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

47. p2.4.3
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Which of the following pairs of vector spaces are isomorphic? Justify your answers.

F 3 and P3 (F ).
F 4 and P3 (F ).
M22 (R) and P3 (R)
V = {A M22 (R) : tr(A) = 0} and R4 .

48. p2.4.6
49. p2.4.14

Prove that if A is invertible and AB = O, then B = O.





a a+b
Let V =
: a, b, c F . Construct an isomorphism from V to F 3 .
0
c

Let V and W be finite-dimensional vector spaces, and let T : V W be a linear


50. p2.4.15
transformation. Suppose that is a basis for V. Prove that T is an isomorphism if and only if T() is a basis
for W.
*** Note: On problem 2.4.17 below, just do part (a).
51. p2.4.17
Let V and W be finite-dimensional vector spaces and T : V W be an isomorphism. Let V0
be a subspace of V.
(a) Prove that T(V0 ) is a subspace of W.
(b) Prove that dim V0 = dim(T(V0 )).

Part 2 (Practice Problems). The following problems will not be collected. However, doing and
understanding them is important for your success in the course.
52. p2.3.3
Let g(x) = 3 + x. Let T : P2 (R) P2 (R) and U : P2 (R) R3 be the linear transformations
respectively defined by
T(f (x)) = f (x)g(x) + 2f (x) and U(a + bx + cx2 ) = (a + b, c, a b).
Let and be the standard ordered bases of P2 (R) and R3 , respectively.
(a) Compute [U] , [T] , and [UT] directly. Then use Theorem 2.11 to verify your result.
(b) Let h(x) = 3 2x + x2 . Compute [h(x)] and [U(h(x))] . Then use [U] from (a) and Theorem 2.14 to
verify your result.
*** Note: On problem 2.4.10 below, just do parts (a) and (b).
53. p2.4.10

Let A and B be n n matrices such that AB = In .

(a) Use Exercise 2.4.9 to conclude that A and B are invertible.


(b) Prove A = B 1 (and hence B = A1 ). (We are, in effect, saying that for square matrices, a
one-sided inverse is a two-sided inverse.
(c) State and prove analogous results for linear transformations defined on finite-dimensional vector spaces.

Homework 8
Part 1 (Turn-in problems). The following problems will be due on Thursday, March 14.
*** Note: On problem 2.5.2 below, you can skip part (d).
54. p2.5.2
For each of the following pairs of ordered bases and for R2 , find the change of coordinate
matrix that changes -coordinates into -coordinates.
(a) = {e1 , e2 } and = {(a1 , a2 ), (b1 , b2 )}
(b) = {(1, 3), (2, 1)} and = {(0, 10), (5, 0)}
(c) = {(2, 5), (1, 3)} and = {e1 , e2 }
(d) = {(4, 3), (2, 1)} and = {(2, 1), (4, 1)}
Let T be the linear operator on P1 (R) defined by T(p(x)) = p (x), the derivative of p(x). Let
55. p2.5.5
= {1, x} and = {1 + x, 1 x} . Use Theorem 2.23 and the fact that


1
1
1 1

1

1/2
1/2
1/2 1/2

to find [T] .
56. p3.2.4
matrix D

1
(a) 2
1

Use elementary row and column operations to transform each of the following matrices into a
satisfying the conditions of Theorem 3.6, and then determine the rank of each matrix.

1
1 2
2 1
0 1 2
(b) 1 2
1
1 2
2 1

*** Note: On problem 3.2.5 below, just do part (c).

57. p3.2.5
(a)

1 2
1 1

1 2
(f) 1 0
1 1

For each of the following matrices, compute the rank and the inverse if it exists.




1 2
1
0 2
4
1 2
1 2
4 (d) 1
1 1 (e) 1 1
(b)
(c) 1 3
2 4
2 3 1
2
4 5
1 0

1
2
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
2

1
5
5
1
1
1
2

1
(g)
(h)
2 3
2
0
3
0
1
0
1
3
4 2 3
0 1
1 3

1
2
1

*** Note: On problem 3.2.6 below, just do parts (a),(b), and (e).

58. p3.2.6
For each of the following linear transformations T, determine whether T is invertible, and
compute T1 if it exists.
(a) T : P2 (R) P2 (R) defined by T(f (x)) = f (x) + 2f (x) f (x)
(b) T : P2 (R) P2 (R) defined by T(f (x)) = (x + 1)f (x)
(c) T : R3 R3 defined by T(a1 , a2 , a3 ) = (a1 + 2a2 + a3 , a1 + a2 + 2a3 , a1 + a3 )
(d) T : R3 P2 (R) defined by T(a1 , a2 , a3 ) = (a1 + a2 + a3 ) + (a1 a2 + a3 )x + a1 x2
(e) T : P2 (R) R3 defined by T(f (x)) = (f (1), f (0), f (1))
t

(f) T : M22 (R) R defined by T(A) = (tr(A), tr(A ), tr(EA), tr(AE)), where E =
59. p3.2.8

0 1
1 0

Let A be an m n matrix. Prove that if c is any nonzero scalar, then rank(cA) = rank(A).

Continued on next page


9

Part 2 (Practice Problems). The following problems will not be collected. However, doing and
understanding them is important for your success in the course.
60. p2.5.4
Let T be the linear operator on R2 defined by T(a, b) = (2a + b, a 3b), let be the standard
ordered basis for R2 , and let = {(1, 1), (1, 2)} . Use Theorem 2.23 and the fact that


1 1
1 2

1

2
1

1
1

to find [T] .
61. p3.1.2

Let

1
2
0
A = 1
1 1

3
1 ,
1

1
0 3
B = 1 2 1 ,
1 3 1

and

1
0
3
C = 0 2 2 .
1 3
1

Find an elementary operation that transforms A into B and an elementary operation that transforms B into
C. By means of several additional operations, transform C into I3 .

10

Homework 9
Part 1 (Turn-in problems). The following problems will be due on Thursday, March 28.
62. p2.4.7

Let A be an n n matrix.

(a) Suppose that A2 = O. Prove that A is not invertible.


(b) Suppose that AB = O for some nonzero n n matrix B. Could A be invertible? Explain.
*** Note: On problems 3.3.2 and 3.3.3 below, just do parts (d) and (e).
63. p3.3.2
For each of the following homogeneous systems of linear equations, find the dimension of and a
basis for the solution set. Feel free to use a calculator or computer to perform basic row operations, but
please write down the reduced matrix as part of your solution.
(a)

x1 + 3x2
2x1 + 6x2

=
=

(d)

2x1 + x2 x3
x1 x2 + x3
x1 + 2x2 2x3

(g) x1 + 2x2 + x3 + x4
x2 x3 + x4
64. p3.3.3

0
0
=
=
=

0
0

(c)

x1 + 2x2 x3
2x1 + x2 + x3

(e) x1 + 2x2 3x3 + x4 = 0

(f)

x1 + 2x2
x1 x2

(b)
0
0
0

x1 + x2 x3
4x1 + x2 2x3

=
=

= 0
= 0

= 0
= 0

= 0
= 0

Using the results of Exercise 3.3.2, find all solutions to the following systems.

(a)

x1 + 3x2
2x1 + 6x2

= 5
= 10

(d)

2x1 + x2 x3
x1 x2 + x3
x1 + 2x2 2x3

(g) x1 + 2x2 + x3 + x4
x2 x3 + x4

=
=
=

1
3

(c)

(e) x1 + 2x2 3x3 + x4 = 1

(f)

(b)
5
1
4

x1 + x2 x3
4x1 + x2 2x3

=
=

x1 + 2x2 x3
2x1 + x2 + x3
x1 + 2x2
x1 x2

=
=

= 3
= 6
5
1

= 1
= 1

Give an example of a system of n linear equations in n unknowns with infinitely many solutions.
65. p3.3.5
Demonstrate that your example works by finding the solution set of your system.
Let T : R3 R3 be defined by T(a, b, c) = (a + b, b 2c, a + 2c). For each vector v R3 ,
66. p3.3.8
determine whether v R(T) .
(a) v = (1, 3, 2)

(b) v = (2, 1, 1)

Prove or give a counterexample to the following statement: If the coefficient matrix of a system
67. p3.3.10
of m linear equations in n unknowns has rank m, then the system has a solution.

Part 2 (Practice Problems). The following problems will not be collected. However, doing and
understanding them is important for your success in the course.
68. p2.4.4

Let A and B be n n invertible matrices. Prove that AB is invertible and (AB)1 = B 1 A1 .

69. p3.4.7
It can be shown that the vectors
u1 = (2, 3, 1), u2 = (1, 4, 2), u3 = (8, 12, 4), u4 = (1, 37, 17), and u5 = (3, 5, 8) generate R3 . Find a
subset of {u1 , u2 , u3 , u4 , u5 } that is a basis for R3 .

11

Homework 10
Part 1 (Turn-in problems). The following problems will be due on Thursday, April 18.
70. p5.1.2
For each of the following linear operators T on a vector space V and ordered bases , compute
[T] , and determine whether is a basis consisting of eigenvectors of T.




  

a
10a 6b
1
2
(a) V = R2 , T
=
, and =
,
b
17a 10b
2
3
(b) V = P1 (R),
71. p5.1.3
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

T(a + bx) = (6a 6b) + (12a 11b)x,

and

= {3 + 4x, 2 + 3x}

For each of the following matrices A Mnn (F ) ,

Determine all the eigenvalues of A.


For each eigenvalue of A, find the set of eigenvectors corresponding to .
If possible, find a basis for F n consisting of eigenvectors of A.
If successful in finding such a basis, determine an invertible matrix Q and a diagonal matrix D such that
Q1 AQ = D.

2
(d) A = 4
2

0 1
1 4
0 1

for

F =R

For each linear operator T on V, find the eigenvalues of T and an ordered basis for V such that
72. p5.1.4
[T] is a diagonal matrix.
(f) V = P3 (R)

and

T(f (x)) = f (x) + f (2)x.

73. p5.1.8
(a) Prove that a linear operator T on a finite-dimensional vector space is invertible if and only if zero is not
an eigenvalue of T.
(b) Let T be an invertible linear operator. Prove that a scalar is an eigenvalue of T if and only if 1 is an
eigenvalue of T1 .
74. p5.1.15
(a) Let T be a linear operator on a vector space V, and let x be an eigenvector of T corresponding to the
eigenvalue . For any positive integer m, prove that x is an eigenvector of Tm corresponding to the
eigenvalue m .

12

Homework 11
Part 1 (Turn-in problems). The following problems will be due on Thursday, April 25.
*** Note: On problem 5.2.2 below, just do parts (a) and (b).
75. p5.2.2
For each of the following matrices A Mnn (R) , test A for diagonalizability, and if A is
diagonalizable, find an invertible matrix Q and a diagonal matrix D such that Q1 AQ = D.






1 2
1 3
1 4
(a)
(b)
(c)
0 1
3 1
3 2

7 4 0
0 0
1
1 1 0
(d) 8 5 0
(e) 1 0 1
(f) 0 1 2
6 6 3
0 1
1
0 0 3

3
1 1
4 2
(g) 2
1 1 1
For each of the following linear operators T on a vector space V, test T for diagonalizability, and
76. p5.2.3
if T is diagonalizable, find a basis for V such that [T] is a diagonal matrix.
(a) V = P3 (R),

and

T is defined by T(f (x)) = f (x) + f (x).

(b) V = P2 (R),

and

T is defined by T(ax2 + bx + c) = cx2 + bx + a.

(d) V = P2 (R),

and

T is defined by T(f (x)) = f (0) + f (1)(x + x2 ).

(f) V = M22 (R) ,

and

T is defined by T(A) = At .

77. p5.2.8
Suppose that A Mnn (F ) has two distinct eigenvalues 1 and 2 , and that dim(E1 ) = n 1.
Prove that A is diagonalizable.
78. p5.2.12

Let T be an invertible linear operator on a finite-dimensional vector space V.

(a) Recall that for any eigenvalue of T, we know that 1 is an eigenvalue of T1 (Exercise 5.1.8). Prove
that the eigenspace of T corresponding to is the same as the eigenspace of T1 corresponding to 1 .
(b) Prove that if T is diagonalizable, then T1 is diagonalizable.

Part 2 (Practice Problems). The following problems will not be collected. However, doing and
understanding them is important for your success in the course.
79. p5.2.4
Prove the matrix version of the corollary to Theorem 5.5: If A Mnn (F ) has n distinct
eigenvalues, then A is diagonalizable.

13

Homework 12
Practice Problems. The following problems will not be collected. However, doing and understanding
them is important for your success in the course.
80. p5.4.2
For each of the following linear operators T on the vector space V, determine whether the given
subspace W is a T-invariant subspace of V. Justify your answer.
(a) V = P3 (R),

T(f (x)) = f (x),

and

W = P2 (R)

(b) V = P(R),

T(f (x)) = xf (x), and W = P2 (R)




0 1
(e) V = M22 (R) , T(A) =
A, and W = {A V : At = A}
1 0

81. p5.4.3
Let T be a linear operator on a finite-dimensional vector space V. Prove that the following
subspaces are T-invariant.

(a) 0 and V
(b) N(T) and R(T)

(c) E , for any eigenvalue of T


Let T be a linear operator on a vector space V. Prove that the intersection of any collection of
82. p5.4.5
T-invariant subspaces of V is a T-invariant subspace of V.
83. p5.4.6
For each linear operator T on the vector space T, find an ordered basis for the T-cyclic subspace
generated by the vector z.
(a) V = R4 ,

T(a, b, c, d) = (a + b, b c, a + c, a + d),

(b) V = P3 (R),

T(f (x)) = f (x),

and

and

z = e1 .

z = x

84. p5.4.11
Let T be a linear operator on a vector space V, let v be a nonzero vector in V, and let W be the
T-cyclic subspace of V generated by v. Prove that
(a) W is T-invariant.
(b) Any T-invariant subspace of V containing v also contains W.

14