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When a pretensioned installation is required, four installation methods are available: turn-of-the-nut, calibrated

wrench, twist off bolt, and direct tension indicator methods.

The turn-of-the-nut method involves first tightening the nut
to the snug tight condition, then subsequently turning the
nut a specific amount based on the size and grade of the bolt
to develop the required pretension. The calibrated wrench
method involves using a torque applied to the bolt to obtain
the required level pretension. A torque wrench is calibrated
to stall at the required tension for the bolt. Twist-off bolts
have a splined end that twists off when the torque corresponding to the proper pretension is achieved. ASTM
F1852 is the equivalent specification for A325 twist-off
bolts. Currently, there is no ASTM specification equivalent
for A490 tension control bolts. Direct tension indicators
(DTIs) are special washers with raised divots on one face.
When the bolt is installed, the divots compress to a certain
level. The amount of compression must then be checked
with a feeler gage.

Several welding processes are available for joining structural steel. The selection of a process is due largely to suitability and economic issues rather than strength. The most
common weld processes are Shielded Metal Arc Welding
(SMAW), Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), Flux Core Arc
Welding (FCAW), and Submerged Arc Welding (SAW).
SMAW uses an electrode coated with a material that
vaporizes and shields the weld metal to prevent oxidation.
The coated electrode is consumable and can be deposited in
any position. SMAW is commonly referred to as stick
GMAW and FCAW are similar weld processes that use a
wire electrode that is fed by a coil to a gun-shaped electrode
holder. The main difference between the processes is in the
method of weld shielding. GMAW uses an externally supplied gas mixture while FCAW has a hollow electrode with
flux material in the core that generates a gas shield or a flux
shield when the weld is made. GMAW and FCAW can be
deposited in all positions and have a relatively fast deposit
rate compared to other processes.

Welding is the process of fusing multiple pieces of metal

together by heating the metal to a liquid state. Welding can
often simplify an otherwise complicated joint, when compared to bolting. However, welds are subject to size and
length limitations depending on the thickness of the materials and the geometry of the pieces being joined. Furthermore, welding should be preferably performed on bare
metal. Paint and galvanizing should be absent from the area
on the metal that is to be welded.
Guidelines for welded construction are published by the
American Welding Society (AWS) in AWS D1.1 Structural
Welding Code-Steel. These provisions have been adopted
by the AISC in the Load and Resistance Factor Design
Specification for Structural Steel Buildings.

Figure 3-2. Direct Tension Indicators and Feeler Gages

Figure 3-1. Structural Fastener - Bolt, Nut and Washer

Figure 3-3. Structural Fastener - Twist-off Bolt

3-2 Connections Teaching Toolkit