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SPE 030793

J.G. Canard, SPE, Louisiana State U., and P.A. Schenewerk,

characteristics that are considered when developing models.

that predict reservoir performance while using alternative

depletion strategies, such as during fluid-injection projects or

enhanced recovery.

Reservoir producing conditions to which this technique can

be readily applied are those whose actual bottom-ho!e

flowing pressure (BHFP) closely approximates a constant

value. Most wells, however, produce with variable BHFP.

The work presented here focuses on an alternative ratecumulative type-curve format whereby variable BHFP is

. 1., .- L-::

L-.L .Lincorporateci into &lmensioniess varlames comammg oum uw

production rate and the cumulative production providing a

unified approach that can be applied to any reasonable

variability in the producing rate or flowing pressure history.

The proposed method, with application to single phase and

multiphase flow, provides the practicing engineer a better

method for decline curve analysis and therefore propagates

better reservoir characterization from production data.

Now at U. of Tulss

Nw

at U. of Mis.souri-Rolls

LXpyright

This psper

w

prepared

Enginsers

for presentation

in the SPE

This paper was selected for presentation

information

contained

Annual

in an abstract submitted

by the author(s).

The material,

by the author(s).

SPE meetings

Petroleum

Engineers.

Permissmn

ss presentsd,

Engineers,

Conference

&

1SS5.

correction

Technical

following review of

Contents

of the paper, ss

reflect any

Pqxms presented at

of the Society of

words. Illustrations may not bs copied. The abstract should contsin conspicuous ac.knc+vhdg

ment of where and by whom the paper is presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O. Box 2328SS,

Richardson. TX 75083-3836,

Abstract

reservoirs from production performance. Unique to this

technique is the incorporation of the instantaneous bottomhole flowing pressure (BHFP) to both the production rate

and to the cumulative production for a well depleting a

reservoir. This allows a single rate/cumulative analysis for

wells producing with constant BHFP, constant rate, and wells

with variable rate or variable BHFP (includlng wells with

shutins). This solution provides a powerful diagnostic typecurve which can be generated with almost any wellbore/reservoir situation encountered. Extension of the method to gas

reservoirs through use of pseudopressure and viscositycompressibility normalization allows these wells to be

analyzed using the slightly-compressible fluid solution. Well

performance during transient flow and depletion flow are

examined. Simulation results are compared with the analytic

solution. The use of spreadsheets to perform well test

analysis is also demonstrated.

Pressure Normalization

One advancement in decline-curve analysis presented here

inciudes pressure normalization of cumulative production.

Like pressure normalization of production rate, variations in

bottom-hole flowing pressure (BHFP) are accounted for by

dividing cumulative production by the pressure difference

between initial and bottom-hole flowing pressures. The

technique of combining pressure-normalized production rate

(PNR) and pressure-normalized

cumulative production

(PNC) is an improvement over rate normalization alone in

the analysis of reservoirs based on production data.

To apply this technique, determination of BHFP from

surface-measured flowing-tubing pressure (FTP) is required

along with determination of the original static reservoir

pressure. Data can then be presented by plotting PNR versus

PNC. This technique is then extended for use with gas

reservoirs by further incorporating changes in viscosity and

compressibility during reservoir depletion.

This technique relies heavily on either measured BHFP or

lTP. However, unlike with superposition techniques, it does

h~~~~~~ f~~ ~ Weiij

refit w~~II;r- the entire flndssu nreccnre

.~= . WY-. v . ..-- . . ... -------~. -w--- -

Introduction

engineers to analyze a petroleum reservoir directly in regard

to its fluid-flow characteristics and its volumetric extent using

rate-time type-curves of the constant terminal pressure

soiution of the ilffusivity equation. Tiiis anaiysis is of

enormous value to reservoir managers whose goal is to

maximize oil and gas production from a petroleum reservoir.

947

RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE

the industry. The incorporation of PNR and PNC into decline-curve analysis provides a single-performance curve which

is applicable to wells producing at constant BHFP, to wells

producing at constant rate, and to wells with both varying

rate and varying flowing pressure.

The benefit of a single-performance type-curve is its

usefulness as a diagnostic tool. Identification of flow regimes,

geological heterogeneities or boundaries, and interference

from offset production or injection make it the ideal plot for

advanced decline-curve analysis. Although radial flow in

unbounded and bounded reservoirs are presented here, the

same diagnostic type-curve can be used ti[ii type-curves

generated for other common wellbore and reservoir conditions, such as hydraulically fractured wel~ naturally fractured reservoirs, dual-porosity systems, water-drive reservoirs, and other systems with pressure support at the outer

boundary.

.An advan[age of using Ci!hcr rate.!irn-e Qr ra[c-ctunu!afive

decline-curve analysis is that reservoir size, formation

capacity, and wellbore effectiveness can be determined

without either closing in the well or running costly instruments down the wellbore. This capability is greatly extended

by the use of rate-cumulative analysis because pressure

normalization of cumulative production allows for variable

BHFP in the producing well.

re

~cD

qD =

141.2qBp

kh(Pi-Pwf)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...(1)

volume factor (rb/STB), p is the fluid viscosity (cp), k is the

permeability (red), his the formation height (ft), Pi and Pti

are the initial reservoir pressure and the wellbore flowing

pressure (psia) respectively. Dimensionless time, t~, is

defined ax

tD

.006328M

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (2)

Ovc?:a

The additional terms used in this expression are t for time

l..J-....\

(uays), @ fGi pilidy

(fF~&d),

~ k tk

kjd

SySklii

Compressibility (psi-l), and rm is the apparent wellbore

radius (ft). The dimensionless external radlu~ re~ is defined

ax

(3)

wa

wellbore radius is rw (ft). Apparent wellbore radius is a

measure of effectiveness and is related to the actual wellbore

radius, rW(ft) by

r Mu = rw, exp (-s)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (4)

: Gullrxam

..ficto* p-#.ace,,*a

m,,

?-l,n.,ar;u-u, w t,ms

Lyp,WUU.

. w . U. Sm~GII ..1,:..,rO,.,,.shm kautul, S, m

ables was investigated by Uraite and Raghavan- to allow for

near wellbore damage ( +s) or improvement (-s).

Dimensionless flow rate, qD, and dimensionless cumulative

production, QD, are related using

~

QD

qDdtD

. (5)

----

by

QD

Definitions

Dimensionless variables are used as they provide a general

solution to any number of specific problems. Actual rate and

time can be calculated from dimensionless rate and time for

n., .nn,.:c..

fir .a.,a*,m:.

-0.-...

-+,?...

,.,.-.m:maA In

:.. *ha

vuu pm

CUUGLGI

a wlmanl=u

LIIG

aJJy

OPVUJWC.=*

-w UI

1*OVS

dimensionless variables. The single-phase dimensionless rate,

q~, is defined (in field units) as

SPE 030793

TYPE-CURVES

0.8936QB

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (6)

4JK?;.(R%+

And Q is the cumulative production (STB).

Tsarevich and Kuranovq (1966) are credited with being the

fk.t

,s.

0.

tn

.

nhcanw=

that

o.

.

. ..-.

~~~

hnlmAaru.dnmin~td

. . ..-.

,

.. . . . ...-.-

~~!~

~~~

exponential in the rate decline, giving credence to the semilog decline-curve plot used by industry for decades. This

discovery allowed a much simpler analytic expression for

flow rate during the boundary-dominated flow period. The

exponential decline equation using dimensionless variables

normaliid by area and geometry is:

qdD exp(-tdD)

. . ..-.

o -----------

--..0----(7)

These variables have an additional lower case dfor declinecurve and are more convenient for type-curve presentation

during boundary-dominated flow. Decline-curve dimensionless time, rate, and cumulative become:

tD

=.

. . . . . . . .OOOoo. . ...

dD

(a13)

. . (8)

QdD

QD

~

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(lo)

SPE 030793

Table

1-

Normalizing

Factors

Circular

Circular

&&!Q

Lw!M!!

(reD2 - 1)/2

reD2/2

A/(21rrw2)

ln(reD)-+

+ln 2.24?

C*r,#@

circular reservoirs are defined by

a=

factors for

eD2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

late the transition from infinite-actimz to boundary-dominated flow periods as a function of dimensionle& external

radius and also state that for all dimensionless external

radius the transition can be approximated by a dimensionless

time based on drainage area of 0.1. Were this dimensionless

time is defined ax

(11)

J3=ln(reD)-*

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(12)

~

DA =tD2jL

. .

(13)

The alternative constant pressure type-curve for flow rate

data is the rate-cumulative type-curve shown in Fig. 2. Ratecumuiative type-curves tili be shown to offer a enormous

advantage over rate-time type-curves because they are

equally applicable for constant pressure performance as well

as variable pressure performance.

included. Definitions in the general case and for circular

reservoirs with r=n < 30 are given by Chen and Poston5 in

Table 1.

Eqs. 11 and 12 can be obtained from the General column

by substitution of appropriate definitions of area and value

for Dietz Shape factor for circular reservoirs.

3,

i

ma i

&ml

.-J<,

I

0$01

al

Onl

QTIIl

Ehlig-Economides and Ramey7)

Fig. 2-

Rate-Cumulative

Oaotine Type-Curve

(RCDTC)

versus cumulative data can be plotted and matched just as

they would be using the rate versus time data. Wells that

have variabie flowing pressure histories, including shut-in

periods, can plotted using PNR and PNC. This data plotting

technique greatly extends the use of type-curves for most of

the conditions encountered in the field.

Rate-time type-curves based on decline-curve dimensionless variables are shown in Fig. 1. Fetkovich6 and Ehlig_,__ ______ ._> _,_,,__ cf______

.____ :A_- __A n-__..7 l_____

EwmJImum iinu Kdmcy

niivc iusu prfsxxrwu slmnar ngurtss.

In Fig. 1 the unbounded curves converge and at that inflection, boundary-dominated

data becomes concave to the

origin. Uraite and Raghavan2 provide expressions to calcu-

949

RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE

HISTORY MATCHING

USING RATE/CUMULATIVE

the dimensionless time period displayed.

Secondly, while dimensionless rate and dimensionless

reciprocal pressure diverge at the end of the infinite-acting

period (inflection from convex to concave) on the RTDTC,

they continue to track during the boundary-dominated

portion on the RCDTC.

dimensionless cumulative production, the exponential decline

equation:

sexp(-fdD)

!?dD(fdD)

iscomblned

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . .. (14)

f&)(t~D)

=1

which yields

relationship:

qdD(QdD)= 1

_ew(-fdD)

the

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..(15)

boundary-dominated

10

rate-cumulative

a

t

.

_QdD

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

SPE 030793

TYPE-CURVES

Mi

;;:.%%0

reD = 1128

,/

~.,

.

reD = 1000

\

W)

10,000

ii 0.,

Eq. 16 infers that thedlmensionless rate during the boundary-dominated flow period is a function of dimensionless

cumulative and is not dependent on the pressure and rate

hktory. To illustrate this point with a variable BHFP case,

the constant rate solution is presented on both the constant

pressure rate-time decline type-curve (RTDTC) and the

constant pressure rate-cumulative decline type-curve (RCDTC). In order to make this comparison, decline-curve

dimensionless pressure is defined as:

*dD=

pfi

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

37,

0.01,

Mm

0,s

0.08

am1

,-. ,!!7:

10

Rate/Constant

Pressure Comparison

Reservoir parameters such as permeability, apparent

wellbore radks, and drainage area are determined conventionally, using rate-time type-curves and the graphkal

technique of plotting rate-time field data on tracing paper

with a log-log scale equivalent to the scale used for the typecurve. The field data are aligned keeping the grids parallel

to the type-curve and a match point is seiected. The match

hnth mnnhc and rnntaks

-_:-. --- L.-...-., . ..-...*.-*-,-9tn

L,,,,,.,.

.

...

&..=...

. . ..---------pulm call UC Cllly p,,lt

(17)

(1!)

in the center of a closed square with an equivalent dlmen~ion!e~~e~-~rnal radhls of IIM is shown in F@. 3 and 4.

outlined by Earlougher 4. For RCDTC matching field data

are plotted as PNR vs PNC. The match point from the

pressure normalized field data and the RCDTC are selected

as above.

Solving for the drainage area or external radius, freed by

the shift in horizontal axes (using eqs. 6, 10, & 11):

an

A=

\i

00:.

O.Cal

O.vol

0,3

0.01

5.615B

(Q/A~)M

@~lc, (QdD)M

10

>fl

..................(18)

WI

--

Cmmnarisan

=b.

r my.n

.J -- nTnTP.

.. . PAW.*-A

. . .. . . .. ...-4a

.. .lPAne**&

. . .. . . .. Dra-nma

. --------. --r-------

infinite-acting data lying on the dimensionless external radius

of 1000 branch fits either type-curve equally well. This is due

in part to the logarithmic approximation being valid for

= ~

(Q/A~)M

-,

.,

Jmf......

(10)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~-.,

Cr (QdD) M

radlux

950

One specific advantage of this technique is the match

between the field data and the analytic solution can be

displayed on one graph. Dimensionless rate and cumulative

production data during the infinite-acting period used in Fig.

2 obtained from Ehlig-Economides9 can alternative

obtained by combining van Everdingen and Hurst J,:

Sengulll. With infinite-acting dimensionless rate and cumulative tabular dat~ branches for specific dimensionless external

radks can be generated using eqs. 8 through 12. The

exponential solution, Eq. 7, can be used to generate boundary-dominated data after a tDA >0.1.

J$fi @)

must be available to determine a dimensionless external

radius. Selecting a dimensionless external radius combined

with the effective external radius calculated from the area

(eq. 18) provides the apparent wellbore radius. Rearrangement of eq. 3

e

r wa =.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(21)

eD

Two major assumptions, constant fluid compressibility and

constant fluid viscosity, inherent to the development of the

liquid solution require additional handling for the prediction

of flow rates and pressures for gas reservoirs. In 1%7 AlHussainy et al. 12 defined gas pseudopressure as

An assumption of reservoir geometry is not required to

solve for reservoir size or skin effect because the reservoir

shape factor is not involved. To determine permeabMy, an

assumed geometry (usually radial) is used to calculate B (eq.

12 or Table 1- General). No signiihnt difference occurs

selecting among other symmetrical drainage patterns such as

a well in the center of a square.

The vertical axes alignment along with a calculated or

approximated value of fi is used to determine permeability

~ _

SPE 030793

14123UJ3

11

@?/Ap)M

P* = Z &p

( pz

are pressure dependent functions.

Gas pseudopressure represents the potential difference or

driving force of fluid flow in the reservoir. Substitution of

pseudopressure in dimensionless rate results in the following

definition for gas reservoirs

,md . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (22)

@dD)M

Rate-Cunmlative

data

Dimensionless

Ad

u

Olatiw

1422qOT

%)=

F%mneter

mock

of Spread-sheet

a

k#(pPi-pPwf)

feA\

(L+)

Where q is the gas production rate (MCF/d), T is temperature ~R ! and k is the permeabtity to gas (red). Declinecurve dlmenslo

1$ ess rate can be obtained by eq. 9.

By replacing pressure with pseudopressure, drawdowns of

gas reservoirs during the infinite-acting time period can be

analyzed using semilog and type-curve matchktg techniques.

During boundary-dominated flow, gas wells producing at

constant pressure do not follow the exponential decline

predicted by the liquid solution. This was demonstrated in

1985 by C~er13, who presented a family of type curves

correlated by a parameter describing the severity of the

t+mwthun

~h~ detiadra.+JdoW~;the geater tht=

- .-.

.....-., . . ..$ the

---- lar~e~

.- ~-

L

Fig. 5- Sohemetic

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (23)

Matohing

Another technique, promoted here, is to obtain performance history matches in a computer spread-sheet. Incorporating the elements of Fig. 2 with the field data and a

parameter block, containing all reservoir parameters used in

the dlmensiordess variables, can be utiliied to non-dimensionalize the field data and compare it to the dimensionless

liquid solution. Fig. 5 shows the spread-sheet schematically.

External radius, permeability and skin can be adjusted until

under the condition of constant BHFP.

To account for the changes in viscosity and compressibility

in dimensionless time, Fraim and Wattenbarger14 in 1987 introduced a normaliid time function that drew together the

family of curves presented by Carter 13 into a single curve,

the liquid solution.

951

RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE

HISTORY MATCHING

USING RATE/CUMUb4TlVE

SPE 030793

TYPE-CURVES

fn(p -c)

OQdf

. .. .. ...

[ WI

Q.(U -c) =

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (25)

~s~gfn(lf

@(Pc~)i

-c)

9.WQn(U.c)T

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

~toaan

.(27)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

I Pcl

normalized time by Fraim and Wattenbarger14 can be found

in reference 15 and results in the definition of viscosity-compressibility normalized decline-curve cumulative:

average reservoir pressure. Dimensionless normalized

decline-curve dimensionless time becomes

t~~

@cf)idQ

(26)

..

. . . . . . . . . . . . . (28)

Q@ =

2 (Ppl.-PPWf)a

~]~(~cl) i Wa

dimensionless time and versus dimensionless normalized

time for Case 1 - Circular reservoir from Fraim and

Wattenbarger 14. This technique involves successive approximations of gas in place (GIP) using the gas material balance,

to interrelate average pressure through cumulative production to time. The method of computation for normalized

time requires a summation of time steps that is sensitive to

step size.

eqs. 25 and 27 indicate Viscosity-compressibility normalization.

Handling viscosity and compressibility in the cumulative

term also provides a simpler computation method for

normalization since fractional recovery, Q/GIp and p/z are

linearly related by the material balance equation:

. . . . . (29)

0

The integration in Eq. 27 can then be evaluated at intervals

of P/z as shown in Fig. 7.

A..\\i\\\%.[z

.

0.01 j

1,.

1.

4.

lquid sdutii

OdOJ& , ,

,i h ,

Ml

0.1

h

.; ~

gratity

= 0.601

Gas

\.

~

n.k

0.5

104

0.3

10

tdo

02

\\

.. ..

0.1

Fig. 6- RTDTC:

Wattenbsrger4)

j,,

,,,

0.1

0.2

,,,

41

0.4

4.6

;01

0,8

0?

08

.\,

,

+0

0.$

Q/GIP or (1-(P/z)/(P/zh)

Normalized Cumulative.

The constant rate/constant pressure identity revealed in

Fig. 4 suggest that it would be desirable to handle pressure

dependent viscosity and compressibility in the dimensionless

cumulative term. Using this technique, gas wells with

variable rate and variable flowing pressure could be plotted

as pseudopressure normalized production rate (PPNR) and

. . . ..Aa...,a.....-a

..a.-.. nA-nAcumumuvc

..-..1 -*:.... p---4..

-.:-- [r

/DmNTm\

maul

G IIUI UICIWXU

UUUCUUII

r INU~

y.=uuup,

on the RCDTC. This was investigated and found to be

effective. Viscosit y-compressibility normalization of cumula-

952

Fig. 7 - Viscosity-Compreasibiiity

Raoovery

Produet

production to actual cumulative production, or the viscosityctxnpressib]iity normalizing factor F-,..

..:

n~~-cj

Qn(u -c)

n(fl

-c)

.

Q

(30)

SPE 030793

because the drawdown is variable in pressure and variable in

rate. Table 2 presents reservoir and production data.

The numerically simulated data was generated for a well in

the center of a square. The data plot for this is presented in

Fig. 9 showing PPNR versus PPNC. The immediate observation is that all data is concave to the origin indicating

boundary-dominated data and therefore the RCDTC can be

used.

The normalizing factor (upper curve) and the viscositycompressibdity product ratio (lower curve) are shown versus

fractional recovery for the fluid properties associated with

Case 1 - Circular reservoir. Also shown as solid triangles

along the lower curve are viscosity-compressibility product

ratio data from Fraim and Wattenbarger 14. Techniques for

calculating viscosity and compressibility are developed in

Reference 15. Normalized cumulative production of field

data can then obtained by rearrangement of eq. 30:

Qn(fl-c) =~,,(u-c)

Q---

.--

(31)

Case 1

GIP yields fraction recovery. And fractional recovery yields

the viscosity-compressibility normalization factor by numerical integration of gas fluid properties.

Rate data from Fig. 6 was used with cumulative production

obtained by re-simulating Fraim and Wattenbarger14 Case

1 - Circular reservoir using a personal computer (PC)

version of Boast II lb and is presented on the RCDTC show

in Fig. 8.

0.3

Permeability to gas

-..

UP

Height

Temperature

Porosity

4.0s

80

636

10

Rate

md

BCF

ft

R

%

0.7

Gas gravity

Gas Saturation

Initial Pressure

Year

75

2500

Cumulative

Ww

%

psia

BHFP

*

PP

JwU!2E!

10~--

1

2

Im

10C4)

365

730

3

4

800

800

600

m

400

4002044

5

6

7

8

2500

1604

1361

1022

1352

1153

1216

1071

1197

1107

1314

1533

1752

1898

.4767 + E9

.2108+E9

.1538+E9

.1519+E9

.1116+E9

.1238+E9

.9762 + E8

.1200+E9

.1032+E9

.4

UJ{!W-,

---r-,

~~lTmJ--Y

,,lr,

BHFP

been demonstrated. Most importantly, constant pressure and

constant rate solutions are identical, providing the basis for

variable pressure variable rate analysis using PNR and PNC

for single phase liquid flow and PPNR and PPNC for single

phase gas flow. Secondly, for gas reservoirs, accounting for

viscosity-compressibility normalization in the dimensionless

cumulative term gives unique results without regard to stepsize of the field data and normalizes singie phase gas fiow to

the liquid solution. Both of these advantages will be demonstrated in the following application.

Id

MOOl

Tr-

0.001

Q/(m-mn MrFhi--%

Case 1.

function of gas fluid properties similar to Fig. 7 and a

polynomial curve fit of the factor as a function of fractional

Data for this example comes from Garb et al. 17, and also

Rodgers et al. 18. This e~mple was selected because of the

953

Reservoir

PERFORMANCE

HISTORY MATCHING

USINGRATE/CUMUUTIVE

SPE

- 030793

ty normalized cumulative using the rate-cumulative typecurve or semilog techniques. Boundary-dominated data,

concave to the origin, can be analyzed with the RCDTC

(Fig. 2) using viscosity-compressibility normalized cumulative. Fermeabdity and skin can be determined from a match

of the infinite-acting data and Area (or GIP) can be determined from boundary-dominated data. A flow chart for this

procedure is presented in Fig. 11.

Fn(ll-c) = a

+[%J+[&+[&

WPE-CURVES

F32

With a = 0.990

b = -0.579

C =

0.358

d = -0.238

-----:--..4 :...

- .LZ,-n . allluLU

. . . .. . kl-,-~

crm=arl.chw=t

.,,;*

; tk- o=.

WG1 G Illpul

111LU L1lG pal

u,uem

w,. !. . . . .Hw

wau

o...

G+mlate BtIfTs

Generate PM Pro@.v Tab!+

Poiymxniai

Cimwt

Pklt Pm

iltt

Bate

and

id

rhiiti-t)

Ma

If

Bxmdarv

DOnun.9kl

->

(-

Fp

Fhsrum

w PPNC

Mennine

RR

,

Yes

No

MA from GarbsMe 1

:------~

+

c

%

\,

0.1;

Detennme

pe&eatility and dim

Ftg. 11-

0.0 :r

01

Conclusions

Use of the liquid solution constant pressure rate-cumulative decline type-curve (RCDTC) can be extended to singlephase flow of compressible gases via the use of the viscositycompressibility normalization factor and gas pseudopressure.

Like gas pseudopressure,

the viscosity-compressibility

normalization factor can be determined from fluid properties

alone.

Because of the independence in step size of time intervals

in the determination of the viscosity-compressibility normalization factor, use of the RCDTC is superior to use of the

rate-time decline type-curve (RTDTC) even for wells

producing at constant BHFP.

10

Qdn

5,

b

BHFP

constant pressure RCDTC demonstrating the ability to

handle the variable BHFP case for gas reservoirs.

Type-Curve Matching Techniques: Gas Wells

Two preparation steps are required to analyze field declinecurves for gas wells. First, calculation of BHFP from lTP

must be performed for all data. This can be done most

efficiently in a programming language and the results

imported to a spread-sheet that contain the rate and cumulative data as described in Fig. 5.

The second step is to, again, use a program to calculate

compressibility factors, compressibility, and viscosity for the

gas gravity and temperature of the reservoir. Integrations can

be performed in the program to obtain gas pseudopressure

and viscosity compressibility normalizing factor. polynomial

tits, such as the one presented in the example application for

the normalizing factor, can also be made for gas pseudopressure as a function of BHFP. The coefficients for these two

fits can then be incorporated into the spread-sheet.

A data plot of PPNR versus PPNC is then made and flow

periods present are determined. Infinite-acting data, convex

to the origin, can be analyzed without viscosity-compressiblli-

Nomenclature

A= area (sq ft)

BHFP= bottom-hole flowing pressure (psi) same as P~

B= formation volume factor (rb/STB)

Bbl= barrel (5.615 ft3)

CA= Dietz shape factor

et= system total compressibility (psi-l)

FTP= flowing tubing pressure (psia)

F n(p-c) = viscosity-compressibility normalizing factor

n(m-c = mobility-compressibility normalizing factor

Gd=

gas in place (Mcf)

h= formation thickness (ft)

k= permeability (red)

kg= permeability to gas (red)

954

SPE 030793

PNC= pressure

normalized

cumulative

production

(STB/psi)

PPNR = pseudopressure normalized rate

PPNC= pseudopressure normalized cumulative

pD . dimensionless pressure

pdt) = decline-curve dimensionless pressure

gas pseudopressure (psiz/cp)

}:

initial pressure (psia)

Pp;= initial pseudopressure (psi2/cp)

P*= flowing bottom-hole pressure (psia)

Ppd= flowing bottom-hole pseudopressure (psi2/cp)

q= flow rate (STB/d)

9g= gas flow rate (MCF/d)

qD . dimensionless flow rate

qdD = decline-curve dimensionless flow rate

Q= cumulative production (STB for oil, MCF for gas)

Qn(u.c)= viscosity-compressibility normalized cumulative

production (MCF)

dimensionless cumulative production

~QD :

=Ctil

RCDTC=

RTDTC=

rw=

rm =

re=

reD=

s=

STB =

T=

t=

*n(u-c) =

tD =

fDA =

tdD=

Vp=

z=

~~~!~~~-rllweAim

---

. - ~A...

en.innlec.c,,m,,l

...

...

w,uu

...

6

7

-.=..nti.,~p~~~~~f~~fi

.

factor

@= porosity (fraction)

p.

fluid viscosity (cp)

Subscripts

M=

198, 171-176.

Uraite, A.A. and Raghavan, R.: Unsteady Flow to a

Well Producing at a Constant Pressure,.lPT (Oct. 1980)

1803-12.

Tsarevich, K.A. and Kuranov, I.F.: Calculation of the

Flow Rates for the Center Well in a Circular Reservoir

under Elastic Condhions, Problents of Reservoir Hydrodynamics, Part Z, Leningrad (1956) 9-34.

Eadougher, R.C. Jr.: Advances in Wel[ Test Analysis,

Henry L. Doherty Series, SPE, Richardson, TX (1977)

5.

Chen, H.Y. and Poston, S.W.: Application of a Pseudotime Function To Permit Better Decline-Curve Analysis, SPEFE (Sep 1989) 421-428.

Fetkovich, M.J.,: Decline Curve Analysis Using Type

Curves, JPT (June 1980) 1065-77.

Ehlig-Economides, C.A. and Ramey, H.J. Jr.: Transient

Rate Decline Analysis for Wells Produced at Constant

Pressure, SPEJ (Feb 1981) 98-104.

&li~Uuh~r.

0----,

R

-----C

.Tr

-..,

. . .. Rame.v

-._--. -J, H

---- .1 Jr

Miller

C,

. .. ... . . . .F .-.,

and

----

Reservoirs, JPT (Feb. 1%8) 199-208.

9 Ehlig-Economides, C.A.: Well Analysis for Wells

Produced at a Constant Pressure, PhD dissertation,

Stanford U., Stanford, CA (June 1979).

10 van Everdingen, A.F. and Hurst, W.: The Application

of the Laplace Transformation to Flow Problems in

Reservoirs, Trans., AIME (1949) 186,305-324.

11 Sengul, M.M.: Analysis of Step-Pressure Tests, paper

SPE 12175 presented at the 1983 Annual Technical

Conference and Exhibition, San Francisco, Oct. 5-8.

12 A1-Hussainy, R., Ramey, H.J., Jr., and Crawford, P.B.:

ml-.-..]m

--- n. .>..

rr,w

ml-n---- L-n -1 n---HOW 01 Keal Uases

I nrougn rorus Meala, Jr f

I m

(May 1966) 637-64% Trans., AIME, 237.

13 Carter, R. D.: Type Curves for Finite Radial and Linear

Gas-Flow Systems Constant-Terminal-Pressure

Case,

SPEI (Ott 1985) 719-28.

14 Fraim, M.L. and Wattenbarger, R.A.: Gas Reservoir

Decline-Curve Analysis Using Type Curves with Real

Gas Pseudopressure and Normalized Time, SPEFE

(Dee 1987) 671-682.

15 Canard, J.G.: Reservoir Performance History Matching

Using Type-Curves, PhD Dissertation, Louisiana State

U., Baton Rouge, LA (1994).

16 Stapp, L.G. and Allison, E.C.: Handbook for Personal

Computer Version of Boast II: A Three-Dimensional,

Three-Phase Black Oil Applied Simulation Tool, U.S.

Department of Energy Bartlesville Project Office,

Bartlesville, Ok. (Jan. 1989).

17 Garb, F.A., Rodgers, J.S., and Prasad, R.K.: 13nd Gas

In-Place from Shut-In or Flowing Pressures, Oil& Gas

J. (July 1973) 58-64.

rate-time decline type-curve

wellbore radius (ft)

apparent wellbore radius (ft)

external radius (ft)

dimensionless external radius

dimensionless skin

stock tank barrel (5.615 ft3)

reservoir temperature ~R)

time, days

viscosity-compressibility normalized time (days)

dimensionless time

ciimensioniess time based on drainage area

decline-curve dimensionless time

pore volume (Bbl)

gas compressibility factor (dimensionless)

Greek

a=

Acknowledgments

The author recognizes the Department of Energy grant

SBIR/DOE

DE-FG05-90ER80976

and the Society of

Petroleum Engineers for financial contributions.

References

1 van Everdingen, A.F.: The Skin Effect and Its Influence

955

.

10

RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE

HISTORY MATCHING

USING RATE/CUMULATIVE

Pressure History Analyses for Gas Reservoirs, SPEY

(April 1983) 209-18.

S1 Metric Conversion Factors

E-01 = m3

bbl x 1.599873

Cpx 1.0

E-03 = Pas

CU ft x 2.831685

E-02 = m3

E-01 =m

ft x 3.048

E-04 = pmz

md x 9.869233

EOO =kPa

psi x 6.894757

R X 5/9

= K

G3nvaraion

factor is exact,

956

TYPE-CURVES

SPE 030793

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