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Development of the Pig Embryo (Anterior)

Later Stages of Development of Pig Embryo follow pattern of development for the chick except for the following:
1. The formation of extraembryonic membranes
2. Additional role of allantois and or blood vessels in:
a. Excretion
b. Nutrition
c. Gaseous exchange thru placenta
3. Relationship of chorion and uterine endometrium in placenta
WHOLE MOUNT
Info before the sections:
-

Flexures and bending observed in the pig:


o Cranial
o Cervical
o Caudal
o Bending in lumbar and sacral regions
Due to limited space in uterine cavity
Results in formation of curved embryo
(resembling letter C)
Internal structures can be seen because of the THIN
SKIN (sarap chicharon hahaha)
Prosencephalon
o Olfactory Vesicles
Outgrowths at prosencephalon
At rostral end of the head
o Optic Vesicle
Ventrolateral to olfactory vesicle
swellings
o Otic Vesicle
Posterior
Lateral to myelencephalon
1st and 2nd Visceral Arches are prominent
o Mandibular (1st) arch

Provides basics of lower jaw


Posterior to maxillary processes
Below naso-medial processes
o Hyoid (2nd) arch
Source of hyoid skeleton
Hyomandibular cleft
o Between the 1st and 2nd visceral arches
3rd and 4th Visceral arches
o Not distinct
o Sunk deeper into the embryo in the Cervical
Sinus
Somites
o From trunk region to tail
o Superficial bulges
Position of Heart, Liver and Mesonephros
o Observed on lateral and ventral part of body
Paddle-shaped limb pads
o Close to a region (not specified) and close to a
tail region
o So there are 2 paddle shaped limb pads
Mammary Ridges
o Dorso- lateral swellings
o Between levels of forelimb and hindlimb buds

Transverse Section

**Note: Because of the flexions (cranial, cervical and caudal), the most cranial region region of specimen will not be
observed in the first few sections
- Level of the Myelencephalon
Name and Description

Location

Function / Cavity

Has wide ventricle IV


o Becomes
narrower as it
reaches level of
spinal cord
-

Fate

Derived From/
Arises From
-

Mesocoel/Cerebral
Aqueduct of Sylvius
o Leads to ventricle of
metencephalon via
the Isthmus
- Isthmus
o Narrow constriction
Both sides of wider
- Auditory (Otic) Vesicle
o Cavity beside duct
area of
seen posteriorly
myelencephalon
Lateral and parallel to - Nerve separates into 2
myelencephalon
posteriorly:
o DORSAL
Dorso-lateral to
myelencephalon
Jugular ganglion
lies lateral as it is
moved posteriorly
o VENTRAL
Ventral to above
- Level of the Mesencephalon and Metencephalon

Myelencephalon
Thin anterior wall
Thick posterior wall
Neuromere marking
seen posteriorly

Neuromeres
Undulations
Metencephalon
- Thick walled brain
region
- V - shaped
Mesencephalon
- Thick - walled

Endolymphatic Ducts
Cavities

Spinal Accessory
Nerve (XI)
Long, fibrous strand

Wall of
myelencephalon
Lower part of 4th
ventricle
Occupies lowermost
portions of brain

**Find out what the


ventricle is called**
-

Name and Description

Spinal Accessory
Nerve (XI)
- Dorsal portion almost
faded
o Frorleps
ganglion
observed instead
of dorsal portion
- Ventral Portion
o Still lies ventral to
above
Jugular Ganglion
- First ganglion of Vagus
Nerve (X) observed
- Large ganglionic mass
-

Location

Superior Ganglion
First ganglion of
glossopharyngeal nerve
(IX)
Smaller than jugular
ganglion
Auditory (Otic)
Vesicle
continuous with

Lateral to 11th
neuromere of
myelencephalon
Observed before
frorleps ganglion
-

Between jugular
ganglion and auditory
vesicle

Fate

Derived From/
Arises From
-

Nodose Ganglion
- Second ganglion of vagus
nerve
Frorleps Ganglion - Both sides of brain
- Small but prominent
caudal to roots of
ganglion
spinal accessory
nerve (XII)
Hypoglossal Nerve
(XII)
-

Function /
Cavity/Takes Place

Streaks of vagus
nerve takes place of
ganglion posteriorly

Takes place of streaks


of vagus nerve as it
fades out
-

It is the hypoglossal
nerve if the frorleps
ganglion is in view

replaced by a second
ganglion of the IXth
nerve (petrosal
ganglion)

Future utriculus of
inner ear now in view
Rudiment of

In Posterior
Section;
represented by

ORIGINATES:
Minute branches of
nerves from
ventrolateral wall of
Myelencephalon
-

endolymphatic duct

Facial Nerve (VII)


bundles of fibers from
myelencephalon to its
ganglion, the geniculate
Auditory Nerve (VIII)
- best observed posteriorly
Auditory Ganglion
-

Posterior
Semicircular Canal
o Projection on top of
future utriculus
- Rudiment of
Anterior
Semicircular Canal
o Projection on
bottom of future
utriculus

future
sacculus
- Future
Sacculus
o no projection
and connection
with
endolymphatic
duct
o closely related
to auditory
nerve
-

Below auditory vesicle


-

Occulomotor Nerve
(III)
Small bodies of nerve
fibers

In Mesenchyme
At level when
metencephalon has
separated from
mesencephalon

Semilunar
(Gasserian) Ganglion
- Ganglion of Trigeminal Nerve
(V)
- Biggest ganglion so far of all
cranial ganglia
Trigeminal Nerves
(V)
Basilar Artery
- Small blood vessels

- Associated with
metencephalon
-

Lying in midline
Beneath
metencephalon

Auditory Ganglion +
Geniculate ganglion =
Acoustico Facialis
ganglion

ARISES FROM:
Myelencephalon

ARISES FROM:
Metencephalon

Abducens Nerve (VI)


- Small nerves

Growing out on sides


of myelencephalon
and future sacculus

Name and Description


-

ARISES FROM:
Myelencephalo

Level of Pharyngeal Cavity and Diencephalon

Location

Pharyngeal Cavity
Appears divided
because of cranial
flexure
o Anterior Portion
Ventral
Cavity
leads to
stomodeu
m
o Posterior Portion
Dorsal
Cavity
leads to
Trachea &
Stomodeu
m

TONGUE RUDIMENTS
A. Tuberculum Impar
- Median swelling
B. Lateral Tongue
Swellings
- Paired elevations
C. Copula
- swellings
-

- Disappears posteriorly

At lower portion of bridge


leads to stomodeum
Both sides of tuberculum
impar
On Top of tuberculum
impar
Occupies medial pat of
visceral arch 2

Function /
Cavity/Takes Place
- Bridge of
mesenchyme
o Separates
anterior and
posterior
portion
o First Few of
Bridge shows
paired 1st
pharyngeal
(branchial)
arches
connected
o Broadens,
also shows
2nd
pharyngeal
arches
connected
-

Protrude to cavity
leads to trachea
and esophagus
POSTERIORLY:
o Union of 3rd

Derived From/
Arises From
-

Fate

Pati manual
tinanong ano
fate ng tongue
rudiment
amputa

ARISES FROM
Pharyngeal floor at
bases of 2nd & 3rd
Branchial arches

- Epiglottis
Median swelling

- On top of connected
paired 3rdpharyngeal
arches
-

First Pharyngeal
Pouch
- Bounded by
Mandibular arch lower
portion
- Hyoid arch on upper portion
- Maxillary Process
- Prominence or outgrowth
below mandibular arch

- Rathkes Pouch
Appears like a cavity on
top of the diencephalons
which opens to
stomodeum

Edi tongue.
Tongue rudiment
eh? kaloka

Hyomandibular
Cleft
o Where pouch
opens to outside
posteriorly

Maxillary &
Mandibular Process
DERIVED FROM
- 1st Branchial Arch
ARISES FROM
- Dorsal
evagination of
stomodeum
extends under
diencephalon to
infundibulum
-

- Diencephalon
Laterally compressed brain
- SPINAL CORD
- Spinal nerves basis of
differentiation for
myelen and spinal cord

pharyngeal arch observed


o This widens
mesenchyme
bridge
Took place of
copula

bears ventricle III

A. FLOOR PLATE
- On top of notochord
Thin wall of spinal cord

B. BASAL PLATE

Indicates fusion of

C. ROOF PLATE

What is the fate


of the
Infundibulum?
Hypophysis (??)
pls confirm

Most dorsal cavity No marked


boundary
separating it from
myelencephalon
Corresponds to
neural groove
during neural plate
stage
-

- Lies antero-ventrally on
sides of floor plate
-

DERIVED FROM
3rd and 4th
pharyngeal arches

Thin mid-dorsal wall


-

D. ALAR PLATE

- Lies postero-ventrally on
both sides of roof plate
E. SULCUS LIMITANS - Depression on inner
wall
- Nodose
- Big pair of ganglia on top
Ganglion
of both sides of cavity
- 2nd ganglion of Vagus
- Leads to trachea and
Nerve
esophagus
Anterior (Cranial) - Close to top of nodose
Cardinal (Precardinal
ganglia
Vein)
- Pair of ganglia

Dorsal Aorta
Pair of artery

Anterior Sections
Shows:
- Paired big vessels
between posterior
section of sacculus
Posterior Sections
Shows:
- Paired vessels
dorsally located
and close to
epidermis
-

- Close to anterior cardinal


vein and nodose
ganglion
- Towards inner side of
body of embryo

Name and Description


-

Spinal Ganglia

4th Pharyngeal
Pouches

Level of Pharynx

Location

On dorsal roots of
spinal nerves
On both sides of
inverted u shaped

Marks boundary
between alar and
basal plates

neural folds
Lamina
Terminalis
o Most anterior is
the forward
extension

Function /
Cavity/Takes Place
-

Parathyroid
Small diverticulum

Fate

Derived From/
Arises From
-

Parathyroid
arises from:

Lateral recesses

cavity of pharynx

Ultimobranchial
body
(rudimentary 5th
pharyngeal pouch/lateral
pouch)
Arytenoid Swellings
- Cause for U-shaped
appearance of pharynx

On ventral wall of 4th


pharyngeal pouch

Swellings from
pharyngeal floor

Between pair of
arytenoid swellings
Below glottis

On top of
ultimobranchial body
Beside dorsal aortas
outer periphery

Glottis

Larynx

Dorsal Aorta
Pair of big blood vessels
Anterior Cardinal
Vein
- Big blood vessels
Ventral Aorta
- Bears arytenoid
swellings

Artery below larynx


in mesenchymal
mass

- On sides of diencephalon

Fate of
Arytenoid
swellings?
Yoq na bes
-

Space or cavity
Leads to larynx
Cavity in
mesenchymal mass
-

Eye
-Studied at level of
diencephalon
A. OPTIC CUP
-Rounded or elongated
structure
B. SENSORY RETINA
- Inner thicker layer of optic

Small depression or
cavity of epithelial
lining

POSTERIORLY
Connection of
paired 3rd branchial
arch, ventral aorta
and dorsal aorta
Thyroid Gland
o Mass cells below
ventral aorta
o Found at start of
union/connectio
n

(anteriorly)
FORMED:
- Paired branchial (aortic)
arch meet to form
ventral aorta
- Thyroid Gland
(DERIVED)
- At level between 2nd
pharyngeal
epithelium and push
into mesenchyme
-

Optic nerves

Dorsal wall of
epithelium of 4th
Pharyngeal Pouch

cup

C. PIGMENTED
EPITHELIUM
-Outer thinner layer of optic
cup
D. LENS VESICLE
- Small sac like structure
within optic cup

- Choroid fissure
groove

- on ventral rim of optic


cup

- Optic Stalk
Narrow space
-

Corneal Epithelium

Name and Description


-

Pharynx
Smaller before
Larynx

emerge from inner


retina converges
at choroid fissure
on its way to the
brain
What do you call
the brownish
pigment in it?
Hay jusq di ko alam
-

How did it
arise???
Invagination of
Skin Ectoderm (pls
confirm)
-

area where portion of optic cup is


missing (dorsal
side)
- Connecting optic
cup and
diencephalon
- Skin ectoderm
covering lens
vesicle
Level of the Pulmonary Aorta and Telencephalon

Location

Function /
Cavity/Takes Place
-

- Small cavity below


pharynx
Paired 6th Aortic Arch - on mesenchymal mass
below pharynx
Pulmonary Trunk of Conus Arteriosus
Bulbus Cordis
- Chamber of heart

Fate

Derived From/
Arises From
-

Unites to form arm


of Y shaped figure
Lower portion of Y
shaped figure
Where pulmonary
trunk is extended
ventrally
Blood Flow

Aortic Trunk
Blood vessel
Pericardial Cavity

Telencephalon
Continuation of
diencephalon

- Beside pulmonary trunk


-

Nasal Pit
- On lateral surfaces of
Pair of cavities
head close to upper
Olfactory Pit extends to
portion of
oral cavity
telencephalon

Olfactory Nerves
Streak of nerves
Synonym: Olfactory

- Between nasal pit and


anteroventral wall of
telencephalon

Ventricle Bulbus
Cordis Ventral Aorta
Aortic Arches
- Embedded in
bulbus cordis
- Where bulbus
cordis lies
Telencephalic
Vesicles
- Lateral outgrowths
- Ventricle I and III
Interventricular
Foramen
- Means of ventricles
to communicate
Foramen of
Monro
- Communicate
ventricle III of
diencephalon with
Telencephalic
vesicles
- Elevated regions of
mesenchyme
- Lateral and medial
regions of
mesenchyme if
moved posteriorly
Posterior Nares/
Nasal Choanae
- opening of pit to
oral cavity
Nostrils/ External
Nares
external openings
-

What is the
fate of the Lateral
and Medial Nasal
processes???
Who knows?
We might never
know

PIT DEEPENING
(ARISES)
- Olfactory pit
invagination and
growth of nasal
processes
-

Pit
-

Name and Description

Esophagus
Tiny, thick walled
circular hole
Trachea
- Thick walled cavity
Apical Bronchus
Synonym: Eparterial
Bronchus
-

Level of Heart and Apical Bronchus

Location

- Beneath paired dorsal


aorta

Function /
Cavity/Takes Place

- Beneath esophagus

Marks union of
anterior and
posterior cardinal
veins

Where common
cardinals open
Valvulae Venosae
guard the entrance
into atria
prevents backflow
of blood from atria
to sinus venosus

Derived From/
Arises From
-

Atrium
thin walled portion of
heart
no signs of musculature

Took place of larynx


-

Common Cardinal - Beside dorsal aorta


Veins
- Bigger pair of cardinal
veins
- Syonyms: Ducts of
Cuvier
Sinus Venosus
- Thin walled chamber

Fate

Interatrial
Septum
- Marks right and left
chambers
Interatrial
Foramen
- Small opening
between right and
left chambers

Fate?
Feel ko lungs
haha pls confirm
-

Fate of
Openings of
common
cardinals:
ATRIA

ARISES FROM
Unapired
evagination of
trachea on right side
-

Fate of Sinus
Venosus?
IDK
-

Ventricle
Thick walled chamber
of heart

Atrioventricular
Canal (Left & Right)
-Keeps atria and ventricles
continuous

Endocardial Cushion- In between left and right


Mass of mesenchyme
atrioventricular canals
Pericardial Cavity
Parietal Pericardium

Trabeculae
Carnae
- Muscular ridges on
ventricle
Interventricular
Septum
- Dorsally incomplete
- Presence of
interventricular
foramen
-

Wall of the Heart


A. Endocardium
- Close contact with blood
- Inner layer of heart
B. Myocardium
- Middle and thickest layer of
heart
C. Epicardium
Outer layer of outer lining of
heart
- Synonym: Visceral
Pericardium

Cavity enclosing
heart
Lining of Pericardial
Cavity

What valves
will develop
within the
right
atrioventricul
ar canal? Left
atrioventricul
ar canal?