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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA KAMPUS SERI ISKANDAR

AAR 651 - CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY V
INDUSTRIALIZED BUILDING SYSTEM (IBS) CONSTRUCTION

CASE STUDY : PR1MA SUNGAI RAIA, KAMPAR
PERUMAHAN RAKYAT 1 MALAYSIA (PR1MA) DIATAS PT22818 (LOT 333441) MUKIM SUNGAI
RAIA, DAERAH KINTA, PERAK DARUL RIDZUAN
EN FADHLIZIL B ABDUL MUNIR

AMIRA BT HASNUL JAMAL
2013898792
AMIRUL SYAFIQ BIN ABU
2013612938
MUHAMMAD IZZAD BIN AZIZI
2013408852
NUR AMYLIYA BT ARIS
2013814538
NURUL INTAN NATASHA BT MOHD HAMDAN
2013415912

NO

TABLE OF CONTENT

PAGES

INTRODUCTION
1.0
2.O

3.0

4.0

SITE CONSTRUCTION
1.1 SITE LOCATION
1.2 CONSTRUCTION
ENDURO FRAME BUILDING SYSTEM
2.1 INTRODUCTION OF ENDURO FRAME
BUILDING SYSTEM
2.2 ENDUROFRAME INSTALLATION SYSTEM
2.3 DEFINITION OF TERMS-PART IDENTIFICATION
2.4 ENDUROWALL FRAME ASSEMBLY
ENDUROWALL FRAME AND CONSTRUCTION
3.1 GENERAL AND DESIGN PERSPECTIVE
3.2 WALL FRAME SETOUT
3.3 WALL FRAME INSTALLATION
3.4 WALL FRAME CONNECTION
3.5 FASTENERS
ENDUROTRUSS ROOF AND CONSTRUCTION
4.1 GENERAL DESIGN AND PERSPECTIVE
4.2
ENDUROTRUSS
FRAMING
SYSTEM
ASSEMBLIES
4.3 ON SITE HANDLING
4.4 ROOF CONSTRUCTION TYPE
REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION

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2-3
4-5
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5-6
6-8

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9-12
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15-17
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19-20

With an aim to plan, develop, construct and maintain high-quality housing with
lifestyle concepts for middle-income households in key urban centre, PR1MA
providing a residential that comes with ample facilities such as surau, multipurpose
hall, kindergarten and nursery, guard house as a part of the security and shops
within the guarded residential area.
PR1MA homes that located in Taman Raia Mesra, Kampar comes in various types of
unit within an integrated community, sensibly design to suit different household
needs. The residential project comprises 32 block of housing with an easy acces
from the main road Simpang Pulai – Lumut, Jalan Gopeng, Jalan Raja Dr Nazrin Shah
and Jalan Raja musa Mahadi

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1.SITE CONSTRUCTION

nursery and kindergarten. Piling system is used to ensure stability of the ground soil of the building.1 GROUND SLAB CONSTRUCTION For this construction.2. durability and economical factor .Because of its toughness.1(b) Shows key plan of site project for PR1MA Sg. the ground slab is constructed manually. This site uses the deep foundation system that is piling system and pad foundation.1(c) Facilities that this site offers are surau. Jalan Raja Muda Musa Mahadi and Jalan Dr Nazrin Shah 1. multi-purpose hall.1.1 TYPE OF PILING Pre-cast pre stressed concrete pile.2. Figure 1.1.1 SITE LOCATION Figure 1. All loads that are transfer to the foundation will be transferred to piling.1(a) Shows location plan of site project 1. shops and guard house Figure 1. Jalan Gopeng.2 CONSTRUCTION 1. And it will transfer to the deep ground soil.Raia This site can be easily access from Jalan Utama Simpang Pulai – Lumut.

1. type of site soil and type of foundation is determined by soil investigation by the geotechnical department.1(a) type of piling used in construction site in IBS system 1.The site is first analyzed to determine the location and the length of the pile .2 TYES OF FOUNDATION - The type of foundation used the site is pad foundation Foundation is important for all building and structures as it prevents settling. Pad foundation is used for its site soil provided is hard soil.2.The pile is driven into the soil until its maximum penetration Figure 1.2GROUND BEAM CONSTRUCTION Ground beam is a structure element to connect adjacent pie caps to remove the stability of the foundation. It also acts to bear all the loads come from the wall which constructed paralled with the beam.Installed using impact pile driving hammers on the location based on construction drawings .0 ENDURO FRAME BUILDING SYSTEM . fix and holds fitly the columns in order to stabilize it. 1. its function is to form a firmer support by bridging between piles and pad footing. 2.2.2.d) Process and method of construction .2. It ties and connect the columns.2(a)The formwork is first installed and then the concrete is poured into the formwork for ground beam Figure 1.

Pre punched service hole. the framing system can reduce material wastage.2. i. Enduro Frame System was first used in Australia and had been recently introduced to Malaysia. were supplied by Ajiya and NS metal. Fast to assemble. vi.1 INTRODUCTION OF ENDURO FRAME BUILDING SYSTEM 2. both products supplier in on the global building and Figure 2.1 ADVANTAGES OF ENDURO FRAME BUILDING SYSTEM The framing system used in the construction is Enduro Building System. This reduces the time to drill out holes for services purposes.1(a) Enduro Frame System used on site. . Figure2. glass and steel Malaysia. iv. The framing material are also non combustible.punched. Easy to Install Enduro frame is much lighter than timber trusses although the construction is very much similar to timber construction.1. Light Weight EnduroFrame building sytem uses light gauge steel thus making it significantly lighter in weight and can reduce safety risk associated with lifting bulky and heavy items on site.1. Made from the mixture of zinc and aluminium alloy coated steel with a distinctive resin finishes on its surface. Reduce material wastage. The light weight and easy way of assembling the framing system reduces the duration of time to assemble the frame on site. Enduro Frame building system provides quality steel frame for builders and home owners. With efficient use. two years ago. The framing system comes with all service holes that were pre. Superior Thermal comfort iii.1.1(B) showpre punched service hole on the frames used on site The materials used on site BlueScope Malaysia.1(b) Enduro Frame System used on site.1(A) figure2. It is made from Truecore steel and it is 100% termite and borer proof. the v. Figure2.Reduce labour The quick and easy assembling process of Enduroframe building sytem makes it requires only small number of labour to assemble the frame on site. vii. principally focused construction industry. In our project. reducing the amount of flammable in a home. making it easier to be installed on site. thus it does not require any additional chemical treatment to protect them from pest attack. ii. It is manufactured from light gauge steel and is simply screwed together. All electricals and plumbing system will then be snapped in a grommett and pulled through the cables.

safe. they should be blocked above the ground to protect them from ground water through the following methods a) If the frames are stored horizontally.2. to prevent bending of the frames b) If the frames are stored vertically.2. 2. Resistant to strong winds and earthquakes The structural integrity of steel frame houses has demonstrated in full-scale simulations that it stays straight.3 DEFINITION OF TERMS-PART IDENTIFICATION . true and most importantly.0m to 1. the blocking should be at 1.viii. 2.2ON-SITE STORAGE When the frames are stored on site.2 ENDUROFRAME INSTALLATION SYSTEM 2.2. The designs are detailed by a certified user of ENDUROCADD software system.2. ix. they should be supported at the designed support locations and in a manner that will prevent them from tipping or toppling.3 MATERIAL SPECIFICATION Figure 2.1 ON-SITE HANDLING Lifting.2. Figure2. This means that the designs detailed are not required to be signed off by a structural engineer.2 (a) Frames stacked horizontally on site 2. Frames must be fully supported in either horizontal or vertical planes when being transported.3(a) Ribbed Cee Section of frame used on site. Care must be taken when tying down and lifting wall frames not to put an excessive pressure on joints. loading and transportation of steel frames shall be accomplished with sufficient care to prevent damage. suitable lifting methods are required to minimise racking loads or local distortion of members.5m centres or as required at joints. Self-certified and fully engineered One of the main advantage of ENDUROFRAME building system is the self certified and is fully engineered. When a crane is used to unload. 2.

For short parts. Common Studs These studs functions as the support to the vertical loads from top wall playes by rafters and trusses. The internal walls may also be used as lateral bracing walls. Jamb studs.jamb studs on the sides of the opening. With this information. Part Number and Part Usage.4 ENDUROWALL FRAME ASSEMBLY All ENDUROWALL parts are coded with information to assist erectors in the assembly process. Load wall vertical the above lateral caused wind. 2. Bracing may be strap. Nogging Noggings provide lateral and torsional restraint to the studs. i. These forces arise from wind or earthquake loads. viii. iv. placed anywhere on its span to produce the maximum action effect during construction. Jamb studs are placed on each sides of an opening. iii. Bearing carries loads from structure or the loads by the ii. walls and floors to the appropriate ceiling and floor diaphragms. vi. erectors can easily identify what the part is and where it is intended to be used in the structure. v. Tie-Down Framing connection used to both locate frame components and resist wind uplift forces. Studs supporting concentrated loads These studs are installed to carry concentrated vertical loads arising from support for principal roof and floor supporting members. The parts are coded in the following order: Job Name/Number. some of this information is deleted. Wall Plate Load bearing wall plates are designed to transfer vertical loads to studs when the trusses or floor joists are not directly in line with the studs. This matches the part information shown on the assembly drawings. function to support loads from lintel over the opening and the horizontal wind loads passing through the opening. channel or membrane type. Figure 2. Figure 2. internal walls which do not supports truss loads. In addition nogging must be designed to support an imposed concentrated load. ix. ceiling joists and horizontal wind and seismic loads.3(a) The terms used for each part of the framing system Load Bearing Wall. Frame Number. vii.4 Information coded on steel frame used on site. Non Load Bearing walls. x.Lintels Lintels are designed to transfer vertical loads applied over the opening to the . Wall Bracing Wall bracings are required to transfer all the horizontal forces from roof.

.4.4(a) The unpacked frames were identified and collected according to the different parts. 2. 2) FRAME LAYOUT AND ASSEMBLY 4) NOGGING INSTALLATION The noggings were joined to the common studs by sliding the noggings onto the studs starting from base of frame. spaced out & orientated frame as per assembly sheet. When carrying out the primary assembly of the frame align notch holes as shown and install trilobular fastener in holes.4(c) show all studs layed in sequential order. by installing trilobular fastener. The top studs were aligned with the top of studs and screwed together at both ends.4(b) and Figure 2. Figure2.4(d) and Figure 2.Figure 2. The different parts were identified from the branding information on the parts and matched together. The fixing holes where then aligned and fixed to the studs. The unpacked frames were sorted into frame lots using branding as manual.1 PLEMINARY WORK 3) FIXED AT STUDS 1) PART IDENTIFICATION Figure 2.4(e)show holes were aligned and fixed at studs.4(F) Connection of studs to the top plate using trilobular fasterner Figure 2.

Figure2. The frame should be squared before installing any bracing. . Figure 2. the overall dimensions of the frame against the supplied Assembly Sheet should be checked.4(g) The installation of nogging onto studs. These marks should be applied to the side of the bottom plate. 7) STACK COMLETED WALL FRAMES BEFORE INSTALLATIONS . 6) MARKING FRAMES Frames should be identified with panel number and the number of any adjoining walls at the appropriate locations.4(h) Connection of nogging on the studs Completed wall frames to be stacked in a flat area ready for installation. It is best to stack the wall frames in bundles close to the final installation position to ease the process of installation and also to save time of installation.4(i) Connection of nogging on the studs 5) WALL FRAMES AND PREPARE FOR OPENINGS Before inserting any bracing or lintels.Figure 2.

minimum fastener spacing is 17mm and minimum distance is 17mm to the edge of sections.RAIA ZONE( BATU GAJAH ) project.1.3 LOAD BEARING WALL The worker should ensure all the loads from both internal and external walls are accommodated in the foundation of sub-flooring.4 FASTENERS 3.1 GENERAL AND DESIGN PERSPECTIVE ENDUROWALL frames have been design based on engineering standards and perform as designed essentially. confusion and unnecessary handling. 3.In connection.1. All the components selected from ENDUROFRAME Building System Design Manual and detailed were desined using ENDUROCADD design software to suit specifically in construction method like roof.The recommended number used based on drawings. etc will require special time consideration in term of design and placing the loads. 3. 3. (10-16X16mm wafer) or hex head or (12-14x20mm) hex head self-drilling screws are used for all structural connections in the project.All the approval and permission for site rectification must be obtained from the manufacturer.The following recommendation apply to wall frames on standard domestic and light commercial building.The walls are generally constructed by accces to the whole .the frames and the floor structure is carried out in accordance with this manual as specifified design. in AJIYA’s IBS project using ENDUROWALL . erected and braced correctly according to manual guide.4(j) and 2. Check again if there any deficient in support structure prior to proceeding.4 (k) show wall frames stacked together before installation process. the plumb and the level of structure support and alignment of walls and beams so the structure will adequate braced tied down and stable . floor load which appropriate and respect towards site and architecture. 3. 3. Supervisor from IBS company will ensure that the barriers or scaffolding used in order to comply safe work practice are installed in construction so no damage or overload wall components will occur during construction.These kind of additional should be referred back to the architect/designer to ensure and archieve good performance of wall frames and roof since wind load is one of important factor in design.Unload and unpack all the panels and put them near required posiions to avoid missplaced .3 WALL FRAME INSTALLATION Step 1 : Identify each panel frames location using ENDUROCADD which is software generated Panel Layout supplied by manufacturer. Measure and check the diagonals of marked wall positions.1 PRIOR TO CONSTRUCTION There are a few steps before commencing construcrion of the wall: We have to check the support of the structure particular with the plan dimensions . 3.1.2 WALL FRAME SETOUT By lifting any frames into a right place .1.Additional loading such as mechanical ventilation system like Air-Condition.2 SAFETY Figure 2.It handled . Any damaged parts must be reported in wall frames inspection to make sure a correct rectification.In our site they apply the ENDUROWALL system for standard domestic residental for PR1MA @ SG.Correct design wind loads will tie Usually . we have to mark out the frame locations on the floor and surveyor will mark and set the offset of frames location which supplied Wall Framing Layout as a reference.0 ENDUROWALL FRAME & CONSTRUCTION 3.

3(b) shows the first wall frame on the location points at the site Step 2 : From the builder corner .3(a) Consult plan layout before starting.This joints usually used to connect two walls where there is no junction .Beside that temporary bracing should be used to secure the wall end which is not fixed to the second wall frame panel. Step 3 : Stand the wall frame on exact location points. Figure 3.By doing this .Joints are made by screwing the adjacent studs at bottom and mid points.Make sure all the lines are square and right into position before proceeding the construction. they trying to fit the interior walls after perimeter of project finished. mark the position of walls on the slab or floor using chalk/pencil line. Step 4 : Stand the next wall section in right position and fix it to the first section using 1016x16mm hex and head screw. Figure 3.All the number for wall assigned by ENDUROCADD software to help identify location.Use a piece of chanel to secure the wall frame.site .However we have to check the drawings as this may be vary. .Complete each junction before prodeeding to next frame panel to avoid confusion.Normally external wall are detailed around 150mm from the face of the brick with 75mm cavity with studs.

3(c) Place second wall in position using chalk line as a manual and flush against first wall. Figure 3.The fixing are installed next to the opening of jamb studs where tension bracing attaches to the bottom plate.3(e) Fix using a butt joint at base of wall. . make sure the rooms are square by measuring and comparing diagonals and fix down using recommended fixing shown in the plan drawings.Figure 3. Figure 3.After that .After all wall panels are erected correctly . Step 5 : Make sure all the interior wall panel erected before completing the perimeter .3(d) Temporary bracing should be used to secure the end of the wall which is not fixed to the second (or subsequent) walls. move the frames in the right position which indicated by chalk/pencil line.

Figure 3.Figure 3.3(g) End and interior walls are fixed into position.3(f)Place interior walls using chalk lines as manual. .

Figure 3. Step 6 : Place final assembled wall frame on the chalk/pencil line and remove the bracing.3(I) Position final wall. . Step 7 : Make sure all diagonal follow drawing measurement and the structure is square Figure 3.the walls can be fixed tothe floor through bottom plate of the wall frame panel using the hold downs at spacing which specified by the Detailer.3(h) End wall placed into position and temporarily braced using clamps and/or TOPSPAN battens.Once in position .Join walls at the corner bottom and mid-height using extended drill bit based on architectural drawing.

3 (l) Align walls with chalk marks and put into final position before fixing. Figure 3.3 (k) Position and fix final wall using extension bit. . Figure 3.Figure 3.3(j) Remove last of the temporary bracing.

Based on specified drawing layout .Plumb the frame by adjusting the bracing floor.3(q) Use a length of Topspan batten to hold the frame square until bracing can be tensioned.3(o) Measure lengths at bottom and top of wall to check frame is square.3 (n)Check walls for plumb.Suitable temporary braces should be use toposition allignand plumb the wall Figure 3. Step 9 : Fasten the bracing straps of wall frames at each stud t provide rattle within walls and nogging bracingafter lining.4 WALL FRAME CONNECTION Figure 3. Figure 3. fix at the top/bottom of the wall. Step 11: Step 10: The studs and plate connection require screw fixing as specified for specified site conditions. . tensioners.Make sure to use 10-16x16 wafer head screws in brick construction.3 (m) Screw bottom plate into final frames until the on roof is completed. additional permanent bracing may require site fitting. Figure 3.Step 8 : Using a spirit level and straight edge to check if the frame is stable and follow the standard. Figure 3. 3.3(p)Once the frame is plumb and square.

4(b) shows typical floor connection used in construction to joint the frames. Option 1.Shahrin who is project engineer of AJIYA’s company . in this project mostly we used type connection of option 3 because of site conditions and based on loads calculation. Typical non cyclonic hold down connections Option 3 The designer will specified the hold down of frame components to used for each job.Based on explaination by En. Figure 3.There are a few types of connection of wallframes.In our site.4(c) Shows typical floor connection used in construction Figure 3.a Figure 3.4(a) shows typical floor connection used in construction Option 2 .

5(b) show types of brackets that used in construction. Figure 3.5(d) show 10-16x16mm hex screw used for jointing the frames and as connectors to truss .The fasteners below in figure 2222222 are suitable for fixing structural steel frames together. Figure 3.0 ENDUROTRUSS ROOF .5 (c) show 10-16x16mm drilling screw used for jointing the frames Figure 3.5(a)show types of fasteners that used in construction.The fasteners should be approved by BlueScope.5 FASTENERS There are a few class of fasteners but on our site they used a stipulated fasteners inAS3566. battens and concrete Figure 3. 4.3.

step ladder. 4.measuring tape are needed.vice grips.2 ENDUROTRUSS FRAMING SYSTEM ASSEMBLIES The figures below show the steps for trusses assembly.the 8mm (5/16") hexagon socket.3 TOOLS AND EQUIPTMENT Power tools are needed to erect the truss system such as screw gun.1 GENERAL DESIGN AND PERSPECTIVE The roof for this construction used a part of ENDUROFRAME system called ENDUROTRUSS® System.earth leakage circuit breaker for electrical goods and all protection harness 4.hearing protection (when using power tools).Truss Layout & Chord Assembly . 4. Figure 4.This power tools is supported by it’s accessories. This system were construct from Truecore Steel that act as the structural base.EnduroCadd. and the number prefixed with Z or AM indicates minimum coating mass in g/m2. Identify the chords and webs from the branding information on the parts.00mm BMT. They also gives the very flat roof plane and can be handle by unskilled workers.hand held metal cutting saw and angle grinder. It can handle the geometrically complex trusses due to it’s self-jigging characteristic of the trusses. TRUECORE® G550 AM150 steel 1.protective gloves.1. The workers also must wearing the safety equiptment when the erection process occurs. double action tin snips.2 (a) shows the first step of truss assembly.extension bar (length up to 150mm). 0. In the grade shown. The core of the system is patened steel truss which are design digitally from it’s very own software.75mm BMT.spirit level.1.20mm BMT. The software will automatically provided the designed structure and gives all the requirement for construction.1. the number prefixed with G indicates minimum yield stress in MPa. and 8mm spanner or socket. TRUECORE® G550 AM150 steel 1.1 (b) shows the S100 section and boxed S100 section 4.4.metal cutting saw.1(a) show the S75 section and boxed S75 section Unpack the trusses and sort into truss lots using the branding as a guide. Step 2 .Part Identification Figure 4.2 MATERIAL SPECIFICATION ENDUROTRUSS sections are roll-formed from TRUECORE steel complying with AS1397:2011. TRUECORE® G550 AM150 steel 0. Step 1 .Suitable metal cutting blade. The safety equipment are eye protection (safety goggles).55mm BMT. Some of the hand tools were used in its erection process. TRUECORE® G500 AM150 steel Figure 4. The standard ENDUROTRUSS® sections are shown in figure below.chalk line.1 THE ADVANTAGES The steel framing is not easily rot or warp and the stell are light and easy to erect.

2(d)Align notch holes as shown and install a locating truss screw in holes Step 5 . Step 4 . Lay down and and align as per chords to allow truss screw by chords to identify the chords on a level surface assembly drawing.Align holes and install a locating truss screw . Figure 4.Web Installation Step 3 . Figure 4. webs are joined and they will attached.2(e) shows the fifth step of truss assembly.2(c) shows the third step of truss assembly.Fix screw at apex or knee and install a locating truss . Pre-notched the the parts to overlap as shown.Positioning each one over the truss chords by snip or snap the webs apart near the final location. In order to required for assembly(left to right).Figure 4. Cutting or snapping the pieces apart to separating the linked webs.knee and heel. Locating pre-punched holes to connecting the apex.2 (b) shows the second step of truss assembly.fix at heels Figure 4.

3.2 (g) shows the sixth step of truss assembly.Align holes and fix connection with a locating truss screw Before inserting any stiffeners or reinforcing screws check the overall dimensions of the truss against the Assembly Sheet.Overall Quality Check 4. Figure 4. Excessive pressure are not nessecary to be put onto it’s chords.3 ON SITE HANDLING Step 7 .2 (h) shows the seventh step of truss assembly.1 SLINGS Horizontal and vertical plane are fully support the trusses when it being transported.Figure 4. . Figure 4. Step 6 . 4. Most of trusses for single storey may be lifted by hand and the larger project must be use crane with a sling as an assistance. lay it on top of a previously assembled one and check they are the same.2 (f) shows the fifth step of truss assembly. For a complex shape truss.webs and joints.

the transportation needs a spreader bar as the picture below. they should be blocked above firm ground so that they do not come into contact with the soil and to protect them from ground water. If the trusses are stored vertically.1(a) shows the method of transfering the trusses with slings If the Trusses are stored horizontally as figure above.3.4.5m to prevent bending. Where trusses are stored on site. Sling should be located at the same distance from its centre line of the trusses like shown by the picture.Figure 4. The angle must be 60 degrees or less.4 ROOF CONSTRUCTION TYPE 4. The truss chord should be sloped such that water drains off. If the spans are more than 9000mm.2 ROOF TRUSSES EXPOSURE AND STORAGE Figure 4.3. the designed support should be installed to prevent from tipping and toppling.3. Figure 4. 4.0m to 2.3.2 (b) shows the method of storing the truss vertically. Figure 4.2 (a) shows the method of storing the truss horizontally. the blocking should be 2.1 GABLE END CONSTRUCTION . 4.1 (b) shows the method of transfering the trusses with slings by supported by spreader bar.3. The spreader bar are attached with the web-chord and the size of the bar approximately a half or quarter the length of the truss.

4(b) shows the construction process of the roof Housing unit after the proccess of concrete infill the ready to the finishes proccess. A maximum verge of 450mm can be a Figure 4.. 4. The small verge were needed to shade the raked end wall.4. Figure 4. The fascia board that conventional method usually used timber material were repalced by aluminium metal due to the costing factor.4(a) shows the framing of small verge supported by the wall framing.4. Roof battens Figure 4.4.1 THE CONNECTION DETAIL FOR SMALL VERGE ON THE ROOF CONSTRUCTION OF END GABLE END METHOD Raked End Wall Figure 4.1 (b) shows the batten rest on the wall frame and The connected to wall plate.This construction method used so it has a small verge supported with wall framing.1 (a) shows shading device for wall. the sectional detail drawing of the small verge of gable end roof. wall itself function as .

ENDUROWALL.4.1 (d) Section A-A show the positioning for the trusses. ARI TIMUR (KB) SDN.supporting structure for roof instead of roof trusses in the intermediate spaces between the party wall of each unit. Figure 4.SYME (2016). Figure 4.JONES (2016).1 (c) above show that the truss module detail. In this way it economically constructed and suited for IBS method that invented to reduce the construction cost. ENDUROTRUSS Roofing System Installation Manual. The material that were used for the roof trusses were made of the combination of C-channel steel (light-weight material) produced by the same company that produced the IBS Enduro Wall product. .1 (e) show the REFERENCES INTERVIEWS MOHD SHAHRIN BIN ABDULLAH. A plaster ceiling has being used for this housing and attached to the ceiling battens. D. plastered ceiling Figure 4. Walling System Installation Manual.4.4. BHD. BOOKS P. PROJECT ENGINEER (2016).

ajiya.com/history.my/pr1ma_property.com.JONES (2016) ENDUROFRAME 庐 Installation Checklist WEBSITES http://enduroframe.pr1ma.php?lang=en&id=571 .au/manufacturing/ENDUROFRAME_building_syst em http://www.html http://www.P.