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National Democratic Institute

An English-Arabic

Translator’s Guide
to Election Terminology
Prepared by May Ahmar

»æWƒdG »WGô≤Á~dG ~¡©ŸG

ºLΟG π«dO
á«HÉîàf’G äÉë∏£°üª∏d
»HôY-…õ«∏μfEG
ôªMC’G »e OG~YEG

National Democratic Institute

An English-Arabic

Translator’s Guide
to Election Terminology
Prepared by May Ahmar

»æWƒdG »WGô≤Á~dG ~¡©ŸG

ºLΟG π«dO
á«HÉîàf’G äÉë∏£°üª∏d
»HôY-…õ«∏μfEG
ôªMC’G »e OG~YEG

The National Democratic Institute for International Affairs
The National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI) is a nonprofit organization working to strengthen and expand democracy worldwide.
Calling on a global network of volunteer experts, NDI provides practical assistance to civic and political leaders advancing democratic values, practices and
institutions. NDI works with democrats in every region of the world to build
political and civic organizations, safeguard elections, and promote citizen participation, openness and accountability in government.

For more information, please contact:

»æWƒdG »WGô≤Á~dG ~¡©ŸG
á«dh~dG ¿hDƒ°û∏d

National Democratic Institute
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Washington, DC 20036-3306
tel: +1 (202) 728-5500
fax: +1 (202) 728-5520

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tel: +961 1 805 632
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1102-2030 ¿GQƒ°T

¿ÉæÑd ,ähÒH
+961 1 805 632 :∞JÉg
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www.ndi.org

Please send your feedback or comments to:
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National Democratic Institute for International Affairs, Beirut-Lebanon.
Copyright © National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI) 2005. 06/05. All rights
reserved. Portions of this work may be reproduced and/or translated for noncommercial purposes
provided NDI is acknowledged as the source of the material and is sent copies of any translation.

NDI's Arabic Publication Center in Beirut is not the first to try. . In Iraq "mabsut" means well beaten. humbly offers this first effort with the hope that it will not only prove useful to NDI programs but that it will spark the regional discussion necessary to refine and improve its content.org. mail-in sheets for comments. Yet another component of the debate is the issue of regional differences. "mabsut" means happy. for example. and regional application are desired and actively solicited. each copy of the Guide contains self-addressed. authoritative resource. context is everything.I Forward Compiling the English based jargon of election work and translating it into a language as intricate and uncompromising as Arabic is a daunting mission. nuance and meaning. The Guide is meant to be used as a reference document for NDI staff and contract interpreters. As NDI expands democracy and governance programs throughout the Arabic speaking world. but with 630 entries. NDI's Translator's English-Arabic Guide to Election Terminology may have left only few stones unturned. Comments and suggestions can also be emailed to the NDI translation team at: arabictranslation@ndi. Even the most obscure expressions have been discussed and definitions have been attempted. In Lebanon. tear-off. Arabic speakers on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) team will inevitably be at the forefront of creating new and precise idiom to convey the concepts and ideas central to NDI's work. who developed this Guide. User feedback is essential . It would be an understatement to say that Arabic speakers are passionate about Arabic and quick to debate usage. The team at the Arabic Publication Center. To make this process as simple as possible. definition.comments and thoughts on terms. usage. As with most communication. All that is required is a stamp. It is not meant to be the final.

developed the project and served as the primary and final editor.com www. May Ahmar. legislation.21/dgaacs/unterm.answers.elections. The glossary included in "The Political Campaign Planning Manual" by J. www. was added verbatim to the Guide. Senior Advisor Middle East and North Africa Beirut.Brian O'Day for NDI. http://157.197.co. Hiba Charara with research and by Lebanon staff member.pogar.org ACE PROJECT Glossary: www. and public services for local constituents.aceproject.nsf The UNDP Programme on Governance in the Arab Region (POGAR). Lebanon jhall@ndi. This website is part of an effort to provide accessible information about the federal electoral system. www.org (Produced by the International Foundation for Election Systems (IFES). She was assisted by Ms.com www.boulder.ca Access Clark County is the official website for the Clark County in Nevada. It provides information about local government. http://bcn. www.accessclarkcounty. Joseph Hall.Ms. Ms. Arabic Publication Center Coordinator in Lebanon.dictionary.us Elections Canada is an independent body established by parliament.org . governance and other programs. the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA) and the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA)) Other secondary sources included: The Boulder Community Network (BCN): it provides non-profit organizations with information about community issues. We look forward to hearing from you. Other primary sources and websites are gratefully acknowledged below: The UNTERM: It is a Multilingual Database including terminology related to the United Nations’ work in elections.com Please accept our thanks in advance for your feedback. Nour Al Assad with translation.150.

mark it.áqeÉY ájQGOEG ΩÉ¡Ã .§∏àıG Adjudication The hearing and deciding of a legal case in a court of law.áªμÙG ‘ á«fƒfÉb á«° b ‘ QGô≤dGh ´Éªà°S’G Administration Clerk responsible for organizing materials for Polling Day and assisting with post Polling day statutory requirements. »q Ñ°ùæq dG ájƒ° ©dG Ωɶf ¤EG IQÉ°TEÓd ôNBG í∏£°üe ƒg . to qualify for an absolute and not just simple majority. According to various state laws or constitutions.á≤∏£ŸG á«Ñ∏ZCÓd πgq ÉC àdG .´GÎbÓd O~ÙG Ωƒ«dG . ’ ø˘jò˘dG ¿ƒ˘Ñ˘Nɢæ˘dG ɢ¡˘e~˘î˘ à˘ °ùj ´GÎbG äɢ˘bɢ˘£˘ H »˘˘gh áªLÉf ÜÉÑ°SC’ ´GÎb’G õcGôe ¤EG ∫ƒ°UƒdG ¿ƒ©«£à°ùj O~q ÙG Ωƒ«dG ‘ IôFG~dG øY º¡HÉ«¨d hCG .¿G~∏ÑdG º¶©e ‘ . either because they are disabled or will be away from the district on election day.´GÎb’G ¿Éμe ¤EG ÜÉgòdG ¬æª°V ¿ƒ∏°üëj »æeR QÉWEÉH ¿ƒÑNÉædG ~q«≤àj .iôNG ¿G~∏H ‘ øμd .~jÈdG ≥jôW øY ≥Ñ°ùŸG âjƒ°üàdG ¿hO øe .áj~°ùL ábÉYEG øY πÑb á«HÉîàf’G áÄ«¡dG ¤EG ~jÈdÉH kÉÑdÉZ π°SôJh . it is 70%.Administration Clerk A ballot used by voters who are unable to go to the polls to vote. to the appropriate election official. ábQh ÖNÉædG π°Sôj .IOq~©àe ɢ¡˘fƒ˘∏˘°Sô˘jh º˘¡˘«˘ë˘°Tô˘ q e ¿hQɢà˘î˘jh ´GÎb’G á˘bɢ£˘H ≈˘˘∏˘ Y . voters have a time frame by which they can obtain a ballot before the election.kÉjq QhO Ég~j~– OÉ©jo á«q HÉîàfG ôFGhO »g Another term for a Mixed Member Proportional System. voting and counting — and have the ability to reach all the voters by having sufficient means (funding) and access. See Ballot. have full access to the process during all its stages — campaigning. sealed. in addition to performing general administration and clerical functions.%70 ≈∏Y ∫ƒ°ü◊G »æ©j . and its representatives.ÚÑ°SÉæŸG äÉHÉîàf’G ‹hDƒ°ùe ¤EG áeƒàfl ~jÈdÉH In most countries.1 Absentee Ballot /ÚÑFɨdG ´GÎbG äÉbÉ£H á«HÉ«¨dG ´GÎb’G äÉbÉ£H A Absentee Ballot .´GÎbÓd ábÉ£H/á«HÉîàf’G ábÉ£ÑdG ô¶fG .äGƒ°UC’G .¬H πé°ùe ƒg …òdG ÒZ ¿Éμe øe âjƒ°üàdG ÒJÉ°SO hCG ÚfGƒ≤d Ék≤ahh . but in some. and then usually mail it.Ö°ùëa á«Ñ∏ZCÓd ÉaÓN The electorate. registration.(πjƒªàdG É¡«a ÉÃ) á«aÉc πFÉ°Sh ≈∏Y º¡dƒ°üM ∫ÓN Electoral districts that are periodically redrawn. .»HÉîàf’G Ωƒ«dG ~©H á«fƒfÉb äÉÑ∏£àe . Often it is mailed to the voters and they must send it back to the board of elections before Election Day. øe %50 øe ÌcCG »g á≤∏£ŸG á«Ñ∏Z’G . . an absolute majority is more than 50 per cent.´GÎb’G Absentee Voting / Ballot »HÉ«Z ´GÎbG Absolute Majority á≤∏£e á«Ñ∏ZCG Accessibility ∫ƒ°UƒdG á«fÉμeEG Ad Hoc Electoral Districts áàqbƒD e /á°UÉN q áq«HÉîàfG ôFGhO A voting method by which people can cast their ballots without going to the polling place on election day. á«q HÉîàf’G á«∏ª©dG ¤EG Gƒ∏°üj ¿CG º¡«∏ã‡h ÚÑNÉæ∏d øμÁ âjƒ°üàdGh π«é°ùàdG ¤EG á∏ª◊G øe -É¡∏MGôe πq c ‘ øe ÚÑNÉædG πq c ¤EG ∫ƒ°UƒdG á«q fÉμeEG ºg~æYh -RôØdGh . Additional Member System á«aÉ°VE’G ájƒ° ©dG Ωɶf /äÉYRÉæŸG ‘ π°üØdG QGôb /(áªμfi) ºμM á©LGôŸG á«dBG …QGOEG ÖJÉc ‘ I~YÉ°ùŸGh »HÉîàf’G Ωƒ«∏d OGƒŸG º«¶æJ øY ∫hDƒ°ùe ΩÉ«≤dG ¤EG áaÉ°VEG .

simply by their own choice or personal habits. Gƒfƒμj ¿CG ÒZ øe ø«q ©e ~∏H ‘ ¿ƒ°û«©j øjòdG ¢UÉî°TC’G . Ú∏qgƒD ŸG ¢UÉî°TC’G ™æªoj ÚM q…QGOE’G AÉ°übE’G ç~ëj áLQ~e ÒZ ºgAɪ°SCG q¿’C . ô˘LCG ™˘a~˘H á˘∏˘ª◊G Ωƒ˘≤˘J .…q ~éHC’G Ö«Jôàq dG Ö°ùM º¡JGQÉ«N º˘«˘«˘ ≤˘ J …q CG ɉhO .äGQɢ«˘à˘N’G ø˘e êGQOEG á≤jôW ≥ah . »HÉîàf’G Ωƒ«dG ‘ âjƒ°üàdG πÑb ºàj …òdG ´GÎb’G Ωƒ˘˘j âjƒ˘˘°üà˘˘dG º˘˘¡˘ «˘ ∏˘ Y Qò˘˘©˘ à˘ j ø˘˘jò˘˘dG ÚÑ˘˘Nɢ˘æ˘ dG ÈY .ájÉØμdG Advance Voting Voting taking place in the days in the lead up to polling day by voters who will not be able to vote on election day. for example.íHôj .2 Administrative Exclusion Administrative Exclusion.á«eÓY’G §FÉ°SƒdG ÈY ¬∏≤æd ¿ÓYE’G .ÚÑNÉqædG áëF’ ‘ kGô¶f hCG . such as a poorly publicized deadline for completing the registration process.É¡«a ¿ƒª«≤j »àdG áj’ƒdG hCG ádh~∏d Ú«Yô°T ÚæWGƒe Distribution of seats to political parties or candidates according to votes received.Úë°TôŸG q äÓgq ƒD Ÿ Under the Alternative Vote system you vote by showing your preferences. »æ©j ∂dP .íHôj ¿CG qπbC’G A revision or change made in the electoral law and regulations by formal procedure. or a member of. or advance polling.Amendment of Electoral Law Administrative exclusion occurs when people who are ostensibly eligible to vote are not entitled to vote because they have been left off the voters list. Mass Media and Paid Media. without any evaluation as to the candidates’ qualifications. a political party or political organization.ø∏©j ’ …òdG ÚÑNÉqædG π«é°ùJ Ωɶf Oh~◊ .ôLC’G ´ƒa~ŸG ΩÓYE’G ∂dòch ΩÓYE’Gh Affiliated Associated with.äÉHÉîàf’G ¢ ©H ‘ º˘¶˘©˘e ÚÑ˘Nɢæq ˘dG ø˘e ~˘j~˘©˘dG ò˘î˘àq ˘jh .ÜõM ¤EG m ºàæe .Ω~u ≤àŸG âjƒ°üàdÉH ∂dòc ±ô©jo h .äÉHÉîàf’G Advertisements A form of voter contact in which the campaign pays to have the mass media deliver the message.ÚÑ˘˘Nɢ˘æ˘ dɢ˘H ∫ɢ˘°üJÓ˘˘d ᢢ≤˘ jô˘˘W ádÉ°SôdG ô¶fG . See Message.∫hCq ’G ∑QÉ«àNÉc .kÓãe á«°üî°ûdG q º¡JGOÉY ÖÑ°ùH hCG .á«∏° aC’G QÉ¡XEG ≈∏Y ~ªà©ŸG ´GÎb’Gƒg ¿CG √~jôJ …òdG í°TôŸÉH q kAG~àHG π°ù∏°ùàdÉH Úë°TôŸG ™°Vh ¬∏° ØJ q …òdG í°TôŸÉH kAÉ¡àfEGh . Also known as early voting. Many voters will make most of these choices alphabetically as the candidates are listed on the ballot.É¡«∏Y Gƒ∏°üM »àdG äGƒ°UCÓd In some elections the voters are required to make a set number of choices. á˘ª˘¶˘fC’Gh »˘˘Hɢ˘î˘ à˘ f’G ¿ƒ˘˘fɢ˘≤˘ dG ‘ Ò«˘˘¨˘ J hCG ô˘˘¶˘ f IOɢ˘YEG . O~q fi O~©H ΩÉ«≤dÉH ¿ƒÑNÉæq dG Ωõ∏jo . They may be excluded. This means putting each candidate in order from the candidate who you most want to win as your 1st choice. or due to limitations of the system of voter registration. ᪶æe hCG »°SÉ«°S ÜõM ‘ ƒ° Y hCG . kÉ≤ah Úë°TôŸGhCG á«°SÉ«°ùdG ÜGõMC’G ≈∏Y ~YÉ≤ŸG ™jRƒJ .º¡JOGQEG Aπà ¬«a Éà .»ª°SQ AGôLEG ∫ÓN øe á«HÉîàf’G …QGOE’G AÉ°übE’G /Ω~q ≤àe âjƒ°üJ ≥Ñ°ùe /Ω~q ≤àe ´GÎbG »FÉY~dG ¿ÓYE’G ºq ° æe /Ö°ùp àn æeo /øWGƒe ÒZ/»ÑæLCG ÖjôZ Allocation of Seats ~YÉ≤ŸG ™jRƒJ/¢ü«°üîJ Alphabetical Voting kÉ≤ah âjƒ°üqàdG …q ~éHC’G Ö«Jôàq ∏d Alternative Vote πj~ÑdG âjƒ°üàdG Amendment of Electoral Law »HÉîàf’G ¿ƒfÉ≤dG πj~©J .´GÎb’G ᢢbQh ≈˘˘∏˘ Y Ú뢢°TôŸG q Aɢ˘ª˘ °SCG .á«°SÉ«°S Alien/Non-C Citizen Individuals living in a country who are not legal citizens of the nation or of the state in which they reside. to the candidate who you least want to win as your last choice.º¡q≤M á°SQɇ øe ÜÉîàfÓd AÉ°übEÓd Gƒ°Vqô©J º¡qfGC πªàÙG øªa .π«é°ùqàdG ÜÉH ∫ÉØbE’ áq«FÉ¡qædG á∏¡ŸG øY .

áj’ƒdG O~©J /~YÉ≤ŸG O~q ©J /~YÉ≤ŸG O~©àe At-llarge Plurality see Block Voting. Only the residents of the district may vote for the office.íHôj äGƒ°UC’G øe O~Y ÈcCG ÖMÉ°Uh . Voters I’ÉÑe’ Apparentement /»HÉîàfG ∞dÉ– äÉHÉîàf’G ‘ »q Hõ◊G OÉëqJ’G Appropriation /(∫GƒeC’G) ¢ü«°üîJ äGOɪàY’G ~°UQ Approval Voting /O~q ©àe âjƒ°üJ /∫ƒÑ≤dG âjƒ°üJ /¿É°ùëà°S’G á≤aGƒŸG At-LLarge /¥É£ædG ™°SGh Qƒ¶fi ÒZ At-LLarge District ¥É£ædG á©°SGh IôFGO Apathy. etc… -´GÎbÓd ¿ƒ¡éàj ÚM ÚÑNÉædG ôYÉ°ûe ∞°Uh »æ©j Gòg º˘¡˘ «˘ ∏˘ Y ≈˘˘¨˘ £˘ j π˘˘gh §˘˘î˘ °ùdG ΩCG ɢ˘°Vô˘˘dɢ˘H ¿hô˘˘©˘ °ûj π˘˘g .m™°SGh m¥É£f . and to recommend any indicated changes in controls. as many candidates as they wish. Ú뢰TôŸGh . he represents the entire jurisdiction.Ö°üæª∏d ÚYpônà≤ŸG A district often with sub districts in it or where more than one candidate shares the same district. âjƒ°üJ/™°SGh O~q ©J á∏eÉ°T á«Ñ∏ZCG/á∏àμdG Attitudes ∞bGƒe Audit (Electoral) /á«fƒfÉ≤dG á©LGôŸG /»HÉîàf’G QÉ°ùª∏d á«HÉîàf’G áÑ°SÉÙG .…ƒ∏àc ´GÎbG ô¶fG This describes how the voters feel going into the election .ᢰSɢ«˘°ùdGh .Audit (Electoral) A trend among some voters to lack of interest in voting. π˘«˘ã˘ª˘qà˘dG í˘FGƒ˘d Ωɢ¶˘f ¢ ©˘H ‘ Ω~˘˘î˘ à˘ °ù˘˘oJ ᢢ∏˘ «˘ °Sh »˘˘g øY ¿ÓYE’G øe áØ∏àıG ÜGõMC’G øqμ“ »c »Ñ°ùqædG . á≤£æe Gƒ∏㪫d Ö°UÉæŸG ¢ ©Ñd Úë°TôŸG ÜÉîàfG øμªoj hCG Iô˘FGO π˘ã˘e ᢫˘ª˘°Sô˘dG á˘£˘∏˘°ùdG ¥É˘£˘f ø˘ª˘°V ᢫˘aGô˘¨˘ L ≥˘˘Wɢ˘æŸG √ò˘˘g ‘ §˘˘≤˘ a Úª˘˘«˘ ≤˘ ª˘ ∏˘ d ø˘˘μ˘ ª˘ oj . hCG á«Yôa ôFGhO I~Y øª° àJ IÒÑc IôFGO kÉÑdÉZ »æ©Jh ~b .áeÉ©dG πFÉ°ùŸGh A device used in some list proportional representation systems which enables separate parties to declare themselves linked for the purpose of seat allocation.CGƒ°SCG ΩCG π° aCG ¿ƒμ«°S º¡dÉM q¿ÉC H ¢SÉ°ùM’G The independent examination of records and activities to ensure compliance with established controls.ïdEG .ᢢ«˘ Mɢ˘ °V ‘ í°Tôª∏d q âjƒ°üàdG q” GPEG øμdh . which uses a majority of lower choices.. such as a district or ward.Ö°üæª∏d âjƒ°üàdG πc 䃰üjh q . See Multi Mandate.É¡«a áë°VGh äGÒ«¨J …CG ∫ƒM äÉ«°UƒJ Ë~≤àdh . A mayor may run “atlarge” while the city council members run in districts. Each candidate approved of receives one vote. or approve of..3 Apathy.~˘MGh m~˘©˘≤˘e Üɢî˘à˘f’ á˘≤˘ jô˘˘W »˘˘g ɢ¡˘dÓ˘N ø˘e ø˘μÁ ᢫˘∏˘ª˘Yƒ˘g :á˘qjƒ˘fɢqã˘dG äGQɢ«ÿG ᢢqjÌcCG ø˘˘e ¬˘˘fh~˘˘jô˘˘j …ò˘˘ dG O~˘˘ ©˘ ˘∏˘ ˘d Gƒ˘˘ Jƒ˘q ˘ °üj ¿CG ÚYÎ≤˘˘ ª˘ ˘∏˘ ˘d . feeling better off or worse off.~YÉ≤ŸG ™jRƒJ ±~¡H É¡ØdÉ– Money used to pay for governmentapproved expenditures. policy. politics. policy. and the candidate with the most votes wins.either satisfied or angry.ájò«Ø˘æ˘à˘dG äGAGô˘L’E Gh .É¡°ùØf IôFG~dG ‘ í°Tôe øe ÌcCG ∑ΰûj å«M IôFGO ≈∏Y äÉHÉîàf’G ßaÉÙG Ö°üæŸ í°TôŸG q ¢Vƒîj áæj~ŸG ¢ù∏› ájƒ° ©d ¿ƒë°TôŸG ɪæ«H ¥É£ædG á©°SGh ô¶fG . ¿É˘ª˘° d äɢWɢ°ûæ˘dGh äÓ˘˘é˘ °ù∏˘˘d π˘˘≤˘ à˘ °ùŸG ¢üë˘˘Ø˘ à˘ dG . Üɢ°ùà˘MG ÈY ɢª˘qfEG . and other public issues.É¡∏c ¬à≤£æe πuãªoj Ég~æY . or procedures.áeƒμ◊G A single seat election method. and all voters may vote for the office. It is a voting procedure in which voters can vote for.IO~ÙG ºgôFGhO ‘ äÉHÉîàf’G ¿ƒ°Vƒîj (áj~∏ÑdG) . Voters . ᢢWɢ˘°ùÑ˘˘H . But if a candidate is elected at-large. and operational procedures.á˘£˘∏˘°ù∏˘d ∫ɢã˘à˘e’G .Úë°TôŸG q Candidates for certain types of offices may be elected to represent certain geographic areas within the jurisdiction. candidates. É¡«∏Y â≤aGh »àdG ∞jQÉ°üŸG ™a~d áe~îà°ùŸG ∫GƒeC’G .ᢰSɢ«˘°ùdɢ˘H Oô˘˘Ø˘ dG Ωɢ˘ª˘ à˘ gG Ω~˘˘Y .

¬JGQÉ«N øjh~J Container into which the voters place their ballot papers. ´GÎb’G /âjƒ°üàdG Baseline Poll /…~YÉ≤dG §ÿG ´Ó£à°SG /»°SÉ°SCG ´Ó£à°SEG ‹hq oCG ´Ó£à°SEG A political poll taken to determine as much information about the voters as possible. or weighting choices by ranking candidates. OGô˘jo ø˘jò˘dG ÚÑ˘Nɢæq ˘dG âjƒ˘°üJ ¥GQhCG Oɢ˘°ùaEG ~˘˘ªq ˘ ©˘ J ƒ˘˘g .´GÎb’G ¥GQhCG ¿ƒÑNÉædG á«a ™° j ¥h~æ°U Also called a ballot measure. A ballot initiative is a proposed piece of legislation (a law) that people can vote on. thus making their choices known.ÚÑNÉædG øY äÉeƒ∏©ŸG øe É¡WÉ°ûf º° N ‘ ¢VƒÿG πÑb á∏ªë∏d IôμÑŸG πMGôŸG ´Ó£à°SGh »°SÉ«°ùdG ´Ó£à°S’G ô¶fCG .ÜõM hCG í°TôŸ I~MGh .´GÎb’Gh ¬˘˘Jƒ˘˘°üH . The range of choices includes: marking a single choice for party or candidate.âjƒ°üJ /´GÎbG /ÜÉîàfG ô¶fG øμ‡ Q~b ÈcG ~j~ëàd √DhGôLEG ºàj »°SÉ«°S ´Ó£à°SG ƒgh ‘ -IOÉY -√DhGôLEG ºàjh .»Ñ≤©J ´Ó£à°SG/≥M’ ´Ó£à°SEG /á©HÉàŸG . referendum or proposition. indicating a set of preferences.»HÉîàf’G √õeQ hCG í°TôŸG º°SG ∫ƒ˘W IOɢjR »˘æ˘ ©˘ j ɇ ɢ˘¡˘ °ùØ˘˘f á˘˘ë˘ FÓ˘˘dG ≈˘˘∏˘ Y Ú뢢°TôŸG IAGôb Ω~Y ¤EG ÚÑNÉædG Oƒ≤«°S ∂dòa . áeƒμ◊G øe iƒà°ùe …CG ¥ÉØfEG É¡«a ¿ƒμj .âjƒ°üàq dG ≥q M øe ºg~jôŒ âjƒ°üàq dG IQOÉÑe/ìGÎbG Ballot Placement áëFÓdG ≈∏Y ™°VƒŸG á«HÉîàf’G Ballot Structure äGƒ°UC’ÉH ÖYÓJ Balloting See Voting.iôNCG äG~FÉY The official document voters will use to cast their vote. See Political Poll and Tracking Poll. thus giving candidates with a higher placement a better chance.¬fCÉ°ûH Ö©°ûdG q ´Î≤j ¿CG øμÁ (¿ƒfÉb ´hô°ûe hCG) ™jô°ûJ This is the place where the candidate’s name appears on the ballot.âjƒ°üàdG ìGÎbG hCG âjƒ°üà∏d .áëFÓdG-ábÉ£ÑdG ≈¶ë«°S …òdG í°TôŸG ¿EÉa ∂dòdh . mainly from taxes and other revenue sources. If there are a lot of candidates on the ballot or it is otherwise long. A’OEÓd ÖNÉædG É¡e~îà°ùj »àdG ᫪°SôdG á≤«KƒdG »gh ∫Ó˘N ø˘e »˘Hɢî˘à˘ f’G ¬˘˘Jƒ˘˘°U π˘˘≤˘ fh .´GÎb’G ábQh . ô¡¶j å«M Úë°TôŸG áëF’ ≈∏Y Ú©ŸG ¿ÉμŸG »æ©Jh øe ÒãμdG ∑Éæg ¿Éc ¿EGh . . voters will often not read all the way down the list.»°SÉ«°ùdG . .4 Balanced Budget áfRGƒàe áfRGƒe Ballot /Ballot Paper ábQh /ÜÉîàfG ábQh ´GÎbG ábÉ£H/´GÎbG Ballot Box ´GÎb’G ¥h~æ°U Ballot Initiative B Balanced Budget .á∏° ØŸG äGQÉ«àNÓd GQÉ¡XEG Úë°TôŸG Ö«JôJ hCG Ballot Tampering/ Vote Tampering Deliberately spoiling the paper ballots of the voters one seeks to Disenfranchise.Baseline Poll A financial condition whereby any level of government spends as much money as it takes in.á«dÉe ádÉM QOɢ˘°üe h ÖFGô˘˘° dG π˘˘«˘ NG~˘˘ e ø˘˘ e ¬˘˘ JGOGô˘˘ jE’ kɢ ˘jhɢ˘ °ùe . »Ñ©°ûdG q AÉàØà°S’G hCG .äGQÉ«àN’G øe O~Y ™°Vh hCG .π° aCG ¢Uôa ≈∏Y π°üë«°S áëFÓdG ≈∏YCG ™bƒÃ /âjƒ°üàq dG áëF’ á«æH ´GÎb’G ábQh The kinds of choices voters can make on a ballot. usually done early in the campaign before there is much political activity. ≈∏Y É¡H Ωƒ≤j ¿CG ÖNÉæ∏d øμÁ »àdG äGQÉ«àN’G ´GƒfCG áeÓY ™°Vh :äGQÉ«àN’G ∫É› øªq ° àjh .âjƒ°üàq dG AGôLEÉH kÉ° jCG ±ô©Jh ìGÎbG øY IQÉÑY ƒgh .ÉgÉfOCG ≈àM áëFÓdG .

~©H ¿ÉŸÈdG √qô≤oj ⁄ ¿ƒfÉb ìGÎbEG Consisting of. See GOTV and Pull.. or where these records are kept. a bicameral parliament or bicameral legislature is a parliament or legislature which consists of two Chambers or Houses.ábQƒdG ≈∏Y ìGÎbG …CG ~°V hCG ìGÎbG Blanket Primary A primary election in which the names of all the candidates for all the parties are on one ballot. Thus. IÉHÉfi . .´GÎb’G Bias õ«q – Bicameral Parliament /π«ãªàdG »FÉæK ¿ÉŸôH Ú°ù∏éà ¿ÉŸôH Bill ¿ƒfÉb ´hô°ûe Bipartisan /ÚHõM øe ~js ƒD e ÚHõëH ≥q∏©àe Birth Registry á«°üî°ûdG ∫GƒMC’G πq é°S /äGO’ƒdG πé°S /¢VÉ«H ≈∏Y ábÉ£H AÉ° «H ábQh á∏eÉ°T áq«dhCG äÉHÉîàfG Blind Pull ≈ªYC’G Öë°ùdG . or supported by.áeÓY . ájCG ´Î≤ŸG É¡«∏Y ™° j ⁄ »àdG ´GÎb’G ábQh »g . ¿ÉŸôH hCG Ú«©jô°ûJ Ú°ù∏Û á°SQɪŸG ƒg . members of two parties. meaning that the voter did not vote for any of the candidates on the ballot.∫ƒ°ü◊G Öéj .OÓÑdG ‘ Úq«°SÉ«°S ÚHõM qºgCG Official records or certificates of people's births.IO~q ©àe ~YÉ≤Ÿ ´GÎbG á≤jôW ‘) Iô˘Zɢ°ûdG ~˘˘Yɢ˘≤ŸG O~˘˘©˘ d hɢ˘°ùe äGƒ˘˘°UC’G ø˘˘e O~˘˘Y ÚÑNÉæ∏d ≥ëj ä’É◊G ÌcCG ‘h . bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers.ÚHõM AÉ° YCG øe ∞qdƒD e . A system of voting in multi-member districts.(»©jô°ûàdG º°ù÷G .¿G~∏ÑdG ¢ ©H ‘ . especially two major political parties.5 Bias . πé°ùJ »àdG ᫪°SôdG IO’ƒdG äGOÉ¡°T hCG äÓé°ùdG . then this is considered a “blind pull” to the polls.´GÎbÓ˘˘ d âjƒ°üàdG ™«é°ûJ/''∂Jƒ°U íæeEG'' ô¶fG . É°Uƒ°üNh .áWÉ°ùÑH …C’ 䃰üj q ⁄h í°Tôe …C’ ¬Jƒ°üH p ∫~oj ⁄h .say six out of ten voters support the candidate .Öë°ùdGh Block Vote/ Bloc Vote /…ƒ∏àoc ´GÎbG á∏àc âjƒ°üJ A multi-seat election method. nor did they vote for or against a proposition on the ballot. in a legislative ≈∏Y ÖNÉf πc π°üëj .¢UÉî°TC’G IO’h øe ᫪°SQ áî°ùf ≈∏Y . If everyone in an area is encouraged to vote. regardless of whether or not the supporters have been identified.I~MGh ´GÎbG ábQh ≈∏Y káaÉc ÜGõMC’G In areas where there is considerable support for the candidate .πeÉ– hCG In government.í°Tôª∏d øj~jDƒŸG õcGôŸ ''≈˘ª˘Y’G Ö뢢°ùdG'' »˘˘æ˘ ©˘ ˘j ∂dò˘˘ a . partiality or prejudice. Each elector is given as many votes as there are seats (e.√~q °V RÉ«ëf’GhCG . In some countries it is necessary to produce an official copy of one's birth certificate to prove citizenship or voting eligibility.ɪ¡æe ΩƒY~e hCG .it may benefit the campaign if as many voters as possible go to the polls. øj~jDƒŸG øe ¬H ¿É¡à°ùj ’ O~Y É¡«a ôaƒàj »àdG ≥WÉæŸG ‘ ¿h~jDƒj ÚÑNÉf Iô°ûY πc øe áà°S π≤ædh -í°Tôª∏d øμ‡ O~Y ÈcCÉH ™a~dG á∏ªë∏d kÉj~› ¿ƒμj ~b -í°TôŸG ~j~– øY ô¶ædG ¢ ¨H q .´GÎb’G õcGôe ¤EG ÚÑNÉædG øe á≤£æŸG ‘ ¢üî°T πc ™«é°ûJ ” ƒ∏a .äÓé°ùdG √òg ßØ– å«M ¿ÉμŸG hCG .π˘˘«˘ ã˘ ª˘ à˘ dG »˘˘Fɢ˘æ˘ K .áeƒμ◊G ‘ ¢ù∏ÛG hCG »˘Fɢæ˘ã˘dG ¿ÉŸÈdG π˘ª˘à˘ °ûjh .Block Vote/ Bloc Vote A leaning in favor of or against something or someone.´GÎb’G ≥M hCG á«°ùæ÷G äÉÑKE’ OÓ«ŸG IOÉ¡°T Blank Ballot A blank ballot is simply that no mark is made on the ballot.¢üî°T hCG A»°T π«° ØJ hCG π«r e . ‘ Úë°TôŸG q πq c Aɪ°SCG É¡«a Oô°ùoJ á«q dhCG ä l ÉHÉîàfG »g .g.Ú°ù∏› ≈∏Y »FÉæãdG »©jô°ûàdG Proposed act not yet passed by Parliament.

6

Board of Elections

äÉHÉîàf’G áÄ«g
Borda Count

GOQƒH ~q Y
Booth Capturing

äGÒéM ≈∏Y Iô£«°ùdG
q
´GÎb’G
Booth Management

´GÎb’G äGÒéM IQGOEG
Bottleneck

á∏bôY
Bottoms Up

πØ°SC’G øe ÜÉîàf’G IOÉYEG

Boundary (Electoral)

á«HÉîàf’G ôFGh~dG Oh~M
Boundary Delimitation

π°UÉØdG ~j~–

Block Vote/ Bloc Vote - Boundary Delimitation
body) to be filled, and in most cases the
electors are free to vote for individual
candidates regardless of party affiliation. In most bloc vote systems the electors may use as many or as few of their
votes as they wish. In First Past the Post
bloc voting systems, the candidates with
the most votes win--an absolute majority is not required. Also known as AtLarge Plurality

º˘¡˘JGAɢª˘à˘fG ø˘Y ô˘˘¶˘ æ˘ dG ¢ ¨˘˘H Ú뢢°Tô˘˘ª˘ ∏˘ d âjƒ˘˘°üà˘˘dG
¿CG ÚÑNÉæ∏d øμÁ ,ÜÉîàf’G ᪶fCG º¶©e ‘ .á«Hõ◊G
áMÉàŸG äGƒ°UC’G øe ¬fh~jôj …òdG O~©dG Gƒe~îà°ùj
RƒØdG ≈∏Y ~ªà©ŸG …ƒ∏àμdG âjƒ°üàdG ᪶fCG ‘ .º¡d
O~Y ÈcCG ≈∏Y ¿ƒ∏°UÉ◊G ¿ƒë°TôŸG RƒØj ,ÉJGƒ°UCG ÌcCÓd
É° jC
k G ±ô©j .á≤∏£ŸG á«Ñ∏ZCÓd IQhô°V ’h ,äGƒ°UC’G øe
.™°SGƒdG O~q ©àdÉH

Usually a non-partisan board or multipartisan board set up to oversee the election and make sure that it is conducted
fairly. See Election Commission.

øe πμ°ûJ hCG Ú«HõM ÒZ AÉ° YCG øe ÖdɨdG ‘ ¿ƒμàJh
q
¿É˘ª˘°Vh äɢHɢî˘à˘f’G ≈˘∏˘Y ±Gô˘°TEÓ˘d IOq~˘ ©˘ à˘ e ÜGõ˘˘MCG
.äÉHÉîàf’G áæ÷ ô¶fG .áfÉeCGh ágGõæH ÉgÒ°S

A voting system for single or multiple
seat elections using rank preference
ballots.

IOq~©àŸG ~YÉ≤ŸG hCG ~MGƒdG ~©≤ŸG äÉHÉîàf’ »HÉîàfG Ωɶf
Ö«˘˘JÎdɢ˘H äGQɢ˘«˘ à˘ N’G ™˘˘° J ´GÎbG ᢢbQh ΩG~˘˘î˘ à˘ ˘°Sɢ˘ H
.π° ØŸG

The act of seizing and controlling a
polling station so that many fraudulent
votes may be cast there (this term is used
in India).

»c ,¬«a ºqμëqàdGh ´GÎbG õcôe ≈∏Y AÓ«à°S’G áq«∏ªY »g
Gòg Ω~îà°ùj) IÒãc áq«dÉ«àMG mäGƒ°UCÉH ¬«a A’OE’G ºàj
.(~æ¡dG ‘ í∏£°üŸG

Managing the booths in the polling
station.

.á«HÉîàf’G õcGôŸG ‘ á«YGÎb’G äGÒé◊G IQGOEG á«∏ªY

The term used to describe the individual,
place or position that causes the flow of
information or other activities to slow
down or halt.

hCG ¿Éμe hCG Ée ¢üî°T ∞°Uƒd í∏£°üŸG ∂dP Ω~îà°ùj
ᢢ£˘ °ûfC’G hCG äɢ˘eƒ˘˘∏˘ ©ŸG ≥˘˘a~˘˘J ᢢ∏˘ bô˘˘Y ÖÑ˘˘°ùj Ö°üæ˘˘ e
.É¡©æe hCG iôNC’G

A multi-seat election method. The same
as Instant Runoff Voting except runoff
cycles stop when number of remaining
candidates is equal to the number of
seats to be filled.

≈∏Y âjƒ°üàdG πãe ƒgh .IO~q ©àŸG ~YÉ≤∏d »HÉîàfG Ωɶf
I~j~÷G äGQh~dG q¿GC AÉæãà°SÉH Úë°TôŸG
q Ö«JôJ ¢SÉ°SCG
ÚbÉÑdG Úë°TôŸG O~Y íÑ°üj Ée~æY ∞qbƒàJ äÉHÉîàfÓd
.IôZÉ°ûdG ~YÉ≤ŸG O~©d ÉjhÉ°ùe

Something that marks an electoral limit
or border.

.á«HÉîàf’G Oh~◊G Úq©j A»°T

The process of drawing boundaries of
constituencies for allocation of seats.
Also known as Districting.

.~YÉ≤ŸG ™jRƒ˘J ±~˘¡˘H ᢫˘Hɢî˘à˘f’G ô˘FGh~˘dG Ú«˘©˘J ᢫˘∏˘ª˘Y
.á«HÉîàf’G ôFGh~dG º«°ù≤àH kÉ° jCG ±ô©oJ

7
Budget

áfRGƒŸG

Butterfly Ballot

á°TGôa πμ°ûH ´GÎbG ábQh

By-E
Election

/á«Yôa äÉHÉîàfG
á«q ∏«ªμJ
By-LLaw

»∏NGO Ωɶf

Budget - By-LLaw
The budget usually refers to the amount
of money you expect to spend on various aspects of the campaign. You
should also figure out how many people
are needed to accomplish each task and
how long each task will take. In this
way you will also be budgeting your
time and people resources as well.

≈˘∏˘Y ɢ¡˘bÉ˘Ø˘fGE ™˘bƒ˘à˘J »˘à˘dG ∫Gƒ˘e’C G QG~˘≤˘ e ¤EG kɢ Ñ˘ dɢ˘Z Ò°ûJ
O~Y Qq~≤J ¿CG »¨Ñæj ∂dòc .á∏ª◊G ‘ áØ∏àfl ÖfGƒL
±ƒ°S …òdG øeõdGh ,᪡e πc RÉ‚E’ ÚHƒ∏£ŸG ¢UÉî°TC’G
¿ƒμà°S ƒëædG ∂dP ≈∏Yh .ΩÉ¡ŸG øe ᪡e qπc ¬bô¨à°ùJ
.ô°ûÑdGh øeõdG r…nOpQƒnr Ÿ áfRGƒŸG OG~YEG â∏ªμà°SG ~b kÉ° jCG

A type of paper ballot in which the actual voting is done by the central fold of a
two-page, pamphlet-like ballot (the two
open pages are like a butterfly’s wings;
the voting is done where the butterfly’s
body would be).

∫ÓN øe âjƒ°üqàdG qºàj å«M ,´GÎb’G äÉbÉ£H øe ´ƒf
ÚàëØ°üdG
q ¬Ñ°ûàa) Öq«àc QGôZ ≈∏Y ,ábQƒdG »àëØ°U q»W
~˘æ˘Y âjƒ˘°ü˘qà˘dG qº˘à˘j ɢª˘«˘a ;ᢰTGô˘a »˘Mɢæ˘L Úà˘Mƒ˘à˘ØŸG
.(á°TGôØdG Ö∏b ‘ ,§°SƒdG

An election not held at the usually
scheduled time, often to fill a vacancy in
the office. There is often much lower
voter turnout in a special or by-election.
See Special Election.

iôéj øμdh ,O~ÙG √~Yƒe ‘ IOÉY iôéj ’ ÜÉîàfG …CG
O~˘˘Y -º˘˘Y’G ≈˘˘∏˘ Y -¢ Ø˘˘î˘ æ˘ jh .~˘˘©˘ ˘≤ŸG ÆGô˘˘ a ô˘˘ ¨˘ ˘°ûd
ô˘¶˘fG .ᢰUÉÿG hCG ᢫˘∏˘«˘ª˘μ˘ à˘ dG äɢ˘Hɢ˘î˘ à˘ f’G ‘ ÚYÎ≤ŸG
.á°UÉÿG äÉHÉîàf’G

A law or rule governing the internal
affairs of an organization; or a secondary law.

~b hCG ;áæq«©e áª¶æŸ á«∏NG~dG ¿hDƒ°ûdG ‘ ºμë∏d ¿ƒfÉb
.…ƒfÉK ¿ƒfÉb É° jC
k G ¿ƒμj

8

Calendar Of Events
(Administrative)

C

Calendar Of Events (Administrative) - Campaign Manager

Structured sequence of tasks leading to
the announcement of the successful
party or candidates. It provides the key
milestone and tasks that must be completed to ensure that the election takes
place in an organized manner.

øY ¿ÓYE’G ¤EG ájq ODƒŸG ΩÉ¡ŸG øe ᪠q¶æe á∏°ù∏°S »g
ô˘é◊G π˘qã“ É˘ª˘c .ø˘jõ˘Fɢ˘Ø˘ dG Ú뢢°TôŸG
q hCG õ˘˘Fɢ˘Ø˘ dG Üõ◊G
É¡eÉ“EG »¨Ñæj »àdG ΩÉ¡ŸG ká°ùcÉY ,äÉHÉîàfÓd ¢SÉ°SC’G
.ÉgÒ°S ø°ùM ¿Éª° d

Political activity, including meetings,
rallies, speeches, demonstrations, parades,
other events, and the use of the media,
intended to inform the electorate of the
platform of a particular candidate or
political party and to gather support.

π˘˘ã˘ e »˘˘°Sɢ˘«˘ °S •É˘˘°ûf ᢢ«˘ Hɢ˘î˘ à˘ ˘f’G ᢢ ∏˘ ˘ª◊G ø˘˘ ª˘ ˘° à˘˘ J
¢Vhô˘Y ,äGô˘gɢ¶˘J ,äɢHɢ£˘ N ,äɢ˘bɢ˘Ñ˘ °S ,äɢ˘Yɢ˘ª˘ à˘ LG
á«Yƒ˘à˘d ΩÓ˘YE’G π˘Fɢ°Sh ∫ɢª˘©˘à˘°SGh ,çG~˘MCG ,᢫˘°Sɢ«˘°S
»°SÉ«°S ÜõM hCG í°TôŸ
q ø«q ©e èeÉfôH øY áÑNÉædG áÄ«¡dG
.ºY~dG ÜÉ°ùàc’h

The calendar used to schedule events
and voter contact in the campaign. This
should be a master calendar with the
final say of what goes on in the campaign (“if it’s not on the calendar, it’s
not happening”). Often there is a large,
public version (and therefore less complete) hanging on the wall.

»˘æ˘eõ˘dG ∫h~÷G ~˘j~˘ë˘à˘d Ω~˘˘î˘ à˘ °ùŸG π˘˘é˘ °ùdG »˘˘æ˘ ©˘ Jh
¿CG Öéjh .á∏ª◊G ‘ ÚÑNÉædÉH ∫É°üJ’Gh çG~MCÓd
π°UÉØdG ∫ƒ≤dG øª° àj ,¢ù«FQh ΩÉY πé°ùdG ∂dP ¿ƒμj
,πé°ùdG ‘ ôeCG ~°Uôj ⁄ ¿EÉa) ,á∏ª◊G ‘ Qh~j Ée πμd
áî°ùf kÉÑdÉZ ∑Éæg ¿ƒμjh .(ç~ëj ød ¬fCG ∂dP ≈橪a
.(á∏eÉc ¿ƒμJ ’ ∂dòdh) QG~÷G ≈∏Y á≤∏©e áeq ÉYh IÒÑc

Often this is the decision making group
in the campaign made up of the key
advisors to the candidate; this committee could also provide financial assistance to candidates, in addition to its
strategic support. See Campaign Team.

øe ¿ƒμàJh á∏ª◊G ‘ QGô≤dG ™æ°U áYƒª› IOÉY ¿ƒμJh
É° jC
k G áæé∏dG √ò¡d øμÁh .í°Tôª∏d Ú°ù«FôdG øjQÉ°ûàŸG
¤EG áaÉ°VEG ‹ÉŸG ∫ÉÛG ‘ í°Tôª∏d
q I~YÉ°ùe Ω~q ≤J ¿CG
.á∏ª◊G ≥jôa ô¶fG .»é«JGΰS’G É¡ªYO

Donations to political campaigns from
the candidates' supporters.

á∏ªë∏d í°TôŸG hô°UÉæe É¡H ´qÈàj »àdG ∫GƒeC’G »gh
.á«°SÉ«°ùdG

Campaign Finance
Reform

A movement to restrict the amount of
money that individuals and interest
groups can contribute to political campaigns.

OGô˘˘ aCÓ˘ ˘d ø˘˘ μÁ …ò˘˘ dG ‹ÉŸG ≠˘˘ ∏˘ ˘ÑŸG ~˘˘ j~˘˘ ë˘ ˘à˘ ˘d ᢢ ˘cô˘˘ ˘M
.á«HÉîàf’G äÓªë∏d ¬H GƒYÈàj ¿CG ídÉ°üŸG äÉYƒª›h

Campaign Literature

Printed campaign material used to
inform potential voters about the candidate and persuade them to vote for the
candidate.

ÚÑNÉædG ΩÓYE’ Ω~îà°ùJ »àdGh á∏ªë∏d áYƒÑ£ŸG OGƒŸG
.¬d âjƒ°üàdÉH º¡YÉæbEGh ,í°TôŸG øY º¡ZÓHEGh Ú∏ªnàÙG

The person responsible for overseeing
the strategic development and the dayto-day running of the campaign. The candidate cannot be the campaign manager.

ô˘˘ ˘jƒ˘˘ ˘ £˘ ˘ ˘J ≈˘˘ ˘ ∏˘ ˘ ˘Y ±Gô˘˘ ˘ °TE’G ø˘˘ ˘ Y ∫hDƒ˘ ˘ ˘°ùŸG ¢ü ˘ °ûdG
’h .á˘∏˘ª◊G AGô˘LE’ ᢫˘eƒ˘«˘dG ¿hDƒ˘°ûdGh äɢ«˘é˘«˘ JGΰS’G
.á∏ª◊G IQGOEG ‹ƒJ í°Tôª∏d øμÁ

/(ájq QGOEG) çG~MC’G ˃≤J
çG~MC’G áeÉfRhQ
Campaign

á«HÉîàfG á∏ªM

Campaign Calendar

/á∏ªë∏d »æeR πé°S
/ á«fƒfÉ≤dG IÎØdG
á∏ª◊G áeÉfRhQ

Campaign Committee

á∏ª◊G áæ÷

Campaign Contributions

/á∏ª◊G ‘ äɪgÉ°ùe
á∏ªë∏d äÉYÈJ
πjƒ“ •hô°T ìÓ°UEG
äÓª◊G
á∏ª◊G äÉ«HOCG
Campaign Manager

á∏ª◊G ôj~e

ΩÓYE’G πFÉ°Sh ™e πª©dGh . âbƒdGh ∫GƒeC’G øe ¬«∏Y ∫ƒ°ü◊G á∏ªM ™«£à°ùJ Ée πc . both good and bad.í°TôŸG ídÉ°üd ´GÎb’ÉH äÉ«é«JGΰS’G ôjƒ£J øY ∫hDƒ°ùŸG á∏ª◊G ôj~e Ö°üæe . defined by law.É¡«a Ú∏eÉ©dG qπch á∏ª◊G áæ÷ á∏ª◊G ≥jôa º° j .9 Campaign Period á«HÉîàf’G á∏ª◊G I~e Campaign Plan á∏ª◊G á£N Campaign Professionals á∏ª◊G ƒaÎfi Campaign Resources á∏ª◊G OQGƒe Campaign Team á∏ª◊G ≥jôa Candidate í°TôŸG Candidate Research í°TôŸG åëH Campaign Period . øe ¿ƒμàjh .É¡ë°Tôe øY á∏ª◊G É¡©ªŒ . . information and volunteer help a campaign has access to. See Research. time. The role of the candidate is to meet voters and potential donors to the campaign and persuade them to support the candidate.¿ƒYƒ£àŸG q É¡e~q ≤j »àdG I~YÉ°ùŸGh äÉeƒ∏©ŸGh Often this is the decision making group in the campaign made up of the key advisors to the candidate. In some cases the campaign team maybe the Campaign Committee plus the campaign staff. the message and the strategy of the campaign. These people understand the fundamentals of campaign development.»HÉîàfG ~©≤à RƒØ∏d äÉHÉîàf’G ¢Vƒîj …òdG ¢üî°ûdG ÚÑ˘Nɢæ˘dG á˘∏˘Hɢ≤˘e ≈˘˘∏˘ Y π˘˘ª˘ ©˘ dG í˘˘°TôŸG QhO ø˘˘ª˘ ° à˘˘jh º¡YÉæbEGh á∏ªë∏d äÉYÈàdG Ë~≤àd Ú∏ªàÙG ÚªgÉ°ùŸGh ¤ƒàj ¿CG í°Tôª∏d øμÁ ’h .á∏ª◊G ‘ QGô≤dG ™æ°U áYƒª› kÉÑdÉZ º° jh ~b ä’É◊G ¢ ©H ‘h .á≤HÉ°ùdG äÓª◊G øe ~j~©dG á£N ™°Vh ¢ù°SCG ¿ƒcQ~j ¢UÉî°T’G A’Dƒgh . within which candidates may conduct campaign activities and election propaganda. ɢ¡˘dÓ˘N ™˘«˘£˘à˘°ùj »˘à˘dGh ¿ƒ˘fɢ≤˘dG ɢgO~q ˘ë˘ j »˘˘à˘ dG IÎØ˘˘dG á˘jɢY~˘dɢHh á˘∏˘ª˘ë˘∏˘d äɢWɢ°ûæ˘H Gƒ˘eƒ˘˘≤˘ j ¿CG Ú뢢°Tô˘ q ˘ª˘ ∏˘ d .á∏ª◊G áæ÷ ô¶fG This is the person running for a particular elected position. This is part of the overall research that should be done at the beginning of the campaign.á∏ª◊G ‘ á˘Zɢ«˘°Uh . formulating a campaign message.í°Tôª∏d Ú°ù«FôdG øjQÉ°ûà°ùŸG . such as raising money. ᢢeɢ˘¡˘ dG çƒ˘˘ë˘ Ñ˘ dG ™˘˘ªŒ »˘˘à˘ dG ᢢHƒ˘˘à˘ μŸG ᢢ≤˘ «˘ ˘Kƒ˘˘ dG »˘˘ g »˘¨˘Ñ˘æ˘jh .á˘∏˘ª◊G ᢫˘é˘«˘JGΰSGh á˘dɢ°Sô˘dGh ±G~˘¡˘à˘°S’Gh Ég~jhõJh á∏ª◊G π¡à°ùe ‘ IOƒ°ùe ‘ ∂dP πc OG~YEG Ωƒ«dG ¤EG k’ƒ˘°Uh Iƒ˘£˘N ~˘©˘H Iƒ˘£˘N ò˘«˘Ø˘ æ˘ à˘ dG π˘˘Ñ˘ °ùHo . that your campaign can put together on your candidate.I~˘«˘L ΩCG âfɢc á˘Ä˘«˘°S . the targeting. See Campaign Committee. working with the media and targeting and persuading voters.åëÑdG ô¶fG . The candidate cannot be the campaign manager. ò«ØæJ ‘ äGÈN º¡d ôaƒàJ øjòdG ¢UÉî°T’G πª°ûJh πª©∏d kGQƒLCG º¡d ™a~jh . »˘à˘dG .º¡YÉæbEGh ÚÑNÉædG The money. This should be drafted at the beginning of the campaign and provide a step-by-step outline of how the campaign will get to Election Day. responsible for the strategic development and day to day running of the campaign.ɢgô˘˘jƒ˘˘£˘ Jh ᢢ∏˘ ª˘ M ±G~¡à°SGh .´GÎbÓd O~ÙG People who have experience working in many past campaigns and are often paid to work on campaigns.á∏ª◊G Ò°ùd á«eƒ«dG ¿hDƒ°ûdGh Candidate research is all the information.á∏ª◊G π¡à°ùe ‘ ÉgDhGôLEG »¨Ñæj »àdG .Candidate Research Period of time.äÉHÉîàfÓd The written document bringing together the important research.á∏ª◊G ádÉ°SQ .∫Gƒ˘eC’G ™˘ª˘L ∂dP ‘ Éà .äɢ˘eƒ˘˘∏˘ ©ŸG ᢢaɢ˘c ø˘˘ª˘ ° à˘˘jh çÉëHC’G øe kGAõL ∂dP πãÁh .

When done by the candidate.í˘˘°TôŸG ɢ˘¡˘ H Ωƒ˘˘≤˘ j ÚM .kɢ«q ˘dɢe . choose people to serve in a given Government. though it is time and labor intensive.øμ°ùe ¤EG øμ°ùe øe π≤æàdÉH ¿ƒYƒ£àŸG á©æ≤ŸG Ö«dÉ°SC’G π° aCG øe q~©oJh .á˘Ñ˘°SɢæŸG ᢫q ˘dÉŸG ÚfGƒ˘≤˘dG ≥˘«˘Ñ˘£˘Jh . talking directly to voters.ájQGOEG á«HÉîàfEG áÄ«g ≈∏YCG . áë°Uh ábO øe ~cCÉàdG á«∏ªY.ÚØãμe G~¡Lh Éàbh ∂∏¡à°ùJ Casting a Vote The act of putting a ballot in a ballot box. A group within a legislative or decisionmaking body seeking to represent a specific interest or influence a particular area of policy. ¬à∏ªM IQGOEG øY k’hDƒ°ùe ¿ƒμ«d í°TôŸG ƒg q ¬æ«q ©j ¢üî°T l ô˘jQɢ≤˘àq ˘dG ΩÉ“EGh . a committee within a political party charged with determining policy. or the act of recording a preference for a certain motion or candidate.´GÎb’G ¥h~æ°U ‘ ´GÎb’G ábQh ™°Vh á«∏ªY . hCG í°TôŸG Ωƒ≤j å«M .10 Candidate’s Agent Candidate’s Agent . . The election is not completed until after it is certified and elected candidates qualify and take office.áæ«q ©e á°SÉ«°ùd ∫É› .áæq«©e áeƒμM ‘ áe~î∏d kÉ°UÉî°TCG ºgQh~H ¿hQÉàîj Central Election Commission Highest body of electoral administration.Certifying Election Results A representative of a candidate who may be present during the voting and during the count.É¡æY Ú∏q㇠ɡÑLƒÃ IÒ¨°üdG q ¥ôØdG QÉàîJ áq«∏ªY »g m .É¡eÉ“EG Öéj QƒeCG ~LƒJ ¬qfCG ™eh .ìGÎbG hCG í°Tôe q π«° ØJ π«é°ùJ Categorical Ballot Form of ballot in which only a single choice for a candidate or party can be made.~MGh ÜõM hCG í°Tôe q Caucus A meeting of party leaders and/or supporters. the application of relevant financial rules and the completion of the statutory reports. Though protections are in place to guarantee a »àdG QƒeC’G ¢ ©H ∑Éæg π¶j äÉHÉîàf’G »¡àæJ â«M ≥j~°üàdG ~©H q’EG äÉHÉîàf’G πªàμJ Óa . in turn. aka Door-toDoor.É«fÉ£jôH ‘ ¢üNC q ’G ≈∏Y.á«q fƒfÉ≤dG This is a type of voter contact in which the candidate or volunteers go from one house or apartment to another.ÚÑNÉædG ¤EG Iô°TÉÑe ɢ¡˘fCG º˘Zô˘H . Chiefly British.äGƒ°UC’G A person designated by a candidate to be responsible for the financial management of his campaign. π©a hCG . the purpose of which may be to show unity for a particular issue (usually held privately) or to select a candidate for office. this is one of the most persuasive methods of winning votes.á°SÉ«°ùdG ~j~ëàH áØq∏μe »°SÉ«°S ÜõM øª°V Caucus-S Style Election Process whereby small groups select representatives who.ºg~YÉ≤e ÚÑnîàæŸG òNCGh É¡«∏Y /í°TôŸG q π«ch /í°TôŸG q Üh~æe í°TôŸG π㇠Candidate’s Offical Agent »ª°SôdG í°TôŸG q π«ch Canvass ±GƒW /䃰üH A’OEG ´GÎbG/âjƒ°üJ ™WÉb âjƒ°üJ /á«HÉîàfG á«©ªL /á«q ª«¶æJ á«HõM áæ÷ »HõM »HÉîàfG ´ÉªàLG ÒZ äÉHÉîàf’G è¡f Iô°TÉÑŸG ásjõcôŸG áæé∏dG/¢ù∏ÛG äÉHÉîàfÓd Certifying Election Results èFÉàf ≈∏Y ≥j~°üàdG ´GÎb’G .äÉHÉîàf’G èFÉàf Once the actual election is over there are still a few things that need to occur to finalize it.äGƒ˘˘°UC’ɢ˘H Rƒ˘˘Ø˘ ∏˘ d . ’EG QÉ«àNÉH íª°ùj ’ âjƒ°üàq dG ∫Éμ°TCG øe πl μ°T ƒg . º¡ªYO QÉ¡XE’ ¬jô°UÉæe hCG/h ø«q ©e ÜõM IOÉ≤d ´ÉªàLG hCG (á°UÉN á°ù∏L øª°V kÉÑdÉZ) IO~q fi á«q ° ≤d ~MƒŸGq hCG »©jô°ûJ º°ùL øª°V áYƒª› .Ö°üæŸ í°Tôe q AÉ≤àf’ ‘ ÒKCÉàdG hCG ø«q ©e ΩɪàgG π«ãªàd ≈©°ùj QGôb ™fÉ°U áæ÷ »g . Rôah ´GÎb’G âbh ô° ëj ¿CG øμÁ …òdG í°TôŸG πq㇠.ÚÑNÉædÉH ∫É°üJÓd á≤jôW »gh ç~ëàdGh .

~«MƒdG ¬Jƒ°üH áëFÓdG √òg ≥aÎa . ᪰SÉ◊G IQh~q dG äGQÉ«àNÓd Choice Selection äGQÉ«àN’G ~j~– Choice Transfer äGQÉ«ÿG Ò«Œ .¿É«MC’G ¢ ©H ¤EG . . . speak to the heart. äGPh ᢢ bOɢ˘ °Uh . especially a questioning of validity or legality of the election results. πq c √O~q ëj Ée ≥ah . The single vote that the voter cast is transferable at times.¥É«°ùdG Gòg ‘ .áq«HÉîàf’G ábÉ£ÑdG øe Ö≤ãoJ IÒ¨°U áq«bQh á°UÉ°üb »g . be targeted and repeated again and again. É¡à«Yô°Th äÉHÉîàf’G èFÉàf áë°U ádAÉ°ùe A campaign message must be short.á«bG~°üe á˘a~˘¡˘ à˘ °ùeh .áÑbÉK ádBG ᣰSGƒH A calling into question. »Øa .¿ƒªà¡ŸG ô° ëj ≈àM É¡fÉμeh äÉWÉ°ûædG A tiny bit of paper that is punched from a ballot using a punch-type mechanical voting machine.Ú°ù«Fôq dG Úë°TôŸG q øe á° FÉØdG äGƒ°UC’G Ò«Œ ƒg ¬«≤∏j …òdG …q OôØdG 䃰üdG q Ò«Œ øμÁ . the various administrative steps in the election process are public.Ò«éà∏d πHÉb …Oôa 䃰U/´GÎbG ô¶fG The ranked choices made by each elector.πeÉμdÉH Éeq GE h kÉ«q FõL Éeq GE . and the public must be provided notice of when these actions will occur so that anyone interested may attend.á˘˘æ˘ «q ˘ ©˘ e m±hô˘˘ X πq ˘ ˘X ‘ ô˘˘ NBG í˘˘ °Tô˘ q ˘e øe ᪰SÉ◊G IQh~q dG á∏Môe GC ~ÑJ . but the voter would be allowed to rank a list of choices of his preferred candidates. This list would be attached to his single vote.Ú뢰TôŸG q ø˘e á˘Ø˘«˘©˘°V á˘∏˘°ù∏˘˘°S ±ò˘˘M ƒ˘˘g .äÉHÉîàf’G IQGOEG RÉ¡L ¤EG kÉ° jCG IOƒ©dG .Ú°ùaɢ˘æŸG . øμÁ ¬qfGC q…GC .Choice Transfer voter’s privacy.Ú∏° ØŸG q ¬«ë°Tôe q ∂∏˘J ≈˘∏˘Y Qƒ˘còŸG ∫hCq ’G í˘°Tô˘ ª ˘ ∏ ˘ d ¬˘ ˘ J ƒ˘ ˘ ° U Oƒ˘ ˘ © ˘ j å«˘ ˘M q .ádÉq©ØdG The elimination of a Low Series of candidates before the transfer of surplus votes in a Full Choice election. show contrast with the opposition.á° FÉØdG äGƒ°UC’G .ÚÑNÉæ∏d áeÉgh á©æ≤eh .´GÎb’G ¥h~æ°U ‘ ´Î≤ŸG πq ˘ c Ò«Œ ~˘˘©˘ Hh . The vote belongs to the first candidate on this list. ¢ùμ©j Éà . This means anyone interested in being present for the preliminary count or certification of the count can be.(¿G~˘˘Lƒ˘˘dG) Ö∏˘˘≤˘ dG ÖWɢ˘î˘ Jh .kɪFGO QôμJh An individual who introduces and reviews the management structure that reflects the particular needs of the country in delivering effective electoral administration.I~MGh . truthful and credible.∞«æ°üàq dG ≈∏Y áªFÉ≤dG äGQÉ«ÿG »g Iôq e ’EG ´GÎb’G ÖNÉæq ∏d ≥q ëj ’ . π˘jƒ– π˘Ñ˘b .kÓeÉc kGQÉ«àNG í«àJ mäÉHÉîàfG ¤EG á° FÉØdG äGƒ°UC’G See Single Transferable Vote. persuasive and important to voters.áqeÉY »g á«HÉîàf’G á«∏ª©dG ‘ áØ∏àıG Öéjh É¡«∏Y ≥j~°üàdGh RôØdG á«∏ªY ¤EG ~jôj øe Qƒ° M √ò˘˘g ∫ƒ˘˘ °üM âbh ∫ƒ˘˘ M äɢ˘ eƒ˘˘ ∏˘ ˘©Ã ¢Sɢ˘ æ˘ ˘dG Ohõ˘s ˘ j ¿CG . in part or whole. to another candidate under certain conditions.11 Chad ábQh Ö≤K á°UÉ°üb ´GÎb’G Challenge/ Claims (Electoral) ø©W/¢VGÎYG Characteristics of Message ádÉ°SôdG äɪ°S Chief Electoral Officer RÉ¡÷G »Ø qXƒe ¢ù«FQ »HÉîàf’G Choice Elimination äGQÉ«àN’G ±òM Choice Runoff Certifying Election Results .äGQÉ«ÿG ≈∏Y âjƒ°üàq dG . Also see Electoral Management Body. The voter would only have a single vote.´Î≤e πª°ûJ äGQÉ«ÿG øe áëF’ ∞«æ°üJ ¬fÉμeEÉH øμd .IÒ°üb ᢢ dɢ˘ °Sô˘˘ dG ¿ƒ˘˘ μ˘ ˘J ¿CG »˘˘ ¨˘ ˘Ñ˘ ˘æ˘ ˘j ™e øjÉÑàdG í°VƒJh .¬©LGôjh IQGOE’G á«æH ´hô°ûe Ωq~≤j ¢üî°T ƒg l ᢢq«˘ Hɢ˘î˘ à˘ f’G IQGOE’G ÚeCɢ J ‘ ᢢ°UÉÿG q ~˘˘∏˘ Ñ˘ dG äɢ˘ Lɢ˘ M . After all Surplus Votes have been transferred the Choice Run-Off part of Choice Voting would be put into operation.áëFÓdG The transfer of surplus votes from leading candidates.

øj~gÉ°ûŸGh Civic Education Educational program aiming to promote political awareness understanding and knowledge of the rights and responsibilities of the citizens. and who is therefore entitled to the rights and protections of its laws.º¡jCGôH √ògh .Claims See Single Transferable Vote. …ò˘dG ±ôq ˘°üà˘dG Ω~˘˘Y hCG äGQGô˘˘≤˘ dG ¢Uƒ˘˘°üH iƒ˘˘μ˘ °T ¤EG ô˘˘ ¶˘ ˘fG . Civic journalism is practiced by newspapers and radio and television stations in many parts around the world. ≈∏Y á«q ©jô°ûàq dG ÉjÉ° ≤dG ™°Vh øe ÚYÎ≤ŸG øqμ“ á«q dBG »g .áÑdÉ£e .ôjô≤àdG á«∏ªY á«æZ áZÉ«°üd äÉeƒ∏©ŸG √òg πª©à°ùJ ‹ÉàdÉHh .ƒjOGôdGh . ô¡¶j . See also Challenge.á«q ©jô°ûàq dG º¡JÉÄ«g ΩÉeCG hCG . ÚæWGƒŸG äÉeɪàgG ≈∏Y õcôJ á«eÓYEG á«£¨àH ΩÉ«≤dG ÉjÉ° ≤dG ‘ º¡FGQBG kÉ«∏©a ¢ùμ©Jh ™ªàÛG ‘ ºgQhOh Ú∏°SGôŸG ≈∏Y .iƒYO .á«HÉîàf’G á«∏ª©dG ∫ÓN á«°SÉ«°ùdG ø˘e) á˘ª˘¡ŸG ɢjɢ° ≤˘˘dG ᢢ«˘ £˘ ¨˘ J ᢢdhÉfi Ú«˘˘Ø˘ ë˘ °üdG ø˘e) á˘ª˘¡ŸG ɢjɢ° ≤˘dG ᢫˘£˘¨˘J á˘dhÉfi Ú«˘˘Ø˘ ë˘ °üdG∫ÓN (õ«côJ äÉYƒª› IQGOEGh ÚæWGƒŸG ¤EG ç~ëàdG ∫ÓN AGôq ˘ ≤˘ ∏˘ d ᢢ«˘ £˘ ¨˘ à˘ ∏˘ d I~˘˘«˘ L ᢢ°Uô˘˘ a ¿É˘˘ ª˘ ˘° d .∞ë°üdG ∫ÓN øe QÉÑNÓd . This information is then used to enrich news stories. ‘ Ö©°ûdG ™e ™°ShCG π°UGƒJ ≈∏Y ¢SÉ°SC’ÉH õcôJ áaÉë°U É¡∏M áq«Ø«ch º¡∏cÉ°ûe ¤EG ´Éªà°S’Gh .Ú«˘˘ Hɢ˘ î˘ ˘à˘ ˘f’G Ú∏˘˘ qã˘ ˘ªŸG ∞˘˘ ∏˘ ˘àfl ¬˘˘ e~q ˘ ˘ ≤˘ ˘ j øWGƒe øWGƒŸG IQOÉÑe á«æÑe á«eÓYEG á«£¨J øWGƒŸG ≈∏Y á«f~ŸG á«HÎdG /áæWGƒŸG áaÉë°üdG á«q f~ŸG/á«q ∏gC’G Civil Society Ê~ŸG ™ªàÛG Claims AÉYOq GE . displays allegiance to that state’s political and legal authority. . to insure that readers and viewers have a good chance of coming across the coverage.12 Choice Voting äGQÉ«ÿG ≈∏Y âjƒ°üàq dG Choice Voting . »°SÉ«°ùdG Ωƒ¡Øª∏d »YƒdG õjõ©J ¤EG ±~¡j …ƒHôJ èeÉfôH .´GÎb’G ábQh Citizen-B Based Coverage Reporters interview citizens to attempt to measure their thoughts on political issues during a campaign. to listen to how citizens frame their problems and what citizens see as solutions to those problems. äɢª˘ q¶˘æ˘eh äɢ«q ˘©˘ª÷G ø˘e á˘Yƒ˘q æ˘à˘e má˘∏˘°ù∏˘°S ø˘e ∞˘qdÉC ˘à˘ j ¿G~˘˘«ŸG ‘ ∑ô˘˘ë˘ àq ˘ ∏˘ d Úæ˘˘WGƒŸG ™˘˘ ªŒ »˘˘ à˘ ˘dG ᢢ jq ƒ˘˘ ° ©˘˘ dG . á«Yô°ûdG á£∏°ùdG hCG á«°SÉ«°ùdG áj’ƒdG ∂∏àd kA’h . Reporters should also try to cover the important issues (as determined by speaking to citizens and conducting focus groups) repetitiously.Ò«éà∏d πHÉb …Oôa 䃰U/´GÎbG ô¶fG Citizen An individual who is a naturalized or native-born Resident of a state. Dispute.IQhÉfi/´Gõfh ø©W/¢VGÎYG .¿ƒjõØ∏àdGh . áj’h ‘ OƒdƒŸG º«≤ŸG hCG ¢ùqæÛG ¢üî°ûdG ƒg ƒgh .É¡«a á«fƒfÉ≤dG ájɪ◊Gh É¡bƒ≤ëH ∫ƒfl q ∂dòH Citizen Initiative A mechanism which enables voters to place legislative issues on the ballot or in front of their legislature.äÉ°SÉ«°ùdG ™°Vh ¿G~«eh »q °SÉ«°ùdG Complaints regarding decisions or lack of action presented by different electoral actors.QGô˘˘ μ˘ ˘à˘ ˘H .OÓÑdG øe Òãc ‘ ádhG~àe áaÉë°üdG It consists of a range of associations and membership organizations that bring citizens together to act in a political and policy realms.ÚæWGƒŸG äÉ«dhDƒ°ùeh ¥ƒ≤M ≈∏Y ´Ó qW’Gh Civic Journalism Civic journalism is an effort to reach out to the public more aggressively in the reporting process.

»°SÉ«°S ÜõM øe ÌcCG øe ±ÓàF’G áeƒμM πsμ°ûoJ ÜõM …CG RƒØj ’ Ée~æY (ɪFGO ¢ù«dh) kÉfÉ«MCG πsμ°ûoJ ≥˘Ø˘à˘j ɢg~˘æ˘Y . .áeƒμë∏d kÓ«μ°ûJ .É©e OÓÑdG ºμM ≈∏Y ÌcCG hCG ¿ÉHõM Coalition of Results The transmission of results from a particular polling site to the next level to be collated with other results to give the outcome for a wider area to establish the overall national results. hCG Úq«°SÉ«°S ÚHõM hCG ÚàYƒª› iƒb ÚH ∞dÉ– ƒg . .äɢHɢ˘î˘ à˘ f’G äɢjɢY~˘dGh äGô˘gɢ¶ŸGh . it refers to the ability of a popular officeholder or candidate for office.Code of Conduct A form of List PR in which electors are restricted to voting only for a party or political grouping.iôNC’G èFÉàæq dÉH É¡©ªL ºq àj »c .á«Ñ©°T øe ¬H ™àªàj ÉŸ Gô¶f .‹Éàq dG iƒà°ùŸG ¤EG ø«q ©em ´GÎbG õcôe øe èFÉàæq dG π≤f ƒg èFÉàf ≈∏Y ∫ƒ°üë∏d . ø©£∏d I~ëàe Iƒb π«μ°ûàd ÌcCG hCG ø«q °SÉ«°S ÚHõM ™ªq Œ .äÉHÉîàf’G . Two or more parties may then agree to govern together. to which parties ideally will voluntarily agree and which may.܃Ñfi »°SÉ«°S í°Tôe ‘ ¬JGP Üõ◊G øe øjôNBG Úë°Tôe Rƒa ¢Uôa IOÉjR ≈∏Y Gƒ≤∏©J'' ø‡ øjôNBG ôéj í°TôŸG ¿EG ∫É≤j . to increase the chances for victory of other candidates of the same political party.áeƒμM π«μ°ûàd hCG äÉHÉîàf’G ‘ Coattails An allusion to the rear panels (“tails”) of a gentleman’s frock coat. This candidate is said to carry others to victory “on his coattails. on the strength of his or her own popularity. ádòÑdG πjP ‘ ±É£ÿÉH Ú¡«Ñ°ûdG Ú≤°ûdG ¤EG IQÉ°TEG ᢰSɢ«˘°ùdG ‘ í˘∏˘ £˘ °üŸG Gò˘˘g Ò°ûj . »°SÉ«°ùdG Üõ◊G AÉ° YCG áYÉ£à°SÉH å«M á«dhCq G äÉHÉîàfG . It is sometimes (but not always) created when no single party has gained an overall majority in a GeneralElection.äɢYɢ˘ª˘ à˘ L’G IQGOEG º˘˘«˘ ¶˘ æ˘ à˘ d í˘Fɢ°üf Aɢ£˘YE’ Ú«˘°Sɢ«˘°ùdG ÚÑ˘bGôŸG ≈˘∏˘Yh .ÌcCG Coalition Government is a Government created from more than one political party. subsequent to that agreement be incorporated in law. and cannot express a preference for any candidate within a party list.™°ShC’G á≤£æŸG Coalition/ Alliance of Parties Association of two or more political parties constituting a joint force for the purpose of contesting an election or forming a government.ᢢ∏˘ jƒ˘˘£˘ dG ᢢ«˘ ª˘ °Sô˘˘dG hCG Ú©e »°SÉ«°S Ö°üæe ÖMÉ°U IQ~b ¤EG á«cÒeC’G .᢫˘°Sɢ«˘ °ùdG I~Y øª°V øe á«°SÉ«°ùdG áÑbGôŸG ∑ƒ∏°S Oh~Mh •hô°ûd á°VhôØe hCG á«°SÉ«°ùdG ÜGõMC’G ÚH É¡«∏Y ≥Øàe ≥«KGƒe .áeq É©dG á«q æWƒdG èFÉàæq dG AÉ°SQE’ ∂dPh .áq«°SÉ«°S áYƒªÛ hCG Üõ◊ . Proclaims guidelines of behaviour and standards that are difficult to embody in a statute. ᢫˘∏˘ª˘Y ∫Ó˘N äɢWɢ°ûæ˘dG ¢ ©˘Ñ˘d π˘ª˘©˘dG ~˘YGƒ˘b ø˘«q ˘©˘ j ᢫˘°Sɢ«˘°ùdG ÜGõ˘MC’G ≈˘∏˘Y ¬˘≤˘«˘Ñ˘£˘J ø˘μÁ .¬«ë°TôŸ n GƒJƒ°üj ¿CG Ö°ùëa Coalition The alliance of the forces of two or more groups or political parties to form the government.á˘eɢ©˘dG äɢHÉ˘î˘ à˘ f’G ‘ ᢢjÌcC’ɢ˘H ~˘˘MGh .RƒØdG ¤EG ''¬dÉjPCÉH Code of Conduct A set of general rules of behaviour for political parties and their supporters relating to their participation in an election process. In American politics.13 Closed List Closed List .á«HÉîàf’G äÉ£∏°ùdG øe ÉgÒZ hCG á«HÉîàf’G áæé∏dG øe á≤∏¨e áªFÉb/áëF’ á≤∏¨e á«dhCG äÉHÉîàfEG ±ÓàFG Coalition Government ±ÓàFG áeƒμM /èFÉàæq dG èeO èFÉàædG ±ÓàFG ÜGõMC’G ∞dÉ–/±ÓàFEG í°Tôe ∫ÉjPCG /πª©dG ¥Éã«e /πª©dG ¿ƒfÉb πª©dG ~YGƒb π«° ØJ øY ÒÑ©àdG º¡æμÁ ’h .á«HõM áëF’ øª°V øq«©e í°Tôe q …C’ . áª˘Fɢ≤˘dG ™˘e »˘Ñ˘°ùæ˘dG π˘«˘ã˘ª˘à˘dG Ωɢ¶˘f ø˘˘ ˘e ´ƒ˘˘ ˘f §≤a âjƒ°üàdÉH ÚYÎ≤ŸG âjƒ°üJ ¬«a ô°üëj á«Hõ◊G Closed Primary Primary election in which only a political party’s members may vote on its nominees.

»HÉ«ædG ¢ù∏éª∏d ''É¡àYƒª›'' Communal Roll A register of voters in which ascriptive criteria such as race or ethnicity determine which electors can enroll to vote.” This legal structure can be contrasted with a council.iôNCG á«aGô¨ÁO áYƒª› Ú°ùë˘˘à˘ d äɢ˘¡˘ eC’G ™˘˘e ᢢcΰûe í˘˘dɢ˘°üe Ú°SQ~˘˘ ª˘ ˘∏˘ ˘d äÉYƒªÛG øe äÉ¡eC’Gh ¿ƒ°SQ~ŸG q~©oj . Commissions usually also have advisory powers to government. Teachers and mothers would be collateral groups. áHƒ°ùæŸG oÒjÉ©ŸG Oq~– å«M . øe ¢üî°T hCG ´ƒ£àe ∫õæe ‘ äÉ°ù∏÷G ∂∏J ~≤©Jh á∏HÉ≤e øe ∞«° ŸG ∂dP ÜÉë°UCG øqμªàj ≈àM øj~jDƒŸG ™e ∫É°üJ’G í«àJ É¡fCG á«HÉéjE’G É¡ÑfGƒL øeh . These have the advantage of face-to-face contact with the candidate. and elects only members of its “own group” to Parliament.Communal Roll .ᢢ«˘ Yɢ˘ª˘ L ø˘e Aɢ° YCG §˘≤˘a Öî˘à˘æ˘Jh »˘Yɢª÷G ɢ¡˘dh~˘L/ɢ¡˘ ∏˘ é˘ °S .áæeÉ° àŸG Commission A formal group of experts brought together on a regular or ad hoc basis to debate matters within that sphere of expertise. ™e á∏Kɪàe ídÉ°üe É¡d hCG á¡HÉ°ûàe á«aGô¨ÁO áYƒª› »gh ¿ƒμj ~b .™°ShC’G áq«HÉîàf’G á°ùaÉæŸG øª°V º¡HÉîàfG áæ¡ŸG ÜGOBG ~YGƒb /á«HÉîàf’G áÑ°ùædG/πeÉ©e »HÉîàf’G π°UÉ◊G …É°ûdG/Iƒ¡≤dG äÉ°ù∏L áæeÉ° àŸG äÉYɪ÷G áæ÷ »Yɪ÷G π«ãªàdG »YɪL πé°S/∫h~L .»∏j~©àdG hCG »FÉ° ≤dG Communal Representation seats are not only divided on a communal basis. This usually means that each defined community has its own electoral roll.πª©dG ¥Éã«e ¤EG IOƒ©dG Code of Ethics See Code of Conduct.''≥«≤ëàdG áæé∏H'' Gòg ¬Ñ°ûdG PƒØædÉH ™àªàJ ’ »àdG ¢ù∏› áª∏c ™e ʃfÉ≤dG .∫ÉãŸG π«Ñ°S ≈∏©a .IôFGO πμd á°ü°üıG ~YÉ≤ŸG O~Y ≈∏Y äGƒ°UC’G Coffees These are events in the home of a volunteer or supporter where their friends are able to meet the candidate. but the entire system of parliamentary representation is similarly based on communal considerations. ΩɶàfÉH ¿ƒ©ªàéj øjòdG Ú«ª°SôdG AGÈÿG øe áYƒª› »∏j~©J PƒØf øª°Vh º¡JÈN QÉWEG øª°V ÉjÉ° ≤dG á°ûbÉæŸ QÉWEG ‘ á°üNQ AÉ£YEG ≈∏Y IQ~≤dG πãe »FÉ° b ¬Ñ°T hCG ¿CG ɪc .á˘q«˘æ˘KE’G hCG ¥ô˘©˘dɢc . the latter not enjoying quasi-judicial or regulatory powers. and which candidates can be elected.º«∏©àdG .¬˘˘Lƒ˘˘d ɢ˘¡˘ Lh í˘˘°TôŸG . Coefficient/ Electoral Quotient Calculated for each district by dividing the number of valid votes cast by the number of seats allocated to the district.í°TôŸG s ™˘ª÷ ɢ¡˘eG~˘î˘à˘°SG ø˘˘μÁ ∂dò˘˘c . and is often known as a “commission of inquiry.ÚªgÉ°ùŸG Qɨ°U øe äÉYÈàdG Collateral Group A demographic group similar to or having similar interests to another demographic group. within the wider electoral contest. Ωɶf πH . For example.´GÎbÓd º¡Fɪ°SCG êGQOEG .Oô˘˘a qπ˘ μ˘ d øμªŸG Úë°TôŸG q øY kÓ° a .áeƒμ◊G ≈∏Y kÉjQÉ°ûà°SG kGPƒØf áæé∏d ±ô©oj . Coffees can also be used for small donor fundraising.∂dòd . The organizational form of a commission is often resorted to by governments to exhaustively investigate a matter of national concern. O~˘Y º˘«˘°ù≤˘à˘H Iô˘FGO π˘˘μ˘ d ᢢ«˘ Hɢ˘î˘ à˘ f’G á˘˘Ñ˘ °ùæ˘˘dG Ö°ù– . teachers may share an interest in improving education with mothers. and with regulatory or quasijudicial powers such as the ability to license activity in the sphere of activity or to subpoena witnesses.Ö°ùMh »YɪL ¢SÉ°SCG ≈∏Y ~YÉ≤ŸG º°ù≤J q ’ äGQÉ˘Ñ˘à˘YG ≈˘∏˘Y ɢ° jC k G ~˘ª˘à˘©˘j √ô˘°SCɢH ÊÉŸÈdG π˘«˘ã˘ª˘ à˘ dG IOq~fi á˘Yɢª˘L qπ˘μ˘d q¿CG IOɢ˘Y Gò˘˘g »˘˘æ˘ ©˘ jh .á«æWh ádCÉ°ùe øe πeÉ°ûdG ≥o≤ëà∏d áæé∏d ᪠u¶æŸG Ö«cÎdG Gòg á∏HÉ≤e øμªŸG øe .áªμÙG ΩÉeCG ∫ƒãª∏d ~gÉ°T AÉY~à°SG hCG Ée •É°ûf áÄ«¡∏d áeƒμ◊G ÉC é∏J .14 Code os Ethics . the most persuasive form of voter contact.ÚYÎ≤ŸG øe qπé°S ƒg ø˘μÁ ø˘jò˘dG ÚÑ˘î˘à˘æŸG .

ÉgOh~M á«©jô°ûàdG . the date for the commencement of the preparation of the preliminary lists of electors for that election.¿G~∏ÑdG ¢ ©H ‘ øY â©æàeG ɪqfGE . ájq ƒ° ©dG Ωɶf ‘ .kÉq«fƒfÉb âjƒ°üqàdG q≥M ∂∏“ âæc GPEG . it has been accepted by most citizens as the only game in town.Consolidation of Democracy The List Proportional Representation seats in a mixed member proportional system which are awarded to parties on the basis of their proportion of the national vote and designed to correct any disproportionality in the results of the elections held in plurality-majority district seats. á∏j~H áYƒª› ¿É°Vô©j .‹GÈ«d ô¶fG .ɢSGQ ɢ«˘Yɢª˘à˘LG ɢeɢ¶˘f hCG á˘j~˘«˘∏˘≤˘à˘dG º˘«˘≤˘dG ¿ƒμj ¿CG Öéj Ò«¨àdG q¿GC qô°üj øμdh Ò«¨àdG ßaÉÙG . He does not reject change but insists that further change be organic rather than revolutionary.I~˘«˘Mƒ˘dG á˘Ñ˘©˘∏˘dG ɢ¡˘qfCG ≈˘∏˘Y á«°SÉ«°ùdG π©L πLCG øe á«q JÉ°ù°SDƒeh á«cƒ∏°S äGÒ¨J π©L Ö∏£àj .∂dP øe ºgC’Gh .áq«dÉe máeGô¨H ÖbÉ©oJ ~≤a .m±Éc mÖÑ°S ¿h~H âjƒ°üqàdG Confirmation Date In respect of an election in an electoral district.¬àdÉf …òdG »æWƒdG âjƒ°üqàdG ~YÉ≤e ~j~ëàd iôéoJ »àdG äÉHÉîàf’G èFÉàf ‘ ähÉØJ .IôFGO πμd »æWƒdG ÜGƒædG Conservative An individual with a political philosophy supporting conserving heritage.´Gh Ê~e ™ªà› ~YGƒ≤dG ≈∏Y Oƒ©àdG q ôjƒ£J á«WGô≤Á~dG õjõ©J Öq∏£àj ᪪q àe äÉHÉîàfG »eGõdE’G âjƒ°üJ …~«cCÉJ ïjQÉJ /¢Sô¨fƒμdG ôFGhO É«∏©dG ôFGh~dG ßaÉfi Consolidation of Democracy /ï«°SôJ/õjõ©J á«WGô≤Á~dG êÉeOG . traditional values or an established social order. Compulsory Voting Voting is compulsory. ≥ª©H á«WGô≤Á~dG ™jô°ûàd á«∏ªY ƒg á«WGô≤Á~dG ï«°SôJ Ée~æY .»Ñ°ùqædG π«ãªqàdG áëF’ ~YÉ≤e »g áÑ°ùf ¢SÉ°SCG ≈∏Y ÜGõMC’G ¤EG íæªoJ .Úà«WGô≤Á~dG áaÉ≤ãdGh á«q æWGƒŸG . hCG .äÉHÉîàf’G √ò¡d á«dhCq ’G ÚÑîàæŸG íFGƒd Ò° ëàH A~ÑdG Congressional Districts (CD) These are political divisions within a state.çGÎdG ≈∏Y á¶aÉÙG ºY~J á«q °SÉ«°S áØ°ù∏a hP Oôa ¢ aô˘j ’ . broadening of leadership recruitment of a mature civil society and more importantly.Úë°TôŸG q øe . the boundaries of which are drawnup by the state legislature.15 Compensatory Seats áq«° jƒ©qàdG ~YÉ≤ŸG Competitive Election »°ùaÉæJ ÜÉîàfG Compensatory Seats . See Liberal. When democracy is consolidated. which means that if you do not vote and do not have a valid and sufficient reason for failing to vote. This normalization requires the expansion of citizen access. áÄ«¡dG º°SônJ å«M .ÉjQƒK ¿ƒμj ¿CG ¢VƒY Éjk ƒ° Y The consolidation of democracy is the process by which democracy becomes so broadly and profoundly legitimatised among its citizens that it is very unlikely to break down.πbC’G ≈∏Y .∂°ûdG ≥««° Jh ÉjOÉY ÉÄ«°T á«WGô≤Á~dG ƒ‰h . political institutionalization.áq«∏«ªμqàdG/áq«YôØdG äÉHÉîàf’G ô¶fG Complementary Election See By-Election. development of democratic citizenship and culture.∂qμØà∏d á∏HÉb ÒZ íÑ°üàa ÚæWGƒŸG ÚH áHÓ°Uh ÚæWGƒŸG º¶©e É¡«∏Y ≥aGƒj .ÚæWGƒŸG ¤EG É¡dƒ°Uh ´É°ùJG ÉjOÉY GôeCG á«WGô≤Á~dG äGOÉ«b ∞«XƒJ ™«°SƒJh . .á«°SÉ«°ùdG á«JÉ°ù°SDƒŸG . ïjQÉJ ƒ¡a .áj’ƒdG øª°V á«°SÉ«°S äɪ«°ù≤J ¢ù∏› øe ~MGh ƒ° Y ÜÉîàfG ºàj . in some countries.ÚHõM q¿GC »æ©j Éq‡ .IRõq ©e á«q WGô≤Á~dG ¿ƒμJ ᢫˘WGô˘≤Á~˘dG õ˘jõ˘©˘J π˘ª˘°ûj .á«HÉîàf’G ôFGh~dG ‘ äÉHÉîàf’ÉH ≥∏©àj Ée ‘ .ájOq~©qàdG áqjÌcC’G Ωɶf ôFGhO Meaning that at least two parties present alternative sets of candidates.§∏àıG »Ñ°ùqædG q…GC ìÓ°UEG ¤EG ±~¡Jh . One member of the national House of Representatives is elected per district. The consolidation of democracy involves behavioral and institutional changes that normalize democratic politics and narrow its uncertainty. you may be fined.iôNCG mIQÉÑ©H .kÉq«eGõdEG âjƒ°üqàdG Èà©j .

which a member of Parliament represents.á«JB’G á«HÉîàf’G á∏ª◊G ‘ ᪡ŸG ÉjÉ° ≤dG øe .á∏Ñ≤ŸG äÉHÉîàfÓd QGôªà°SÉHh ɪFGO .¢VGÎYG ƒ˘˘ ˘g hCG . A meeting of party delegates and leaders at any of the three levels of government (federal. .á«q HÉîàf’G èFÉàæq dGh äÉ«q ∏ª©dG ≈∏Y Districts comprised of areas which are geographically adjoined or touching.»ª«∏bE’G .ádÉ°SôdGh See Campaign Contributions. See Credibility and Message.ádÉ°SôdG ∫É°üjEG ‘ ´hô°û∏d ÜÉîàfÓd O~ÙG ~YƒŸG A portion of the population represented by a particular elected leader or organization. á˘jPɢë˘à˘e hCG á˘≤˘°UÓ˘˘à˘ e ≥˘˘Wɢ˘æ˘ e ø˘˘e ᢢfƒ˘q ˘μ˘ e ô˘˘FGhO »˘˘g .(»∏ÙGh .á∏ªë∏d äÉYÈJ/á∏ª◊G ‘ äɪgÉ°ùe ô¶fG áeƒμ◊G äÉjƒà°ùe ≈∏Y É¡JOÉbh ÜGõMC’G »∏㇠´ÉªàLG áZÉ«°U πLCG øe .Convention Consolidation requires that habituation to the norms and procedures of democratic conflict regulation be developed. detailing where the party “stands” on the important issues of the upcoming campaign.á«FÉ° ≤dGh An administrative or any other objection to activities and decisions of an electoral nature or to the electoral processes and results.Öî˘à˘æ˘e º˘¡˘∏˘ãÁ ÚÑ˘Nɢf á˘Yƒ˘ª› hCG ᢫˘Hɢî˘à˘fG á˘≤˘ £˘ æ˘ e .¬«∏Y á≤naGƒŸGh Üõ◊G . ≈˘˘ ∏˘ ˘Y .á«©jô°ûàdG áÄ«¡dG Set of basic rules by which the government of a State is organized regulating the relationships between the legislature. A high degree of institutional routinization is key to such process. the party platform is written and approved.√ÒZhCG …q QGOE’G ~˘˘ «˘ ˘©˘ ˘ °üdG ≈˘˘ ˘∏˘ ˘ Y .¿ÉŸÈdG øe ƒ° Y É¡∏ãÁ »àdG á«HÉîàf’G IôFG~dG A citizen who lives in a legislator’s area of representation. . It is important to give the voters a clear choice. ¿Óª©j Üõ◊Gh í°TôŸG ¿CÉH »° ≤j …òdG Ωƒ¡ØŸG »æ©Jh ≈àM ¿ƒãjÎj ’h .¢ ©ÑH º¡° ©H áfQÉ≤e ~æY Úë°TôŸG ÚH á«bG~°üŸG ô˘˘¶˘ fG .kÉ«q aGô¨L Using the campaign message to demonstrate the difference between candidates when they are compared with each other.Éæ«JhQ á«JÉ°ù°SDƒŸG The concept that the candidate and the party are always working for the next election and do not wait for election time to start delivering a message.á«q HÉîàfG á©«˘Ñ˘£˘H ™˘àq ˘ª˘à˘J »˘à˘dG äGQGô˘≤˘dGh äɢWɢ°ûæ˘dG . ‘ ƒ° ©dG øe á∏㪟G á≤£æŸG øª°V ¢û«©j …òdG øWGƒŸG .ɢ˘ë˘ °VGh GQɢ˘«˘ N ÖNɢ˘ æ˘ ˘∏˘ ˘d Ω~˘˘ ≤˘ ˘J . .‹GQ~ØdG) áKÓãdG Ö°üæª∏d Úë°TôŸG Ú«©J ™e ¬μ«àμJh Üõ◊G á«é«JGΰSG èeÉfôH Újh~J ¤EG áaÉ°VE’ÉH Gòg . In addition. or the people in it.áæ«©e ᪶æe hCG Ú©e ¢üî°T º¡∏ãÁ ¿Éμ°ùdG øe AõL ºgh The electoral division or area. á˘eƒ˘μ˘M º˘¶˘æ˘J »˘à˘dG ᢫˘°Sɢ°SC’G ~˘YGƒ˘≤˘ dG ø˘˘e ᢢYƒ˘˘ª› ájò«ØæàdGh á«©jô°ûàdG áÄ«¡dG ÚH äÉbÓ©dG §Ñ° Jh ádh~dG . local) in order to formulate party strategy and tactics while also nominating candidates for political office.»˘WGô˘≤Á~˘dG ´Gõ˘æ˘dG º˘«˘¶˘ æ˘ J ¤EG á˘˘Ñ˘ °ùæ˘˘dɢ˘H äGAGô˘˘LE’Gh √òg π©LG øe á«dÉY áLQO ƒg á«∏ªY Gòμ¡d ìÉàØŸG . . state.¬°ùØf âbƒdG ‘ »°SÉ«°ùdG Üõ◊G ''∞bƒe'' π°üØ u jo èeÉfôH ƒgh .16 Constant Campaign /áªFGO /Iôªà°ùŸG á∏ªM á∏°UGƒàe Constituency (1) ÚÑNÉædG Qƒ¡ªL Constituency (2) á«HÉîàfG IôFGO Constituent ÖNÉf Constitution Qƒà°SO Contestation ø©W Contiguous Districts IQhÉéàŸG ôFGh~q dG Contrast øjÉÑàdG Contributions äɪgÉ°ùŸG Convention ]äÉë«°TÎdG ¿ÓYEG[ ô“Dƒe Consolidation of Democracy . the executive and the judiciary. øjÉÑàdGh ¥ôØdG ¢VGô©à°S’ á∏ª◊G ádÉ°SQ ΩG~îà°SG ƒgh ¿CG º¡ŸG øeh .

A formal group of experts brought together on a regular basis to debate matters within that sphere of expertise.π«é°ùJh .Üõ◊G hCG í˘˘°TôŸG ¢ ØNh .ádÉ°SôdGh ¿ÓYEG[ ô“Dƒe IõØb ]äÉë«°TÎdG Corrected Voter’s List /áëëq °üŸG ÚÑNÉædG áëF’ / íqë°üŸG ÚÑNÉædG πé°S áëëq °üŸG Ö£°ûdG íFGƒd ¢ù∏› AÉ°üMEG /~q Y/Rôa Counting Centre /~q Y/Rôa õcôe äGƒ°UC’G AÉ°üMEG Created Events /äÉÑ°SÉæŸG ≥∏N áeq É©dG çG~MC’G Credibility á«bG~°üŸG . and with advisory powers to government.ÚÑNÉædG Iô¶f »æ©Jh ø˘jÉ˘Ñ˘à˘dG í˘°Vƒ˘˘J ¿CG ᢢ∏˘ ª˘ ë˘ ∏˘ d ø˘˘μÁh . campaigns can use their message to raise their candidate’s credibility. lower their opponents’ credibility or both.áeƒμ◊G ‘ ÉjQÉ°ûà°SG GQhO ∂∏“ É¡qfGC ÒZ Count The process of sorting.17 Convention Bounce Convention Bounce .á˘eƒ˘μ˘ë˘∏˘d . ∞˘∏˘àfl ø˘e ɢg~q ˘Yh äGƒ˘°UC’G ™˘«˘ª˘é˘à˘d …õ˘cô˘e ≈˘æ˘Ñ˘e .Ú©e ÜõM øe á°SÉFôdG í°Tôe á«Ñ©°T ´ÉØJQG Iô°TÉÑe Ö≤©J »àdG ΩÉjC’G ‘ .øjh~Jh .äÉHÉîàf’G ‘ É¡H A centralized premise in which votes from several polling stations are aggregated and counted. tallying.º˘˘¡˘ à˘ ˘bɢ˘ Wh ø˘˘ j~˘˘ jDƒŸG •É˘˘ °ûf ~˘˘ j~Œh äɢ˘ YÈà˘˘ dG .ΩÉ©dG …CGôdG äÉYÓ£à°SG ¿ÓYE’ »eƒ≤dG ô“DƒŸG AÉæKCG É«ª°SQ É¡ë«°TôJ hCG ¬ë«°TôJ .äÉ°VQÉ©ŸGh ihÉY~dG π«é°ùJ õcôe π˘μ˘d Ωɢ©˘dG ≥˘«˘b~˘à˘∏˘d »˘Fɢ¡˘æ˘dG ÚÑ˘Nɢæ˘dG π˘é˘°S ô˘°ûæ˘jo h ÚÑNɢæ˘dG á˘ë˘F’ RÈ˘oJ .O~q fi kÉÑdÉZ .Ωƒª©dG Üò˘é˘ j ~˘˘b ¬˘˘°ùØ˘˘f ç~◊G ø˘˘μ˘ dh .᢫˘eƒ˘μ˘M á˘≤˘£˘æ˘eh . By creating contrast. ‘ …~«¡ªàdG ÚÑNÉædG πq é°S øY áeÉY áî°ùf ô°ûf ~©H äÉë«ë°üàdG …ôŒ .Ú«°UÉ°üàNG áYƒª› É¡qfGC øe ºZôdÉH .»˘à˘dG á˘æ÷ á˘ª˘∏˘c ™˘e ɢ¡˘à˘∏˘Hɢ≤˘e ø˘μ˘ªŸG ø˘e .ø˘˘j~˘˘jDƒŸG ø˘˘e ô˘˘eC’G ÚÑNɢæ˘dG ‘ ∂dò˘H ô˘KDƒ˘«˘a . is typically given regulatory powers in addition to a role as advisor to the government.Iô˘FGOh .äÉHÉîàf’G Council The local body that operates from the town hall to raise local taxes and administer local services. corrections are made and the final voter register for each state and each local government area and ward should be displayed for public scrutiny.á˘j’h πÑb .᢫˘eÓ˘YE’G ᢫˘£˘¨˘à˘dG Ωɢª˘à˘gG ™ªL ‘ ç~◊G ™æ°U ΩG~îà°SG ∂dòc øμÁh .øjôNB’G ô˘˘¶˘ fG . in the days immediately following his or her nomination for office at the national convention. The final corrected voter list should be produced and made public at a relatively early date. See Contrast and Message.á«∏ÙG äÉe~ÿG IQGOE’h á«∏ÙG ÖFGô° dG á°ûbÉæŸ ΩɶàfÉH ¿ƒ©ªàéj øjòdG Ú«ª°SôdG AGÈÿG øe …Qɢ˘°ûà˘˘°S’G Pƒ˘˘Ø˘ æ˘ dGh º˘˘¡˘ JÈN Qɢ˘WEG ø˘˘ª˘ °V ɢ˘ jɢ˘ ° ≤˘˘ dG . ≈∏Y AÉæH . but the event may receive press coverage and thereby influence other voters. øY . usually specified.¢SÉædG øe ~°ûM ™ª÷ á∏ª◊G É¡H Ωƒ≤J ádhÉfi …CG ÖdÉZ ‘ ºg á∏ª◊G º¡©ªŒ øjòdG ¢UÉî°TC’G . ¤~oŸG äGƒ°UC’G ádh~Lh .áq«∏j~©J á£∏°S É¡d . Created events can also be used to raise funds and energize supporters.á«Ñ∏°S hCG á«HÉéjEG âfÉc ¿EG . Generally people brought together by the campaign will already be supporters.É¡˘ë˘°Tô˘e ᢫˘bG~˘°üe ™˘aô˘d ɢ¡˘à˘dɢ°SQ ΩG~˘î˘à˘°SɢH øjÉ˘Ñ˘à˘dG ô¶˘˘fG . ≈∏Yh . recording and tabulating of votes cast in an election.G≤Ñ°ùe ᪶æe áqeÉY äÉÑ°SÉæe The positive or negative view voters have of a candidate or party.Credibility An increase in a presidential candidate’s popularity. It can be contrasted with a commission which. See Preset Events.äÉë«°TÎdG After a copy of the preliminary register of voters is publicly displayed at the actual registration centre for claims and objections. before the elections.Rôa á«∏ªY .ø˘˘jô˘˘ eC’G Ó˘˘ c hCG ¢ùaɢ˘ æŸG ᢢ «˘ ˘bG~˘˘ °üe .kÉ«Ñ°ùf ôμÑe ïjQÉJ ‘ ºªq ©oJh áëës °üŸG . although also a body of experts. ™˘˘ª÷ ᢢj~˘˘∏˘ Ñ˘ dG QGO ‘ π˘˘nμ˘ °û˘˘oJ »˘˘à˘ dG ᢢjõ˘˘côŸG ᢢĢ «˘ ¡˘ dG áYƒª› ∑Éæg .âjƒ°üàdG õcGôe Any attempt by the campaign to bring together a large group of people. as indicated by public-opinion polls.

18 Cross Cutting Cleavages á∏NG~àŸG äÉbÉ≤°ûf’G Cross Tabs á©WÉ≤àe äɶMÓe Cross-S Sets á©WÉ≤àe íFGô°T Cumulative Voting /»ªcGôJ âjƒ°üJ »©ªL/¢S~q μàe Cross Cutting Cleavages . It is a system of Proportional Representation in which minorities can ensure their approximate proportional representation by concentrating their votes on a subset of candidates commensurate with their size in the electorate. See Political Poll.Cumulative Voting Political allegiances of voters which cut across societal cleavages of ethnicity. ‘ á˘æ˘q«˘©˘e á˘∏˘Ä˘°SC’ á˘Ø˘∏˘àıG äɢHɢL’E G á˘∏˘Hɢ˘≤˘ e hCG ᢢfQɢ˘≤˘ e iôNC’G á∏Ä°SC’G øY äÉHÉLE’G ™e »°SÉ«°ùdG ´Ó£à°S’G ´Ó£à°SÓd á«≤«≤◊G äÉeƒ∏©ŸÉa .»Ñ°ùf π«ã“ Ωɶf ƒg ≈∏Y É¡JGƒ°UCG õ«côJ ∫ÓN øe . ~YÉ≤ŸG O~©H ÉJGƒ°UCG ÖNÉf πq c ¬«a ≈£©j âjƒ°üJ Ωɶf äGƒ°UC’G √ò¡H A’OE’ÉH ¬d íª°ùjh .øjq~dG hCG .Ég~jôj á≤jôW ájCÉH Úë°TôŸG q ÚH É¡©jRƒJ hCG ~MGh í°TôŸ q äÉ«q ∏bC’G øª° J ¿CG øμÁ å«M .»Ñjô≤àq dG »Ñ°ùæq dG É¡∏«ã“ ÚH º¡ªéM ™e Ö°SÉæàq dÉH Úë°TôŸG q øe á«q Yôa áYƒª› .ÚÑNÉæq dG áYɪL .á≤Ñ q£dG hCG .πq bC’G ≈∏Y A system of voting in which each voter is given as many votes as there are positions to be filled and allowed to cast those votes for one candidate or distribute them in any way among the candidates.ÉgDƒ∏e Öéj »àdG . The real information in a political poll comes from the cross tabs.ᢢ©˘ Wɢ˘≤˘ àŸG äɢ˘¶˘ MÓŸG ø˘˘e Iɢ˘≤˘ à˘ °ùe »˘˘°Sɢ˘«˘ °ùdG . religion.áq«æKE’G ~«©°U ≈∏Y áq«©ªàÛG [Comparing or referencing various responses to questions on a political poll with responses to other questions or demographic information. á«aGô¨Á~dG äɪ«°ù≤àdG πNGO IÒ¨°U äÉYƒª› »gh Újô˘NCG Úà˘«˘aGô˘¨ÁO Úà˘ë˘jô˘°T ™˘˘e ɢ˘gDhɢ˘° YCG ∑ΰûjh .»°SÉ«°ùdG ´Ó£à°S’G Small groupings within the demographic breakdown that are members of at least two other demographic sets.á«aGô¨Á~dG äÉeƒ∏©ŸG hCG ô˘¶˘fG . äÉbÉ≤°ûf’Gh πNG~àJ »àdG áq«°SÉ«°ùdG ÚÑNÉqædG äGA’h »g . or class.

䃰Uh q ≥Ñ°S ~b ¬qfGC ≈∏Y Ö£°ûdG íFGƒd/´GÎb’G An elector who has received a ballot and returns it to the deputy returning officer declining to vote. .ᢢ«˘ fƒ˘˘jõ˘˘Ø˘ ∏˘ J ¿ƒ˘˘μ˘ Jh .Declined Ballot A usually little-known candidate who unexpectedly wins a party’s nomination.´GÎb’G Öàμe ¢ù«FQ ¤EG É¡©Lôo«d É¡¶Øëjh ´GÎb’G .q…~jôH hCG q»HÉ«Z ´GÎbÉH hCG .Ωƒàfl m±ôX πNGO ÖNÉqædG É¡©° j »àdG äGƒ°UC’G »g ÖNɢqæ˘dG ‹~˘˘j ɢ˘e~˘˘æ˘ Y äGƒ˘˘°UC’G √ò˘˘¡˘ H A’OE’G ø˘˘μÁh ≈∏Y Qƒã©dG ádÉëà°SG ~æY hCG . and voting records. leadership abilities.á˘KÓ˘ã˘dG á˘eƒ˘μ◊G äɢjƒ˘à˘°ùe ≈˘˘∏˘ Y äɢ˘°ûbɢ˘æŸG …ôŒ ¿CG ≈∏Y ™°ShCG á«eÓYEG á«£¨àH ≈¶– »àdG äGôXÉæŸG øμdh Úë°TôŸG ÚH …ôŒ »àdG ∂∏J »¡a »æWƒdG iƒà°ùŸG ø˘e ᢢ∏˘ Ģ °SCG π˘˘ª˘ °ûJh .âjƒ°üàdG ¢ aQ ´p Î≤ŸG q¿GC ÚÑNÉædG πé°S ‘ ¿hq~j Oƒ°SCG ¿É°üM /äÉeƒ∏©ŸG ∂æH äÉfÉ«H ¿õfl äÉ°ûbÉæe/äGôXÉæe ÜÉîàf’G áé«àf ¿ÓYEG áMôq °üŸG äGƒ°UC’G Declined Ballot /á°Vƒaôe ábÉ£H á∏ª©à°ùe ÒZ . ß˘Ø˘ë˘∏˘d ÚÑ˘Nɢæ˘dG Aɢª˘°SCG ¬˘«˘∏˘Y ™˘°Vƒ˘J ¢Uô˘b hCG §˘˘jô˘˘°T . ¤EG Ég~«©jh ´GÎbEG ábÉ£H ≈∏Y ÖNÉædG π°üëj Ée~æY Ég~æY ¬Jƒ°üH A’OE’G kÉ° aGQ ´GÎb’G Öàμe ¢ù«FQ ÖFÉf ´GÎb’G Öàμe ¢ù«FQ ÖFÉf ≈∏Yh âjƒ°üàdG ≥M ô°ùîj ábQƒd á«Ø∏ÿG á¡÷G ≈∏Y ''á°Vƒaôe'' áª∏c Öàμj ¿CG . These votes are cast when: the voter casts an absent or postal vote.ÚÑNÉædG ºYO ô°ùîj ¿CG äGôXÉæŸG √òg ‘ IAGOôH …ODƒj Declaration of Poll An announcement of the result of an election by a district Returning Officer declaring the successful candidate as the elected member.kIOÉY Qƒª¨e í°Tôe q ƒg .¬JGP âbƒdG ‘ ÚÑNÉædG .º¡JAÉØch . Öàμe ¢ù«FQ πÑb øe äÉHÉîàf’G áé«àf øY íjô°üàdG ƒg íHGôdG í°TôŸG øY ø∏©oj ¬«ah ÜÉîàf’G QƒeCÉe/´GÎb’G . the voter’s name cannot be found on the electoral roll. ≈∏Y ¬d Üõ◊G í«°TÎH RƒØj ¬qæμd . their qualifications.19 Dark Horse D Dark Horse .™qbƒàe ÒZ mƒëf Data Bank A tape or disc on which the names of electors may be stored for later use. the voter’s name is marked off the electoral roll as already having voted.≥M’ âbh ‘ ∫ɪ©à°S’Gh Debate Face-to-face discussion between or among candidates on the issues.Ú«˘˘°Sɢ˘Fô˘˘dG øe ÚjÓŸG ¤EG π°üJh . but the most publicized on the national level are debates involving the presidential nominees.ájOÉ«≤dG º¡JGQ~bh .ÖîàæŸG ƒ° ©dÉc Declaration Votes Votes that are sealed in an envelope signed by the voter. . forfeits the right to vote and the deputy returning officer shall immediately write the word “declined” upon the back of the ballot and preserve it to be returned to the returning officer and shall cause an entry to be made in the poll record that the elector declined to vote. Debates can occur at all three levels of government. can involve questions from journalists and average citizens.ÉjÉ° ≤dG ¢ ©H ∫ƒM Úë°TôŸG ÚH ¬Lƒd kÉ¡Lh IôXÉæe øμÁ . and will reach millions of voters at one time. A presidential candidate who performs poorly on these national telecasts can lose voter support.»YGÎb’G º¡∏é°Sh . These debates are televised.Ö£°ûdG íFGƒd/´GÎb’G ∫hG~L ‘ ÖNÉqædG º°SG ∫hG~˘˘ L ø˘˘ ˘e kɢ ˘ Hƒ˘˘ ˘£˘ ˘ °ûe ÖNɢ˘ ˘qæ˘ ˘ dG º˘˘ ˘°SG ¿ƒ˘˘ ˘μ˘ ˘ j ÚM .ÚjOÉ©dG ÚæWGƒŸGh Ú«aÉë°üdG …òdG í°Tôª∏d øμªŸG øeh .

ÜÉîàf’G QƒeCÉe/´GÎb’G Öàμe .øj~dGh á«æKE’G ø˘jò˘dG ÚÑ˘Nɢæ˘dG ¿CG ¢VÎØ˘jh . usually chosen either in state caucuses or presidential primaries.ɪ¡æ«Y ܃∏°SC’Gh ≈ëæŸÉH The Deputy Returning Officer has a very important job at the poll: to ensure that voters are able to arrive at their assigned poll.Deputy Returning Officer Delegate A representative. religion.õ˘˘ côŸG . on election night. ô˘ª˘©˘dGh ¢ùæ˘˘é˘ ∏˘ d ɢ˘≤˘ ah ÚÑ˘˘Nɢ˘æ˘ dG äɢ˘Yƒ˘˘ª› º˘˘«˘ °ù≤˘˘J ᢫˘Ø˘∏ÿGh á˘dÓ˘°ùdGh á˘æ˘¡ŸGh º˘«˘∏˘©˘à˘dG iƒ˘à˘°ùeh π˘N~˘˘dGh º«°ù≤àd IOq~fih IÒ¨°U ᪰S áqjGC hCG . Delimitation See Districting.q»HÉîàf’G Ωƒ«dG áq«°ûY .π˘˘ã‡ í°TôŸG QÉ«àNG øY ∫hDƒ°ùe . or autocrat. to control their institutions for their own purposes. A majority of the delegates’ votes at the convention is needed for a presidential candidate to receive the party’s nomination. or any other smaller.áqeÉY áØ°üH Ö©°ûdG q øeh . hand out ballots. supervise the process.܃˘˘∏˘ £ŸG º˘˘°ù˘n ˘n≤˘ dG IQGOEGh . as distinct from governments controlled by a single class. close the poll.20 Delegate .´GÎb’G õcôe ∫ÉØbEGh ¢ù«˘˘ FQ ¤EG äGq~˘ ˘©ŸGh ´GÎb’G ¥h~˘˘ æ˘ ˘°U IOɢ˘ YGE h .áæ«q ©e áYƒª› . His duties are: to manage the poll.á°UÉÿG ¬aG~gC’ ¬JÉ°ù°SDƒe The process by which the political institutions and the democratic endeavours acquire legitimacy and are accepted on the political scene and by the population in general. return the ballot box and supplies to the returning office. and. income. occupation.ádƒ¡°ùH º¡LGQOCG IOƒ©dG qºK øeh .á«WGôbƒJhCG ádhO hCG . The definition of democracy has been expanded to describe a philosophy that insists on the right and the capacity of a people.´GÎb’G . /~aƒdG ƒ° Y Üh~æe Oh~◊G º°SQ Democracy á«WGô≤ÁO Democratic Consolidation /èeO/~«MƒJ/∂°SÉ“ »WGô≤ÁO ~«WƒJ Demographic Targeting ‘Gô¨Á~dG ±G~¡à°S’G Deputy Returning Officer /ÜÉîàf’G QƒeCÉe ÖFÉf ´GÎb’G Öàμe ¢ù«FQ ÖFÉf hCG ᢫˘æ˘Wƒ˘dG ᢫˘ª˘ «˘ ¶˘ æ˘ à˘ dG ¿É˘˘é˘ ∏˘ dG ‘ kIOɢ˘Y Qɢ˘àfl .á˘aɢc ÚÑ˘Nɢæ˘dG Qƒ˘˘¡˘ ª˘ L ¿ƒ˘YÎ≤˘j ±ƒ˘°S á˘æ˘«˘©˘e ᢫˘aGô˘¨ÁO á˘Yƒ˘ª› ¤EG ¿ƒ˘ª˘à˘æ˘ j . »˘Yɢ°ùŸGh á˘q«˘ °Sɢ˘«˘ °ùdG äɢ˘°ù˘˘°SDq ƒŸG ≈˘˘©˘ °ùJ ᢢq«˘ ∏˘ ª˘ Y »˘˘g ≈≤∏àa . deposit marked ballots in ballot box if voter requests.´GÎb’G õ˘˘cô˘˘e ¿hDƒ˘ ˘°T ÒH~˘˘ J äÉbÉ£˘Ñ˘dG ¢SOh q . mark their ballots and depart with ease. gender. identifiable grouping of the whole voter population. ethnic background.¬JQ~bh Ö©°ûdG ≥M ≈∏Y ôq °üJ áØ°ù∏a ∞°ü«d ™°SƒJ q ~b ≈∏Y Iô£«°ù∏d Ú∏㇠∫ÓN øe hCG Iô°TÉÑe πYÉa Ö©°T .q»°SÉ«°ùdG ¿G~«ŸG ‘ k’ƒÑb Grouping of the voting population based on age. administer required oaths.º¡d áæq«©ŸG ´GÎb’G :øe ¬eÉ¡e ∞qdÉC àJh .á«dhC’G á«°SÉFôdG äÉHÉîàf’G ™˘HQCG π˘c ᢫˘æ˘Wƒ˘˘dG Üõ◊G äGô“Dƒ˘ e ‘ ¬˘˘Ñ˘ Fɢ˘fh »˘˘°Sɢ˘Fô˘˘dG Ú©˘e í˘°Tô˘e º˘Y~˘H ¿ƒ˘Hh~˘æŸG º˘¶˘©˘e ~˘¡˘ ©˘ à˘ j . do the count. It is assumed that voters who identify with a particular demographic group will vote in a similar way.ádh~dG äÉWÉ°ûf Ò«°ùàH Ö©°ûdG ¬«a º¡°ùj »°SÉ«°S Ωɶf hCG . .RôØdG AGôLEGh .á˘q«˘Hɢî˘à˘f’G äɢbɢ£˘Ñ˘dG/¥GQhC’G ™˘jRƒ˘Jh .äGƒ˘˘æ˘ °S ∫ƒ°üë∏d ô“DƒŸG ‘ ÚHh~æŸG äGƒ°UCG ájÌcCG ¤EG êÉàëojh .áq«Yô°ûdG q ÜÉ°ùàcG ¤EG É¡dÓN øe áq«WGô≤Áq~dG m .á«q HÉîàf’G ôFGh~q dG º«°ù≤J ô¶fG Political system where the people share in directing the activities of the state.Üõ◊G í«°TôJ ≈∏Y . fill out the records of the poll.áq«HÉîàf’G º¡JÉbÉ£H/º¡bGQhCG º°Sƒa . select group. Most delegates are pledged to support a specific candidate. õcôe ‘ kGq~L áqª¡e káØ«Xh ÜÉîàf’G ôj~e ÖFÉf ∂∏Á õ˘˘cGô˘˘ e ¤EG ÚÑ˘˘ Nɢ˘ qæ˘ ˘dG ∫ƒ˘˘ °Uh ¿É˘˘ ª˘ ˘°V :»˘˘ gh . who will be responsible for choosing presidential and vice presidential nominees at the national party conventions every four years.I~MGh á≤ÑW É¡«∏Y ô£«°ùJ »àdG äÉeƒμ◊G ±ÓîH á«q WGô≤Á~dG ~j~– q¿GE .´Î≤ŸG Ö∏W ~æY k’hõf ´GÎb’G ¥h~æ°U ‘ áeƒ°SƒŸG äÓé°S áÄÑ©Jh . education level. acting either directly or through representatives.

á«eÓYE’G §FÉ°SƒdG ΩG~îà°SG Discarded Ballot Ballot paper issued to a voter who did not place in a ballot box. ¥h~˘˘æ˘ °U ‘ ɢ˘¡˘ ©˘ ° j ⁄ ÖNɢ˘æ˘ d IQ~˘˘°üe ´GÎbG ᢢ bQh .âjƒ°üqàdG ‘ ¬q≤M á°SQɇ øe ¢üî°T ¿ÉeôëH ÖqÑ°ùàdG Suspension or removal of the right to vote.Distribution of Preferences Sending voters something in the mail asking them to contribute to an organization. transfer.RôØdG ‘ GƒdGR Ée øjòdG øjôNB’G Úë°TôŸG ¤EG π≤æoJ ÈY ô°TÉÑŸG ∫GƒeC’G ™ªL ~jÈdG Direct Recording Electronic (DRE) Equipment ‹B’G π«é°ùàdG RÉ¡L ô°TÉÑŸG Direct Recording Electronic Voting System ÊhÎμd’G âjƒ°üàdG Ωɶf /π«é°ùàdG ô°TÉÑŸG Ωɶæd ô°TÉÑŸG π«é°ùàq dG ÊhÎμd’G âjƒ°üàq dG Direct Suffrage ô°TÉÑe ÜÉîàfG ÚÑNÉædÉH ô°TÉÑe ∫É°üJG /ìhô£e 䃰U I~©Ñà°ùe ábQh Disclosure . or divulging in any other manner of information outside the entity holding the information. äGƒ˘˘°UCG ø˘˘e O~˘˘ Y π˘˘ bGC ≈˘˘ ∏˘ ˘Y π˘˘ °ü뢢 j …ò˘˘ dG í˘˘ °TôŸG äGƒ°UC’G √òg . É¡FÉ°ûaEG hCG . provision of access to.äÉeƒ∏©ŸÉH A’OE’G »æ©j √ò¡H ßØà– »àdG áYƒªÛG ¥É£f êQÉN âfÉc á≤jôW áqjCÉH . äGƒ°UC’G π«é°ùJ ¬«a qºàj . ¢ùŸ ä’BG hCG ᢢ«˘ fhÎμ˘˘dE’G ä’B’ɢ˘ H ∂dòc ±ô˘©˘oj ábQh »YGÎb’G RÉ¡÷G øe ´ƒædG Gòg RÈoj . a political party or a candidate.´Î≤ŸG ΩÉeCG ôJƒ«ÑªμdG á°TÉ°T ≈∏Y âjƒ°üàdG .qÊhÎμdG âjƒ°üJ Ωɶf ƒg âjƒ°üqàdG ä’BG òîqàJh . ∫É°üjE’ ¬YÉÑJEG á∏ªë∏d hCG í°Tôª∏d øμÁ ܃∏°SCG …CG øY É°VƒY á«°üî°T áØ°üH Ú∏ªàÙG ÚÑNÉædG ¤EG ádÉ°SôdG .∫Éq≤f ôJƒ«Ñeƒc Elections that are directly made by voters.. .É¡H ~jhõàdGhCG É¡∏≤fhCG .´GÎbG Means the release.âjƒ°üàdG ≥M ´õf hCG ≥«∏©J The candidate with the least number of first preference votes (total of Above the Line and Below the Line) is the candidate who is to be excluded.øY ìÉ°üaEG Disenfranchise /âjƒ°üqàdG q≥M øe ~jôŒ ¿ÉeôM Disenfranchisement /~«ªŒ/≥«∏©J ´GÎb’G ≥M ´õf Distribution of Preferences äÉ«∏° aC’G ´Rt ƒJ ¢ùª∏j .á°TÉ°ûdG An electronic voting system in which votes are tallied directly to computer memory. rather than using some form of media.¬Jƒ°üH ‹~jh í°TôŸG QÉàî«d á°TÉ°ûdG ÖNÉædG .Iô°TÉÑe ÖNÉædG ÈY ºàj …òdG âjƒ°üàdG Direct Voter Contact Any method by which the candidate or the campaign communicates the message to potential voters in person. .äGƒ°UC’G »°ü– áq«μ«JÉeƒJhCG mádBG πμ°T kIOÉY . ´Èq à˘dG º˘¡˘æ˘e Ö∏˘£˘j ÚÑ˘Nɢæ˘∏˘d …~˘˘jô˘˘H Üɢ˘£˘ N ∫ɢ˘°SQEG . The voting machines typically take the form of an automatic teller machine or a laptop computer. These votes are transferred to the other candidates still in the count.í°TôŸ hCG »°SÉ«°S Üõ◊ hCG Ée áª¶æŸ Also known as Electronic or TouchScreen Machines. this type of voting equipment projects the ballot on a computer screen in front of the voter. .~©Ñjo …òdG í°TôŸG ƒg ¤hC’G á«∏° aC’G . The voter touches the screen to make selections and cast the ballot.kIô°TÉÑe ôJƒ«ÑeƒμdG IôcGP ≈∏Y RÉ¡L hCG .äÉeƒ∏©ŸG To cause a person to lose the right to vote.21 Direct Mail Fundraising Direct Mail Fundraising .

S.᪰ù≤ŸG äÉeƒμ◊G øe IÒãc The term used to describe a ballot paper marked with preferences for candidates without consideration of their policies or abilities. with one party controlling the governorship.õFÉØdG í°TôŸG É¡∏㪫°Sh äÉHÉîàf’G District Electoral Officer/ Returning officer The electoral official responsible for organizing the election in a constituency.Ωƒ˘˘ª˘ ©˘ dɢ˘H . This situation can also exist at the state level.kÉeÉ“ áYƒÑ£ŸG Úë°TôŸG Aɪ°SCG Distribution Requirements ´Rq ƒJ äÉeõ∏à°ùe äGƒ°UC’G District /á«HÉîàf’G IôFG~dG ∫hDƒ°ùe äÉHÉîàfÓd »ª«∏bEG ôj~e District Magnitude IôFG~q dG ºéM IôFG~dG åëH /á«HÉîàf’G ôFGh~dG ~j~– º«°ù≤J Divided Government ᪰ù≤ŸG q áeƒμ◊G Donkey Vote »Ñ¨dG âjƒ°üàdG /≈ªYCG âjƒ°üJ Door-tto-D Door ÜÉH ¤EG ÜÉH øe See Canvass. Divided government frequently occurs in the U.º¡JGQ~b hCG º¡JÉ°SÉ«°ùd QÉÑàYG ɉhO Úæq«©e Úë°Tôe q πqé°ùj …òdG ∑GP ƒg ≈ªYC’G âjƒ°üàdG øY m êPƒ‰ RôHCG áëF’ ≈∏Y äOQh ɪc áq«HÉîàf’G ábÉ£ÑdG ≈∏Y ¬JÓ«° ØJ .Door-tto-D Door The requirement that to win election a candidate must not merely win a specified proportion of the vote nationally but also a specified degree of support from different regions. ájQƒ¡ª÷G ¢ù«FQ ¬«a ¿ƒμj ™°Vh ¤EG ÉeƒªY Ò°ûj ÒÑ©J »°ù∏› ~MCG ≈∏Y ôNB’G Üõ◊G ô£«°ùj ɪæ«H ÜõM øe ≈∏Y É° jCG ádÉ◊G √òg …ô°ùJh .äÉj’ƒdG iƒà°ùe »©jô°ûàdG ¢ù∏ÛG ≈∏Y ôNB’G Üõ◊G ô£«°ùj ɪæ«H ÜõM ä’ÉM »cÒeC’G »°SÉ«°ùdG ΩɶædG ~¡°ûj .á«©jô°ûàdG áÄ«¡∏d Ú∏㇠ÜÉîàfG ±~¡d á«HÉîàfG ≥WÉæe Ωƒ≤J É¡JGP ~ëH á«©jô°ûJ áÄ«g ¿ƒμJ ¿CG øμªŸG øeh . Rƒ˘Ø˘ dG ™˘˘«˘ £˘ à˘ °ùj í˘˘°TôŸG q q¿GC äɢ˘eõ˘˘∏˘ à˘ °ùŸG √ò˘˘g ¢VÎØ˘˘J m ø˘˘e á˘˘æ˘ q«˘ ©˘ e á˘ Ñ˘ °ùf ≈˘˘∏˘ Y ¢ù«˘˘d . ‘ º¡HÉîàfG qºà«°S øjòdG AÉ° YC’G O~Y øY IQÉÑY ƒg .Iô˘FG~˘dG . the winner will represent.É©e Ú°ù∏ÛG hCG ¢Sô¨fƒμdG øe áj’ƒdG ºcÉM ¿ƒμj ¿CG ≈æ©Ã .á«HÉîàf’G IôFG~dG ‘ äÉHÉîàf’G º«¶æJ øY ∫hDƒ°ùŸG ƒg The number of members to be elected in each district.≥˘WɢæŸG º˘«˘°ù≤˘J hCG ~˘j~– ᢫˘∏˘ª˘Y »˘g . into electoral districts for the purposes of electing representatives to a legislature. ɢ˘¡˘ «˘ a …ô˘˘é˘ à˘ °S »˘˘à˘ dG IOq~ÙG ᢢ«˘ aGô˘˘¨÷G ᢢ≤˘ £˘ æŸG »˘˘gh . .áj’ƒdG ‘ . See Research. A classic donkey vote is one which records preferences straight down the ballot paper in the same order as the names printed. political system. ø˘Y ɢ¡˘©˘ª˘L á˘∏˘ª˘ë˘∏˘d ø˘μÁ »˘à˘dG äɢeƒ˘˘∏˘ ©ŸG π˘˘c »˘˘gh »˘¨˘Ñ˘æ˘j »˘à˘dG á˘∏˘eɢ°ûdG çƒ˘ë˘Ñ˘dG ø˘e Aõ˘L »˘gh .á∏ª◊G π¡à°ùe ‘ ÉgDhGôLEG Districting Generally.åëÑdG ô¶fG . . the process of marking off or dividing into districts — for example. ¤EG π«“ áq«HÉîàfG mábÉ£H ∞°Uƒd í∏£°üŸG ∂dP Ω~îà°ùj qπ©d .Ö°ùMh »æWƒdG ~«©°üdG q ≈∏Y âjƒ°üqàdG .IôFGO qπc District Research District research is all the information that your campaign can put together about the district.ôFGh~dG º«°ù≤àH A term that generally refers to a situation where the president is a member of one political party and at least one chamber of Congress (either the Senate or the House of Representatives) is controlled by the opposite party.±GƒW ô¶fG .kÓ˘ã˘e .22 Distribution Requirements . This is part of the overall research that should be done at the beginning of the campaign. And it may be a legislature itself that does the districting.kÉ° jCG áØ∏àıG ≥WÉæŸG øe IOq~fim ºYO á©WÉ≤e/IôFGO The defined geographic area in which the election will be held and following the election. and another controlling the state legislature.Rɢ˘M GPEG äɢ˘Hɢ˘î˘ à˘ f’ɢ˘H áLQO ≈∏Y πH . .

πØ°SCG ‘ ᫪gCG äÉHÉîàf’G Ö°UÉæe πbCG ¿ƒμJ Ée ÉÑdÉZ ‘ »àdG ~YÉ≤ŸG ∂∏J π°ü– Ée ÉÑdÉZh .~MGh ~FGR .STV). See Low Profile Race.23 Double Ballot System .≈˘˘ fOC’G q~◊G Üɢ˘ °ùà˘˘ M’ Ω~˘˘ î˘ ˘à˘ ˘°ù˘˘ oJ ~YÉ≤ŸG IOq~©àe IôFGO ‘ ~©≤à RƒØ∏d áHƒ∏£ŸG äGƒ°UC’G q…OôØdG ´GÎb’G ∫ÓN øe »Ñ°ùqædG π«ãªqàdG ΩG~îà°SÉH ∫Ó˘N ø˘e ɢJƒ˘μ˘dG ø˘e ≥˘q≤˘ë˘qà˘dG qº˘à˘jh .ÚÑNÉædG AÉ«YEG ∂dòch ÚÑNÉædG Droop Quota (rarely used) The Droop Quota is the formula that is used to calculate the minimum number.ÚJQhO ≈∏Y …q ÌcC’G ΩɶædG ô¶fG Double Ballot System See Two Round System.ÉeÉ“ ÚJQÉ°TEÉH Down Ballot Often less important offices are placed lower on the ballot. Voter Drop Off and Voter Fatigue. then one is added to the product: [total valid poll/(seats+1)]+1 ø˘˘e . of votes required to capture a seat in a multi-member constituency using Proportional Representation through the Single Transferable Vote (PR. Double-M Marked A ballot that is overvoted with exactly two marks.ɢ˘Jƒ˘˘μ˘ dG hCG . or quota. .1+((1+~YÉ≤ŸG O~Y)/äGƒ°UC’G êhOõŸG ´GÎb’G Ωɶf º°SƒdG áLhOõe ábÉ£H m¿~àe ´GÎbG á«q Ñ°ùf á°üM/ÉJƒc q (ádhG~àe ÒZ)''ÜhQO'' .´GÎb’G áëF’ ÚÑNÉædG ±Gô°üf’ .Droop Quota . Often down ballot offices receive less votes due to voter drop off or voter fatigue.~YÉ≤ŸG .q~◊G ø˘e ÌcCG äGƒ˘°UCɢH á˘eƒ˘°Sƒ˘e á˘q«˘Hɢî˘à˘ fG ᢢbɢ˘£˘ H »˘˘g .Ö©˘à˘dGh ∑ɢ¡˘fEÓ˘d º˘¡˘°Vô˘©˘ à˘ d hCG ɢ˘¡˘ æ˘ Y ¢VÉØîfG/∫DhÉ° J hCG ¢ Ø˘˘ î˘ ˘æŸG »˘˘ Hɢ˘ î˘ ˘à˘ ˘f’G .Ò«˘é˘qà˘∏˘d π˘Hɢ≤˘ dG O~˘Y ≈˘∏˘Y äGƒ˘°UC’G ´ƒ˘ª› º˘°ù≤˘oj :᢫˘dɢqà˘ dG ᢢ¨˘ «˘ °üdG q O~Y) :œÉqædG ¤EG ~MGh ±É° j qºK . The quota is ascertained by the following formula: total vote divided by the number of seats plus one.qπbCG äGƒ°UCG ≈∏Y áëFÓdG ≈fOCG ¢ùaÉæàdG ô˘¶˘fG .

hats. which are intended to persuade viewers and listeners by taking one side of a particular issue. See Board of Elections. television.Election Manager See Advance Voting. á°VQÉ©e hCG I~fÉ°ùŸ á«HÉîàf’G á∏ª◊G IÎa ∫ÓN ájÉY~dG ∞∏àfl É¡«a πª©à°ùJh . letters.” as opposed to Paid Media. the election of a candidate or a registered political party.äÉHÉîàf’ÉH ¿CG å«M ±~¡dG kɪFGO ¢ù«d Gòg . ~FGô÷G …Qôqfi hCG .»°SÉ«°S ÜõM hCG í°Tôe ÜÉîàfG .I~«L á«eÓYEG á«£¨J ≈∏Y ∫ƒ°üë∏d Ég~¡L øe ¬H Editorial Expressed opinions by individuals. directly or indirectly.OGôaC’G πÑb øe É¡æY ôqÑ©ŸG AGQB’G ±~¡Jh -ºgÒZ øª°V -¿ƒjõ«Ø∏àdG »«aÉë°Uh ƒjOGôdGh ∞bƒe ~«jCÉJ ∫ÓN øe Ú©ªà°ùŸGh øj~gÉ°ûŸG ´ÉæbEG ¤EG . Some candidates run for office to promote a particular idea or expose an opponent's record on a particular issue. It is called “earned media.º¡JOÉb ÜÉîàfGh º¡JGƒ°UCÉH A’OEÓd This usually refers to the number of votes needed to win an election.äÉ©Ñbh . and TV journalists.ΩÓ˘YE’Gh á˘aɢ뢰üdG ‘ ᢢ∏˘ ª˘ ë˘ ∏˘ d ᢢ«˘ £˘ ¨˘ J ᢢjCG É¡æ«H ábôØà∏d ''ΩÓYE’G Ö°ùc/Ö°ùàμŸG ΩÓYE’G'' ¿CG »æ©j ∂dPh . .á«q HÉîàfG á©WÉ≤e hCG IôFGO øª°V á«q HÉîàfG á«q ∏ªY IQGOE’ /Ö°ùàμŸG ΩÓYEG ΩÓYE’G Ö°ùc /ájôjô– ádÉ≤e á«MÉààaEG á«HÉîàf’G ájÉY~dG Election Commission äÉHÉîàf’G áæ÷ Election Day/ Polling Day /»HÉîàf’G Ωƒ«dG ÜÉîàf’G Ωƒj Election Goal »HÉîàf’G ±~¡dG Election Manager äÉHÉîàf’G ôj~e .øq«©e Ö°üæà RƒØdG ƒg hCG á«FÉæãà°SEG Iôμa õjõ©J ¿ƒμj ~b Úë°TôŸG q ¢ ©H ±~g .áæq«©e á«° b ∫ƒM º°üN πé°S ¢VôY A person appointed by the Electoral Commissioner to conduct an election for an electoral district or province.≥Ñs °ùe /Ω~q ≤àe ´GÎbG /Ω~q ≤àe âjƒ°üJ ô¶fG Any coverage of the campaign in the press.áæq«©e á«° ≤d ~MGh Election Advertising Advertising used during a campaign period to promote or oppose.áYGPE’Gh Usually a non-partisan board set up to oversee the election and make sure that it is conducted fairly. newspapers. ≈˘ª˘°ùJh .äɢHɢî˘à˘fÓ˘d ᢫q ˘æ˘Wƒ˘dG á˘æ˘é˘∏˘dG ƒ˘° Y ¬˘æ˘«q ˘©˘j ¢üî˘ l °T ƒ˘g . .24 Early Voting ôμÑe âjƒ°üJ Earned Media E Early Voting .äÓ›h .IõØ∏àdGh . ≈∏Y ±Gô°TEÓd É¡∏«μ°ûJ ºàj á«HõM ÒZ áÄ«g kIOÉY »gh .πFÉ°SQh . signs and internet. It is assumed that the overall goal of the election campaign is to win a particular office. Rƒ˘˘ Ø˘ ˘∏˘ ˘d ᢢ ˘Hƒ˘˘ ˘∏˘ ˘ £ŸG äGƒ˘˘ ˘°UC’G O~˘˘ ˘Y ¤EG ɢ˘ ˘Ñ˘ ˘ dɢ˘ ˘Z Ò°ûjh á∏ª◊G øe ‹ÉªLE’G ±~¡dG ¿CG ΩƒYõŸG øe . magazines. among others. because the campaign will often have to expand a considerable amount of time and energy to receive good coverage.á«FÉYO Ò°TÉæe :∫Éμ°TC’G .ôLCÉH ΩÓYE’G hCG ´ƒa~ŸG ΩÓYE’G ÚHh ¿É¡à°ùj ’ kGQ~bh É¡àbh øe kGô£°T ∫òÑà°S Ée kÉÑdÉZ á∏ª◊G .âfÎf’Gh .ágGõæH ÉgÒ°S ¿Éª°Vh äÉHÉîàf’G .~FGôLh .äGQÉ°Th .äÉHÉîàf’G áÄ«g ô¶fG The day on which the voters come to the polls and cast their votes to elect their leaders. This is not always the case. billboards. radio. It could take various forms such as: flyers. newspaper and radio editors. ´GÎb’G õ˘cGô˘e ¤EG ¿ƒ˘Ñ˘Nɢæ˘dG ¬˘«˘a ¬˘˘Lƒ˘˘à˘ j …ò˘˘dG Ωƒ˘˘«˘ dG .

mailed questionnaires.äÉHÉîàf’ÉH RƒØdGh á«HÉîàfG äÓªM áeÉbEGh Any laws or rules of the election commission that will affect the election in any way. Can be domestic or international.äÉHÉîàf’ÉH ≥∏©àJ »àdGh A qualified person who desires to become a candidate for an official office may become a candidate by petition signed by a specified number of qualified voters of the district from which the candidate seeks election.âjƒ°üàdG ≥M . by an organization who is not inherently authorized to intervene in the process. and specific questions on an election ballot to comments obtained in public meetings. domestic or international. ᪠q¶æe πÑb øe .¿Éc ƒëf …CG ≈∏Y äÉHÉîàf’G áæ÷ É¡©Ñàq J ÚfGƒb hCG ~YGƒb ájCG Activity of overseeing some or all the steps of the electoral process by an independent third party which could be intergovernmental or non-governmental. to stand as a candidate for election.»eƒμM ÒZ .¬«dEG Aɪàf’Gh ÜõM π«μ°ûJh . mÖàμŸ øμÁh .25 Election Monitoring/ Observation äÉHÉîàf’G áÑbGôe Election Observer/Election Monitor ÖbGôe/»HÉîàfG ÖbGôe äÉHÉîàf’G Election Office »HÉîàfG Öàμe Election Opinion Survey »HÉîàf’G …CGôdG ´Ó£à°SG Election Petition á«HÉîàfG á° jôY Election Rights á«HÉîàfG ¥ƒ≤M Election Rules á«HÉîàfG ~YGƒb/ÚfGƒb Election Supervision á«∏ª©dG ≈∏Y ±Gô°TE’G á«HÉîàf’G Election Monitoring/ Observation .í°TÎdGh q . to campaign and to be elected.Election Supervision Gathering of information regarding an electoral process. participate to detect any fraud or cheating in the electoral process. to form a political party and belong to it. §°Sh ¢TÉ≤æ∏d áMhô£e á«° ≤H ≥∏©àj …CGô∏d ´Ó£à°SG ΩɪàgG äGP á«° b hCG äÉHÉîàf’ÉH ábÓY É¡dh Qƒ¡ª÷G ∫ƒ°üë∏d ádhG~àŸG ¥ô£dG øe . ¿CG øμÁ .á«HÉîàf’G á«∏ª©dG ‘ ÖYÓJ hCG ôjhõJ q…GC øY ∞°ûμ∏d Accredited person participating in election observation.äÉHÉîàf’ÉH •ÉÑJQÉH ΩÉY ÈY AÉàØà°S’Gh .É«ÑæLCG/É«dhO hCG É«∏fi ¿ƒμj An office from which an election is conducted. Unbiased accredited persons.~jÈdG . q»ª°SQ Ö°üæŸ í°TÎj q ¿CÉH ÖZôj πqgƒD e ¢üî°ûd øμÁ øq«©e O~Y É¡©qbƒj á° jôY ∫ÓN øe Éë°Tôe q íÑ°üj ¿CG …ƒæj »àdG á«HÉîàf’G IôFG~dG ‘ Ú∏gDƒŸG ÚÑNÉædG øe .á˘q«˘∏˘ª˘©˘dG ‘ π˘qN~˘à˘dɢH π˘°UCq É˘à˘ e π˘˘μ˘ °ûH ɢ˘¡˘ d ìqô˘ °üe ÒZ øjõq«ëàe ÒZh ¿ƒbƒKƒe ÖfÉLCGh ¿ƒq«∏fi ¢UÉî°TCG ∑QÉ°ûjh .É¡æY í°TÎdG q The right to vote. Methods to obtain such public opinions range from telephone surveys. A single office may conduct elections for up to two districts and a province.á«HÉîàf’G á«∏ª©dG ∫ƒM äÉeƒ∏©e ™ªL .áq«HÉîàf’G áq«∏ª©dG ¬æe QG~J Öàμe ƒg á©Wɢ≤˘eh ÚJô˘FG~˘d á˘Ñ˘°ù˘qæ˘dɢH äɢHɢî˘à˘f’G ô˘j~˘j ¿CG ~˘MGh .á«HÉîàf’G áÑbGôŸÉH ácQÉ°ûª∏d ¢VƒØe q ¢üî°T . á«HÉîàf’G á«∏ª©dG äGƒ£N ¢ ©H ≈∏Y ±Gô°TE’G •É°ûf hCG ‹hO »eƒμM π≤à°ùe ådÉK ≥jôa ∫ÓN øe É¡q∏c hCG .∞JÉ¡dG ÈY ôjQÉ≤àdG ΩÉ©dG …CGôdG ≈∏Y áqeÉ©dG äÉYɪàL’G ‘ áMhô£ŸG áæq«©ŸG á∏Ä°SC’Gh . including an opinion survey respecting an issue discussed publicly in the election.≈°übCG q~ëc áq«HÉîàfG An election opinion survey means an opinion survey respecting an election or a matter of public discussion in relation to the election. . .

äGAGƒd hCG .Ú뢰TôŸGh ᢫˘°Sɢ˘«˘ °ùdG ÜGõ˘˘MC’G . after the presidential election.âjƒ˘°üà˘∏˘ d π˘˘qé˘ °ùeh π˘˘gDƒ˘ e ¢ü°T . these representatives gather in their states’ capitals and vote for the president and vice president. In December. they actually vote for presidential electors. wearing. IQGOEG RÉ¡L ô¶fG . øe ºgQÉ«àNEG øYÒÑ©àdÉH ¿ƒÑNÉædG ¬dÓN øe Ωƒ≤j øjô“ Ú∏˘ã˘ªŸG Qɢ«˘à˘NG ᢫˘dBG .á«HÉîàf’G á«∏ª©dG ™e πeÉ©àJ áÄ«g . open and democratic procedures and rules. π«é°ùJ ô˘¶˘fG .OÉ–’G ‘ áØ∏àıG ôNB’ hCG í°TôŸ º¡F’ƒH GƒdOCG ~b ¿ƒfƒμj øjòdG . . mechanism for choosing representatives and governments. ¬«LƒàH á∏°U É¡d »àdG á£∏°ùdG øY QOÉ°U ܃àμe ¿É«H .¢ù«FQ …CG ÜÉîàfG ºàj »μdh .á«HÉîàfG áæ÷ ô¶fG The rules governing the elections in a specific country.á«Ñ©°T ÜÉîàfG á«∏ªY ÈY . or carrying political literature. 270 votes are needed for a president to be elected.Ú«°SÉFôdG Úë°TôŸG øe ™ªàéj .´GÎb’G ø°S øª°V ¿Éμ°ùdG ô¶fG . in order to establish fair.Electoral College Election Writ Written statement issued by the relevant authority directing the holding of an election on a specified date.~j~÷G ¢ù«Fô∏d âjƒ°üà∏d ᢫˘Mɢæ˘dG ø˘e . chosen by the people. and soliciting votes.᢫˘Hɢî˘à˘f’G äÉj’ƒdG ‘ Üõ◊G AÉ° YCG º¡ë°Tôj øjòdG ''ÚHh~æŸG'' A’Dƒg ÜÉîàfG ºàj ÜÉîàf’G Ωƒj ‘ .O~fi ïjQÉàH äÉHÉîàf’G AGôLEGh Election/ Elections Exercise through which the voters express their choice between competing political parties or candidates.ᢢ«˘ æ˘ Ø˘ dG øe á˘Yƒ˘ª› º˘°SG »˘g ᢫˘Hɢî˘à˘f’G á˘Ä˘«˘¡˘dGh .¢ù«FôdG ÖFÉfh ¢ù«Fô∏d . banners. Electioneering includes: distributing. »HÉîàfG Ωƒ°Sôe äÉHÉîàfG Electioneering /»HÉîàf’G πª©dG èjhÎdG Elector/ Voter ÖNÉf á«HÉîàfG IQGOEG ´GÎb’G ø°S Electoral Authority See Electoral Commission.áq«WGô≤Áq~dGh When Americans vote for a President and Vice President.ÚÑNÉædG Electoral Administration Body dealing with the electoral process.á«°SÉ«°S ÜGOBG …CG πªM hCG AG~JQG hCG ™jRƒJ . who elect the chief executive.äGƒ°UC’G ¢SɪàdGh . See Electoral Management Body.ÚHh~æŸG ‘h . posters. πN~e øe Ω~b 100 ∫É› ‘ »HÉîàf’G πª©dG ìÉÑoj ’ .á˘æ˘q«˘©˘e má˘dhO ‘ äɢHɢî˘à˘f’G º˘˘μ– »˘˘à˘ dG ÚfGƒ˘˘≤˘ dG »˘˘g á˘aÉ˘Ø˘°ûdGh q á˘¡˘jõ˘qæ˘dG ~˘YGƒ˘≤˘dGh äGAGô˘LE’G Aɢ˘°SQEG ±~˘˘¡˘ H .ô˘eC’G ø˘μ˘d .äÉeƒμ◊Gh Electioneering is prohibited within 100 feet of the polling site entrance. or buttons.A’Dƒg øe 270 äGƒ°UCG ¤EG áLÉëH ¬fEÉa .¢ù«˘Fô˘∏˘d ô˘°TÉ˘Ñ˘e Üɢ˘î˘ à˘ fG ‘ á˘Ä˘«˘¡˘dɢH ±ô˘©˘j ɢe Oƒ˘Lh ÖÑ˘°ùH ∂dò˘˘c ¢ù«˘˘d .øª° àj ƒgh ´GÎb’G ¿Éμe äÉ≤°ü∏e hCG . ´GÎb’G ≥jOÉæ°U ¤EG ¿ƒ«cÒeC’G ¿ƒÑNÉædG Ögòj ÚM ¿ƒcQÉ°ûj º¡fCG ¿hÒãc ~≤à©j .Ȫ°ùjO/∫hC’G ¿ƒfÉc º¡JGƒ°UCÉH ¿ƒd~jh º¡JÉj’h º°UGƒY ‘ ¿ƒHh~æŸG A’Dƒg . á«HÉîàfG á£∏°S Electoral Code á«HÉîàfG áfh~e s Electoral College á«HÉîàfG áÄ«g .26 Election Writ .á«fÓYEG Person who is eligible and registered to vote.»°SÉFôdG ÜÉîàf’G ~©H .á«HÉîàf’G á∏ª◊G QÉWEG ‘ . See also Registration of Voters. known collectively as the electoral college. It is these electors.äÉHÉîàf’G Electoral Age See Voting Age Population.

IôFGO ∂dòc . political parties and others.»HÉîàf’G ¿ƒfÉ≤dG ‘ Oq~fi ƒg ɪc . ƒgh …ô°üM ±~g πLCG øe ∫h~dG ¢ ©H ‘ IOƒLƒe . Oƒ°ùj …òdG äɪ«¶æàdGh ÚfGƒ≤dG áÄ«g hCG ¿ƒfÉ≤dG ƒgh .á«HÉîàf’G á«∏ª©dG Electoral District /á«HÉîàfG IôFGO/á≤£æe á«HÉîàf’G á©WÉ≤e Electoral Expenditures á«HÉîàfG äÉ≤Øf »HÉîàfG/ÜÉîàf’G ¿ƒfÉb áëF’/á«HÉîàfG áëF’ /Ö£°ûdG íFGƒd/ÚÑNÉædG ∫h~L/á«HÉîàfG áªFÉb ÚÑNÉædG . á˘¡˘jõ˘f má˘≤˘jô˘£˘H äɢHɢî˘à˘f’G Ò°S ÚeCɢJ ø˘Y ∫hDƒ˘ °ùŸG ƒ˘˘g øYh . hCG á«HÉîàf’G á«∏ª©dG Ò°S øY ádhDƒ°ùe á∏≤à°ùe á£∏°S . Ú∏gDƒŸG ¢UÉî°TCÓd áÑ°SÉæŸG π«°UÉØàdGh Aɪ°SC’G áëF’ ∫ÓN §Ñ°V á≤«Kƒc áëFÓdG √òg πª©à°ùJ .äÉeƒ∏©ŸGh Aɢ° YCG ¤EG á˘q«˘Hɢî˘à˘f’G π˘Fɢ°ùŸG ¿Cɢ°ûH í˘Fɢ°ü˘qæ˘ dG Ë~˘˘≤˘ Jh .á«HÉîàf’G äÉYGõædGh äÉaÓÿG á÷É©e Any dispute related to the electoral process.âjƒ°üà∏d . .áq«©jô°ûqàdG áq«©ª÷G Court of justice existing in some countries with the exclusive purpose of handling electoral disputes. maintaining accurate electoral rolls.á«HÉîàfG Payments made by political campaigns for goods or services intended to influence the outcome of an election.äÉHÉîàf’G á«∏ªY ≈∏Y Electoral List/ Electoral Roll/ Voter’s List A list of names and other relevant details of persons who meet the eligibility requirements to vote.ÉgÒZh áq«°SÉ«°ùdG ÜGõMC’Gh . conducting research on electoral matters. managing the operations of the Commission to achieve objectives and meet all legislative and reporting responsibilities. and providing advice on electoral matters to members of the Legislative Assembly.áqjOÉ«Mh kAÉØ˘jEGh Iƒ˘q LôŸG ±G~˘gCÓ˘d kɢ≤˘«˘≤– á˘æ˘é˘∏˘dG äɢq«˘∏˘ª˘Y IQGOEG á¶aÉÙG øYh .Electoral List/ Electoral Roll Independent authority responsible for the conduct or supervision of the electoral process.äÉHÉîàf’G Electoral Law The law or body of law and regulations governing the electoral process. á«HÉîàf’G äÓª◊G É¡H Ωƒ≤J »àdG äÉYƒa~ŸG øª° àJ áé«àf ‘ ÒKCÉàdG πLCG øe IOGôŸG ¢VGôZC’G hCG äÉe~î∏d .áqjôjô˘≤˘qà˘dGh á˘q«˘©˘jô˘°û˘qà˘dG äɢq«˘dhDƒ˘°ùŸG qπ˘μ˘H √ÉŒ ΩÉ©dG »YƒdG õjõ©Jh .á≤«bO áq«HÉîàfG ∫hG~L ≈∏Y ᢢ«˘ Hô˘˘qà˘ dG è˘˘eGô˘˘H ∫Ó˘˘ N ø˘˘ e ᢢ q«˘ ˘Hɢ˘ î˘ ˘à˘ ˘f’G äɢ˘ °SQɢ˘ ªŸG . promoting public awareness of electoral practices through education and information programs. This list is used as a control document during the voting process.É¡àÑbGôe Is responsible for ensuring the fair and impartial conduct of elections described under the Electoral Law.27 Electoral Commission á«HÉîàfG áæ÷ Electoral Commissioner á«æWƒdG áæé∏dG ƒ° Y äÉHÉîàfÓd Electoral Court/ Electoral Tribunal á«HÉîàfG áªμfi Electoral Dispute »HÉîàfG ´Gõf Electoral Commission .»HÉîàfG ±~¡d áæ«q ©e á«aGô¨L á≤£æe . Also -Constituency.áq«HÉîàf’G πFÉ°ùŸG ∫ƒM çÉëHC’G AGôLEGh .á«HÉîàf’G á«∏ª©dÉH ≥∏©àe ±ÓN …CG Geographic area delimited for electoral purpose.

‘ º¡JGƒ°UCÉH ¿ƒd~j øjòdG ÚYÎ≤ŸG áÑ°ùf hCG ∫q~©e »g .áeƒμ◊G øe AõL ƒg á˘jQGOE’G ᢫˘à˘ë˘à˘dG ᢫˘æ˘Ñ˘dG ƒ˘g ¢Sɢ°SC’ɢH .Ö£°ûdG íFGƒd/ÚÑNÉædG ∫h~L ô¶fG .äGƒ°UC’G ádh~Lh Can be seen as translating the principles of voting operations into standards that must be consistently achieved through methods and detailed procedures. the campaign.¿ƒ«f~e ¿ƒ«eƒμM ¿ƒØXƒe ºg äÉHÉîàf’G At the direction of the Returning Officer. and the tabulation of votes until the announcement of results.28 Electoral Management Body äÉHÉîàf’G IQGOEG RÉ¡L Electoral Manager »HÉîàfG ôj~e Electoral Official / Polling Official /äÉHÉîàfÓd …QGOEG º¶æe »HÉîàfG ∫hDƒ°ùe Electoral Participation á«HÉîàfG ácQÉ°ûe Electoral Process á«HÉîàfG á«∏ªY Electoral Regulations á«q HÉîàfG ÚfGƒb Electoral Roll ÚYÎ≤ŸG áëF’ Electoral Management Body . and may differ throughout the area in which elections for a representative body are held. in addition to preparing training materials.»˘∏ÙG á˘eƒ˘˘μ◊G QÉ«àNGh äÉHÉîàfÓd á«q WGô≤Á~dG á«∏ª©dG õjõ©àd áHƒ∏£ŸG ≈∏Y RÉ¡÷G ±ô°ûj .áæq«©e mäÉHÉîàfG Steps involved in the preparation and carrying out of an election.ÜÉîàf’G QƒeCÉe/´GÎb’G Öàμe ¢ù«FQ ±Gô°TEG â– π˘˘ª˘ ©˘ dG ≥˘˘ jô˘˘ a IQGOEG ø˘˘ Y ∫hDƒ˘ ˘°ùe »˘˘ Hɢ˘ î˘ ˘à˘ ˘f’G ô˘˘ j~ŸG .᢫˘Hɢî˘à˘f’G á˘∏˘ª◊Gh . . Òjɢ©˘e ¤EG âjƒ˘°ü˘qà˘dG äGAGô˘˘LEG AiOɢ˘Ñ˘ e ∫ƒ–q ¢ùμ˘˘©˘ J mäGAGô˘LEGh m¥ô˘W ÈY .Electoral Roll The electoral management body is part of the Government. the voting.á˘μ˘°Sɢª˘à˘e má˘≤˘jô˘£˘H ɢ¡˘Zƒ˘∏˘H Ö颢j …ôŒ å«M á≤£æŸG »MGƒf ±ÓàNÉH ∞∏àîJh .äÉHÉîàf’G ‘ kɪ°SÉM kGQhO Ö©∏j hCG äɢHɢî˘à˘f’ɢH á˘≤˘∏˘©˘ à˘ e äɢ˘eƒ˘˘∏˘ ©˘ e ᢢjCG ø˘˘Y ∞˘˘°ûμ˘˘dG . Essentially.èFÉàædG ¿ÓYEG ÚM ¤EG . be a responsible representative of the Electoral Commission. at all times. the electoral manager is responsible for managing and supervising the staff throughout the electorate. Election managers are civil servants. . RÉ¡L ‘ hCG á«∏NG~dG IQGRh ‘ ÉeEG .á«HÉîàf’G á«∏ª©∏d IO~q ©àe √ƒLh øY ÚdhDƒ°ùŸG .Üɢî˘à˘f’G ¿ƒ˘fɢb ø˘˘°S ∂dP π˘˘ª˘ °ûjh ɢ˘¡˘ æ˘ Y ¿Ó˘˘YE’ɢ˘H . the registration of voters and candidates.Ú뢰TôŸGh ÚÑ˘˘Nɢ˘æ˘ dG π˘˘«˘ é˘ °ùJh .âjƒ°üàdÉH The ratio or percentage of voters casting their votes in a specific election.áq«∏«ã“ áÄ«g äÉHÉîàfG See Voters List.ÖjQ~àdG OGƒe Ò° – ¤EG áaÉ°VEG . It usually starts with the announcement of the election and includes the enactment of the electoral law. ɢgò˘«˘Ø˘à˘fh äɢHɢî˘à˘fÓ˘d Ò° ë˘à˘d ᢩ˘Ñ˘àŸG äGƒ˘£ÿG »˘gh . either in the Ministry of Interior or in the local government structure.á°UÉÿG q ±hô¶∏d í«ë°üdG ΩɶædG ÚØXƒŸG øe ≥jôa ∂dP ‘ √~YÉ°ùjh ájq QGOE’G ÒHG~àdG AGQ~eh . it is the administrative infrastructure required to support the democratic process of elections and selecting the right system for the particular circumstances. The Polling Official must not disclose any election or voting information and must.¬«∏Y ±Gô°TE’Gh Electoral Officials or Polling Officials play a crucial role in an election.The electoral management body oversees administrative arrangements and is assisted by a team of officers and employees responsible for many aspects of electoral process.á∏°üØe q m .á«HÉîàf’G áæé∏dG øY k’hDƒ°ùe kÉHh~æe Èà©jh . Ω~Y ¬«∏Y ÖLƒàjh .

ô˘ª˘©˘dGh .äɢHɢî˘à˘f’ɢH . for example.√~jôj …òdG í°Tôª∏d √QÉ«N πqé°ùJ Individual who satisfies the legal requirements to participate in the election. An emergency voting occurs when a voter cannot go to the polling station on Election Day (or vote in the early voting) for specific reasons that meet the requirements of the country or district regulations concerning this kind of voting. or becomes seriously ill. Those requirements are usually related to nationality.á«Hõ◊G ÜGõMC’G hCG Úë°TôŸG ±ô°üJ ≈∏Y ¢VGÎYÓd ¿Éé∏d .…~L ¢Vôà ֫°UCG hCG . É¡∏LCG øe øq«©j »àdG áq«HÉîàf’G IôFGq~dG øe AõL qπc »g .ÌcCG hCG ´GÎbG õcôe Combination of formulas and mechanisms which provides for the electorate to cast the votes and to translate these votes into seats in the parliament or the legislature.»HÉîàf’G Ωƒ«dG ‘ âjƒ°üàdG .âjƒ°üàdG . á˘cQɢ°ûª˘∏˘d ᢫˘Yô˘°ûdG ᢫˘°Sɢ°SC’G •hô˘°ûdɢH π˘gDƒŸG Oô˘Ø˘ dG ᫢∏˘gC’Gh .á«aGôZƒJƒØdG EVM is a piece of equipment for use in electing a candidate from among many candidates.»FÉæ÷G πé°ùdG ÜÉ«Zh á«∏≤©dG ¿CG ÖNÉædG ™«£à°ùj ’ Ée~æY π°üëj :ÇQÉ£dG âjƒ°üàdG ‹~j hCG) »HÉîàf’G Ωƒ«dG ‘ ´GÎb’G õcôe ¤EG Ögòj ™e ≥aGƒàJ áæq«©e ÜÉÑ°SC’ (ôμÑŸG âjƒ°üàdG ‘ ¬Jƒ°üH øe ´ƒædG Gòg ∫ƒÑ≤d á¶aÉÙG hCG AÉ° ≤dG hCG ~∏ÑdG äÉÑq∏£àe GPEG âjƒ°üàdG Gò¡H ¿G~∏ÑdG ¢ ©H íª°ùJ . soundness of mind and absence of criminal record. he simply presses a button. In Latin America.Ahô≤ŸG ΩÓYE’Gh ´ƒÑ£ŸG ΩÓYE’G ô¶fG . The voter is not given a ballot paper when he first enters the polling center. π≤fh âjƒ°üàdG áÑNÉædG áÄ«¡dG øqμ“ äÉ«dBGh ≠«°U èeO . this name is often given to the electoral commissions or equivalent authority. Some countries allow emergency voting if the person is suddenly hospitalized.´GÎb’G õcôe ¬dƒNO ~æY ´GÎb’G ábQh ÖNÉædG ᢫˘fhÎμ˘dG ᢰTɢ°T ≈˘˘∏˘ Y hCG ᢢdB’G ≈˘˘∏˘ Y QR ≈˘˘∏˘ Y §˘˘¨˘ ° j .äÉ£∏°S øe É¡jRGƒj Ée hCG á«HÉîàf’G This is the portion of the population able to vote in this election.᢫˘°ùæ÷G ɢ¡˘æ˘ª˘°V ø˘e . See Voters. »àdG ᢫˘eÓ˘YE’G äɢĢ«˘¡˘dGh ´É˘jòŸGh ¿ƒ˘jõ˘Ø˘∏˘à˘dG π˘ª˘°ûjh ΩÓYE’G πHÉ≤e .IQÉÑ©dG √òg πª©à°ùoJ .ÇQÉW âjƒ°üJ ábQƒH ∫ƒıG q ÖNÉædG . √ò˘˘g ‘ ´GÎb’G ≈˘˘∏˘ Y IQOɢ˘≤˘ dG ᢢ«˘ fɢ˘ μ˘ ˘°ùdG ᢢ ë˘ ˘jô˘˘ °ûdG .á«æ«JÓdG ÉcÒeCG ‘ .¿ƒÑNÉædG ô¶fG .Emergency Voting Every part of the Constituency for which one or more Ballot Centers has been designated. ≈£©j ’ . or a screen.á«©jô°ûàdG áÄ«¡dG hCG ¿ÉŸÈdG ‘ ~YÉ≤e ¤EG äGƒ°UC’G Court. that register his/her candidate of choice.ƒj~«ØdG hCG/h ábƒ£æŸG áª∏μdG Ω~îà°ùJ IQƒ°üdG hCG/h áYƒÑ£ŸG áª∏μdG Ω~îà°ùj …òdG ´ƒÑ£ŸG .kÓãe .Iq~Y ÚH øe í°Tôe q ÜÉîàf’ Ω~îà°ùJ ádBG »g πH .ɢ¡˘q∏˘c äÉ˘Ñ˘q∏˘£˘ àŸG ¢ü°ûdG Gò˘˘g πq㇠~jhõJ Ég~æY øμÁ .29 Electoral Sub-D District /Iôq¨°üe á«HÉîàfG IôFGO »HÉîàfG ´É£b/á«q Yôa Electoral System /»HÉîàfG Ωɶf ´GÎbG á≤jôW Electoral Tribunal á«HÉîàfG áªμfi Electorate /¿ƒÑNÉf/áÑNÉf áÄ«g ¿ƒYÎ≤e Electronic Media ÊhÎμdEG ΩÓYEG Electronic Voting Machine (EVM) á«q fhÎμd’G âjƒ°üàq dG ádBG Eligible Voter πgs ƒD e ÖNÉf Emergency Voting /ÇQGƒ£dG âjƒ°üJ AiQÉ q£dG âjƒ°üàq dG Electoral Sub-D District . See Print Media and Mass Media.√qô≤e øY G~«©H ICÉéa √DhÉY~à°SG q” GPEG hCG ¬˘à˘Yɢ£˘à˘°SɢH ø˘μ˘j ⁄h . If this person meets all the requirements. and he cannot be present at the polling station to express his choice through voting. or challenge the conduct of candidates or political parties. age. É¡«dEG ÉC é∏j iôNGoC á£∏°S …CG hCG AÉ° ≤dG Èæe hCG áªμfi hCG äɢ˘Hɢ˘î˘ à˘ f’G á˘˘ë˘ °üH ø˘˘ ©˘ ˘£˘ ˘«˘ ˘d í˘˘ °TôŸG hCG ÖNɢ˘ æ˘ ˘dG . an emergency ballot is issued to the authorized representative of the voter. as opposed to the print media that uses the written word and/or pictures.ICÉéa ≈Ø°ûà°ùŸG ÖNÉædG πNO πªμà°SG GPEG . or is suddenly called away from home. tribunal or other authority in which a candidate or an elector may dispute the validity of an election.äÉHÉîàf’G Electronic media is television and radio organizations that use spoken words and/or video.

See Opinion Leaders.∫h~L ‘ É¡ÑqJôJh nèFÉàqædG ádh~÷G oèeGôH ¢Sq~μJ An elected position that oversees the running of the government.¬d ´GÎb’Gh í°TôŸG . hCG á«æjO hCG á«eƒb áYƒª› ¤EG »ªàæj …òdG ÖNÉædG ƒgh â– êQ~˘æ˘J ɢe kÉ˘Ñ˘dɢZ äɢYƒ˘ª› »˘gh .¿Éμ°ù∏d á«aGô¨Á~dG äɪ«°ù≤àdG E-voting is an election system that allows a voter to record his or her secure and secret ballot electronically.~MGh 䃰üH Oôa πq μd ≥ëj å«M IGhÉ°ùŸG GC ~Ñe Demands that voting operations offer equal opportunities for participation to all eligible voters and political participants. Encompasses aspects of Accessibility and Transparency.á«HÉîàf’G íFGƒ∏dG Enumeration A door-to-door canvass of all residences in an electoral district for the purpose of identifying and registering all eligible voters.kÉq«fhÎμdG ¬Jƒ°U πqé°ùj ¿CG ÖNÉqæ∏d í«àj q»HÉîàfG lΩɶf ƒg kÉq«ªbQ áq«fhÎμd’G äGƒ°UC’G ¿qõîoàa . These are generally groupings within the demographic breakdown of the population.øjõîJ á∏«°Sh ᣰSGƒH å«˘M q…õ˘cô˘em ™˘bƒ˘˘e ¤EG π˘˘°Sô˘˘oJ ¿CG π˘˘Ñ˘ b . á˘q«˘Hɢî˘à˘fG mIô˘FGO ‘ ø˘˘cɢ˘°ùŸG qπ˘ c ÜGƒ˘˘HGC ≈˘˘∏˘ Y ±Gƒ˘˘ q£˘˘dG .™ªàÛG ‘ á°SÉ«°ùdG äGQGôbh ájOÉ°üàbGh . religious or language grouping. ≈˘∏˘Y äɢHɢî˘à˘fÓ˘d Ú∏˘gDƒŸG ÚÑ˘Nɢæ˘dG π˘«˘é˘ °ùJh π˘˘ª˘ °T . ‘ Qƒ˘eC’G äɢjô› ≈˘∏˘Y ±ô˘°ûJ á˘Ñ˘î˘à˘æ˘ e á˘˘Ø˘ «˘ Xh »˘˘gh ô˘¶˘fG . governor or president. Enfranchise Grant voting rights. äÉbOÉ°üŸG ´GÎb’G ≥M ≈∏Y ∫ƒ°ü◊G hCG …CGô˘˘dG IOɢ˘b ¬˘˘Ñ˘ à˘ μ˘ j hCG ¬˘˘H ìô˘˘°üj ¿Ó˘˘YEG äɢ˘bOɢ˘°üŸG ºY~d øjôNB’G ÚÑNÉædG hCG É¡YÉÑJCG ‘ IôKDƒŸG äɪ¶æŸG . . or smart card before being sent to a centralized location where tabulation programs compile and tabulate results. Electronic votes are stored digitally in a storage medium such as a tape cartridge.¥ƒ≤◊G ¤EG ∫ƒ°UƒdG á«q fÉμeEGh The label given to powerful. diskette.º¡©«ªL Ú«q °SÉ«°ùdG .á«YɪàLG äGQGôb An ethnic voter is one who identifies with a particular national.30 Endorsements .π«é°ùJ §jô°ûc . one vote). See Legislative Office.´GÎb’G ¥ƒ≤M íæe Enrollment / Voter Registration Inclusion of eligible voters on the voters list.ᢢq«˘ cP ᢢbɢ˘£˘ H .»©jô°ûJ Ö°üæe .º¡∏«é°ùJh Ú∏qgƒD ŸG ÚÑNÉædG ≈∏Y ±qô©à∏d kÉ°SɪàdG Equal Suffrage Principle according to which every person is entitled to one vote (one person. ájhÉ°ùàe kÉ°Uôa âjƒ°üàq dG äÉ«q ∏ªY ôqaƒJ ¿CÉH áÑdÉ£ŸG »g ÚcQɢ˘°ûŸGh Üɢ˘î˘ à˘ fÓ˘˘ d Ú∏˘˘ gq DƒŸG ÚÑ˘˘ Nɢ˘ æ˘ ˘dG ᢢ cQɢ˘ °ûŸ á«aÉØ°ûdG q ôgɶe πª°ûJ »gh . . elite individuals or groups who can make important social.¿ôe ¢Uôb hCG .á˘˘æ˘ «˘ ©˘ e ᢢjƒ˘˘¨˘ d . òîàJ »àdG äÉYƒªÛG hCG ¢UÉî°TC’G øe áÑîæd ≈£©jo Ö≤d . political.…CGôdG IOÉb ô¶fG . such as a mayor.Executive Office Endorsements Endorsements are announced or written support for the candidate from opinion leaders or organizations that will influence members of their organizations or other voters to vote for the candidate.øeBGh q…ô°S m πμ°ûH hCG . and economic policy decisions for the society.¢ù«˘Fô˘dGh á˘j’ƒ˘dG º˘cɢMh ߢaÉÙG :π˘ã˘ e ᢢeƒ˘˘μ◊G π«é°ùàdG /π«é°ùJ á«HÉîàf’G íFGƒ∏dG ≈∏Y OG~©J /´GÎb’G ‘ …hÉ°ùàŸG ≥◊G /âjƒ°üàdG ‘ IGhÉ°ùe âjƒ°üàdG Equity ±É°üfEG Establishment ICÉ°ûæe Ethnic Voter »æKEG ÖNÉf E-V Voting ÊhÎμdG âjƒ°üJ Executive Office …ò«ØæJ Ö°üæe .

ø˘˘e ~˘˘jõŸG ¤EG êɢ˘à˘ ë˘ j ÚM kɢ anõ˘ æ˘ à˘ ˘°ùe äƒ˘˘ °üdG q »˘˘ °ùÁ ∂dP qOôeh . ´GÎb’G õcGôe ‘ ±Gƒ£dG ÈY äÉHÉîàf’G èFÉàæd º««≤J .äGQÉ«ÿG ™jRƒJ Assessment of the election results obtained by canvassing voters as they leave the polling stations.External Voting A vote becomes exhausted when it needs more choices than it has on its list.»HÉ«Z ´GÎbG ô¶fG . õ˘cGô˘e ¤EG Ögò˘«˘°S ¬˘˘fCG ~˘˘≤˘ à˘ ©˘ j …ò˘˘dG ÚÑ˘˘Nɢ˘æ˘ dG O~˘˘Y √ò˘˘ g IOq~ÙG äɢ˘ Hɢ˘ î˘ ˘à˘ ˘f’G ‘ ¬˘˘ Jƒ˘˘ °üH ‹~˘˘ ˘jh ´GÎb’G .»HÉîàf’G ¢ùaÉæàdGh External Voting/ Overseas Vote/ Absentee Voting See Absentee Voting.º¡JGQÉ«àNG øY º¡dGDƒ°Sh ÚÑNÉædG IQOɨe ~æY Expected Turnout The number of voters you believe will go to the polls and vote in this particular election and this particular race. Exhausted Votes áaõn æà°ùe äGƒ°UCG Exit Poll êhôÿG i~d AÉ°ü≤à°SG /´GÎb’G ÖJÉμe øe ‹hCG AÉ°üMEG ¿ƒ©qbƒàe ¿ƒYÎ≤e /êQÉÿG ‘ âjƒ°üàdG ÚÑFɨdG ´GÎbEG . It is a vote which has reached the stage where no further preferences can be distributed when distributing preferences.Úë°TôŸG q áëF’ ≈∏Y IOƒLƒŸG äGQÉ«àN’G 䃰U ƒg . This is caused by the voter not making enough choices.31 Exhausted Votes .äGQÉ«ÿG øe »Øμj Ée ÖNÉqædG PÉîqJG Ω~Y ~æY ´sRƒJ ¿CG iôNCG äGQÉ«ÿ øμÁ ’ å«M á∏Môe ≠∏H .

øq«©e ~©≤Ÿ í°Tôªc π«é°ùà∏d Final Result Outcome.º¡«∏Y á∏Ä°SC’G øe á∏°ù∏°S ìôWh ¢UÉî°TC’G á˘eq ɢ©˘ dG ∞˘˘bGƒŸG ø˘˘Y ᢢ«˘ ª˘ c äɢ˘eƒ˘˘∏˘ ©˘ e ≈˘˘∏˘ Y ∫ƒ˘˘°ü◊G ä’É°SQh äÉeƒ∏©e √ÉŒ π©ØdG OhOQ QÉÑàNGh Ògɪé∏d . a federal union is ultimately based upon national supremacy but is also a political arrangement that reserves powers to the states. The duties of the FEC are to disclose campaign finance information. The system is in use at all levels of politics.áYƒæàe .»cÒeC’G ΩɶædG . typically for single-member districts.~MGƒdG ƒ° ©dG äGP ôFGh~dG ‘ kÉ«LPƒ‰ . It states who is the winner in the elections.õFÉØdG í°TôŸG ƒg øe ø∏©J . ‘ .32 Federal /‹GQ~a …OÉëqJEG Federal Election Commission á«q dGQ~ØdG äÉHÉîàf’G áæ÷ Field Director ÊG~«e ôj~e Filing Deadline á«FÉ¡ædG ~«YGƒŸG π«é°ùà∏d F Federal .á«°SÉ«°ùdG . nor are several candidates chosen. A method of sociological research in which a small group of people are brought together and asked a series of questions.á«q dGQ~ØdG äÉHÉîàf’G πjƒ“ QOÉ°üe ¢Uƒ°üîH mäÉeƒ∏©e ∞°ûc ≈∏Y É¡eÉ¡e äɪgÉ°ùŸG Oh~M ≈∏Y ¿ƒfÉ≤dG •hô°T ¢Vôah . an independent regulatory agency.áj’ƒ∏d äÉ£∏°S ßØ◊ kÉ«°SÉ«°S kɪ¶æe √Qh~H ¿ƒμj …òdG The Federal Election Commission. was created by the US Congress in 1975. ᢢ æ÷ »˘˘ cÒeC’G ¢Sô˘˘ ¨˘ ˘fƒ˘˘ μ˘ ˘dG Cɢ ˘ °ûfCG . á«FÉ¡f áé«àf ÉJGƒ°UCG ÌcCÓd RƒØdG First Preference ∫hCq G QÉ«àNG Focus Group õ«cÎdG áYƒª› Preference is an order-ranking. and to oversee public funding of presidential elections. º«¶æJ øY ∫hDƒ°ùŸGh á∏ª◊G ‘ Ú∏eÉ©dG áÄ«g ‘ ƒgh . See Political Polling. In the American system.á«q °SÉFôq dG A person on the campaign staff responsible for organizing the direct contact with the voters by the candidate and the volunteers.Focus Group Of or describing a constitutionallydelineated union of states having a central government.á∏≤à°ùe á«q ª«¶æJ ádÉch »gh . First Past the Post A voting system under which the winning candidate is the one who wins the most votes — an absolute majority is not required. to enforce provisions of the law on the limits and prohibitions on contributions.á˘jõ˘cô˘e á˘eƒ˘μ˘M ɢ˘¡˘ d ᢢjQƒ˘˘à˘ °SO äɢ˘j’h OÉ–G ∞˘˘°Uƒ˘˘d …OôØdG OÉ–’G ¢SÉ°SCG ‘ á«æWƒdG IOÉ«°ùdG .»°SÉ«°ùdG ´Ó£à°S’G ô¶fG .»ªbQ ¢ù«dh »∏°ù∏°ùJ Ö«JôJ ƒg QÉ«àN’G øe áYƒª› ™ªL ºàj å«M »YɪàL’G åëÑ∏d è¡æe ¢Vô¨H .ɢgOƒ˘«˘bh . The point is to receive qualitative information about public attitudes and test reactions to various messages and information.1975 Ωɢ˘ ˘©˘ ˘ dG ‘ ¢üæJ q .äÉHÉîàf’G á∏«°üM ÌcCG Ö°ùc ~b íHGôdG í°TôŸG ¬«a ¿ƒμj »HÉîàfG Ωɶf ¿GôeCG Úë°Tôe I~Y QÉ«àNGh á≤∏£ŸG á«Ñ∏ZC’G-äGƒ°UC’G äÉjƒà°ùŸG πc ≈∏Y ΩɶædG Gòg πª©à°ùoj . ¬Ø∏à Ω~≤àdG í°Tôª∏d øμÁ Ωƒj ôNB’ O~ÙG øeõdG »gh .ÚnHƒ∏£e ÒZ .äÓª◊G äɢHɢî˘à˘fÓ˘d Ωɢ©˘dG π˘jƒ˘ª˘àq ˘dG ≈˘∏˘Y ±Gô˘°TE’Gh . not a number. .´ƒ£àŸG hCG í°TôŸG ÈY ÚÑNÉædG ™e ô°TÉÑŸG ∫É°üJ’G The last day and time in which the candidate can file for a particular office.

¿ƒfÉ≤dG ~YGƒb ¤EG áHÉéà°S’G≈∏Y A form of List Proportional Representation in which voters may vote for a party or grouping and in addition for one or more candidates.äɢ«˘©˘ª÷G ¢ù«˘°SCɢJh ´É˘ª˘à˘L’Gh ™˘qª˘ é˘ à˘ dGh π˘˘q≤˘ æ˘ à˘ dGh .’ hCG Úë°TôŸG A’Dƒg Gƒë°TQ ~b . and the compliance overall with the rule of law. . as well as the absence of barriers to the full participation of all citizens.Full list /∫ƒ°UC’G Ö°ùM ´GÎbG »ª°SQ ´GÎbG A vote cast in an election or a referendum that has been marked according to the rules for that election.á¡L …CG øe πqN~J ¿h~H ÚÑNÉædG qπc ácQÉ°ûÃ íª°ùJh õcôJh πjƒ¡àdG øe ƒ∏îJh .ÌcCG hCG í°Tôe ¤EG áaÉ°VE’ÉH .~«YGƒŸG ™˘˘aO Iƒ˘˘b ᢢ°Sɢ˘Fô˘˘ dG Ö°üæŸ í˘˘ «˘ ˘°TÎdG ¤EG ÚYɢ˘ °ùdG ø˘˘ e á«∏ªY ≈∏Y ÅaÉμàe ÒZ PƒØf á°SQɇ ‹ÉàdÉHh ᪰SÉM . without any form of discrimination.äÉHÉîàf’G ~YGƒb ™ÑqJG . By moving their primaries to early dates. Franchise The constitutional right to vote. /âjƒ°üàdG RÉ«àeG âjƒ°üàdG ≥M/ÖNÉf áØ°U Free and Fair Elections á¡jõfh Iôq M äÉHÉîàfG Free List Iôq M áëF’ Friends of Friends Program AÉb~°UC’G ÜÉë°UCG èeÉfôH Front-LLoading ôμÑe 𫪖 Front-R Runner Ω~≤àe í°Tôe Full List á∏ªàμe/á∏eÉc áëF’ …òdG ΩÉ©dG AÉàØà°S’G hCG äÉHÉîàf’G ‘ âjƒ°üàdG ƒg á≤jô£H º°Sƒj ⁄ …òdG ´GÎb’G . the label given to that candidate who. É¡JGô“Dƒe ~≤©H äÉj’ƒdG ¢ ©H ΩÉ«b ≈∏Y ≥∏£J ᫪°ùJ ~«YGƒe ‘ ᫢dhC’G ᢫˘Hõ◊G ɢ¡˘JɢHɢî˘à˘fGh á˘jOɢ«˘≤˘dG ᢫˘Hõ◊G ∂∏J Ë~≤àHh . whether or not those candidates are nominated by that party or grouping. the absence of any form of intimidation.∫ƒWCÉa ∫ƒWCG I~à áeÉ©dG äÉHÉîàf’G ≥Ñ°ùJ ÚæKG hCG ~MGh AÉ£YEG ‘ á«æ©ŸG äÉj’ƒdG πeCÉJ . but also includes the respect for basic civil and political rights such as freedom of expression.áYƒªÛG A method of voter contact where volunteers agree to contact their friends either through the mail or on the phone and encourage them to vote for the candidate.í°TôŸG ídÉ°üd ´GÎb’G ≈∏Y º¡qãMh The practice of scheduling state party caucuses and state primary elections earlier and earlier in advance of the general election. is in the lead over other opponents and/or is the favorite to be elected. states hope to lend decisive momentum to one or two presidential candidates and thus have disproportionate influence on each party's nomination.»ª°SQ ÒZ ÉYGÎbG Èà©oj áë«ë°U q . of association and assembly. A vote not marked correctly is an Informal Vote.Úë°TôŸG qπc Aɪ°SCÉH á∏eÉc áëF’ . ≈∏Y ¿ƒYƒ£àŸG ≥aGƒj å«M ÚÑNÉædÉH ∫É°üJÓd á≤jôW ∞˘Jɢ¡˘dG hCG ~˘jÈdG ÈY º˘¡˘FÓ˘eRh º˘¡˘Fɢb~˘˘°UCɢ H ∫ɢ˘°üJ’G .âjƒ°üàdÉH ≥◊G ÖNÉædG íæÁ …òdG …Qƒà°S~dG ≥◊G The definition of a free and fair election is about more than just a smooth technical process.õ««ªàdG øe ´ƒf …CG ¿h~Hh . ÒÑ©àdG ájôëc á«f~ŸG äÉjô◊G ΩGÎMÉH õ«ªàJ äÉHÉîàfG .Ú«°SÉ«°ùdG Úªq∏©ŸG AGQBG hCG/h List that includes all the candidates.ÚHõ◊G øe qπc ‘ í«°TÎdG In a primary or general campaign. of movement.Öî˘à˘æ˘oj »˘˘μ˘ d π˘˘° ØŸG . ƒg áqeÉ©dG á«HÉîàf’G á∏ª◊G hCG á«dhC’G äÉHÉîàf’G ‘ hCG/h ¬eƒ°üÿ áÑ°ùædÉH Ωq~≤àŸG í°Tôª∏d ≈£©ŸG Ö≤∏dG äɢYÓ˘£˘à˘°S’G Ö°ùë˘H ∂dPh . according to polls and/or political pundits.áYƒª› .33 Formal Vote Formal Vote . áªFɢ≤˘dG ™˘e »Ñ°ùædG π«ã˘ª˘à˘dG Ωɢ¶˘f ø˘˘ e ´l ƒ˘˘ f »˘˘ g hCG Üõ◊ Gƒ˘˘Jƒ˘˘°üj ¿CG ÚÑ˘˘Nɢ˘æ˘ ˘∏˘ ˘d ø˘˘ μÁ å«˘˘ M ᢢ «˘ ˘Hõ◊G hCG Üõ◊G ¿Éc ¿EG .

á«HÉîàf’G äÓªë∏d ∫GƒeC’G ™ª÷ á∏ª©à°ùe á≤jôW …CG . ‘ mÜõM á°üM q ÚH ähÉØqàdG ¢ü«∏≤J ~qª©àj m Ωɶf q…GC ~˘Yɢ≤ŸG ‘ ¬˘à˘°üMh q .kÉ° jCG ~YÉ≤ŸG øe áFÉŸÉH Ú©HQCÉH RƒØj ¿CG ¢VÎØ«a Names that are on the register of electors.ádBG πq c øe èFÉàæq dG Gƒ©Ñ£j ¿CG äÉHÉîàf’G .á∏«°Sh ájCG ÈY á∏ªë∏d äÉYÈàdG ™ªéj hCG åëj …òdG Any method used to raise money for the campaign. .kÓãe º¡d âjƒ°üàq dG øμÁ øjòdG Úë°TôŸGh q Ö°UÉæŸG Some election day polling places use fullface ballot.ÚÑNÉædG πq é°S ≈∏Y áfh~ŸG Aɪ°SC’G .äÉYÈàdG ™ª÷ ¬d §£îoj ç~M . direct recording electronic (DRE) voting machines. Election officials print and display the results from each machine after the election day polls close.kÉ«q fhÎμdG ∂JGQÉ«àNG πéq °ùJ ¿CG ä’B’G √òg ¿CÉ°T øY ¿ƒdhDƒ°ùŸG åÑ∏j Éeh .34 Full Representation (Proportional Representation) π«ãªàq dG) πeÉc π«ã“ (»Ñ°ùqædG Full Voters List á∏eÉ°ûdG ÚÑNÉædG áëF’ Full-F Face Ballot á∏eÉc á«q HÉîàfG ábQh Full-F Face Ballot Electronic Voting Machines á«q fhÎμd’G âjƒ°üàq dG ä’BG ¥GQhC’G ≈∏Y I~ªà©ŸG á∏eÉμdG á«q HÉîàf’G Fundraiser äÉYÈàdG/∫GƒeC’G ™eÉL Fundraising äÉYÈq àdG/∫GƒeC’G ™ªL Full Representation .kÓãe . äɢ˘Hɢ˘î˘ à˘ f’G Ωƒ˘˘j ᢢ«q ˘ YGÎb’G õ˘˘cGôŸG ¢ ©˘˘H Ω~˘˘î˘ ˘à˘ ˘°ùJ âjƒ˘˘ °ü˘˘ àq ˘ ˘dG ä’BGh .g.䃰üdÉH A’OEÓd Qq R ≈∏Y §¨° J ~©H Éghô°ûæjh . For example.Fundraising Any system which consciously attempts to reduce the disparity between a party’s share of the national vote and its share of the parliamentary seats.»˘æ˘Wƒ˘dG ~˘«˘©˘°üdG q ≈˘∏˘Y âjƒ˘°ü˘˘qà˘ dG .É¡HGƒHCG á«q HÉîàf’G õcGôŸG ≥∏¨J ¿CG An event planned with the goal of raising money for the campaign.ᢢ ∏˘ ˘eɢ˘ μ˘ ˘dG ᢢ «q ˘ ˘ Hɢ˘ ˘î˘ ˘ à˘ ˘ f’G ¥GQhC’G øªa . These voting machines electronically record your choices when you press a button that indicates that you are casting a vote. ¢üî°ûdG kÉ° jCG ¬H ≈æ©ojh . á∏eÉμdG áî°ùædG .ÜÉîàf’G ™«£à°ùj øe πq c Aɪ°SCÉH íFGƒ∏d In which all information on the ballot— e. if a party wins 40 per cent of the votes. mábQh ≈∏Y áeRÓdG äÉeƒ∏©ŸG πq c êQ~J á«q HÉîàfG ábÉ£H »g ô˘Fɢ°ùH á˘≤˘q∏˘©˘àŸG äɢeƒ˘∏˘ ©ŸÉ˘˘c -I~˘˘MGh ᢢ°Tɢ˘°T hCG I~˘˘MGh . The full version lists everyone who is entitled to vote. it should win approximately 40 per cent of the seats.äGƒ°UC’G øe áFÉŸÉH Ú©HQCÉH lÜõM RÉa ¿EG .kIô°TÉÑe ÖNÉæq dG ´GÎbG πéq °ùJ »àdG á«q fhÎμd’G ¿EG Ée . Fundraiser may also refer to the person who raises the funds for the campaign by any method. all the offices and candidates to be voted on -are presented on a single sheet of paper or a single screen.áq«fÉŸÈdG .

governance comprises the traditions.äÉ°ù°SDƒŸGh . äɢHɢî˘à˘f’ɢH kIOɢ˘Y ᢢ£˘ Ñ˘ JôŸG ᢢq«˘ Hɢ˘î˘ à˘ f’G ô˘˘FGhq~˘ dG π˘˘qã“ Úë°Tôe q ᫪°ùàH íª°ùJ »àdG ôFGhq~dG øª°V .áqeÉ©dG äÉÄ«¡∏d ÜÉîàfG . á∏jƒ£dG á«é«JGΰS’G áÑbGôeh áeƒμ◊G ≈∏Y ÒKCÉàdG ƒg . See Pull and Blind Pull. It is assumed that voters who live in a particular area and voted one way in the past will probably vote the same way in the future.Ú©e §ªæH ≥HÉ°ùdG ‘ GƒJƒ°Uh áæ«©e á≤£æe ájCG çh~M Ω~Y ∫ÉM ‘ πÑ≤à°ùŸG ‘ ¬JGP §ªædG ≈∏Y .Governance Election for national bodies. It is an election in which all members of a given political body are up for election. Often a campaign will expend a considerable amount of effort just before Election Day to make sure that your supporters turn out and vote.áq«Ñ°ùædG . institutions and processes that determine how power is exercised.á«∏ÙG äÉHÉîàf’Gh á«YôØdG äÉHÉîàf’G :ÚJQÉÑY Grouping the voting population based on where they live and determining patterns within the voting population based on geography.ádÉ◊G √òg ‘ IÒÑc äGÒ«¨J Geopolitical Units Constituencies normally linked to proportional elections in multi-nominal constituencies.≈ªYC’G Öë°ùdGh Öë°ùdG ô¶fG . In general.ádOÉY ÒZ á«∏° aCG “Get Out The Vote” or GOTV is the term used to remind voters to go to the polls and vote for your candidate.35 General Election G General Election . The term is generally used to refer to elections held for a nation’s primary legislative body. baring any extreme change in their situation.áæ«©e á°SÉ«°S ∫ÓN øe º«¶æàdG √ÉŒGh ~eC’G »àdG äÉ«∏ª©dGh .Úë°Tôe QÉ«àN’ ádhO hCG áj’ƒd á«HÉîàf’G ôFGh~dG º¶©e …ôŒ »àdG á«æWƒdG äÉHÉîàf’G ¤EG IQÉÑ©dG √òg ™LôoJ øY Égõ««“ Öéjh .~«dÉ≤àdG ᫪cÉ◊G πª°ûJ . ᢫˘°Sɢ«˘°ùdG ÜGõ˘MC’G ~˘MCG »˘£˘ ©˘ j »˘˘Yô˘˘°T ÒZ º˘˘«˘ °ù≤˘˘J . how citizens are given a voice.á«°ù«FôdG á«©jô°ûàdG áÄ«¡dG ~«©°U ≈∏Y .á«æμ°ùdG º¡©bGƒŸ kÉ≤ah ÚÑNÉædG Qƒ¡ªL º«°ù≤J ¥É£˘æ˘∏˘d kɢ≤˘ah ÚÑ˘Nɢæ˘dG Qƒ˘¡˘ª˘L ø˘ª˘°V I~˘Fɢ°ùdG •É‰C’G ‘ ¿ƒæμ°ùj øjòdG ÚÑNÉædG ¿EG ∫ƒ≤dG ¢VÎØjh . ÜÉgòdÉH ÚÑNÉædG Òcòàd Ω~îà°ùoj …òdG í∏£°üŸG ƒgh Ée kÉÑdÉZh . ΩÉ©dG ¿CÉ°ûdG ÉjÉ° b ‘ äGQGô≤dG òNCG á«Ø«ch áeq ÉY äÉHÉîàfG Geographic Targeting ‘Gô¨L ±G~¡à°SG áq«°SÉ«°S-ƒ«÷G äG~MƒdG /ôFGh~∏d »Ø«c º«°ù≤J /…RÉ«ëfG º«°ù≤J ôFGh~dG ôjhõJ GOTV= Get Out The Vote /∂Jƒ°U íæeG âjƒ°üàdG ™«é°ûJ Governance áeƒμM/ºμM /᫪cÉM . ~j~–h .º¡JGƒ°UCÉH ¿ƒd~o«°S The act of affecting government and monitoring (through policy) the longterm strategy and direction of an organization. hCG qπc ‘ …ôŒ äÉHÉîàfG »gh .kÉeƒªY .øjOq~©àe Gerrymandering Illegitimate boundary delimitation which gives one political party an unfair advantage. as distinguished from by-elections and local elections.ÚæWGƒª∏d 䃰üdG AÉ£YEG á«Ø«ch .‘Gô¨÷G ¿ƒJƒ°ü«°S .Iƒ≤dG á°SQɇ Oq~– . and how decisions are made on issues of public concern.í°TôŸG ídÉ°üd âjƒ°üà∏d ´GÎb’G õcGôe ¤EG É¡j~jDƒe ¿CG øe ~cCÉà∏d ´GÎb’G Ωƒj πÑb kG~¡L á∏ª◊G ∫òÑJ .

governments are distinguished by whether power is held by one person.áq«μ«°SÓμdG ᨫ°üdG Ö°ùëHh . ‘ Ωɪàg’G äGP äÉYƒªÛGh ÚjOÉ©dG ÚæWGƒŸG πª°T ø˘ªq ˘° à˘j ~˘bh .~MGh ¢üî°T ƒgCG :á£∏°ùdG ΩÉeõH ∂°ùÁ øà äÉeƒμ◊G . and media advertising campaigns. Grassroots’ activities may include mail. is vested in a particular group in society.»˘∏ÙG iƒ˘à˘°ùŸG ø˘ª˘°V ᢫˘°Sɢ«˘ °ùdG Iɢ˘«◊G .IOq~©àe äÉØ«æ°üJ . »˘g á˘q«˘ æ˘ Wƒ˘˘dG I~˘˘Mƒ˘˘dG ᢢeƒ˘˘μ◊ »˘˘°Sɢ˘°SC’G ±~˘˘¡˘ dG q¿GE .Gubernatorial Election System of social control under which the right to make laws. and the right to enforce them. There are many classifications of government. øq ˘ °S ≥˘˘M ¢Vƒ˘q ˘Ø˘ j å«˘˘M ±Gô˘˘°TEÓ˘ d »˘˘Yɢ˘ª˘ à˘ LG Ωɢ˘¶˘ ˘f áeƒμë∏dh .™ª˘àÛG ‘ ø˘q«˘©˘e ≥˘jô˘Ø˘d ɢgò˘«˘Ø˘æ˘Jh ÚfGƒ˘≤˘dG õq«ªàJ .áqjÌcCG hCG . a few. telephone.36 Government áeƒμM Government of National Unity á«æWh I~Mh áeƒμM Grassroots h~jDƒe /á«q Ñ©°T ~YGƒb á«°SÉ«°S ácôM hCG ÜõM Gubernatorial Election á«q ªcÉM äÉHÉîàfG Government .Iq~Y ¢UÉî°TCG hCG The prime objective of the government of national unity is to make sure the nation will rally behind the elected president.á«FÉY~dG äÓª◊G πFÉ°Shh ¿ƒØ∏àdGh ~jÈdG º¡WÉ°ûf The selection of a governor by a state’s voters.ÖnîàæŸG ¢ù«FqôdG ∞∏N áqe’C G OÉ°ûàMG ≈∏Y ¢Uô◊G It is the involvement of common citizens and interest groups in political life. or a majority. According to the classical formula. typically at the local level. .º¡ªcÉ◊ Ée máj’h »ÑNÉf QÉ«àNG á«q ∏ªY »g .

(Úë°TôŸG πÑb øe É¡eG~îà°SG ¿ƒ˘fɢ≤˘d ɢ©˘Ñ˘J ᢫˘Hɢî˘à˘f’G äÓ˘ª◊G π˘˘jƒ“ ÚH õ˘˘«˘ «˘ ª˘ à˘ ∏˘ d äÓ˘˘ª◊G π˘˘jƒ“h ᢢ «˘ ˘dGQ~˘˘ Ø˘ ˘dG ᢢ «˘ ˘Hɢ˘ î˘ ˘à˘ ˘f’G äÓ˘˘ ª◊G π˘˘ jƒ˘˘ ª˘ ˘à˘ ˘dG . be used to directly support a candidate for federal office. by law. High profile races often receive the most votes. . »˘à˘dG á˘q«˘Hɢî˘à˘f’G »˘Ñ˘°ù˘qæ˘dG π˘«˘ã˘ª˘qà˘dG á˘ª˘¶˘fGC ‘ Ω~˘˘î˘ à˘ °S ~j~ëàd . Soft money contributions may not.áq«≤ÑàŸG äGƒ°UC’G øe mO~Y ÈcCG RÉM øe ™∏£à°ùJ ᨫ°üdG q ÈY ÉJƒμdG øe ≥≤ëqàdG øμÁh .ádÉ◊G ∂∏J ‘ .~YÉ≤ŸG íæe áq«Ø«c . ∫GƒeC’G /(Ú©e í°TôŸ IO~ÙGh ᪶æŸG) áÑ∏°üdG ∫GƒeC’G á«MÉæd áfhôe ÌcC’Gh Üõ◊G ¤EG áe~≤ŸG ∫GƒeC’G) áæ«∏dG ¿Ée~îà°ùJ ¿É૪°ùJ . partybuilding activities. When there is a hanging chad. and in support of state and local candidates.ᢢjQGOEG ∞˘˘ jQɢ˘ °üeh Üõ◊G ~˘˘ YGƒ˘˘ b ᢢ jƒ˘˘ ≤˘ ˘Jh . “Soft money” describes donations not regulated by law that can be spent only on civic activities such as voter registration drives.ÚYÎ≤ŸG .37 Hagenbach-B Bischoff Formula (Rarely Used) - H Hagenbach-B Bischoff Formula .áq«d~àŸG 䃰üdG q ∂dP Ö°ùàëj ’ ~b . “Hard money” is a term used to describe donations by individuals and groups made directly to political candidates running for federal office that are regulated by law.High Profile Race Another term for the Droop Quota.¬˘æ˘ Y »˘˘Hɢ˘î˘ à˘ f’G ç~◊G ᢢ©˘ Hɢ˘à˘ e ‘ ¿ƒ˘˘Ñ˘ Zô˘˘jh øe ÒÑc O~Y ≈∏Y ~j~°ûdG ¢ùaÉæàdG äGP äÉHÉîàf’G . See Low Profile Race.»∏ÙG iƒà°ùŸGh áj’ƒdG iƒà°ùe ≈∏Y Ö°UÉæŸ Úë°TôŸG used in largest remainder PR electoral systems to determine how seats are awarded.~YÉ≤ŸG O~Y ≈∏Y äGƒ°UC’G ´ƒª› º«°ù≤J :á«dÉqàdG An election campaign for a particular office that voters are interested in and want to hear about. administrative costs.¿ƒ˘˘ fɢ˘ ≤˘ ˘dG ∂dP ø˘˘ Y ∫õ˘˘ ©Ã ᢢ «˘ ˘Hɢ˘ ˘î˘ ˘ à˘ ˘ f’G øμÁh Qƒ˘còŸG ¿ƒ˘fɢ≤˘∏˘d ɢ«˘FGô˘LEG ™˘° î˘j Ö∏˘°üdG/º˘¶˘æŸG …CG .áeÉ©dG äÉHÉîàf’G èFÉàf ≈∏Y ÒKCÉà∏d ¬eG~îà°SG ÒZ ∫Gƒ˘e’C G ɢeGC . Ö≤ãoJ IÒ¨°U áq«bQh á°UÉ°üb »g áHƒ≤ãŸG ´GÎb’G ábQh á˘bQƒ˘dG ɢqeGC .á˘Ñ˘bɢK á˘dGB á˘£˘°SGƒ˘H .áë«ë°U má≤jô£H Terms used to differentiate between campaign funding that is and is not regulated by federal campaign finance law. ¿ƒÑ˘Nɢæ˘dG ¬˘H º˘à˘¡˘j Ú©˘e ~˘©˘≤Ÿ ᢫˘Hɢî˘à˘fG á˘∏˘ª˘M »˘æ˘©˘Jh π˘°ü– . that vote may not be counted correctly.á˘q«˘Hɢî˘à˘f’G á˘bɢ£˘ Ñ˘ dG ø˘˘e ábÉ£ÑdG øY kÉeÉ“ π°üØæJ ⁄ »àdG ∂∏J »¡a .Úæ˘«˘©˘e Ú뢢°Tô˘˘e Üɢ˘î˘ à˘ f’ Iƒ˘˘Y~˘˘dG É¡bÉØfEG øμÁ ’h ¿ƒfÉ≤∏d É«FGôLEG ™° îJ Óa áæ«∏dG/᪶æŸG Ö°UÉæŸ Úë°Tôe ÜÉîàfG ≈∏Y ôKDƒJ ’ äÉWÉ°ûf ≈∏Y ’EG ÚÑNÉædG π«é°ùJ äÓªM πãe äÉWÉ°ûf …CG .áq«HÉîàf’G .''ÜhQO'' ÉJƒc øY ÒÑ©qà∏d ôNBG í∏£°üe ±ƒ°û«H ñÉÑæZÉg ᨫ°U (ádhG~àe ÒZ) Hanging Chad áHƒ≤ãŸG ´GÎb’G ábQh á«q d~àŸG Hard Money/Soft Money /áÑ∏°üdG ∫GƒeC’G áæ«q ∏dG ∫GƒeC’G Hare Quota (Rarely Used) (ádhG~àe ÒZ) ''Òg'' ÉJƒc High Profile Race ~j~°T ¢ùaÉæJ A hanging chad is a chad that did not completely detach from the ballot. The quota is ascertained by the following formula: total vote divided by the number of seats.á«eƒb I~˘˘Yɢ˘°ùŸh .¢ Øîæe ¢ùaÉæJ ô¶fG .

etc.äÉ«bÉØJEG ‘ º¶æoJ Ée~æY ¿É°ùfE’G ¥ƒ≤M ¢VôØoJ .~YÉ≤e ¤EG äGƒ°UC’G πjƒëàd ÖLƒÃ . language.RôØdG qôªà°ùjh . ¿Ó˘YGE ∂dò˘H ≈˘æ˘©˘oj .5.~©≤ŸÉH ≈∏YC’G ∫q~©ŸG ∫Éf …òdG Üõ◊G ≈∏Y Üõ◊G É¡dÉf »àdG äGƒ°UC’G ´ƒª› º«°ù≤J ™e . .2. e.¬JGQ~b hCG . under d'Hondt (by 1.á«q YGÎb’G õcGôŸG .±ƒdCÉe ‹hO ¿ƒfÉ≤c É¡H ±nΩoj Ée~æY hCG .É¡q∏c ~YÉ≤ŸG πn¨°ûoJ ≈qàM .áÑbÉ©àŸG ΩÉbQC’G Polling questions or analysis focused on which candidates are ahead and which behind. See Political Polling.»°SÉ«°ùdG ´Ó£à°S’G ô¶fG .᢫˘°Sɢ˘«˘ °ùdG äɢ˘jɢ˘Y~˘˘∏˘ d ᢢ«˘ eɢ˘Y ᢢª˘ ∏˘ c OƒYh ¤EG É° jC k G IQÉÑ©dG √òg Oƒ©J ~bh .Oƒ≤Yh . sex. “if the election were held today. sexuality.3h2h1 ≈∏Y ᪰ùb) ''âfƒgO'' ᨫ°U RƒØj . Party vote totals are divided by a series of devisors. short TV commercials. who is in the lead and who is trailing. Tracking polls can reveal the true nature of the political “horserace. ä~≤Y GPEG :∫ƒ≤dÉH ¬Lƒàj »°SÉ«°ùdG ´Ó£à°SÓd ∫GDƒ°S hCG ''¿'' í°TôŸG ídÉ°üd ´Î≤à°S π¡a . etc..á«q HÉîàf’G º¡bGQhCG ¿ƒÑNÉæq dG ÓC Á ¿CG »q æ©ŸG The rights people are entitled to simply because they are human beings.g.38 Highest Average Method (Rarely Used) ≈∏YC’G ä’~q ©ŸG á≤jôW (ádhG~àe ÒZ) Horse Race áÑ∏◊G/π«ÿG ¥ÉÑ°S Horserace Question ¥ÉÑ°S hCG áÑ∏◊G ∫GDƒ°S π«ÿG Horse-R Race Tracking π«ÿG ¥ÉÑ°S á©HÉàe How-tto-V Vote Cards ´GÎb’G á«q Ø«c äÉbÉ£H Human Rights ¿É°ùfE’G ¥ƒ≤M Hype /áªîq ° e ájÉYO á«FÉYO áéq °V Highest Average Method .¬àq«æWGƒe øY ô¶ædG ±ô°üH ∂dPh . would you vote for candidate X or candidate Y. so that he or she can see if progress is being made toward victory.Hype A formula used with list PR systems to translate votes into seats.RƒØdG √ÉŒÉH Ω~≤J …CG á¶MÓe πLCG . or as they become recognized as customary international law.ÜÉ˘Ñ˘°SC’Gh ™˘aGh~˘dG ø˘ª˘° à˘J ø˘d ¬˘æ˘ Y ᢢHɢ˘L’G ‘ ´GÎb’G õcGôe ~æY ƒg ᫪gCG ¬d …òdG ~«MƒdG áÑ∏◊G .ájÉ¡ædG ‘ øeh á©«∏£dG ‘ øe …CG . nationality.5h 3h1 ≈∏Y ᪰ùb) ''ƒZ’ .ôqNÉC àe º¡qjGC h á©«∏£dG ‘ í°Tôe q A question on a political poll that asks.3. ethnicity. slick.¬à«æKEG hCG . The count continues with party vote totals being divided by sequential numbers until all seats are filled.) formula.¬à«°ùæL hCG . or treaties. ''∫ƒ«ÿG ¥ÉÑ°S'' Cards handed out to voters by party supporters at voting centres showing how a party or candidate would like voters to fill in their ballot papers.e.º°SGƒ≤dG øe má∏°ù∏°S ≈∏Y øq«©e lÜõM É¡dÉf »àdG âfÉ°S'' hCG (ïdEG .” i.í˘°TôŸG π˘Ñ˘pb ø˘e kɢ«˘eƒ˘j âjƒ˘°üà˘dG ᢩ˘Hɢà˘e ø˘˘μ˘ ªŸG ø˘˘e øe á«HÉîàf’G á∏ª◊G øe IÒNC’G IÎØdG ∫ÓN á°UÉN á≤«≤M øq«Ñj Gòg .»HÉîàf’G Ωƒ«dG Tracking polls may be taken every day by a candidate. especially during the latter stages of a campaign. race.(ïdEG . q…CG ≈˘∏˘Y õ˘qcô˘j …ò˘dG π˘«˘∏˘ë˘à˘dG hCG äGAɢà˘Ø˘à˘°S’G á˘∏˘Ä˘°SCG . The term may also refer to exaggerated promises or statements made by a candidate (or his supporters) on the campaign trail.á∏Môe qπc ~©H . irrespective of their citizenship.3.Ωƒ«dG äÉHÉîàf’G ¿C’ á∏ªë∏d ᫪gCG πbCG ∫GDƒ°ùdG Gògh ?''`g'' í°TôŸG ∫GDƒ˘°Sh . covenants. or abilities.¬°ùæL hCG .¬bôY hCG .´QÉHh ô°üàfl ʃjõØ∏J ..” This type of information is often of little use to the campaign because it does not provide a reason for the decision. »Ñ°ùqædG π˘«˘ã˘ª˘qà˘dG á˘ª˘¶˘fCG í˘FGƒ˘d ɢ¡˘e~˘î˘à˘°ùJ ᢨ˘«˘°U »˘g äGƒ°UC’G ´ƒª› º°ù≤o«a . Human rights become enforceable when they are codified as conventions. The only horserace question that counts is at the polls on Election Day.äG~gÉ©e hCG Slang for political ads. ‘ ÚÑNÉæq dG ¤EG ø«q ©e mÜõM hô°UÉæe É¡ªq∏°ùj äÉbÉ£H »g í°TôŸG q hCG Üõ◊G ~jôj ∞«c ô¡¶Jh .) or SainteLagu (by 1. ¿É°ùfEG áWÉ°ùH πμH ¬fƒμd ¢üî°û∏d IÉ£©ŸG ¥ƒ≤◊G »g .¬à¨d hCG . After each stage the party with the highest average wins the seat.á∏ª◊G ‘ (¬jô°UÉæe hCG) í°TôŸG πÑpb øe äÉfÉ«Hh áªqî° e .¬àq«fÉ°ùæL hCG .

See Campaign Professionals.äÉHÉîàf’G QÉ°ùe ‘ . who do not belong to a political party.Indirect Vote There are a lot of people who are working on the image of the candidate so that he/she become more convincing.kÉ«dÉM √ô¨°ûj ~©≤Ÿ äÉHÉîàf’G ¢Vƒîj í°TôŸG ¿CG »æ©Jh Candidates for. The quota is ascertained by the following formula: total vote divided by the number of seats plus two.~YÉ≤ŸG An illegal practice which consists of assuming to be someone else with a view to voting in his/her place. including potentially a political party. in a way or another. á«q HÉîàf’G »Ñ°ùæq dG π«ãªàq dG ᪶fCG ‘ kÉfÉ«MCG Ω~îà°ùoJ . They often talk about psychoanalyzing the voters or the way a candidate dresses or his public image and the way he/she appears in the media.~YÉ≤ŸG íæe á«q Ø«c ~j~ëàd O~Y ≈∏Y äGƒ°UC’G ´ƒª› º«°ù≤J:á«dÉàq dG ᨫ°üdG q ÈY .ΩÓYE’G ∫ÓN øe É¡«a ô¡¶j »àdG ¬JQƒ°U hCG ¢ùÑ∏ŸG . IQƒ°U ≈∏Y ¿ƒ∏ª©j øjòdG ¢UÉî°T’G øe ~j~©dG ∑Éæg hCG á≤jô£H .á«q fƒfÉb ÒZ á°SQɇ »g l .¬fÉμe ´Î≤j »c ôNBG In the context of elections.2 ~FGR . or members of the legislature.iôNCG á¡L øe ¿ÉŸÈdG ‘ ÉgRƒ– This vote cannot be used directly. øe ÚÑNÉædG π«é°ùJ á«∏ªY »æ©j . »˘à˘dG äGƒ˘°UC’G ÚH ™˘ªq ˘é˘àŸG ähÉ˘Ø˘ àq ˘ dG Qƒ˘q ˘°üj ºl ˘ °SQ ƒ˘˘g »àdG ~YÉ≤ŸGh . ¢üî°T ¬qfGC ÖNÉæq dG É¡«a »Y~q j .Ö©°ûdG äÉÄah äÉYƒª› πc A candidate running again for an elected position that they already hold.OÉ«pM áª∏μd á«fÓª©dG IQÉÑ©dG Imperiali Quota Sometimes used in largest remainder PR electoral systems to determine how seats are awarded.39 Image Maker I Image Maker .á¡L øe äÉHÉîàf’G ‘ ÜGõMC’G É¡dÉæJ .iô˘˘NCɢ H ‘ í°TôŸG á≤jôW øY hCG ÚÑNÉæ∏d ÊÉ°ùØædG π«∏ëàdG .á«q ≤ÑàŸG äGƒ°UC’G øe mO~Y ÈcCG RÉM øe ™∏£à°ùJ »àdG ÉJƒμdG øe ≥≤ëàq dG øμÁh . It is the operational expression of neutrality.õ«q – ¿hOh ádOÉY á≤jô£H QƒeC’G ™e »WÉ©àdG .á∏ª◊G ƒaÎfi ô¶fG Impartiality / Nonpartisanship Dealing with matters in a fair unbiased manner. . for the voters.»°SÉ«°S Üõ◊ hCG íHôdG ≈NƒàJ ’ áª¶æŸ ¬æ««©J øY èàæj . but can be assigned to a registered not-for-profit organisation.ádƒ¡› 䃰üdG Gòg ≈∏Y π°UÉ◊G ájƒg ¿ƒμJ IQƒ°üdG ™fÉ°U OÉ«M /õq«ëàdG Ω~Y (Rarely Used) ''‹ÉjÈeEG'' ÉJƒc (ádhG~àe ÒZ) Impersonation áq«°üî°ûdG q ∫ÉëàfG Inclusive Registration πeÉ°T π«é°ùJ Incumbent /áØ«XƒdG πZÉ°T ÜÉîàf’G IOÉYEG Independents ¿ƒ∏≤à°ùe Index of Disproportionality /äÉJhÉØà∏d »°SÉ«b º°SQ äÉJhÉØàq dG ¢Sô¡a Indirect Vote ô°TÉÑe ÒZ ÜÉîàfG . that uses the voting power as decided by the governance of the øμÁ øμdh Iô°TÉÑe ÜÉîàf’G Gòg ∫ɪ©à°SG øμÁ ’ Gòμgh .ÚÑNÉæ∏d ÉYÉæbEG ÌcCG ¿ƒμj ≈àM í°TôŸG q ø˘Y ¢Uɢ˘î˘ °T’G ∂Ģ˘dhCG ç~˘˘ë˘ à˘ jɢ˘e kɢ Ñ˘ dɢ˘Z . »g √òg .»°SÉ«°S ÜõM ¤EG ¿ƒªàæj A figure which illustrates the collective disparity between the votes cast for parties in an election and the seats in parliament they win. ’ ø˘jò˘dG ᢫˘©˘jô˘°ûà˘dG á˘Ä˘ «˘ ¡˘ dG Aɢ˘° YCG hCG ¿ƒ˘˘ë˘ °TôŸG º˘˘g . refers to a voter registration process that includes all groups and categories of citizens.

in order to successfully implement certain political goals or values. ܃°SÉ◊G Iõ¡LCG Ω~îà°ùJ ÚÑNÉædÉH ∫É°üJÓd á∏«°Sh …CG á˘∏˘«˘°Sƒ˘dG ∂∏˘J ø˘ª˘° à˘Jh . Institutional polls are held on election day. These ballot papers are excluded from the count and therefore do not contribute to the election of a candidate.kÉ° jCG äÉ«q MÓ°UE’G ‘ ΩÉ≤Jh . á«° b I~fÉ°ùŸ ídÉ°üŸG º°SÉH πª©J OGôaC’G øe äÉYɪL hCG á«°SÉ«°S ájÉZ ≥«≤– ±~¡H áæ«©e ídÉ°üe hCG á«°SÉ«°S Ω~îà°ùJ øμdh á«°SÉ«°ùdG á«∏ª©dG ‘ ¿ƒ›~æe ºg . The right to assign such votes creates what is called a proxy market. thus rendering the identity of the vote holder anonymous.40 Indirect Vote .á˘μ˘Ñ˘°ûdG ÈY ∫ɢ˘°üJ’G ¥ô˘˘Wh ¿CG ºZQh . although groups may at times employ destructive methods in order to accomplish their goals. While this can be an inexpensive way to convey a lot of information to those interested in the candidate and the campaign. Institutional Polls are also held in correctional facilities.¬fhÉ©jh mõcôe qπc øY ∫hDƒ°ùŸG ¢ù«FqôdG ∞ qXƒŸG Gòg ºY~j Internet Campaigning Any method of voter contact using computers and communications network. á«ë°üdG q ájÉYôdG äBÉ°ûæe ‘ äÉ°ù°SDq ƒŸG ‘ ´GÎb’G ºq àj ™˘ª÷ (ᢰUÉÿG q á˘jɢYôq ˘dG …hBɢeh äɢ˘«˘ Ø˘ °ûà˘˘°ùŸG ɢ˘¡˘ «˘ a ÉÃ) Ωƒ«dG ‘ ºq àJ »gh . Typically this involves de-veloping campaign pages on the World Wide Web..´GÎbÓd Ú∏gq ƒD ŸG ÚÑNÉæq dG äGƒ°UCG . √òg ≈¨∏oJ . iô˘é˘oJ å«˘M OÓ˘Ñ˘dG êQɢN ø˘e ¿h~˘Ø˘ j ¿ƒ˘˘Ñ˘ bGô˘˘e º˘˘g .É¡«dG A»ÛG ÖNÉædG øe Ö∏£J ɉEGh ÖNÉædG ¤EG /∫ƒ°UC’G Ö°ùM ¢ù«d »ª°SQ ÒZ ´GÎbG ¢SÉ°SCG ≈∏Y âjƒ°üàdG Úë°TôŸG Ö«JôJ Institutional Polls äÉ°ù°SDq ƒŸG ‘ ´GÎb’G Interest Groups ídÉ°üŸG äÉYɪL äÉHÉîàf’G ƒÑbGôe ¿ƒq«dh~q dG õcôe ‘ ‹hO ∞Xƒe âjƒ°üàdG ' âfÎfE’G'' ÈY á∏ªM ..á«dh~dG ∫É°üJ’G áμÑ°T ‘ á∏ªë∏d ™bƒe ôjƒ£J ádÉ©a â°ù«d É¡fCG ÒZ áØ∏μe ~©oJ ’ ∂∏J ∫É°üJ’G á∏«°Sh ∫ƒ°Uƒ∏d kG~¡L ∫òÑJ ’ É¡fC’ ÖNÉædÉH ∫É°üJÓd á∏«°Sƒc . .CÉ£N á≤jô£H áeƒ°Sƒe hCG ¢VÉ«H ≈∏Y ´GÎbG ábÉ£H . as many organisations can compete to be trusted with it.É¡aG~gCG ≥«≤ëàd Iôe~e kÉbôW äÉYɪ÷G ¢ ©H International Election Observers Observers who come from outside the country where election is being held. Instead voters have to go to it.»q HÉîàf’G Groups characterized by the will to influence political decision-making.í°Tôe ÜÉîàfG á«∏ªY ‘ º¡°ùJ ’h q~©dG øe äÉbÉ£ÑdG Instant Runoff Voting Instant runoff voting (IRV) is a voting reform that asks the voter to rank the candidates in order of preference.Internet Campaigning organisation.m¿ÉK hCG ∫hCq G QÉ«àNÉc Institutional polls will be set up in health care facilities (including hospitals and personal care homes) to collect ballots from qualified voters.º«pb . it is not an effective voter contact method because it does not go to the voters. π«° Øàq dG Ö°ùM Úë°TôŸG q Ö«JÎH ÚÑNÉæq ∏d íª°ùj Ωɶf . ™a~j …òdG áHÉ«ædÉH âjƒ°üàdÉH ≈ª°ùj Ée ÜÉîàf’G Gòg .É¡H ¥ƒKƒ∏d ¢ùaÉæàdG ¤EG äɪ¶æŸG øe ~j~©dG Informal Vote A ballot paper which is either left blank or is incorrectly marked.äÉHÉîàf’G International Polling Station Officer An international polling station officer supports and assist the presiding officer who is in charge of each station. They tend to be integrated into the political process.

´GÎb’G õcôe øY kG~«©H âfÎfE’G ÈY âjƒ°üàq dG ô¶fG Invalid Votes Wrongly marked ballot paper which will not be counted. it may result where: votes of winner inaccurate & may affect result.áé«àædG ≈∏Y ôKDƒJ ‹ÉàdÉHh á≤«bO ÒZ ø˘e ÚÑ˘Nɢæ˘dG ™˘æÁh Ú뢰TôŸG ~˘MC’ ᢫˘HÉ˘î˘ à˘ f’G ᢢ∏˘ ª◊G hCG .á«fƒfÉb ÒZ á≤jô£H ô◊G âjƒ°üàdG . winner illegally obstructs other candidate from campaigning.áé«àædG ≈∏Y ÒKCÉà∏d . . øjõFÉØdG äGƒ°UCG ¿ƒμJ Ée~æY π°üëj . áÄ«g hCG áªμfi ¬«∏Y §°ùÑJ …òdG ‘Gô¨÷G ¥É£qædG ƒg .ÚÑNÉqædG πé°S The geographical area over which a court or government body has the power and right to exercise authority.äÉHÉîàfÓd ∫É£HEG ábÉYEÉH õFÉØdG Ωƒ≤j .øjôNB’G âfÎfE’G ÈY âjƒ°üàq dG /Æ’ /πWÉH ´GÎbG Iɨ∏e ábQh Invalidation of Elections äÉHÉîàf’G ∫É£HEG Itinerant Elector πq≤æàe/∫ƒéàe q ÖNÉf Jurisdiction á«q MÓ°U Kitchen Cabinet /¿ƒHôq ≤e ¿hQÉ°ûà°ùe ïÑ£ŸG ¢ù∏› J K . and winner uses fraud or other illegal means to affect result.Kitchen Cabinet Internet Voting See Remote Internet Voting. but whose name has been placed on the register of electors.Ég~q Y ≈¨∏oŸGh ÉC £ÿG ≥jôW øY áªq∏©ŸG äÉHÉîàf’G äÉbÉ£H It is the annulment of Elections. ‘ lêQ~e ¬ª°SG qøμd .´~ÿG øe ÉgÒZ A person who does not reside in any district. .IôFGO áqjGC ‘ º«≤j ’ ¢üî°T ƒg l . winner illegally prevents voters from casting votes freely. .É¡à£∏°S á°SQɇ ‘ É¡q≤Mh ÉgPƒØf áq«eƒμM A term used to describe the key advisors to a candidate informally organized so as not to attract attention.á∏«M ¤EG ÉC é∏j PEG .í°Tôª∏d Ú°ù«FôdG øjQÉ°ûà°ùŸG ∞°Uƒd Ω~îà°ùj í∏£°üe Ωɢª˘à˘gG Gƒ˘Hò˘é˘j ’ ≈˘à˘M ᢫˘ª˘°SQ ÒZ IQƒ˘°üH ¿ƒ˘˘ª˘ ° æ˘˘jh .41 Internet Voting .

º¡d á«q ≤ÑàŸG äGƒ°UC’G kÉ≤ah á«q ≤ÑàŸG ~YÉ≤ŸG øe ÈcC’G O~©dG í檫o a .Legal Framework An election in which one candidate defeats the other by a very large margin. parties are awarded seats in proportion to the number of quotas they fulfill (quotas vary depending on which of the three systems are used).äÉ«FôŸG ô¶fG .''Òg'' ÉJƒc ᪶fCG ÜÉ°ùàMG ¥ôW πª°ûJ øª°V ~YÉ≤e ¤EG äGƒ°UC’G ºLÎJ »àdG .áHÉàμdGh IAGô≤dG Structure of electoral processes consisting of the constitutional rules. electoral laws.(áKÓãdG ᪶fC’G √òg ÚH ~ªn à©ŸG Ωɶæq dG ±ÓàNÉH ¢Sɢ˘°SCG ≈˘˘∏˘ Y .á«q ∏≤©dG ádÉ◊Gh .º¡«∏㇠‘ ÉgôaƒJ ¢SÉædG πeCÉj »àdG IO~ÙG äɪ°ùdG »gh Legal Division May be responsible for drafting new election laws and procedures and interpreting the law for the national body to determine its position on legal challenges and complaints.»Ñ°ùæq dG π«ãªàq dG íFGƒd ᪶fCG ¢ü°ü◊G O~Y ¤EG áÑ°ùæq dÉH ~YÉ≤e ÜGõMC’G ≈q≤∏àJ .''ÉJƒμdG .á˘jq Qƒ˘à˘°S~q ˘ dG . Droop and Imperiali calculation methods which translate votes into seats within list PR systems. ÚfGƒ˘˘ ≤˘ ˘dɢ˘ H äGqOƒ˘˘ °ùe ™˘˘ °Vh ø˘˘ Y k’hDƒ˘ ˘ °ùe ¿ƒ˘˘ ˘μ˘ ˘ j ~˘˘ ˘b ~j~ëàd ¿ƒfÉ≤dG Ò°ùØJh .ÒÑc ¥QÉØH The Hare.ø˘˘j~˘˘©˘ Ñ˘ à˘ °ùŸG ÚÑ˘˘Nɢ˘æq ˘ dG π˘˘ª˘ °ûj áaô©eh .¥ô©dGh .I~j~÷G áq«HÉîàf’G äGAGôLE’Gh .kɢ«q ˘ fƒ˘˘fɢ˘b . literacy. There are two stages to the count.''‹ÉjÈeEG''h .á«q μ∏ŸÉc ¢ù°SCG ≈∏Y âjƒ°üàq dGh π«é°ùàq dG . First. Lawn signs are good for increasing name recognition of the candidate and reminding people to vote.´GÎb’ÉH The particular traits people are looking for in those that represent them. .¥ô˘˘£˘ dG ø˘˘e ÚÑNÉædG ÒcòJh í°TôŸG ≈∏Y ±ô©àdG ¢Uôa ∞YÉ° J . See Visibility. ~˘YGƒ˘≤˘dG ø˘e á˘fƒ˘q μŸG ᢫q ˘Hɢî˘à˘f’G äɢ«q ˘ ∏˘ ª˘ ©˘ dG ᢢ«˘ æ˘ H »˘˘g .IhôqãdGh . .Úà∏Môe RôØdG øªq ° àj .42 Landslide L Landslide . wealth.»°ùæ÷G ´ƒæq dGh . race.k’hCq G ᢫q ˘Ñ˘°ù˘æq ˘dG ¢ü°ü◊G ∞˘∏˘ à˘ î˘ J) ɢ˘¡˘ ≤˘ q≤– »˘˘à˘ dG ᢢ«q ˘ Ñ˘ °ù˘˘æq ˘ dG . »˘à˘«q ˘∏˘ª˘Y ø˘Y . gender and mental fitness.äGƒ°UC’G O~©d Large signs with the candidate’s name on them and the office they are seeking which can be put in on lawns and other areas near roads.ÜGõ˘˘MC’G ¤EG ᢢ«q ˘ ≤˘ Ñ˘ ˘àŸG ~˘˘ Yɢ˘ ≤ŸG í˘˘ æ˘ ˘ª˘ ˘oJ ΩɶæH'' áahô©ŸG RôØdG á∏Môe ~©H . complementary regulations and explicit or implicit codes of conduct. Largest remainder seats are allocated in order of vote size.kÉ«fÉK .Iôª° ŸGh IôgÉ q¶dG πª©dG ≥«KGƒeh äÉHÉîàf’G ‘ ≥MÉ°S Rƒa Largest Remainder Method (Rarely Used) äGƒ°UC’G ≈∏YCG á≤jôW (ádhG~àe ÒZ) á«q ≤ÑàŸG Lawn Signs ∫RÉæŸG ΩÉeCG äÉàa’ Leadership Qualities ájOÉ«b äÉØ°U Êq ƒfÉb º°ùb ʃfÉb OÉ©Ñà°SG Legal Framework /á«q fƒfÉb á«q ∏μ«g ʃfÉb QÉWEG . Second. remaining seats are awarded to parties on the basis of the left over votes they possess after the ‘quota’ stage of the count.''ÜhQO''h .᢫q ˘Hɢî˘à˘f’G ÚfGƒ˘≤˘dGh .áq«fƒfÉ≤dG ihÉμ°ûdGh q äÉqj~ëqàdG øe áq«æWƒdG áÄ«¡dG ∞bƒe Legal Exclusion Voters legally excluded from registering and voting on grounds including such conditions as property ownership. ¬ª°üN ≈∏Y RÉa ~b Úë°TôŸG ~MCG É¡«a ¿ƒμj äÉHÉîàfG .á˘ª˘ªq ˘àŸG Ωɢμ˘MC’Gh . »HÉîàf’G ~©≤ŸGh í°TôŸG º°SG É¡«∏Y IÒÑc äÉàa’ »gh áHô≤e ≈∏Y iôNCG ≥WÉæeh øcÉ°ùŸG πNG~e ~æY ™°VƒJh ɢ¡˘fC’ I~˘«˘L ∫RɢæŸG ΩɢeCG äÉ˘à˘ aÓ˘˘dG ~˘˘©˘ Jh .

≈∏Y ™jô°ûàdG á£∏°Sh á«dhDƒ°ùe É¡d ~¡©J áÑîàæe áÄ«g . congress or other body dealing with legislation. ÚcQÉ°ûŸG ∞∏àfl ¤EG ájhÉ°ùàŸG ¢UôØdG íæe á«q ∏ªY »g .q»ª°SQ AGôLE’ kÉ≤ah . .Limited Vote A revision or change brought to the electoral law of a country or to relevant regulations.äGOQƒ∏dG ¢ù∏› /É«∏©dG á«©jô°ûàdG áÄ«¡dGô¶fG Legislative Office A legislative office is a position on an elected council.∫OÉÑàdÉH ádƒÑ≤e The act of giving equal opportunities to different participants or players. ‘ ¬H á≤q∏©àŸG ΩÉμMC’G hCG »HÉîàf’G ¿ƒfÉ≤dG á©LGôe ƒg . protect the interests of the poor.43 Legislative Amendment »q ©jô°ûJ πj~©J Legislative Amendment .É«f~dG á«©jô°ûàdG áÄ«¡dG/Ωƒª©dG ¢ù∏› ô¶fG Legislative Council See Upper House.äÉ©jô°ûàdG ™e πeÉ©àJ Legislative Recall A revision or change brought to the electoral law of a country or to relevant regulations.Ée ádhO See Lower House.ìÓ°UE’G ≈∏Y ™é°ûj ¿CG ¬fCÉ°T øe Ée AGQB’G Oh~˘˘M ø˘˘ª˘ °V Qƒ˘˘°üfi ÒZ .Aɢ˘° YC’G IOq~˘ ˘©˘ ˘àŸG ᢢ q«˘ ˘Hɢ˘ î˘ ˘à˘ ˘f’G ô˘˘ FGhq~˘ ˘dG ‘ iô˘˘ é˘ ˘oj øe mO~Y ÈcCG ¿h~°üëj øe ºg ¿hõFÉØdG ¿ƒë°TôŸGh q øe πbCG kGO~Y GƒÑîàæj ¿CG ÚYÎ≤ª∏d q≥ëjh .√Ò«¨J hCG . Voters have fewer votes than seats to be filled. . such as a state or nation. but more than one vote.√Ò«¨J hCG . .…ò«ØæàdG Ö°üæŸG ô¶fG .ᢢe~˘˘≤˘ à˘ eh I~˘˘ j~˘˘ L ᫪°SôdG hCG áaƒdCÉŸG hCG áj~«∏≤àdG Conducted in multi-member districts and winning candidates are those who poll most votes. áĢ«˘g hCG ¢Sô˘¨˘fƒ˘μ˘∏˘d hCG ¢ù∏˘é˘ª˘∏˘d á˘Ñ˘î˘à˘æ˘e á˘Ø˘«˘Xh »˘gh . in accordance with a formal procedure.äGƒ°UC’G .ádh~dG iƒà°ùe ≈∏Y hCG áj’h iƒà°ùe All free and legitimate government is based on governing the interactions between sovereign individuals through mutually accepted contracts.q»ª°SQ AGôLE’ kÉ≤ah . an individual who generally believes in the power of an activist government to resolve society’s many domestic problems. QÉμaCG ≈∏Y íàØàe .IôZÉ°ûdG q ~YÉ≤ŸG Legislative Assembly á«q ©jô°ûàdG á«q ©ª÷G »q ©jô°ûqàdG ¢ù∏ÛG »©jô°ûJ Ö°üæe »q ©jô°ûJ ï°ùa/AɨdEG Legislature /á«©jô°ûàdG áÄ«¡dG »©jô°ûàdG ¢ù∏ÛG Legitimate Government á«Yô°T áeƒμM Level Playing Field ¢UôØdG ƒD aÉμJ Liberal ‹GÈ«d Limited Vote Oh~ÙG 䃰üdG . in accordance with a formal procedure.~MGh m䃰U øe ÌcCÉH A’OE’G ɪqfGE . See Executive Office.AÉbôØdG hCG Today. and improve the lives of individual citizens through specific governmental programs. ‘ ¬H á≤q∏©àŸG ΩÉμMC’G hCG »HÉîàf’G ¿ƒfÉ≤dG á©LGôe ƒg . º˘μ˘oM ≈˘∏˘Y õ˘μ˘Jô˘J »˘à˘dG »˘g ᢫˘Yô˘˘°ûdG Iô◊G ᢢeƒ˘˘μ◊G Oƒ˘≤˘Y ∫Ó˘N ø˘e Ú˘q∏˘ ≤˘ à˘ °ùŸG OGô˘˘aC’G ÚH äÓ˘˘Yɢ˘Ø˘ à˘ dG .Ée ádhO An officially elected or otherwise selected body of people vested with the responsibility and power to make laws for a political unit.

supplementary list of electors or the official list of electors. this is a less persuasive method of voter contact than door to door.¿~àe ´GÎbGh . See High Profile Race and Down Ballot. Lists can be open. See Campaign Literature.á∏ª◊G äÉ«HOCG ô¶fG .™°ShCG ájƒ° Y ÚÑNÉædG áëF’ List Proportional Representation (List PR) /»Ñ°ùæq dG π«ãªàq dG áëF’ »Ñ°ùædG π«ãªàdG Ωɶf á«Hõ◊G áªFÉ≤dG ™e Literature Drop äÉ«HOC’G AÉ≤dEG hCG ∑ôJ /äÉ«HO’G ™jRƒJ äÉ«HOC’G Iô°ûf »à°ùLƒd º°ùb ¢ Øîæe ¢ùaÉæJ Lower House É«f~dG á«©jô°ûàdG áÄ«¡dG .äÉ«q ∏ª©dG º°ùb ô¶fG .»æWƒdG ~«©°üdG q ≈∏Y âjƒ°üqà∏d áq«dɪLE’G á°üë∏d q káÑ°ùf ~b »àdG íFGƒ∏dG øe ºgDhÉ≤àfG qºà«a . the branch which generally has a larger membership and is thereby more representative.áàÑdG ¬H ¿ƒKÎμj ’ ÉÃQh ¿ƒÑNÉædG in a bicameral legislature. closed.§°ùHC’G É¡∏μ°ûH . such as workers leaving a factory. and parties receive seats in proportion to their overall share of the national vote. ‘ ~ªà©oJ Ú∏gDƒŸG ÚÑNÉædG πc øjhÉæYh Aɪ°SCÉH áëF’ . See Campaign Literature and Door-to-Door.ΩGh~dG .Lower House It is the preliminary list of electors. áeÉY ¬j~d …òdG ´ôØdG ƒg . also called lower chamber.Üõë∏d ¿ƒÑNÉqædG 䃰ü«a q . ™jRƒàH ¿ƒYƒ£àŸG Ωƒ≤j å«M ÚÑNÉædÉH ∫É°üJÓd á∏«°Sh äÉ©ªŒ ‘ øj~°ûàÙG Ú∏ªàÙG ÚÑNÉæ∏d á∏ª◊G äÉ«HOCG á˘jɢ¡˘f ‘ ™˘æ˘°üŸG ¿hQOɢ¨˘j ø˘˘jò˘˘dG ∫ɢ˘ª˘ ©˘ dG π˘˘ã˘ e IÒÑ˘˘c ‘ º¡ØbƒJ ~æY äÓ°UGƒŸG πFÉ°Sh ‘ Ú∏≤æàŸG hCG .»FÉæK »©jô°ûJ ¢ù∏› ‘ . as the context requires.IôFG~dG ‘ øμ°ùe ∫ɢ°üJÓ˘˘d ᢢ«˘ dɢ˘©˘ a π˘˘bCG ᢢ∏˘ «˘ °Sƒ˘˘dG √ò˘˘¡˘ a ÚÑ˘˘Nɢ˘æ˘ dG ¤EG ɢgRÉ‚EG ø˘μÁ ø˘μ˘dh ÚÑ˘Nɢæ˘∏˘d kɢYɢæ˘bEG π˘bCGh ÚÑ˘˘Nɢ˘æ˘ dɢ˘H .Úbƒ°ùàŸG hCG . ¿CG .´GÎb’G Ωƒj âjƒ°üàdG õcGôe In its most simple form List PR involves each party presenting a list of candidates to the electorate. ¬˘H º˘à˘¡˘j ’ Ú©˘e »˘Hɢî˘à˘fG ~˘©˘≤Ÿ ᢢ«˘ Hɢ˘î˘ à˘ fG ᢢ∏˘ ª˘ M …CG ~j~°T ¢ùaÉæJ ô¶fG . øe ¿ƒYƒ£àŸG Ögòj å«M ÚÑNÉædÉH ∫É°üJÓd á∏«°Sh πc ‘ ÜÉÑdG πØ°SCG øe äÉ«HOC’G AÉ≤dE’ ÜÉH ¤G ÜÉH ¿ƒK~ëàj ’h ÜÉÑdG ¿ƒbô£j ’ º¡fC’h . Because they do not knock on the doors and talk to voters. hCG Úë°TôŸG q ÚH QÉ«àN’G πLCG øe É«∏fi ΩÉ≤oJ äÉHÉîàfG .»Ñ°ùqædG π«ãªqàdG áëF’ ¢VÎØJ .Qɶàf’G äÉ£fi Local Election á«∏fi äÉHÉîàfG An election held in a particular locality to choose between candidates or to vote on ballot measures.áMƒàØe ¿ƒμJ A voter contact method in which volunteers go door to door to leave campaign literature at each house or apartment of voters in the district.44 List of Electors List of Electors . Low Profile Race An election campaign for a particular office that voters are not that interested in and they are likely to ignore.ÚÑNÉqædG Qƒ¡ªL ¤EG Úë°TôŸÉH q áëF’ ÜõM qπc Ωq~≤j ~YÉ≤ŸG ÜGõMC’G ≈q≤∏àJ ɪ«a .ÜÉH ¤EG ÜÉH øeh á∏ª◊G äÉ«HOCG ô¶fG . voters vote for a party.Ó«ã“ ÌcCG ƒg ‹ÉàdÉHh .¿hõFÉØdG ¿ƒë°TôŸG q ÉqeGC .á≤∏¨e hCG . commuters waiting for a train or shoppers at a market.ÜÉîàf’G äGAGôLG ≈∏Y âjƒ°üà∏d Logistic Division See Operations Division.ÈcCG áYô°ùH Literature Handout A voter contact method in which volunteers hand campaign literature to potential voters gathered in any large groups. or free. but can be accomplished a lot quicker. Example: The House of Representatives is the “lower house” in the US federal government. Winning candidates are taken from the lists.IqôM hCG .

~˘˘ ˘jÈdG ÈY ÚÑ˘˘ ˘Nɢ˘ ˘æ˘ ˘ dG ¤EG ∞∏ŸG ´ƒæd kÉ≤ah kÉ«aGô¨ÁO hCG kÉ«aGô¨L ÚÑNÉædG ±G~¡à°SG á∏ª◊G äÉ«HOCG ô¶fG . ¤EG á˘aɢ°VE’ɢ˘H äGƒ˘˘°UC’G ø˘˘e ᢢFÉŸG ‘ Ú°ùª˘˘N »˘˘æ˘ ©˘ Jh hCG äGƒ°UCÓd ᣫ°ùH ájO~©J πHÉ≤j Gògh . The period of time that this representative stays in office is also called mandate.IO~q fi IÎØd .ÖNÉædG ∞∏eh Mail Registration Registration through the postal system. This as opposed to a simple plurality of the vote or the most votes cast.º¡j~d IôaƒàŸG ÚÑNÉædG áªFÉb hCG . øY πj~Ñc ~ªà©jh .q…~jÈdG ΩɶqædG ÈY π«é°ùqàdG ƒg .áj’h hCG ~¡Y Manifesto A public declaration of intentions (as issued by a political party or government). äGƒ°UC’G øe áFÉŸÉH Ú°ùªN øe πbCÉH ~MGh Ü l õM RƒØj ÚM . âjƒ˘°ü˘àq ˘dG IQh~˘d á˘Ñ˘°ù˘æq ˘dɢH kɢYƒ˘˘«˘ °T ÌcC’G ᢢ∏˘ «˘ °Sƒ˘˘dG q¿GE ᪰SÉM IQhO AGôLEG »g . á∏ª◊G äÉ«HOCG π°SôJ å«M ÚÑNÉædÉH ∫É°üJÓd á∏«°Sh äɢ˘ «˘ ˘HOC’G ∂∏˘˘ à˘ ˘d ø˘˘ μÁh . this literature can be targeted to voters based on geography or demographics.âjƒ°üàq dG øe áÑ°ùf ≈∏YCG .45 Mail M Mail .á«q fÉŸÈdG ~YÉ≤ŸG øe á≤MÉ°ùdG q ájq ÌcC’ÉH ɪqfGE .π«é°ùqàdG õcGôe hCG .(1+%50) The most common method for the second round of voting in a Two-Round System is a straight “run-off” contest between the two highest vote-winners from the first round . ΩÉ©dG …CGôdG ‘ ƒd áë«ë°U èFÉàædG ¿ƒμJ ~b h . but an absolute majority of the parliamentary seats.ɪ¡«dEG áaÉ°VEÉc hCG .á«fÉqãdG GRÉM ¿Gò∏dG ¤hC’G IQh~q dG GõFÉa É¡«a ¢ùaÉæàj . An alternative to enumeration or registration centres.ºμ◊G .~MGh 䃰U .kÓãe .…q ÌcC’G Ωɶæq ∏d ᪰SÉ◊G The uneven distribution of voters between electoral districts.Iô°TÉÑe IQh~q dG AGôLE’G Gòg ≈ªq °ùjo h .this we term a majority-runoff system.(áeƒμ◊G Manufactured Majority Where a single party wins less than 50 per cent of the valid votes. áÑ°ùæ∏d ¿É°ü≤ædG hCG IOÉjõdG ¥É£f ƒg .á«q HÉîàf’G ôFGh~q dG ≈∏Y ÚÑNÉæq ∏d A≈aÉμàŸG ÒZ ™jRƒàq dG ƒg Mandate A command or an authorization given by a political electorate to its representative. ‘ »°SÉ«°ùdG º¡∏㪟 ¿ƒÑNÉædG ¬«£©j …òdG ¢ jƒØàdG É° jCG ºμ◊G ‘ AÉ≤ÑdG IÎa ≈ª°ùJh .OG~©qàdG á∏«°Sh Majority Fifty percent of the votes cast plus one vote.á◊É°üdG In a public opinion poll.(Ö©°ûdG πc øe Ò¨°üdG Aõ÷G ídÉ°üd ¿ƒμà°S äGƒ°UC’G øe %60 ¿CÉH ÉC ÑæJ ~b âjƒ°üàdG ~jôH ~jÈdÉH π«é°ùàq dG á«Ñ∏ZCG Majority System …ÌcCG/á«Ñ∏ZC’G Ωɶf Majority-R Runoff (Two-R Round System) (Rarely Used) ΩÉ q¶æ∏d ᪰SÉ◊G IQh~q dG ≈∏Y …q ÌcCG Ωɶf) …q ÌcC’G (ádhG~àe ÒZ) (ÚJQhO Malapportionment ¢ü«°üëqàdG Aƒ°S /ºμ◊G I~e/~¡Y ¢ jƒØJ /áj’h »HÉîàfG ¿É«H (Rarely Used) á©æq °üŸG ájq ÌcC’G (ádhG~àe ÒZ) Margin of Error (sampling error) §∏¨dG hCG ÉC £ÿG ¢ûeÉg . hCG »°SÉ«°ùdG Üõ◊G øe Q~°üeo ) ±G~gC’G øY ΩÉY ¿É«H . õ˘FÉ˘Ø˘dG í˘°TôŸG ≈˘∏˘Y ÖLƒ˘à˘j ¬˘fGC å«˘M ᢫˘Hɢî˘à˘fG ᢨ˘«˘ °U ɢ˘¡˘ H ¤~ŸG äGƒ˘˘ °UC’G ∞˘˘ °üf ø˘˘ e ÌcCG ≈˘˘ ∏˘ ˘Y ∫ƒ˘˘ °ü◊G . or as a supplement. See Plurality.É¡H ¤~ŸG äGƒ°UC’G ÌcCG An electoral formula in which the winning candidate must receive more than half (50% + 1) of the votes cast.á«Ñ∏ZCG/ájO~©J ô¶fG . .ÚJQhO ≈∏Ym Ωɶf πq X ‘ .áæ«Y ÉC £N ÖÑ°ùH á«FÉ¡ædG »g áæ«q ©dG) á«HÉîàf’G QƒeC’G ‘ Ö©°ûdG πc á∏HÉ≤e ” ¬fCG õcôe ¿Éc GPEG .Margin of Error A voter contact method in which campaign literature is sent through the post to voters. the plus or minus range within which the final percentages may fall due to sampling error—what the true results would be if everyone in the population were actually interviewed (a sample is only a very small portion of the entire population). See Campaign Literature and Voter File. Depending on the type of voter file or mailing list you have.

á«Jƒ°üdG ádÉ°SôdGh . The voter must fill in the circle or box with a black marker and feed the ballot through a computerized vote-tabulating machine.Media Access For example.CÉ£ÿG ≥jôW øY ''䃰üc n '' áë°SÉŸG Where alternate candidate/ parties appear on the same ballot and the voter places only a single mark to mark his or her preference.™°SGh Qƒ¡ªéH ≈¶ëj …òdG π≤à°ùŸG ΩÓYE’G …CG ájhÉ°ùe m᪫≤H ¿ƒq«°SÉFqôdG ¿ƒë°TôŸG q √Éq≤∏àj ΩÉY ∫Ée ƒg . television access channels.ádCÉ°ùŸG √òg ‘ ÖNÉædG áÑZQ øY ÒÑ©J Media Access The purpose of this policy is to ensure that privacy. circle.%63 ¤EG %57 øe äÉHÉîàf’G Ωƒj ¬d âjƒ°üàdG The number of votes needed to assure that the candidate wins the election. they may denote the presence of a possibly valid write-in vote.»°üî°T hCG ¢UÉNm πμ°ûH Égƒ©ªL »àdG ∂∏àd .¬∏«° ØJ Mark-S Sense Voting Mark-Sense voting systems. ájq ~∏ÑdG ¢ù«FQ . then the voting percentage Jones may actually receive on election day could be anywhere from 57% to 63%. bulletin boards.figure of 3. øª° àJ »gh . that a scanner would detect. or they may be erasures and stray marks that have been erroneously identified by the machine as “votes. ‘ Rƒ˘˘ Ø˘ ˘dG ≥˘˘ «˘ ˘≤– ¿É˘˘ ª˘ ˘° d ᢢ Hƒ˘˘ ∏˘ ˘£ŸG äGƒ˘˘ ˘°UC’G O~˘˘ ˘Y .” øμªoj å«ëH √ÒZ hCG È◊G hCG ¢UÉ°UôdG º∏≤H áeÓY ™°Vh äÉeÓY ≈∏Y ∫~J ¿CG øμªŸG øe .ÊhÎμdE’G ¢ùcÉØdGh . See Targeting. Margin of Victory RƒØdG ¢ûeÉg Mark áeÓY /º°Sr hn Mark-C Choice Ballot áeƒ°Sƒe ´GÎbG ábQh º°SƒdG í°ùe ÈY âjƒ°üàdG ΩÓYE’G áÄaÉμàe ≠dÉÑe Mayor Chief elected official of a city. or arrow next to them.âjƒ°üàdG . .46 Margin of Error . rectangle.ájô°üÑdG áë°SÉŸG á°TÉ°ûdÉH ≈ª°ùJ Ée kÉÑdÉZ hCG äÉ©Hôà hCG Úë°TôŸG Aɪ°SCÉH áYƒÑ£e ´GÎbG ¥GQhCG áæcGO AGOƒ°S áeÓ©H É¡àÄÑ©J ÖNÉædG ≈∏Yh áZQÉa ôFGhO .ÊhÎμdE’G ÒH~J /AGôLEG ΩÓYE’G πFÉ°Sh ¤EG ∫ƒ°UƒdG . ábQh/ábÉ£H ≈∏Y ¿ƒÑbÉ©àe ÜGõMCG/¿ƒë°Tôe q ô¡¶j ÚM ¤EG Ò°û«d I~MGh áeÓY ÖNÉæq dG ™° «a . electronic fax.É¡∏é°ùjo h í«ë°üdG âjƒ°üàdG Mass Media Any independent press that has a large audience.¬fÉ«Ñà°SG á°TÉ°û∏d ábQh ≈∏Y ±É° oe º°SEG ≈∏YhCG . ≈∏Y ∫ƒ°üë∏d äÉHÉîàf’G AÉæKCG ìô£oj ìGÎbG hCG ádCÉ°ùe . Matching Funds Public money that is given to presidential candidates in an amount equal to the amount that they have raised privately.áæj~e ≈∏Y á¶aÉëª∏d kÉq«ª°SQ Öîàæoj ¢ù«FQ Measure A question or proposal submitted in an election to obtain an expression of the voters’ will on the matter.äGƒ°UC’G ÜÉ°ùàM’ á›ÈŸG ádB’ÉH ábÉ£ÑdG ∫ÉNOEGh É¡fCG ≈∏Y ábQƒdG ≈∏Y áæcGO áeÓY ÌcCG ܃°SÉ◊G òNCÉj .áq«°Uƒ°üÿG ¿CG øe ~cCÉàdG á°SÉ«°ùdG √òg øe ±~¡dG øe √ÒZh âfÎfE’ÉH á≤∏©àŸG á«fƒfÉ≤dG ÉjÉ° ≤dGh øeC’Gh ~˘˘jÈdG π˘˘ª˘ °ûJ »˘˘ à˘ ˘dG ᢢ «˘ ˘fhÎμ˘˘ dE’G ∫ɢ˘ °üJ’G π˘˘ Fɢ˘ °Sh .É¡°ùØf ´GÎb’G . áÑ°ùf ¿ƒμJ ¿CG πªàëoj Ég~æY .í°Tôª∏d äÉHÉîàf’G Marks. voice-mail. The computer recognizes the darkest mark on the ballot as the correct vote and records it. including e-mail.±G~¡à°S’G ô¶fG . They may be deliberate marks for a listed candidate. often called Optical Scanners.hCG + ''õfƒL'' í°TôŸG . have preprinted ballots consisting of the candidates’ names or the ballot issues with an empty box. if a poll predicts that 60 percent of the vote will be awarded to Candidate Jones with a + or . mostly made with a pen or pencil.3 .πqé°ùe í°TôŸ I~sª©àe ádB’G É¡à∏Ñb áë°VGh ÒZ hCG IÉë‡ áeÓY hCG . security and legal issues concerning the Internet and other forms of electronic communication.

The results are sometimes interpreted as a popular referendum on that president’s performance for the first two years of his term.á«HÉîàf’G á∏ª◊G ∫ÓN ∫É≤«°S .Ú«F’ƒdGh Ú«∏ÙG ÚdhDƒ°ùŸG øe ~j~©dGh ÜGƒædG ¢ù∏› A combination of the relative advantages of the large proportional systems and of the majority systems.í°Tôª∏d âjƒ°üà∏d ÚÑNÉæ∏d Message Box The exercise in which the campaign views what will be said in the election by us about us.Ú©˘˘e ¥É˘˘£˘ f πNGO É¡ãH ~àÁ ájRÉØ∏J á£fi hCG . ‘ ∫ɢ˘ ≤˘ ˘j ¿CG ø˘˘ μÁ ÉŸ ᢢ jDhô˘˘ dG ᢢ ∏˘ ˘ª◊G í˘˘ æÁ ø˘˘ jô“ ƒ˘˘ ˘gh øY ¬dƒ≤f Éeh . and that a policy is formally established to define appropriate use of these tools.¢ù«FôdG áj’h §°Sh iôŒ »àdG ¢Sô¨fƒμdG äÉHÉîàfG Öîàæj »àdGh .Ú©e ¥É£f Member Any person elected to parliament. ᪶fCG É¡H ™qàªàJ »àdG á«q Ñ°ùqædG äÉq«∏° aC’G øe èjõe »g .S.äɢ˘fɢ˘«˘ Ñ˘ dG äɢ˘Mƒ˘˘dh á«fhÎμdEG ∫É°üJG á∏«°Sh …CGh . two years into the fouryear presidential term. by us about them.Ú°ùaÉæŸG ÚHh ∂æ«H øjÉÑàdGh áë°VGƒdG ¢ FÉ≤ædG Midterm Election (in USA).áªFÓe á≤jô£H πFÉ°SƒdG √òg ∫ɪ©à°SG ~j~– á°SÉ«°ùdG Media Market The geographic area reached by the mass media in a particular region. ¿ƒÑNÉædG É¡æY ôqÑ©j »àdG äGQÉ«àN’G ¬«a òNDƒJ Ωɶf ÚæKG Úeɶf ÈY Ú∏㇠ÜÉîàfG πLCG øe πª©à°ùoàd …ÌcCG Ωɢ˘¶˘ fh »Ñ°ùædG π«ã˘ª˘à˘dG Ωɢ˘¶˘ f :ÚØ˘˘∏˘ àfl á÷É©e ƒg §∏àıG ΩɶædG øe ¢SÉ°SC’G ±~¡dG . äɢ˘e~˘˘Nh . This should be a fairly complete picture of everything that will be said during the campaign and should provide the campaign with a clear contrast with their opponents.á«fhÎμdE’G äÉcGΰT’G √òg ≈∏Y Öéj ɪc . Senate and all members of the House of Representatives.á£∏°ùdG ‘ á©HQC’G ¬eGƒYCG øe ÚeÉY ~©H ¢ù∏› AÉ° YCG å∏Kh ÜGƒædG ¢ù∏› AÉ° YCG πc É¡«a iƒà°ùe ≈∏Y ÚdhDƒ°ùŸG øe Òãc ¤EG áaÉ°VE’ÉH . ‘ ΩÓYE’G É¡«dG π°üj »àdG á«aGô¨÷G á≤£æŸG »æ©Jh ¥É˘£˘f π˘NGO á˘dhG~˘à˘e á˘Ø˘«˘ë˘°U ¿ƒ˘μ˘J ~˘b .¿ƒ˘˘jõ˘˘Ø˘ ∏˘ à˘ dG äGƒ˘˘æ˘ bh .á«∏ÙG ¢ùdÉÛGh äÉj’ƒdG ÚeÉ©dG ‘ ¢ù«FôdG AGOCG ≈∏Y ΩÉY AÉàØà°SG É¡fCÉH ÉfÉ«MCG ∞˘°üà˘æ˘ e äɢ˘Hɢ˘î˘ à˘ fG ¿Eɢ a ∂dò˘˘ch .47 Media Access . Senate and House of Representatives that occurs during a presidential term of office — that is.ñƒ«°ûdG äÉHÉîàf’G ∂∏J èFÉàf ô°ùØJh .Éæ°ùØfCG øY øëf ¬dƒ≤f Ée :äÉHÉîàf’G .Ú°ùaÉæŸG A»˘°T π˘c ø˘Y kɢ«˘Ñ˘°ùf á˘∏˘ª˘à˘μ˘ e IQƒ˘˘°U ∂d í˘˘«˘ à˘ j Gò˘˘gh á∏ªë∏d í«àj ¿CG »¨Ñæjh . The main aim of a mixed system is to address the distortions caused by the First Past the Post system. by them about them and by them about us. Midterm elections determine some members of the U.ÉæY ¿ƒdƒ≤j Éeh º¡°ùØfCG øY ºg ¬fƒdƒ≤j Éeh . Message A limited body of truthful information that is consistently conveyed by the candidate and the campaign to provide persuasive reasons for voters to vote for the candidate. …CG . and any other electronic communication forums are addressed. as well as many state and local officials. Often a newspaper will have a circulation within a city and its metropolitan area and a television station can only reach a certain area.IQhÉÛG IQƒª©ŸGh áæj~e .…O~q ©J .áqjÌcC’G ᪶fCGh á©°SGƒdG áq«Ñ°ùqædG A system in which the choices expressed by voters are used to elect representatives through two different systems: Proportional Representation system and Plurality Majority system. An election for seats in the U.QÉÑàY’G Ú©H òNDƒJ áMÉ°ùdG ‘ .S.¿ÉŸÈdG ‘ kGƒ° Y íÑ°UCGh ÖîoàfG ~b ¢üî°T …CG .¬˘˘à˘ j’h ø˘˘e ÚdhC’G AÉ° YCG πch ñƒ«°ûdG ¢ù∏› AÉ° YCG øe GO~Y Qô≤J áj’ƒdG . í˘°TôŸG Ωƒ˘˘≤˘ j ᢢbOɢ˘°üdG äɢ˘eƒ˘˘∏˘ ©ŸG ø˘˘e IO~fi ᢢ¨˘ «˘ °U á©æ≤ŸG ÜÉÑ°SC’G áMÉJE’ ΩGh~dG ≈∏Y É¡dÉ°üjEÉH á∏ª◊Gh .Mixed Electoral System electronic subscription services.ÉJGƒ°UCG ÌcCÓd RƒØdG Ωɶf É¡ÑÑ°ùj »àdG äÉgƒ°ûàdG ΩÓYE’G ¥ƒ°S ƒ° Y ádÉ°SQ ádÉ°SôdG ¥h~æ°U áj’ƒdG ∞°üàæe äÉHÉîàfG Mixed Constituencies á£∏àfl á«q HÉîàfG ôFGhO Mixed Electoral System §∏àfl »q HÉîàfG Ωɶf .

48 Mixed Member Proportional System (MMPS) Mixed Member Proportional System . ¿GOQƒŸGh . The remaining seats are then allocated to parties using proportional representation so as to compensate for disproportionality in their representation.ΩɶædG Gòg ‘ áeƒμ◊G º«¶æJ ≈∏Y ¿ÉHõM ¢ùaÉæàj ájO~q ©àdG Ωɶf ≈∏Y õμJôJ ⁄É©dG ‘ äÉ«WGô≤Á~dG ájÌcCG .∫GƒL q ÜÉîàfG õcôe ô¶fG Mobile voting facilities are provided to assist electors in such places as hospitals and nursing homes to cast a vote. taking portable ballot boxes and voting compartments directly to patients.á«fGõ«ŸG/áfRGƒŸGh á∏ª◊G OQGƒe Negative.᢫˘Hɢî˘à˘fG á˘∏˘ ª˘ M π˘˘μ˘ d .º¡JGƒ°UCÉH A’OÓd Iõé©dG QhOh äÉ«Ø°ûà°ùŸÉc ≥WÉæŸG ∫ƒM ¿ƒ∏q≤æàj äÉHÉîàf’G ‹hDƒ°ùe ¿C’ ∫ƒéàe .á«Hõ◊G . It is important to determine how much money each activity in the campaign will cost and plan for it. .like the election of lawmakers.ô°ûÑdGh øeõdG ɪg ¿GôNB’G ô¶fG .kÉ©e á«°SÉ«°ùdG ÜGõMC’Gh An election district in which more than one candidate will win the positions sought in this campaign.᪠q¶©eh á«°üî°T kÉÑdÉZh á«Ñ∏°S äɪé¡J Ú뢰TôŸG π˘Ñ˘pb ø˘e ᢢ«˘ °Sɢ˘«˘ °ùdG ᢢ°VQɢ˘©ŸG ¤EG ᢢ¡˘ Lƒ˘˘eh .¬d §«£îàdGh á∏ªë∏d •É°ûf πc ¬Øq∏μ«°S …òdG .IôaƒàŸG ~YÉ≤ŸG O~Y ≈∏Y System in which more than two parties compete for control of government. Mobile Polling Station See Mobile Voting Centre. often personal.á≤«bO ÒZh . ‘ á«©jô°ûàdG á«©ª÷G ‘ π㇠øe ÌcCG ¿ƒYÎ≤ŸG Öîàæj äGƒ°UCG I~Y ÚÑNÉæ∏d ¿CG ɪc . The voting is mobile because election officials move around the premises.IO~©àŸG An electoral district in which electors elect more than one representative in the legislative assembly.á«HÉîàf’G IôFG~dG √òg .»HÉîàfG º°ù÷ Ú∏㪟G ¢ ©H ÜÉîàf’ π«ãªàdG ΩG~î°SG ∫ÓN øe ÜGõMCÓd É≤M’ ¢ü°üîàa . the others being time and people. Electors of such an electoral district generally have as many votes as there are seats in the electoral district.ÚYôq °ûŸG äÉHÉîàfÉc .π≤æ∏d á∏HÉb ÜÉîàfG äGÒéMh ´GÎbG ≥jOÉæ°U º¡JRƒëHh One of the three resources in every political campaign. øcÉeC’G ¢ ©H ‘ ÚYÎ≤ŸG I~YÉ°ùŸ Iôaƒàe äÓ«¡°ùJ õcôe ƒgh . ádGƒL ÜÉîàfG á£fi Mobile Voting Centre ∫GƒL ÜÉîàfG õcôe Money ∫GƒeC’G Mudslinging /á«°SÉ«°S äɪé¡J A…òH ì~b Multi Mandate O~q ©J /~YÉ≤ŸG O~©àe áj’ƒdG O~©J /~YÉ≤ŸG Multi-M Member District ~YÉ≤ŸG IO~q ©àe IôFGO Multi-P Party System áq«Hõ◊G ájO~q ©àdG Ωɶf Multiple-M Marked º°SƒdG IO~q ©àe ´GÎbG ábQh Multi-S Seat Election IO~q ©àŸG ~YÉ≤ŸG äÉHÉîàfG §∏àfl »HÉîàfG Ωɶf ƒg :§∏àfl »Ñ°ùf ájƒ° Y Ωɶf ájO~©àdG /ájÌcC’G Ωɶf ÚÑNÉædG πc Ω~îà°ùj å«M ~YÉ≤ŸG á«≤H ÉeCG .¬°ùØf ´ƒæq dG øe ÌcCG hCG øj~©≤e ∫ƒM äÉHÉîàfG »g . A ballot that is overvoted with three or more marks. Most of the world’s democracies are multi-party systems. ~YÉ≤ŸG Ö°UÉæà í°Tôe øe ÌcCG ¬H RƒØj IôFGO ‘ ÜÉîàfG . See Campaign Resources and Budget. ¿EG .ᢢKÓ˘˘ã˘ dG OQGƒŸG ~˘˘MCG ≠∏ÑŸG ~j~– ᫪gC’G øeh . frequently inaccurate or exaggerated attacks directed at the political opposition by both candidates and political parties.ÌcCG hCG äÉeÓY çÓãH ⪰Sho ~b ´GÎbG ábQh »gh .º¡∏«ã“ ‘ ¿RGƒàdG Ω~Yh π∏ÿG øY ¢ jƒ©à∏d »Ñ°ùædG . Is the election of two or more seats of the same type .Multi-S Seat Election §∏àfl »Ñ°ùf ájƒ° Y Ωɶf A Mixed Electoral System in which all the voters use the plurality/majority system to elect some of the representatives to an electoral body.

For example.Úë°TôŸG Aɪ°SCG ≈∏Y ÚÑNÉædG ±tô©J í°Tôª∏d ¿ƒYÎ≤j ∂dòdh Úë°TôŸG øY π«∏≤dG ¿ƒÑNÉædG ¿CG Úë°TôŸG ≈∏Y º¡ŸG øeh .ábÉ£ÑdG ≈∏Y í°Tôe …C’ ¬Jƒ°üH ¤OCGh . Although it may seem obvious that voting systems should be neutral.πj~H …C’ π«° ØJ √~æYh ¢ ©H q¿GC ÒZ . and credible elections. This is called Nomination.á¡jõfh ádOÉYh IôM äÉHÉîàfG ºYO ¤EG ±~¡j »°SÉ«°S §«fi A voting system is neutral if the system does not favor any alternative. ‘ ¬∏㪫d »°SÉ«°ùdG Üõ◊G √QÉàîj …òdG ¢üî°ûdG ƒg .¬ØbGƒÃ ±ÉØîà°S’Gh ¬àq«°üî°T ¬jƒ°ûJ kádhÉfi .¬ª°SG ≈∏Y ¿ƒaô©àj …òdG Úë°TôŸG Aɪ°SCG ÚH §HôdG ≈∏Y øjQOÉb ÚÑNÉædG Gƒ∏©éj .ø«q ©e QGôb òNCG ¿Éª°V hCG áeƒμ◊G äÉÑãd èjhÎdG πLCG ¢SÉ°SCG ≈∏Y πª©J »àdG ᪶fC’G øe Òãc .ájOÉ«M ¿ƒμJ ¿CG á«HÉîàf’G º¶ædG ≈∏Y ¿CG øe …OÉ«M ÒZ ¿ƒμ«d É°ü«°üN ºªq °üe ᪶fC’G √òg . some are designed specifically not to be neutral in order to promote government stability or ensure that a decision is made.ádÉ°SôdGh Negative Ads Political advertisements that attack a candidate’s opponent. äÉHÉîàf’G ‘ ¢ùaÉæàdÉH Úë°TôŸG á«q f ~j~– á«∏ªY »g ܃∏£e O~©d ´ƒ° î∏d á°VôY kɪFGO .áeÉ©dG äÉHÉîàf’G Non-B Blank Vote/Ballot A non-blank vote ballot is simply thata mark is made on the ballot-the voter voted for any of the candidates on the ballot.∫OÉ©àdG ∫ÉM ‘ ''’''`dG ÖfÉL áeÉY äGƒ°UC’G . m í˘°Tô˘ q e º˘°üN º˘Lɢ¡˘J »˘à˘dG á˘q«˘°Sɢ«˘°ùdG äɢ˘fÓ˘˘YE’G »˘˘g . often trying to destroy the opponent’s character.áeÓY .∫ÉãŸG π«Ñ°S ≈∏Y . Often subject to submission of a required number of signatures and/or to the payment of a deposit.49 Name Recognition N Name Recognition .ájq OÉ«M â°ù«d »g ‹ÉàdÉHh ''’''`dG ÖfÉL ¤EG õ«q ëàJ The process by which candidates indicate their intention to compete in an election within specified time.™bGƒdG ‘ .Ú©e âbh ∫ÓN . ±ô©j Ée kÉÑdÉZh .´G~jEG hCG ≠∏Ñe ™aO ¤EG hCG/h äGAÉ° e’G øe Nominee The person that a political party chooses to represent it in a general election. fair. In fact. Thus they are biased towards the nay alternative and are not neutral. Often voters will know little about the candidates and therefore vote for the name that they recognize. See Blank Vote.É«WÉÑàYG GQÉ«N Ω~îà°ùJ ’h ''∫OÉ©àdG ô°ùc'' ~YGƒb ÜÉîàf’G ᪶fCG ‘ .ájOÉ«◊G ∂¡àæJ ò˘˘NÉC ˘ J ''’''h ''º˘˘©˘ f'' `dG Ω~˘˘î˘ à˘ ˘°ùJ å«˘˘ M ᢢ «˘ ˘fÉŸÈdG »g Gòd . ´Î≤ŸG ɢ¡˘«˘∏˘Y ™˘°Vh »˘à˘dG ´GÎb’G á˘bɢ£˘H »˘g . parliamentary voting systems in which ``yea'' and ``nay'' votes are taken generally favor the nay side in the event of a tie. Gõ«q ëàe ΩɶædG øμj ⁄ GPEG ÉjOÉ«M »HÉîàf’G ΩɶædG ¿ƒμj í°VGƒdG øe ¿ƒμj ~b ¬qfGC ™e . .Non-B Blank Vote/Ballot Identification of the candidate’s name by the voters.´GÎb’G áëF’ ≈∏Y ô¡¶«°S √~Mh º°S’G ¿C’ . It is important for candidates to have the voters associate their name with their message because only the name will appear on the ballot.øq«©e Neutral Political Environment A political environment aiming at having and supporting free.¢VÉ«H ≈∏Y ábÉ£H/AÉ° «H º°S’G ≈∏Y ±ô©àdG ]á«°SÉ«°S[ äÉfÓYEG á«q Ñ∏°S …OÉ«M »°SÉ«°S §«fi Neutrality OÉ«M Nomination Ú«©J/᫪°ùJ/í«°TôJ í°Tôe /áeƒ°Sƒe ´GÎbG ábQh ¢VÉ«H ≈∏Y â°ù«d .ᢢWɢ˘°ùÑ˘˘H ábQh ô¶fG .''᫪°ùJ/Ú«©J'' kÉ° jCG ≈ª°ùjo . many systems that have tie-breaking rules that do not employ a random choice violate neutrality.

international humanitarian aid organizations such as the International Red Cross.kɢ ˘«ŸÉ˘˘ Y ɢ˘ gô˘˘ °ûfh ᢢ «˘ ˘WGô˘˘ ≤Á~˘˘ dG .ÜGõMC’G πμH Ée ôeCG hCG Ée ¢üî°T §ÑJôj Ée~æY ∂dPh ¿CG »æ©j »Hõ◊G ÒZ ÜÉîàf’G ÉeCG .á«æ¡ŸGh á«aÉ≤ãdGh ájOÉ°üàb’G When something relates to all political parties or no particular political parties.áØ∏àfl . A non-partisan organization is one that associates with either no political parties or many different political parties. educational.Non-P Partisan The term refers to international organizations that are not associated with any government. avoiding the association with one particular party. business.á°VÉjô∏d á«dh~dG á«ÑŸhC’G ÜÉ©dC’G áæ÷ . sporting organizations such as the International Olympic Committee.´GÎb’G áëF’ ‘ áfh~e q ÒZ ÜGõMCG I~Y º° Jh ÜGõMC’ÉH á£ÑJôŸG ÒZ ᪶æŸG ∂∏J . . and other professional organizations. Examples include many religions that cross borders. organizations that works to strengthen and expand democracy worldwide such as NDI for International Affairs. and many scientific.Ú©e ÜõëH §ÑJôj ’ º¡HGõMCG ¿CG hCG áæ«©e ÜGõMCG ¤EG ¿ƒªàæj ’ Úë°TôŸG πc »¡a á«Hõ◊G ÒZ ᪶æŸG ÉeCG .áeƒμ◊Gh ÜGõMC’Gh äÉ£∏°ùdG øY á∏≤à°ùe äÉ«©ªL ᢫˘fɢ°ùfE’G I~˘Yɢ°ùŸÉ˘H á˘jÉ˘æ˘©˘∏˘d ô˘ª˘ M’C G Ö«˘˘∏˘ °üdG :kÓ˘ ã˘ e ~¡©ŸG . A non-partisan election is one where candidates are not affiliated with particular parties and their party is not listed on the ballot.Ú©e ÜõM ¤EG Aɪàf’G …OÉØàd ∂dPh . hCG .á«dh~dG õ˘jõ˘©˘J ¬˘a~˘˘gh ᢢ«˘ dh~˘˘dG ¿hDƒ˘ °û∏˘˘d »˘˘æ˘ Wƒ˘˘dG »˘˘WGô˘˘≤Á~˘˘dG äɢ˘ª˘ ¶˘ æŸG ø˘˘e ɢ˘gÒZh .50 Non-G Governmental Organizations (NGOs) á«eƒμM ÒZ äɪ¶æe Non-P Partisan /É«HõM õ«ëàe ÒZ »HõM ÒZ Non-G Governmental Organizations (NGOs) .

regardless of party affiliation. may vote for a party’s nominee.á∏ªë∏d IôμÑe áÑbGôe Ö°üæe /Öàμe …QGOEG OÉ©Ñà°SG One-A Area Election I~MGƒdG á≤£æŸG äÉHÉîàfG Open List /áMƒàØe áëF’ I~ª› ÒZ /áMƒàØe á«dhCG äÉHÉîàfG I~ª› ÒZ äÉ«q ∏ª©dG º°ùb …CGôdG IOÉb .51 Observation-((Watch) O Observation-((Watch) .á«f~ŸG äɪ¶æŸG IOÉb øe ¿ƒfƒμj ~bh .»q HÉîàf’G RôØdGh øª° J »gh .I~MGh á≤£æe ‘ . or well-known and respected individuals.ÜÉîàf’G Ωƒj áØ∏àıG Opinion Leaders Opinion leaders are people in the community who can influence others. ‹É˘gC’G ‘ ÒKCɢà˘dG ¿ƒ˘©˘«˘£˘à˘°ùj ø˘jò˘dG ¢Uɢ˘î˘ °TC’G º˘˘gh øeh . These people can be leaders of civic organizations.ábOÉ°üŸG ô¶fG .¿ƒfÉ≤dG ΩÉμMC’ kÉ≤ah .PƒØf ¬j~d Ommitted Voter The name of a qualified voter that has been omitted from the voters list by the enumerators .»eƒμM ∞Xƒe hCG áeƒμ◊ . . parties and votes are able to participate on an equal basis. the variant of party-list proportional representation in which voters have at least some influence on which specific candidates may be chosen.´GÎb’G õcGôe ~j~–h . other political leaders.Úæ«q ©e Úë°Tôe QÉ«àNG ≈∏Y ÒKCÉàdG ¢ ©H ÚYÎ≤ª∏d Open Primary A primary election that differs from a closed primary in that all voters. . It is often important to win the endorsement of these individuals early in the campaign.(Üõ◊G πÑpb øe ´ƒ°Vƒe ¿CG å«M . áëF’ øe âaòMo »àdG Ú∏gDƒŸG ÚÑNÉædG Aɪ°SCG »g . identification of voting sites and the creation of timetables for the different functions at election time.É¡©jRƒJh á«q HÉîàf’G OGƒŸG ÒH~J øY ∫hDƒ°ùe ºl °ùb ƒg ∞FÉXƒdÉH ~«YGƒe ∫hG~L ™°Vhh . I~ªÛG /á≤∏¨ŸG/á∏Ø≤ŸG á«dhC’G äÉHÉîàf’G ±ÓàNG ≈∏Y øY ô¶ædG ¢ ¨H .º¡H Ú£«ÙG .ÚYÎ≤ŸG πc äÉHÉîàf’G √òg íæ“.á«Hõ◊G º¡JÉHÉ°ùàfG Operations Division Responsible for the procurement and distribution of election materials. See Endorsements. Short-term observation encompasses voting day and the count.Üõ◊G áëF’ π«ãªàd »Ñ°ùædG ±ÓàN’G »g .Opinion Leaders The process that sees that the election is being carried out in accordance with the law and whether candidates.™ªàÛG ¿É«YCGh á«eÓYE’G äÉÄ«¡dG AÉ° YCGh …CGôdG IOÉb á∏Môe ‘ ¢UÉî°TC’G ∂ÄdhCG ~«jCÉàH RƒØdG G~L º¡ŸG øeh .á«q HÉîàf’G á«q ∏ª©dG ágGõf Office (of a government or government official) holding an office means being in power.Ée Ö°üæe π¨°ûj .IGhɢ˘°ùŸG Ω~˘˘b ≈˘˘∏˘ Y ÚÑ˘˘Nɢ˘æq ˘ dGh ÜGõ˘˘ MC’Gh Ú뢢 °TôŸG q ´GÎb’G Ωƒ˘j á˘∏˘«˘W Ò°ü≤˘dG i~ŸG ≈˘∏˘Y á˘Ñ˘ bGôŸG ~q ˘ à˘ ª˘ à˘ a πª°ûàa . Long term observation encompasses monitoring and assessing holistically the entire election process.äÉHÉîàf’G ¥É«°S ‘ ÜGõ˘˘MC’G Qɢ˘ «˘ ˘à˘ ˘N’ Pƒ˘˘ Ø˘ ˘f …CG ÚYÎ≤ŸG í˘˘ æ“ ’ »˘˘ à˘ ˘dG π°ù∏°ùàdG ¿CG å«M) º¡∏°ù∏°ùJ ≈∏Y ÒKCÉàdG hCG á«°SÉ«°ùdG I~ªÛG ÒZ/áMƒàØŸG áëFÓdG .É¡ª««≤Jh πq μc á«q HÉîàf’G á«q ∏ª©dG áÑbGôe . …CG . áMƒàØŸG ÒZ áëFÓdG ¢ «≤f ≈∏Yh . A guarantee of the honesty of the electoral process. as opposed to the closed-list system whereby voters can effectively only vote for political parties as a whole and thus have no influence on the order in which party candidates are elected (that order being supplied by the party itself). .É¡∏ªcCÉH . members of the media.äÉHÉîàf’G Ò°S ø°ùM ≈∏Y ±ô°ûJ »àdG á«q ∏ª©dG »g ácQÉ°ûe á«q fÉμeEG øe ≥q≤ëàJ ɪc .»HõM í°TôŸ âjƒ°üàdG .πjƒ q£dG i~ŸG ≈∏Y áÑbGôŸG Éeq GC .…ôŒ äÉHÉîàfG »g .ôFGhO ¤EG É¡ª«°ù≤J In the context of elections.~©dÉH Ú∏qcƒŸG ¢UÉî°TC’G πÑpb øe ÚYÎ≤ŸG An election that takes place entirely in a single area not divided into districts. ÒZ øe .

Rƒ˘Ø˘∏˘d ∂fƒ˘°ùaɢæ˘j ø˘jò˘dG Ú뢢°TôŸG π˘˘c ∂dP π˘˘ª˘ °ûjh . ÚH ¬JÓ«° ØJ ~j~ëàH ÖNÉqædG Ωõ∏oJ ´GÎbG ábQh »g º°SG OG~©J ∫ÓN øe . at a voting centre.É¡°ùØf ´GÎb’G áëF’ ‘ ∂ë°Tôe ¿ƒcQÉ°ûjh .´Î≤ŸG Iô˘˘FGO ø˘˘ª˘ °V .çƒëÑdG Optical Scan Voting Machines Optical scan paper ballots are used for mail ballot voting. See Research.Qƒ¡ª÷G AGQBG ´Ó£à°SG ≈∏Y õμJôe ôjô≤J ƒg Aɢæ˘KCG äɢHɢî˘à˘f’G á˘é˘«˘à˘f ø˘Y Qƒ˘q °üJ ø˘jƒ˘μ˘à˘d . both good and bad.52 Opinion poll/s Opinion Poll/s .á∏ª◊G π¡à°ùe ‘ ÉgDhGôLEG »¨Ñæj »àdG çƒëÑdG .º¡æe qπc A vote cast.ÜGõMC’G hCG Úë°TôŸG q ∞∏àfl . hCG .áYƒªéª∏d á°VQÉ©e ᪠q¶æe áYƒª› hCG »°SÉ«°S ÜõM .äÉeƒ∏©ŸG »gh øe kGAõL ~©J »gh .~©≤ŸÉH Opposition A political party or an organized group opposed to the group. Ωƒ˘˘j . ´GÎb’G ¥GQhC’ …ô°üÑdG í°ùŸG ÜÉîàfG ¥GQhCG πª©à°ùoJ .Qƒ˘¡˘ ª÷G . This is part of the overall research that should be done at the beginning of the campaign. in the elector’s home district.¥GQhC’G √òg ≥aGôJ »àdG äɪ«∏©àdG á©HÉàe ∂«∏Y ÖLƒàj Optional Choices Means that the voter is not required to rank all the candidates.I~«L hCG áÄ«°S âfÉc AGƒ°S AÉjƒbC’G ô¶fG . øe áæ«Y hCG . on election day. or government in power. emergency voting and challenge voting. . Ú°ùaÉæŸG ~j~ëàd á∏ª◊G É¡©ªŒ »àdG .Ordinary Vote A survey conducted between and before elections to get a projection on the outcome of the elections. that your campaign can put together on all of the viable opponents. You should follow the written voting instructions that accompany these ballots.ÜÉîàf’G …CGô∏d ´Ó£à°SG/AÉàØà°SG º°üN/¢ùaÉæe á°VQÉ©e Opposition Research á°VQÉ©ŸG çƒëH …ô°üÑdG í°ùŸG ä’BG á«HÉîàf’G á«eGõdEG ÒZ äGQÉ«N Ordinal Ballot »q Ñ«JôJ ´GÎbG Ordinary Vote …OÉY ´GÎbG .kÓ«° ØJ πbC’G ¤EG ÌcC’G øe .»˘˘ ˘ °VGÎY’G ´GÎb’Gh AiQɢ˘ ˘ ˘£˘ ˘ ˘ dG ´GÎb’Gh .º¡©«ªL Úë°TôŸG q ∞«æ°üàd mô q£° e ÒZ ÖNÉqædG q¿GC …CG A ballot where the voter is required to indicate preferences amongst the various candidates or parties by numbering their respective names.á£∏°ùdG ‘ áeƒμ◊G hCG Üõ◊G Opposition research is all the information. party.…~˘˘ ˘ ˘jÈdG .Ég~©Hh äÉHÉîàf’G á«∏ªY Opponent These are other candidates running for the same office and on the same ballot as your candidate. in declining order.´GÎb’G õ˘˘ cô˘˘ e ‘ âjƒ˘˘ °üJ .

Party A group of people who join together because they share many ideas about what the government should do.´GÎb’Gh âjƒ˘˘°üà˘˘∏˘ d §‰ »˘˘gh É≤ah Úë°TôŸG QÉ«àNÉH Üõ◊G Ωƒ≤j ºK Üõ◊ ¿ƒÑNÉædG .¬HõM πÑb øe »Hõ◊G π«cƒdG ø«s ©j øªq ° àj . ¬qãH πLCG øe ¬d ÓHÉ≤e á∏ª◊G ™a~J »FÉYO ¿ÓYEG …CG ƒjOGôdGh ¿ƒjõØ∏àdG πãe á«eÓYE’G §FÉ°SƒdG ‘ ¬°VôYh . radio or newspapers. This term may also apply to a national or regional officer of a party. Agents of political parties also include signatories of a party assigned to carry out specific affairs of the party.~Mƒe èeÉfôH Party Agent/ Proxy A political party agent is appointed by its party and accredited by the NEC for electoral observation. The word ‘parliament’ comes from 15th century English.áaÉë°üdGh A standard piece of campaign literature used to describe the candidate and provide a reason to vote for him.á∏ª◊G ádÉ°Sôd áë°VGh á°UÓN .´GÎb’G áëF’ ≈∏Y ´ƒ°Vƒe ÉÃQh . π«ãªàdGh IôFG~dG Éeɶf ¿ƒμj Ée~æY mRGƒàe ΩɶædG ¿ƒμj ɪ¡›~d ádhÉfi ájCG ~Lƒj ’h kÉ«∏c Ú∏°üØæe »Ñ°ùædG .ᢢMÎ≤˘˘e ÚfGƒ˘˘≤˘ d ¿ƒ˘˘Jƒ˘˘°üjh ¿ƒ˘˘Ñ˘ î˘ àn ˘ æŸG »˘˘gh .…õ˘˘«˘ ∏˘ μ˘ fE’G ô˘˘°ûY ¢ùeÉÿG ¿ô˘˘ ≤˘ ˘dG ¤EG ''¿ÉŸôH'' .äGƒ°UC’G Rôah âjƒ°üàq dG .''ΩÓμdG ¿Éμe'' á«°ùfôØdG áª∏μdG øe áq≤à°ûe Partisan Anything relating to the political party. such as television.¬d âjƒ°üà∏d ÜÉÑ°SC’G Ë~≤Jh í°TôŸG á∏ª◊G äÉ«HOCG ô¶fG . This should provide a clear summary of the campaign message.53 Paid Media P Paid Media .Party Representation Any advertisements the campaign pays to have placed in the mass media.mÜõM øY kÓq㇠øªq ° àj ∫hDƒ°ùe ≈∏Y ∂dP ≥Ñ£æj ~bh .á«HÉîàf’G áÑbGôª∏d äÉHÉîàfÓd á«æWƒdG áæé∏dG ¢ ©H AGOCÉH Ú°VƒØŸG ÜõM ‘ Ú©bƒŸG É° jC k G AÓcƒdG .Üõë∏d IO~q ÙG ¿hDƒ°ûdG This is a method of voting where the voters vote for a party and the party selects the candidates based on the percentage of the vote it receives. hCG ôμa ¢SÉ°SCG ≈∏Y á«°SÉ«°S áÄ«¡d ¿ƒªàæj OGôaCG áYƒª› .»HõM ÒZ ô¶fG Party Observer See Party Agent. ¿ƒ∏㪟G ¢ûbÉæàj É¡dÓN øe »àdG á«°SÉ«°ùdG á«©ª÷G ƒgh ᢢª˘ ∏˘ c Oƒ˘˘©˘ J . ∞°Uƒd Ω~îà°ùJ á∏ª◊G äÉ«HOCG øe ájQÉ«©e á©£b »g øª° àJ ¿CG Öéjh . ÚMh .¢ ©ÑH The political assembly in which elected representatives debate and vote upon proposed laws. See Campaign Literature and Message.»HõM π«ch ô¶fG . and from a French word meaning ‘talking place’.»ª«∏bEG hCG »æWh »q HõM ΩÓYE’G hCG ´ƒa~ŸG ΩÓYE’G ôLCÉH Palm Card ∞μdG ábÉ£H Parallel System Rm Gƒàe Ωɶf Parliament ÜGƒædG ¢ù∏› »HõM Üõ◊G ÖbGôe ÜõM /Üh~æe/»HõM π«ch »HõM ~ªà©e Party List /á«HõM áªFÉb á«HõM áëF’ Party Representation »q HõM π«ã“ . Also known as Proxy. it means that party affiliation matters and may be listed on the ballot. á«q ∏ªY ∫ÓN ~LGƒàj ¿CG øμÁ .É¡«∏Y π°üM »àdG âjƒ°üàdG áÑ°ùæd A representative of a party who may be present during the vote and the counting of the votes.ádÉ°SôdGh “Parallel system” is where the ward and proportional representation voting systems run completely separately and there is no attempt to integrate the two sets of votes. See Non-Partisan. πÑb øe ¬H ±Î©jh . When an election is partisan.»°SÉ«°S ÜõM ¤EG »ªàæj ôeCG …CG hCG ¢üî°T …CG ¬d »Hõ◊G Aɪàf’G ¿CG »æ©j ∂dòa kÉ«HõM ÜÉîàf’G ¿ƒμj .ÒÑc ¿CÉ°T . äƒ˘˘°üj ɢ˘e~˘˘æ˘ Y ∂dPh .

á«q HÉîàfG á«q ∏ªY πq c Periodic Voters List See Periodic Register.IOÉY πμ°ûoJh ~MGh »HÉîàfG ç~◊ ájQh~dG áëFÓdG ∂dòc . without intending to maintain or update this list for the future.Úà˘Ñ˘ bɢ˘©˘ à˘ e Úà˘˘«˘ Hɢ˘î˘ à˘ fG ÚJQhO ‘ hCG Ú©˘˘e Üõ˘˘ ë˘ ˘H •É˘˘ Ñ˘ ˘JQ’ɢ˘ H ¿ƒ˘˘ Ø˘ ˘æ˘ ˘°üj ’ ÚÑ˘˘ Nɢ˘ æ˘ ˘dG .áYƒæàŸG Ö°ùpædG §°Sƒàe .á˘≤˘Hɢ°ùdG äɢHɢî˘à˘f’G ø˘˘Y äɢ˘eƒ˘˘∏˘ ©ŸG π˘˘c »˘˘gh ÜõM »ë°TôŸ áMƒæªŸG äGƒ°UC’G áÑ°ùf hCG äGƒ°UC’G ∑Éæg ¿Éc GPEG .ôªà°ùeh Ú©e §‰ ≈∏Y ¿ƒJƒ°üj ’ øjòdG ¿ƒÑNÉædG ºgh ¬˘˘ d π˘˘ Kɇ ô˘˘ NB’ ¿ƒ˘˘ Jƒ˘˘ °üj ’h ɢ˘ e í˘˘ °TôŸ ¿ƒ˘˘ ˘Jƒ˘˘ ˘°üj …CG hCG ¬°ùØf ÜÉîàf’G ‘ . äÉ°Sɪàd’G áYƒª› ∞JÉ¡dG ∂æH . It is believed that these voters do not identify with a particular party or ideology and can be persuaded by a clear message. Periodical List It is one in which the election administration authorities devise a new voters list for each new electoral event.»Ñ°ùædG π«ãªàdG áëF’ ô¶fG This is the information for past elections on how many votes or what percentage of votes candidates from a particular party or similar ideology received.ÜÉîàfÓd Ú∏gDƒŸG ÚÑNÉædG øe øe I~j~L áëF’ . O~˘Yh .äÉHÉîàf’G ~Yƒe π«Ñb .á¡HÉ°ûe á«Lƒdƒj~jEG ¬d ôNBG Üõ◊ hCG Ú©e ™˘°Vh ø˘μÁ IO~˘©˘à˘e äɢHɢî˘à˘fG hCG ¿ƒ˘¡˘Hɢ°ûà˘e ¿ƒ˘ë˘°Tô˘e áaô©Ÿ ¢ ©H ™e É¡° ©H . .É¡©«ªL .πÑ≤à°ùª∏d É¡H ®ÉØàM’G ¿hO ~j~L »HÉîàfG . . and are normally.»∏μdG AGOC’G Periodic Register The result of election administration authorities developing a new list of eligible voters prior to each election. although not necessarily. the various percentages can be averaged together to find an overall performance.ÚÑNÉædÉH ∫É°üJÓd . Periodic lists often are used for only one electoral event. Phone Bank A place where there is a number of phones and volunteers able to come together as a group to phone voters.áë°VGh ádÉ°SôH º¡YÉæbEG øμÁ øμdh . If there are similar candidates or multiple elections.IQhô° dÉH ¢ù«d øμdh .ºFGO ~MGh §‰ Voters who do not vote in a consistent way. ç~M πμd ÚÑNÉædG íFGƒd á«HÉîàf’G äÉ£∏°ùdG º«q ≤J πª©à°ùoJh . created just prior to the election. Qƒ£J q »àdG äÉHÉîàf’G IQGOEG äÉ£∏°S πªY áé«àf »g πÑb .áæ«©e á«Lƒdƒj~jEÉH »Ñ°ùædG π«ãªàdG Ωɶf /á«Hõ◊G áªFÉ≤dG ™e »Ñ°ùædG π«ãªàdG áëF’ Past Performance ≥HÉ°S AGOCG …q QhO πé°S ájq Qh~q dG ÚYÎ≤ŸG áëF’ /ájQhO áëF’ …QhO πé°S Persuadability ´ÉæbE’G á«fÉμeEG Persuadable Voters º¡YÉæbEG øμªŸG ¿ƒÑNÉædG Petition Group Their major role is to appeal decisions.á«ØJÉ¡dG ä’É°üJ’G õcôe á˘Yƒ˘ª› ¿ƒ˘∏˘μ˘°ûj ø˘jò˘dG ÚYƒ˘£˘àŸGh ∞˘Jɢ¡˘dG •ƒ˘˘£˘ N .…QhO q πé°S ô¶fG . voting for one candidate and not voting for a candidate with a similar ideology or from the same party in either the same election or in two consecutive elections. Also known as periodic register.Phone Bank See List Proportional Representation.¬°ùØf Üõ◊G øe hCG á«Lƒdƒj~jE’ÉH A’Dƒ˘g ¿CG ~˘≤˘à˘©˘jh .äGQGô≤dG ±ÉæÄà°SG »°SÉ°SC’G ÉgQhO øe O~Y ¬«a …òdG ¿ÉμŸG ƒgh .…q Qh~dG πé°ùdÉH ±ô©oJ The extent to which a particular group of voters do not vote in a consistent way. ≈∏Y ÚÑNÉædG øe áYƒª› âjƒ°üJ Ω~Y i~e »æ©Jh .54 Party-LList Proportional Representation System Party List Proportional Representation System .

âjƒ°üàdG ∫ÓN øe »°SÉ«°ùdG ΩɶædG ≈∏Y ÒKCÉà∏d hCG .hCG .á°UÉÿG ídÉ°üŸGh äÉeɪàg’G äGP äÉÄ«¡dGh .RƒØj äGƒ°UC’G ájÌcCG . The referendum or plebiscite is a form of direct democracy. a recall of an elected official or simply a specific government policy.äGƒ°UC’G á«Ñ∏ZCG hCG ájÌcCG Plurality of Votes Each voter votes for one candidate. protesting. regardless of whether that candidate gets a majority or not.»HÉîàf’G Ωƒ«dG ‘ ´GÎb’G õcGôe ¤EG ¬Lƒà∏d ÚYÎ≤ŸG Platform The program.¬˘˘∏˘ j~˘˘©˘ J hCG ~˘˘j~˘˘L ᢢeƒ˘˘μ˘ M ᢢ°Sɢ˘«˘ °S »˘˘æ˘ Ñ˘ J . and federal legislatures. This may be the adoption of a new constitution.í°TôŸ ´Î≤e πc 䃰üj q π°üM ~b ¿Éc GPEG ô¶ædG ¢ ¨H . ¿ƒ˘Yƒ˘£˘àŸG Ωƒ˘≤˘j å«˘M . This is not a campaign message. giving campaign contributions.᢫˘eƒ˘μ◊Gh .¢VGÎY’G Ö°üæŸ ¬˘°ùØ˘f í˘«˘°Tô˘J ≈˘à˘M hCG äÓ˘ª◊G ≈˘∏˘ Y π˘˘ª˘ ©˘ dG .~˘˘MGh ÖNɢ˘f ¤EG ᢢaɢ˘°VE’ɢ˘H %50 »˘˘æ˘ ©˘ J . ''¥ôa çG~MEG'' OôØdG øWGƒŸG ¿ÉμeEÉH ¬fCG OÉ≤àY’G »g »ØJÉ¡dG ∫É°üJ’G /»HÉîàf’G èeÉfÈdG »°SÉ«°ùdG èeÉfÈdG ΩÉY/»Ñ©°T AÉàØà°SG /ÚYÎ≤ŸG á«Ñ∏ZCG ájO~©J /ájO~q ©J ájÌcCG ᪶fCG á«Ñ∏ZCG äGƒ°UC’G ájÌcCG/ájO~©J Political Action Committee (PAC) á«°SÉ«°ùdG πª©dG áæ÷ Political Efficacy /á«°SÉ«°S á«∏YÉa »°SÉ«°S ÒKCÉJ hCG .á«HÉîàfG ádÉ°SQ Plebiscite Is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal.kɢHƒ˘à˘μ˘e ¿ƒ˘μ˘j ɢ˘e ɢ˘Ñ˘ dɢ˘Z ¢ù«d èeÉfÈdGh . ≈∏Y π°üëj …òdG í°TôŸGh . including businesses. and special interest bodies.¿ƒÑîàæoj ÚM √RÉ‚EÉH ¿h~p©j Ée í°TôŸG .Öî˘˘à˘ ˘æ˘ ˘e ≠˘«˘°Up ø˘e ᢨ˘«˘°U »˘Ñ˘©˘°ûdG Aɢà˘Ø˘ à˘ °S’G π˘˘qμ˘ °ûj. that the political party or candidate will address if and when they are elected. hCG »˘°Sɢ«˘°ùdG Üõ◊G ¬˘«˘a ÚÑ˘j .Political Efficacy Phoning A method of voter contact in which volunteers call voters on the phone.55 Phoning . and the candidate with the plurality (most votes) wins. labor unions.É¡«∏Y π°üëj ⁄ hCG äGƒ°UC’G á«Ñ∏ZCG ≈∏Y An organization of 50 or more people that is created to raise money for favored political candidates and is registered with the Federal Election Commission (FEC).»°SÉ«°S . This differs from a majority of the votes cast or 50% plus one vote. ÜÉîàf’ É¡∏ª©à°ùf »àdG äÉHÉîàf’G ìÉ°ùàcG ᪶fCG »g .¿ƒ˘fɢb hCG . See Majority. often written. identify supporters and turn out the vote near Election Day.á«dɪ©dG The belief on the part of the individual citizen that he or she can “make a difference” by influencing the political system through such activities as voting.ᢢWɢ˘°ùH π˘˘μ˘ H .∞˘Jɢ¡˘dG ÈY ÚÑ˘Nɢæ˘dɢH ∫ɢ˘°üJ’ɢ˘H åMh ø˘˘j~˘˘jDƒŸG ~˘˘j~–h ÚÑ˘˘Nɢ˘æ˘ ˘dG ´É˘˘ æ˘ ˘bE’ ᢢ ∏˘ ˘«˘ ˘°Sƒ˘˘ dG . a constitutional amendment.∫ɪYC’G ∫ÉLQ É¡«a Éà áYɪL …CG πÑpb øe . a law. ‘ º˘¡˘JGƒ˘°UCɢH ¿ƒ˘d~˘j ø˘jò˘˘dG ÚYÎ≤ŸG ᢢ«˘ Ñ˘ ∏˘ ZCG »˘˘æ˘ ©˘ Jh »àdG ÚÑNÉædG á«Ñ∏ZCG øY ∞∏àîj ƒgh .ÚÑNÉædG Plurality Majority Systems They are the winner-take-all systems we most often use to elect officials to our local.á«WGô≤Á~dG Plurality The most votes cast in a given election. state.èeÉfÈdG ô¶fG .á«dGQ~ØdG äÉHÉîàf’G áæ÷ ™e á∏qé°ùe äGOÉ–’Gh . working on a campaign.Ú©e ÜÉîàfG ájÌcCG ô˘¶˘ fG .á«HÉîàf’G äÓªë∏d äÉYÈàdG AÉ£YEG hCG .O~fi ìGÎb’ º¡° aQ hCG º¡dƒÑb øY ∞˘Xƒ˘e Üɢî˘à˘fG IOɢYEG hCG . This method can be used to persuade voters. ÒÑ©à∏d ÚÑNÉædG πc É¡d ≈Y~à°ùj ô°TÉÑe âjƒ°üJ á«∏ªY Qƒà°SO »æq ÑJ øμÁ . or even running for political office. See Program. These systems all require the winning candidate to garner either a plurality or a majority of the votes.á«dGQ~ØdGh . ¤EG ±~¡J É°üî°T 50 øe ÌcCG øe áØdDƒe ᪶æe »g ¿ƒμJh Ú∏° ØŸG q Ú«°SÉ«°ùdG Úë°Tôª∏d ∫GƒeC’G ™ªL É¡∏«μ°ûJ øμªoj . A PAC may be formed by any group.᢫˘∏ÙG ᢫˘©˘jô˘°ûà˘dG äɢ˘Ä˘ «˘ ¡˘ dG ‘ ÚdhDƒ˘ °ùe ≈∏Y ∫ƒ°ü◊G õFÉØdG í°TôŸG øe Ö∏£àJ »gh .ÚÑ˘˘Nɢ˘æ˘ dɢ˘H ∫ɢ˘°üJÓ˘˘d ᢢ∏˘ «˘ °Sh √ò˘g Ω~˘î˘à˘°ùJ ~˘bh .á˘˘æ˘ «q ˘ ©˘ e .

äÉ°VGô©à°SGh .kÉÑ°üæe RÉMh »°SÉ«°S πjƒ“ Political Landscape /á«°SÉ«°S á«°VQCG »°SÉ«°S ô¶æe Political Participation á«°SÉ«°S ácQÉ°ûe Political Party »°SÉ«°S ÜõM Political Party Campaign »°SÉ«°ùdG Üõ◊G á∏ªM »°SÉ«°S èeÉfôH ¿ƒ«°SÉ«°S ¿ƒÑY’ »°SÉ«°S ´Ó£à°SG /á«°SÉ«°S äÉfÉLô¡e á«°SÉ«°S äÉ©ªŒ á«°SÉ«°S ¥ƒ≤M Politician »q °SÉ«°S .á∏KɪŸG . demonstrations. øe ᪠n¶æŸG äGôgɶŸG hCG áeÉ©dG äÉWÉ°ûædG øe ´ƒf …CG .Ö°üæŸ í°Tôe q ¢üî°T l .™ªàÛGh º¡JÉYɪL A person who is running for office or has won an election and is already in office.56 Political Funding Political Funding .»é«JGΰS’G §«£îà∏d Political Rallies Any kind of public activities or demonstration organized by a political party to support its program or its candidates.á˘∏˘ª◊ɢH á˘£˘«ÙG á˘Ä˘«˘Ñ˘dG »˘gh . the right to form or participate in activites of political parties. other events.á≤£æŸG ‘ á°SÉ«°ùdÉH ºà¡j ¢üî°T πc »æ©j .äÉHÉ£Nh èeÉfÈH ÚÑNÉædG ΩÓYEG ¤EG ±~¡J .Politician Distribution and spending of amount of money that political parties can spend on running their election campaigns. . speeches. including meetings. fair. ôKDƒj ~bh . ø˘ª˘°V ᢫˘ °Sɢ˘«˘ °ùdG Iɢ˘«◊G ‘ ᢢcQɢ˘°ûŸG ‘ Ö©˘˘°ûdG ≥˘˘M .¬d º¡ªYO ≈∏Y ∫ƒ°ü◊Gh øq«©e »°SÉ«°S ÜõM Political Platform a document stating the aims and principles of a political party. rallies.äɢfɢLô˘˘¡˘ eh .ÚÑNÉædG AGQBG ~j~ëàd .á≤£æŸG ‘ »°SÉ«°ùdG πª©dÉH ڪ࡟G ô°ûÑdG øe áØ∏àfl »°SÉ«°S ô¶æe/á«°SÉ«°S á«°VQCG Right of all adults of either gender to vote.¬àeƒμ◊ âjƒ°üàdG πãe . ƒg äÉHÉîàf’G ‘ RÉa ¿CG ≥Ñ°S hCG . some of whose members nominate as candidates at elections in the hope that they will be elected to parliament. . á«°SÉ«°ùdG ÜGõMC’G ≈∏Y ¬bÉØfEGh ∫ÉŸG øe ≠∏Ñe ™jRƒJ .ø˘˘ j~˘˘ °TGô˘˘ ˘dG ≥˘˘ ˘M ‘ ¢ü ˘∏˘ ˘ à˘ ˘ J »˘˘ ˘gh ∑GΰT’G hCG á«°SÉ«°ùdG ÜGõMC’G AÉ°ûfEG ≥Mh . parades. quantitative sociological research based on randomly selected voters used by the campaign to determine the opinions of the voters and used to provide strategic planning information. and the right to free.¿ÉŸÈdG Political activity.¬FOÉÑeh »°SÉ«°ùdG Üõ◊G ±G~gCG RÈJ á≤«Kh Political Players Those people involved in politics in the area and who may influence the campaign one way or another. particularly in reference to the various people involved in politics in the area.âjƒ°üàdÉH á«©jô°ûàdG äÉÄ«¡∏d ádOÉYh á¡jõf äÉHÉîàfÉH ≥◊Gh . ɢ≤˘ah √DhGô˘LEG º˘à˘j »˘ª˘ ch »˘˘Yƒ˘˘°Vƒ˘˘e »˘˘Yɢ˘ª˘ à˘ LG å뢢H á˘∏˘ª◊G ¬˘e~˘î˘à˘°ùJh . and the use of the media. and regular elections for legislative bodies.äɢ˘Yɢ˘ª˘ à˘ LG ø˘˘ª˘ ° à˘˘j »˘˘°Sɢ˘«˘ °S •É˘˘°ûf .É¡«a ᪶àæe äÉHÉîàfG ≥jôW øY A group of people with similar ideas or aims.á∏ª◊G ‘ iôNCÉH hCG á≤jô£H Political Polling Scientific. ±G~gC’Gh QÉμaC’G ‘ ¿ƒ©ªàéj ¢UÉî°TC’G øe áYƒª› ‘ RƒØdÉH kÓeCG äÉHÉîàf’G ‘ í°TÎj º¡° ©H .¬«ë°Tôe hCG ¬›ÉfôH ºY~d »°SÉ«°S ÜõM πÑpb Political Rights The right of people to participate in the political life of their communities and society such as by voting for their government.ΩÓYE’G ∫ɪ©à°SGh . intended to inform the electorate of the platform of a particular political party and to gather support.äGôgɶeh .ÚÑ˘Nɢæ˘∏˘d á˘∏˘ã‡ ᢫˘FGƒ˘°ûY äÉ˘æ˘«˘ ©˘ d äÉeƒ∏©ŸG Òaƒàd Ω~îà°ùj ɪc . ´GƒfCɢH ≥˘∏˘©˘à˘j ɢe ᢰUɢî˘Hh . .á«HÉîàf’G É¡JÓªM IQGOEG ≈∏Y ¬bÉØfEG øμªŸG ~◊G øª°V »°SÉ«°S πjƒ“ The environment in which the campaign will be waged.iôNCG çG~MCGh .Ú°ùæ÷G ø˘˘ e .

.»HÉîàf’G Ωƒ«dG/ÜÉîàf’G Ωƒj ô¶fG A small geographic unit within a constituency.ÜÉîàfG ô¶fG .57 Poll . Poll Workers The people dealing directly with the voters. for which a specific number of electors and for which a list of electors is established for one or more polling sites for the purpose of voting on polling day. . Polling Day See Election Day.º¡JGƒ°UCÉH Polling Station A place where voters go to cast their votes from a particular electoral district.kIô°TÉÑe ÚÑNÉqædG ™e ¿ƒ∏eÉ©àj øjòdG ¢UÉî°TC’G ºg .Ée IôFGO ‘ Ú©e The polling station assistant signs for the numbered ballot box at their station and the ballot papers on which votes are to be recorded.äÉgÉY GP hCG (≈ªYCG) ô°üÑdG ~bÉa ÖpîàæŸG ¿ƒμj Ée~æY √~˘Yɢ°ùj hCG √Qɢ«˘à˘NG ø˘e π˘é˘°ùe ÖNɢ˘f ¬˘˘à˘ ≤˘ aGôà Ωƒ˘˘≤˘ j . or that voter may be assisted by a polling station officer.´GÎb’G º∏b ÖJÉμH kÉ° jCG ±hô©ŸG Polling Place The particular location where voters go to cast their ballots.kÉ«ª°SQ É¡ªàîH Ωƒ≤j Polling Division âjƒ°üàdG/´GÎb’G º°ùb »YGÎbG õcôe ‘ ∫hDƒ°ùe »HÉîàfG ¿Éμe ´GÎb’G õcôe ™bƒe âjƒ°üàdG á£fi Polling Station Assistant /´GÎb’G Öàμe QƒeCÉe ~YÉ°ùe Polling Station Officer ´GÎb’G Öàμe ∫hDƒ°ùe Where a voter is blind or affected by other disability that voter may vote accompanied by another registered voter of her/his choice.´GÎb’G Öàμe ∫hDƒ°ùe . and the matriculation card of each voter is appropriately marked so as to clearly indicate that a vote has been recorded in the election for which a ballot paper has been issued. Polling See Voting.´GÎb’G º°ùb ô¶fG . Also known as poll clerk. also refers to a survey to assess public opinion or to forecast an election. ¥GQhCG ≈∏Yh ºqbôŸG ´GÎb’G ¥h~æ°U ≈∏Y AÉ° eE’ÉH Ωƒ≤j ≈∏Y πª©j .º¡JGƒ°UCÉH A’OEÓd ¿ƒYÎ≤ŸG ¬éàj å«M ø«q ©ŸG ô≤ŸG Polling Site A physical installation where the electors of a polling division can cast their vote.äÉHÉîàf’ÉH ƒD ÑæàdG hCG ΩÉ©dG …CGôdG . Gƒd~«d .á«q HÉîàfG IôFGO øª°V iô¨°U á«q aGô¨L I~Mh »g ÚÑNÉæq dG øe áëF’h . ~°Uôjo .´GÎb’G º∏b ô¶fG .ÜÉîàf’G Polling Official/ Electoral Affairs Officer Person who works at a polling station on election day. ´GÎbG ‘ º¡JGƒ°UCÉH ¿ƒÑNÉædG ¬«a ‹~j …òdG ¿ÉμŸG .Polling Station Officer Poll A place where votes are cast. He conducts polling such as: ballot papers are only issued to persons with a valid matriculation card. See Poll.äGƒ°UC’ÉH A’OEÓd õcôe . ´GÎb’G Ωƒj º««≤àd ôjô≤àdG ¬H ~°ü≤oj ∂dòc .ÌcCG hCG øjõcôà ≈æÑe .ø«q ©e ´GÎbG º°ùb ƒÑNÉf É¡«dEG ¬Lq ƒàj ICÉ°ûæe »g . äɢHɢî˘à˘f’G Ωƒ˘j ´GÎb’G õ˘cô˘e ‘ π˘ª˘©˘ j …ò˘˘dG Oô˘˘Ø˘ dG .äGƒ°UC’G É¡«∏Y πéq °ùà°S »àdG ´GÎb’G äɢ˘jƒ˘˘g Ú∏˘˘eÉ◊G ¢Uɢ˘î˘ °TCÓ˘ d Üɢ˘î˘ à˘ ˘fG ¥GQhCG QG~˘˘ °UEG ábQh ™e É¡àfQÉ≤Ÿ äÉjƒ¡dG √òg ¿h~J q ¿CG ≈∏Y É¡H ±Î©e ¥GQhC’G √òg QG~°UEG πÑb .ÌcCG hCG m ´GÎbG õcôà ڣÑJôŸG . âjƒ°üJ õcôe/´GÎbG º∏b ´Ó£à°SG hCG ≥jOÉæ°U ~æY ¿ƒ∏eÉY ´GÎb’G ÜÉîàfG/´GÎbG/âjƒ°üJ Polling Center ´GÎb’G õcôe Building with 2 or more Polling Stations. prior to issue each ballot paper is stamped with the official stamp.ÚÑNÉæq dG øe O~q fi O~Y É¡∏LCG øe Ωƒj ‘ âjƒ°üàq dG ±~¡H .~©H ɪ«a IQ~°üŸG ÜÉîàf’G . See Polling Division.

áæ«q ©e iôNCG ÜÉÑ°SCG hCG ábÉYE’G É¡æe . . ÚÑNÉæ∏d Iôaƒàe »gh ∂Jƒ°üH A’OEÓd iôNCG á≤jôW »g ¿G~∏H ‘ ÉeCG . some other countries have special requirements to allow postal voting.äÉHÉîàf’G Postal Vote/ Voting By Mail Postal voting is another way of casting a vote during an election and is available to registered electors on request.»JGòdG ~j~ëàdG äÉYGõf π◊ áæμ‡ á≤jôW »g äÉYƒªÛG äÉeɪàgÉH »ØJ »àdG äÉ°ù°SDƒŸG õjõ©J É¡æe ᪰ù≤ŸG q AiOÉÑŸG ÚH ìÓ°U’G É¡fCÉ°T øe kÉ° jCGh ..Ó°UCG ôaƒàe âfÎf’G ∫ɪ©à°SG å«M äÉÑàμŸGh Pollster ™∏£à°ùe/mâØàn °ùe A person or company that researches public opinion. Posters are good for increasing name recognition of the candidate and reminding people to vote.´GÎb’G Ωƒ«H ÚÑNÉædG ÒcòJh A possible person who backs a politician or a political party etc.¿G~∏ÑdG ¢ ©H ‘ .kÉ«bôY ᪰ù≤ŸG q äÉj’ƒdG ‘ á«WGô≤Á~dGh IOGQE’G ájôM ‘ Precinct The smallest district in relation to elections. ±~¡dG . The voter marks his choice an send the ballot to a specified Election Office. like handicap or other specified reasons. IÎa ∫Ó˘˘ N Oô˘˘ a ø˘˘ WGƒ˘˘ e π˘˘ c ø˘˘ ˘e ¬˘˘ ˘H ¤~oŸG äƒ˘˘ ˘°üdG .´GÎbG õcôe ¤EG ÜÉgòdG IQÉ°TEG ÖNÉædG ™° j .iô˘˘NCG ¢VƒY .~MGh ´GÎbG õcôe .Ö∏£dG ~æY Ú∏éq °ùŸG âjƒ˘°üà˘dɢH ìɢª˘°ù∏˘d ᢰUɢN äÉ˘Ñ˘∏˘£˘à˘e ɢ¡˘j~˘∏˘ a .¢UÉN ´GÎbG Öàμe ¤EG ábQƒdG π°Sôjh √QÉ«àNG ≈∏Y Large signs with the candidate’s name on them and the office they are seeking which can be put in windows and on poles.á«bô©dG . In this way such arrangements attempt to reconcile the potentially divisive principles of self-determination and democracy in ethnically divided states.ÖNÉædG ¬æ«q ©j …òdG ¿Gƒæ©dG ¤EG .Üõ◊G •É°ûf º«¶æJ øY ∫hDƒ°ùŸG ¢üî°ûdG ƒgh . These could also include schools and libraries where Internet access is already available. Instead of going to a polling station the ballot paper is sent direct to the address of the voter's choice. . Sometimes these people are volunteers and sometimes they are elected. voter contact program and Election Day operation in a particular precinct. Cities and counties are divided into precinct polling districts.Qƒ˘æ˘dG I~˘ª˘YCG hCG ò˘˘aGƒ˘˘æ˘ dG êɢ˘LR ≈˘˘∏˘ Y ɢ˘¡˘ ©˘ °Vh ø˘˘μÁh í°TôŸG º°SG ≈∏Y ±ô©àdG ¢Uôa áØYÉ° Ÿ I~«L äÉ≤°ü∏ŸG . ´GÎbG õcGôe ‘ âfÎf’G ÈY ´GÎb’G ™bGƒe πμ°ûoJ πμ°ûH ¿Gôaƒàe øeC’Gh É¡«dEG ∫ƒN~dG ¿CG å«M áaƒdCÉe ¢SQG~ŸG ‘ ɢ˘gÒaƒ˘˘J kɢ ° jCG ø˘˘μÁ .áeÉY á«° b ‘ Qƒ¡ª÷G …CGQ ™∏£à°ùj ácô°T hCG ¢üî°T Popular Vote The vote that is actually cast by each individual citizen in an election. They aim to promote practices and institutions.Precinct Captain An election in which Internet voting stations are made available at conventional poll-sites where access and security are controlled as they are today.äÉHÉîàf’ÉH ≥∏©àJ IôFGO ô¨°UCG »gh ᪰ù≤e q äÉ©WÉ≤ŸGh º°UGƒ©dG ¿ƒμJh . which.ïdEG .∂dòd ¬HÉîàfG »Ñ©°T âjƒ°üJ ~jÈdÉH/…~jôH ´GÎbG Posters äÉ≤°ü∏e Potential Supporter πªàfi ~qjƒD e Power Sharing á£∏°ùdG º°SÉ≤J á«HÉîàfG IôFGO á«HÉîàf’G IôFG~dG ÏHÉc . aim to satisfy all major ethnic groups in society.kÉYƒ£àe ¿ƒμj ¿CG ¢üî°ûdG Gò¡d øμÁ ÉfÉ«MCG .áæ«q ©e IôFGO ‘ á«HÉîàf’G á«∏ª©dGh .58 Poll-S Site Internet Voting ´GÎbÓd âfÎfE’G ™bƒe Poll-S Site Internet Voting . See Visibility.ÖNÉædÉH ∫É°üJ’G øμÁh .kÉq«°SÉ«°S Power sharing arrangements are a potential means of solving selfdetermination disputes.…~jÈdG Iô°TÉÑe ´GÎb’G ábQh π°SôJ .Ωƒ˘˘«˘ dG ɢ˘ª˘ c •ƒ˘˘Ñ˘ ˘° e . èeÉfôHh ..á«HÉîàf’G IôFG~dG ô¶fG . in one way or another.á«HÉîàfG ôFGhO ¤EG Precinct Captain An individual responsible for organizing the party activity.äÉ«FôŸG ô¶fG . in some countries. kɢHõ˘M hCG kɢq«˘°Sɢ«˘ °S kɢ ë˘ °Tô˘ q ˘e º˘˘Y~˘˘j ¿CG π˘˘ª˘ à˘ ë˘ j ¢üî˘ l ˘°T .»HÉîàf’G ~©≤ŸGh í°TôŸG º°SG øª° àJ IÒÑc äÉeÓY . See Precinct. IôFG~∏d ¿ƒμj ÉÑdÉZh .

»ë°Tôe áYƒª› π«μ°ûJ ¬«ë°TôŸ Üõ◊G QÉ«àNG πª°ûj πª©dGh . The primary vote count and national distribution of preferences are both conducted at the polling booth once polling has closed. These can be parades.≥HÉ°ùdG ÜÉîàf’G øe äGƒ°UC’G á∏«°üMh An indicative sort and count of votes following the primary vote count.πj~ÑdG ´GÎb’G See Alternative Vote.QÉ«àN’G πÑb Ée . ™jRƒJ IOÉYE’ ÉgRôa q” »àdG äGƒ°UC’G ≈∏Y ~ªà©j Ωɶf ƒg »eɶf ‘) õFÉa øY ¿ÓYE’G ±~¡H . ¬ª«¶æJ ºàj ÚÑNÉæ∏d ÒÑc ~°ûM hCG ç~M …CG »æ©Jh á˘∏˘Hɢ≤˘eh Qƒ˘° ◊G á˘∏˘ª˘ë˘ ∏˘ d ø˘˘μÁ å«˘˘M .Úë°TôŸG q O~Y ¢ü«∏≤J É¡a~gh .ÜõM q…’C ÜÉ°ùàfG É¡«a Lists of electors for which the data is gathered by enumerators or at registration centres.π«é°ùàq dG õcGôe hCG OG~©àq dG .áæ«©e á«HÉîàfG IôFGO øY É¡©ªL ºàj äÉeƒ∏©e …CG á≤HÉ°ùdG äÉHÉîàf’G ‘ ÚYÎ≤ŸG ‹ÉªLEGh ÚÑNÉædG áªFÉb .áqeÉ©dG äÉHÉîàf’G πÑb …ôŒ äÉHÉîàfG »g . interviews with candidates and the setting up of a so-called “briefing” report by the preselection panel.âjƒ°üqàdG ÜÉH ¥ÓZEG ~©H ´GÎb’G IÒéM A system in which votes counted are used to redistribute the preferences of the electors to establish a winner (in alternative vote and single non transferable vote systems). πéq °ùoj ’ .áYƒªÛG √òg πÑpb øe ''õLƒe'' ôjô≤J ≈∏Y Any event or large grouping of voters organized outside the campaign. :πãe .áj~«¡ªàdG hCG .59 Precinct Information IôFGO øY äÉeƒ∏©e á«HÉîàfG Preference Count »∏«° ØJ Rôa Preferential Distribution »∏«° ØJ ™jRƒJ Preferential Voting »∏«° ØJ ´GÎbG Preliminary Election ájq ~«¡“ äÉHÉîàfG Preliminary List of Electors ÚYÎ≤ŸG áëF’ ájq ~«¡ªàq dG Preliminary Result áj~«¡“ áé«àf Pre-sselection ≥Ñ°ùe QÉ«àNG Preset Events ᪶æe áeq ÉY äÉÑ°SÉæe /äÉYɪàLG/É≤Ñ°ùe á≤Ñ°ùe áeÉY äÉYɪàLG Precinct Information .kIOÉY IÒ¨°U q¿CG ≈˘˘∏˘ Y ÚÑ˘˘Nɢ˘æq ˘ dG ~˘˘«˘ cCɢ J ÚYÎ≤ŸG á˘˘ë˘ ˘F’ ø˘˘ ª˘ ˘° Jh Gƒæqμªàj »c . or debates.á«q dÉ◊G hCG á∏Ñ≤ŸG äÉHÉîàf’G ‘ âjƒ°üàq dG øe Result that precedes or is introductory or preparatory. conventions. and returns from the last election.äÉq«∏° aCÓd ™jRƒqàdGh . and conducted to reduce the number of candidates.á≤Ñ°ùŸG áé«àædG .ÚÑNÉædG Iô£«°S êQÉN ÖdɨdG ‘ É¡©«ªL »gh IôXÉæŸG äÉÑ∏Mh .º¡à∏HÉ≤eh Úë°TôŸG º««≤Jh .(Ò«éqà∏d πHÉ≤dG ÒZ q…OôØdG ´GÎb’Gh . IOÉY »JCÉJ .∫hCq ’G ÉgRôa ƒ∏àj äGƒ°UCÓd Rôah ‹’O ∞«æ°üJ ‘ .ájÒ° ëàdG hCG . ≈∏Y ¿ƒªFÉ≤dG º¡pJÉfÉ«H ™ªéj øjòdG ÚYÎ≤ŸG áëF’ »g á«q aGô¨L mI~Mh ¢SÉ°SCG ≈∏Y .q‹hC’G äGƒ°UC’G Rôa Éàq«∏ªY . See Created Events. Provides a list of electors that ensures that voters are able to confirm that they are duly registered to vote in the next or pending electoral event. the assessment of candidates. where the campaign can go and meet voters. turnout from the last election. These are often outside the control of the campaign. qºàJh .Öéj ɪc äÓé°ùdG q ‘ áLQ~e ºgAɪ°SCG .kIô°TÉÑe É¡∏Ñb hCG äÉHÉîàf’G IÎa ∫ÓN . normally done on the basis of a small geographic unit during or immediately preceding the election period.äÉÑ°SÉæŸG ≥∏N ô¶fG .ÚÑNÉqædG äÓ«° ØJ .Preset Events Whatever information can be gathered about a particular precinct. . such as voter list. Coming before and usually forming a necessary prelude to something else.á≤M’ èFÉàæd áe~≤ªc The preselection process encompasses the setting up of a pre-selection panel.πj~H âjƒ°üJ ô¶fGoC Election prior to general election in which no party affiliation is used.ᢢ∏˘ ª◊G êQɢ˘N áeÉ©dG äGô“DƒŸGh áeÉ©dG äÉ©ªéàdG qº° J »gh .á«HÉîàf’G á∏ª◊G .

''‹hCq G π°üa'' ≈ª°ùoj É¡æ«M . ɢ¡˘dÓ˘N ø˘e ¿ƒ˘Ñ˘Nɢæ˘dG Ú©˘j ᢫˘∏˘ NGO ᢢ«˘ dhCG äɢ˘Hɢ˘î˘ à˘ fG GC ~ÑJ Ée~æY .»FÉ¡f Primary election is the term used in many countries for the elections which will select the two parties presidential nomination.ΩÓYE’G ™e πeÉ©àdG øY ∫hDƒ°ùe á∏ª◊G øe ¢üî°T ƒgh . See Primary. a “nominating election. . ¬˘«˘dEG ≈˘Y~˘oj ᢫˘Hɢî˘à˘f’G á˘∏˘ª◊G π˘Ñ˘pb ø˘e §˘£fl ç~˘˘M ∫ƒM hCG á∏ª◊G ∫ƒM äÉeƒ∏©Ã ºg~jhõàd ¿ƒq«aÉë°üdG . A press packet often includes a candidate biography.” In a presidential primary. hCG Ú∏˘°SGô˘ª˘∏˘d á˘∏˘ª◊G ɢ¡˘ ë˘ «˘ à˘ J »˘˘à˘ dG äɢ˘eƒ˘˘∏˘ ©ŸG »˘˘gh Ée á«° b øY í°TôŸG ∞bƒe í°VƒJ .áæ«©e An event planned by the campaign to which the press is invited with the purpose to providing information about the campaign or on a particular issue.ç~M hCG . When the primary elections start in a specific month of election year then it is called the “primary season”.''á«ë«°TÎdG äɢHɢî˘à˘f’G'' ƒ˘˘ g ɢ˘ °Sɢ˘ °SCG p Ú°ùaÉæàŸG ÚH ºgQÉ«N øY ¿ƒYp Î≤ŸG ôqÑ©j á«dhCq ’G á°SÉFôdG πμ°ûH QÉ«àN’G Qnô≤oj .Éæg á∏ª©à°ùe ÜGõMC’G ¤EG äÉHÉ°ùàf’G .ΩÓYE’G ‘ Ú∏eÉ©dG ᨫ°U ‘ ÉÑdÉZ á«Øë°üdG äÉZÓÑdG ÖàμJh . In the general election. press releases outlining various position papers. Press releases are often written in the form of a news story.áeÉ©dG äÉHÉîàf’G ‘ . copies of good press the campaign has received.60 Press ΩÓYEGh áaÉë°U Press Conference ‘Éë°U ô“Dƒe Press Packet á«eÓYEG á¶aÉM Press Q&A áHƒLCGh á∏Ä°SCG :áaÉë°üdG Press Release /»Øë°U ÆÓH ¿É«H Press Secretary áaÉë°üdG ÒJôμ°S Primary á«dhCG äÉHÉîàfG Primary Elections /á«dhCG äÉHÉîàfG áj~«¡“ äÉHÉîàfG Press . äÉHÉLE’G »≤∏Jh á∏Ä°SC’G ¬«Lƒàd áaÉë°ü∏d á°Uôa »gh . ɢ¡˘e~˘≤˘Jh á˘∏˘ª◊G ɢgQƒ˘£˘J .Primary Elections Anyone working for a mass media organization and who is writing or otherwise commenting on the election campaign. See Mass Media and Press. the voters express a choice among competing presidential contenders.ájÈN á°üb This is the individual in the campaign organization responsible for dealing with the mass media.äɢeƒ˘∏˘©ŸG ø˘˘e ᢢ¶˘ aɢ˘M »˘˘gh øª° àJh . Party affiliations are used.áaÉë°üdGh ΩÓYE’G ô¶fG Essentially.í°TôŸG øY ÌcCG äÉeƒ∏©e áMÉJE’ áaÉë°ü∏d ¬˘˘JQƒ˘˘°Uh í˘˘°TôŸG IÒ°S Ödɢ˘¨˘ dG ‘ ᢢ«˘ eÓ˘˘YE’G ᢢ¶˘ aÉ◊G hCG Ö£ÿG hCG ¬ë«°TôJ øY ø∏©J »Øë°üdG ¿É«Ñ∏d áî°ùfh ∞bGƒŸG ∫ƒM åëÑdG ¥GQhCG áë°Vƒe u á«aÉë°üdG äÉfÉ«ÑdG á∏ª◊G É¡J~YCG »àdG I~«÷G á«eÓY’G á«£¨à∏d ï°ùf ™e . the final choice of office-holder is determined.í°TôŸG øe Information provided by the campaign to reporters and others in the mass media presenting the candidates position on a particular issue or event. and copies of campaign literature. a photo of the candidate.á∏ª◊G äÉ«HOCG øe ï°ùfh An opportunity for the press to ask the candidate questions and receive answers.áæ«©e á«° b A pack of information developed by the campaign and giving to the press to provide them with more information about the candidate and the campaign. ΩÓYE’Gh áaÉë°üdG ƒY~Jh á∏ª◊G ¬d §£îJ ç~M …CG á«° b øY hCG á∏ªM øY äÉeƒ∏©ŸG ≈∏Y ´ÓW’G áMÉJE’ .äÉHÉîàf’G QɪZ ¢Vƒÿ Üõ◊G »ë°Tôe Üɢî˘à˘f’G ΩɢY ø˘e Ú©˘e ô˘¡˘°T ‘ ᢫˘dhC’G äɢHɢ˘î˘ à˘ f’G . äɢ˘Hɢ˘î˘ à˘ ˘fG ‘ .Ú«°SÉFôdG . a copy of the press release announcing their candidacy or the speech.

Ú°ùaÉæŸG øe É¡¡LGƒ«°S Ée ÉeÉ“ ∑Q~Jh äÉHÉîàfÓd . ÜGõMC’G πμd π«ãªàdG ¿Éª°V ¤EG ±~¡j »HÉîàfG Ωɶf »àdG äGƒ°UC’G áÑ°ùf ¢SÉ°SCG ≈∏Y á«©jô°ûàdG áÄ«¡dG πNGO . .á∏©ØæŸG á∏ª◊G ô¶fG See Adjudication.ΩÓ˘˘YE’G ∫ɢ˘μ˘ °TCG …òdG . I~Y √ÉŒ ¬∏ª©«°S Ée ÚÑj .61 Print Media .ádh~dG ¥É£f êQÉN hCG »eƒμM ÒZ •É°ûf …CG ¬H ~°ü≤oj Proactive Campaign A campaign that has a strategy and a written plan to carry that strategy out.ÜõM πc É¡«∏Y π°üM A vote for a third party candidate (who is not likely to win) that is meant to show displeasure with the mainstream candidates or parties.É¡æY ∞°ûμdG hCG ¬dhÉæàe ‘ »àdGh Private Sector Refers to any non-governmental activity or sphere of control. ∂∏J ≥«≤ëàd á£Nh á«é«JGΰSG É¡d »àdG á∏ª◊G »gh ɢ˘¡˘ dɢ˘ª˘ YCG ∫h~˘˘L ᢢ∏˘ ª◊G √ò˘˘ g ™˘˘ ° J .(ìɢ˘é˘ ˘qæ˘ ˘dɢ˘ H π˘˘ s∏˘ ˘μ˘ ˘oj .á∏≤à°ùŸG äÓÛGh ∞ë°üdG »æ©jh IQƒ˘°üdG hCG á˘ª˘∏˘μ˘dG Ω~˘˘î˘ à˘ °ùj …ò˘˘dG . /äÉYRÉæŸG ‘ π°üØdG QGôb /(áªμfi) ºμM ô¶fG á©LGôŸG á«dBG /´ƒÑ£e ΩÓYEG Ahô≤e á«°Uƒ°üN ¢UÉN ´É£b á«bÉÑà°SGh á∏YÉa á∏ªM Proceedings /™FÉbh /äGAGôLEG/iƒYO /ä’hG~e/(´ÉªàLG) ô° fi iƒY~dG Ò°S Program èeÉfôH Proportional »Ñ°ùf Proportional Representation »Ñ°ùf Ωɶf/»Ñ°ùf π«ã“ Protest Vote /¢VQÉ©e âjƒ°üJ »LÉéàMG âjƒ°üJ Protocol ∫ƒcƒJhôH Provisional Vote /»àbh /âbDƒe 䃰U âsbƒD e ´GÎbG /»WÉ«àMG The candidate or party’s program is what they say they will do concerning various issues important to the voters. See Tendered Ballot. A program is not a message.ƒj~˘«˘Ø˘dG hCG á˘Yƒ˘ª˘°ùŸG á˘ª˘∏˘μ˘dG Ω~˘î˘à˘°ùj . øe πμ°T …CG hCG .I~FÉ°ùdG q ÜGõMC’G hCG øjô£«°ùŸG A code of correct conduct related to the procedures of an Election. hCG .áLQ~dG Parties having representation in a legislature in proportion to the number of their voters in the election. See Message and Platform. See Electronic Media and Mass Media.ÖNɢ˘æ˘ ∏˘ d ᢢª˘ ¡˘ e ɢ˘jɢ˘° b .I~eÉ÷G ΩÓYE’G ô¶fG .¢SÉ«≤∏d á∏HÉb äÉØ°U …CG hCG . ¬H á≤∏©àŸG äÉeƒ∏©ŸG ≈∏Y Iô£«°ùdG ‘ ¢üî°ûdG IQ~b .ºé◊G ™e áÑ°SÉæàe ábÓY ¬d . ød ¬qfGC h~Ñj) ådÉK mÜõM øe í°Tôe q áë∏°üŸ âjƒ°üJ ƒg Ú뢢°TôŸG q ø˘˘e kAɢ˘«˘ à˘ °SG ¢ùμ˘˘©˘ jh .ÊhÎμd’G ΩÓYE’G ÚHh ¬æ«H ≥jôØà∏d .»HÉîàf’G èeÉfÈdGh ádÉ°SôdG Properly related in size or degree or other measurable characteristics.ΩÓYE’G hCG ÊhÎμdE’G Privacy Is the ability of a person to control the availability of information about and exposure of him.í°TôŸG hCG Üõ◊G èeÉfôH ƒgh ô˘¶˘fG .äÉHÉîàf’ÉH á°UÉÿG q äGAGôL’ÉH §ÑJôe πªY ¥Éã«e .ᢢ «˘ ˘é˘ ˘«˘ ˘JGΰS’G .áª∏μ∏d ≥«° dG ≈æ©ŸÉH . as opposed to the electronic media that use the spoken word and/or video. . This campaign sets the agenda in the election and knows what to expect from their opponents.Provisional Vote Print Media Print media are independent newspapers and magazines or any other part of the mass media using the written word and/or still pictures.á˘dɢ°SQ ¢ù«˘˘d è˘˘eɢ˘fÈdGh . See Reactive Campaign.É¡àë°üd áÑ°ùædÉH ¢SQ~dG ~«b âjƒ°üJ ábQh ô¶fG .or herself.

á˘Ä˘ «˘ ¡˘ dG ¤EG º˘˘gAGQBG ¿ƒ˘˘æ˘ WGƒŸG ɢ˘¡˘ «˘ a Ω~q ˘ ≤˘ j ᢢ°ù∏˘˘L »˘˘g .≈ªYC’G Punch-C Card Voting With punch card ballots. The campaign should do everything short of “pulling” the voters to the polls.áæ«q ©e á«q ° b ∫ƒM á«q eƒμ◊G Pull Making sure that voters who support the candidate go to the polls and vote for the candidate on Election Day. Generally only supporters who have been identified previously are encouraged to vote.√QÉ«àNG ~j~ëàd ÖNÉædG É¡Ñ≤ãj ábQƒdG √òg ∫ɪ©à°SG ~æY Üõ◊G πã‡/¢VƒØe q Ωq ÉY »eƒμM/qΩÉY πjƒ“ Public Hearing áqeÉY ´Éªà°SG á°ù∏L Öë°S ´GÎb’G ábQh Ö≤ãH ´GÎbG .áeƒμ◊G πÑpb øe Session at which citizens present their views on a specific matter to a government body.í°Tôª∏d »˘¨˘Ñ˘æ˘j .ÜGõMC’Gh á°SÉFôdG »ë°Tôe ∫hÉæàe ‘ ΩÉ©dG πjƒªàdG ¿ƒμj .Punch-C Card Voting . Public Of or having to do with the people as a whole. . voters create holes in prepared ballot cards to indicate their choices. ¤EG í°Tôª∏d øj~jDƒŸG ÚÑNÉædG ÜÉgP øe ~qcÉC àdG »æ©Jh º˘˘ ¡˘ ˘JGƒ˘˘ °UCɢ ˘H A’OEÓ˘ ˘d O~ÙG Ωƒ˘˘ «˘ ˘dG ‘ ´GÎb’G õ˘˘ ˘cGô˘˘ ˘e ''Öë°ùd'' A»°T πc πª©J ¿CG á∏ªë∏d »¨Ñæjh .Ωƒ˘ª˘©˘dG ≈˘∏˘ Yh . Public Funding/ Public Financing Funds provided by the government to reimburse expenses incurred by candidates and political parties to seek election.ÜÉîàf’G äÉ≤Øf ¢ jƒ©àd ∂dPh . .≥∏£ŸG ~«jCÉàdG É¡«a ôaƒàj »àdG ≥WÉæŸG G~Y âjƒ°üàdG ¤EG Öë°ùdGh âjƒ°üàdG ™«é°ûJ /∂Jƒ°U íæeG ô¶fG . See GOTV and Blind Pull.62 Proxy .´GÎb’G õ˘˘cGô˘˘e ¤EG ÚÑ˘˘Nɢ˘æ˘ dG ÜÉgòdÉH kÉ≤HÉ°S ºg~j~– ” øjòdG øj~jDƒŸG §≤a ™«é°ûJ .πq μc Ö©°ûdÉH ábÓY ¬d Ée . except in areas of extreme support.»HõM ~ªà©e/»HõM π«ch ô¶fG Proxy See Party Agent.

63 Q&A áHƒLCGh á∏Ä°SCG Qualification á«∏gCG/äÓgDƒe Quick Count Results ™jô°ùdG q RôØdG èFÉàf Quota /á≤Ñ°ùŸG ¢ü°ü◊G Ωɶf ÉJƒc/á«Ñ°ùf ¢ü°üM Q Q&A .™jô°S Rôa áq«∏ªY øY á«qJÉC àŸG èFÉàqædG »g . Ö°üæŸ í«°TÎdG Ë~≤àd ¢üî°ûdG πgDƒJ »àdG äÉØ°üdG í˘FGƒ˘∏˘dG ‘ π˘«˘é˘°ùà˘˘∏˘ d ᢢjQhô˘˘° dG •hô˘˘°ûdG -»˘˘Hɢ˘î˘ à˘ fG . .kÓjƒW kÉàbh ¥ô¨à°ùJ áq«dɪLE’G èFÉàqædG ¿ƒμJ A number or percentage. constituting a required or targeted minimum so that the targeted groups fill the assigned number of seats.á˘˘Ñ˘ °ùf hCG O~˘˘Y π˘˘bC’G ~◊G π˘˘μ˘ °ûj .âjƒ°üàdG ≥M ≈∏Y ∫ƒ°üë∏d á«HÉîàf’G Results obtained through a quick count process used where the collation of the overall results can take a lengthy period. especially of a certain gender or ethnic group or minority or unprivileged people.ÚehôÙG hCG äɢ˘«˘ ∏˘ bC’G hCG ᢢ«˘ æ˘ ˘K’G ~YÉ≤ŸG áa~¡à°ùŸG áYƒªÛG ÓC ªàd ±~¡à°ùŸGh ܃∏£ŸG .Quota Questions and Answers...O~©dG IO~ÙG á«HÉîàf’G . äɢYƒ˘ªÛG hCG »˘°ùæ÷G ´ƒ˘˘æ˘ dG ø˘˘e Ó˘˘ã˘ e . Ée~æY Ω~îà°ùJh . See Press Q&A. or to register to vote in an election.áHƒLCGh á∏Ä°SCG :áaÉë°üdG ô¶fG .ÜGƒ÷Gh ∫GDƒ°ùdG »gh The qualities that are in a person and that might qualify him/her in the process of demonstrating whether he /she is capable of fulfilling specified requirements to run for elections.

This is a campaign that lacks a plan.ÚfGƒb hCG . Scrutineers are entitled to be present and should be aware of any corrected figures before a preference count is commenced.¿Éμe’G Q~b ≈∏Y . (This term should not be confused with the term “Recount”). laws.á«HÉîàf’G á∏ª◊G ∫ÓN ç~ëj Ée hCG .äGQGôb hCG . RôØdG èFÉàf âfÉc GPEG á°UÉN .á«bÉÑà°SGh á∏YÉa á∏ªM ô¶fG A recheck is a normal procedure undertaken by an election manager before a preference count is conducted.»˘∏˘«˘° Ø˘à˘dG ~˘©˘dG AGô˘LEG π˘Ñ˘b äɢHɢî˘à˘f’G kɪ∏Y ¿hòNCÉjh ¿ƒ≤qb~ŸG ô° ëj .Égq~Y OÉ©ojh ká«fÉK ¥GQhC’G ~˘©˘ dɢ˘H A~˘˘Ñ˘ dG π˘˘Ñ˘ b Dhô˘˘£˘ J (ᢢ«˘ ª˘ bQ) äɢ˘ë˘ «˘ ë˘ °üJ …Cɢ H Rôa IOÉYEG IQÉÑ©H IQÉÑ©dG √òg §∏N Rƒéj ’ . ìGÎbG ∫ƒÑ≤H âjƒ°üàdG ≥jôW øY ÚæWGƒŸG IQÉ°ûà°SG IQÉ°ûà°S’ AÉàØà°S’G ¤EG áeƒμ◊G ÉC é∏J .ìGÎbG hCG .∫ɪYCG ∫h~L ™°Vh É¡©°SƒH ¢ù«dh .Referendum An election campaign is often compared to a running race in which candidates “run for office.¥ÉÑ°ùdÉH ÉÑdÉZ á«HÉîàf’G á∏ª◊G ¿QÉ≤J .ᢢ∏˘ ˘°UÉ◊G ᢢ «˘ ˘fɢ˘ μ˘ ˘°ùdG ¤EG ´Éªà°SÓd äÉ°ù∏L ≈∏Y ô¡°ùJ á∏≤à°ùe á°ü°üîàe .¬° aQ hCG O~fi ìGÎbG ¢ aQ hCG . ~©H á«HÉîàf’G ôFGh~dG Oh~M í«ë°üJ hCG ~j~– IOÉYEG äGÒ«¨àdG ôFGh~dG ¢ùμ©J »μd ¿Éμ°ù∏d AÉ°üMEÉH ΩÉ«≤dG ¿É÷ ¤EG ᢢ«˘ ∏˘ ª˘ ©˘ dG √ò˘˘g ~˘˘¡˘ ©˘ J . Oh~M πj~©J IOÉYEG á«∏ª©H IOôØæŸG äÉj’ƒdG ¢ ©H Ωƒ≤J äGÒ«˘¨˘ à˘ dG ™˘˘e ∞˘˘«˘ μ˘ à˘ à˘ d ∂dPh ᢢ«˘ Hɢ˘î˘ à˘ f’G ô˘˘FGh~˘˘dG .áMÎ≤e Reactive Campaign A campaign that spends its resources responding to the political landscape and what happens during the campaign. ôj~e πÑpb øe …OÉY ôeCG á©LGôŸG IOÉYEG á«∏ªY ¿ƒμJ πc ¢üë˘Ø˘oJ . á«°VQC’G ‘ OhOô∏d ÉgOQGƒe ~Øæà°ùJ »àdG á∏ª◊G »g √òg . or decisions.” See Running for Office.á«°SÉ«°ùdG IôqNÉC àe kɪFGO ¿ƒμJh .§«£îàdG ¤EG ô≤àØJ »àdG á∏ª◊G . ᢰSɢ«˘°ùd º˘gÒZ hCG ÚÑ˘Nɢæ˘dG π˘Ñ˘pb ø˘e ᢫˘ ª˘ °SQ ᢢ≤˘ aGƒ˘˘e .í°TÎdG/~©≤ª∏d »°ùaÉæàdG ¥ÉÑ°ùdG ô¶fG q Ratified Formal approval by voters or other persons of proposed policies.»∏«° ØàdG . is always behind and cannot set the agenda. equal numbers of voters in each electorate. All ballot papers are re-examined and counted again.á«HÉîàf’G ôFGh~dG §FGôN áZÉ«°U ~«©Jh Ú°üàıG Redistricting The process by which individual states redraw district boundaries to adjust for changes in the population.…Qƒà°SO πj~©J hCG »∏fi ¿ƒfÉb ¥ÉÑ°S ΩÈe/¬«∏Y ¥~q °üe á∏©Øæe á∏ªM Recheck ¢üëØdG /á©LGôŸG IOÉYEG äGƒ°UC’G Rôa IOÉYEG ôFGh~dG ™«£≤J IOÉYEG ™jRƒJ IOÉYEG /á«HÉîàf’G /á«HÉîàf’G ôFGh~dG πj~©J á«HÉîàf’G IôFG~dG º°SQ IOÉYEG Redivision º«°ù≤J IOÉYEG Referendum AÉàØà°SG .áHQÉ≤àe ∫hC’G Redistribution A new arrangement of the electoral divisions in a state or territory with the result that the boundaries of some existing divisions are changed. as near as possible.á«aÉ°VEG äGƒ°UCG Rôa á«∏ªY .äÉHÉîàf’G ¢VƒN Ö≤Y »HÉîàfG ~©≤à RƒØ∏d ¿ƒë°TôŸG .áæ«©e á«° b ∫ƒM ÚæWGƒŸG . ≥HÉ°ùàj å«M . See Proactive Campaign.äGƒ°UC’G Recount A second or further count of votes in an election.64 Race R Race . ÚÑ˘Nɢf O~˘Y ¿É˘ª˘ ° d ᢢ«˘ Hɢ˘î˘ à˘ f’G Oh~◊G ~˘˘j~– IOɢ˘YEG .¿Éμ°ù∏d »ª°SôdG AÉ°üM’G Ö°ùM á«fÉμ°ùdG The redrawing of electoral boundaries to ensure that there are.IôFGO πc ‘ .mhÉ°ùàe The legal process of submitting to the voters for their approval or rejection of proposed state of local laws or constitutional amendments.

π«é°ùàdG øe »°SÉ«°ùdG Üõ◊G øμªàj »μd √òg øe ~cCÉàdG ~©H .áeƒ°Sƒe .É¡dƒÑbh ¥GQhC’G Registering the names of eligible electors and relevant information on a list of electors.ÖàμŸG Representative Democracy A government in which the adult citizens of the country vote to elect the country’s leaders.áeƒμë∏d ᫪°SôdG ¬bGQhCG Ë~≤J ¬«∏Y . the party becomes eligible to be registered.. Once the information on the application is verified and accepted.OÓÑdG IOÉb ÜÉîàfG πLCG øe ~°TqôdG qø°S . ‘ º¡æY äÉeƒ∏©ŸGh ÚÑNÉædG π«é°ùJ hCG ~««≤J á«∏ªY . address.name. Gƒ¨∏H øjòdG ádhq~dG ƒæWGƒe É¡«∏Y ´Î≤j áeƒμëH πqãªàJ A’Dƒg òîàq jh .É¡æe ÖNÉædG .65 Register of Electors . ballot marked with a type of pen or pencil other than the one provided at the polling station. ácQÉ°ûª∏d Úë°TôŸGh á«°SÉ«°ùdG ÜGõMC’G π«é°ùJ øμªoj º¡JGAÉ° eEG º«∏°ùJh º¡JÓgDƒe ¢SÉ°SCG ≈∏Y äÉHÉîàf’ÉH .íFGƒ∏dG ‘ ÚÑNÉædG Aɪ°SCG êGQOEG ≈∏Y πª©dG ƒg A rejected ballot is one that has made its way into the ballot box but has been rejected because it was improperly marked.¢ùæ÷Gh Registered Political Party In order for a political party to become registered it should submit its legal papers to the government.¥ÓW’G ɪæ«H ÜõM hCG í°Tôe øe ÌcC’ áeƒ°Sƒe ábQh .´GÎb’G õcôŸ áÑ°ùædÉH ᫪°SQ ÒZ áeÓY áaô©e øμªjo πμ°ûH áeÓY É¡«∏Y â©°Vho ábQh .¬Lƒd kÉ¡Lh π«é°ùqàdG ¬«a …ôéj ¿Éμe ƒg Registration of Parties and Candidates The act of enrolling political parties and candidates to participate in the elections.âjƒ°üà∏d Ú∏gDƒŸG ÚæWGƒŸG äÉfÉ«H I~YÉb ƒg .áq«eƒμ◊G äGQGô≤dG ¿ƒÑnîàæŸG IOÉ≤dG I~©Ñà°ùe ábÉ£H ÈY »FÉædG âjƒ°üàdG âfÎf’G á«q ∏«ã“ á«q WGô≤ÁO . hCG â«ÑdÉc Iôaƒàe âfÎfEG áμÑ°T …CG øe âjƒ°üàdG IQ~b .Üõ◊G π«é°ùJ ºàj . such as home or office. /ÚÑNÉædG qπé°S Ö£°ûdG íFGƒd πqé°ùe »°SÉ«°S ÜõM Registration ‘ π«é°ùàdG/~««≤àdG á«HÉîàf’G íFGƒ∏dG ~«≤dG/π«é°ùqàdG õcôe ÜGõMC’G π«é°ùJ Úë°TôŸGh ÚÑNÉædG π«é°ùJ Rejected Ballot . on the basis of eligibility criteria and submitted signatures and deposits.ÖLGƒ˘˘dG ƒ˘˘g ~˘˘ MGh Üõ˘˘ M hCG ~˘˘ MGh í˘˘ °Tô˘˘ e Qɢ˘ «˘ ˘à˘ ˘NG . …ƒàëj .âjƒ°üà∏d Ú∏gDƒe GƒëÑ°ü«d á«HÉîàf’G íFGƒ∏dG Registration Center A setting where registration takes place in a face-to-face setting. etc.Oôa πc øY á«°SÉ°SCG äÉeƒ∏©e ≈∏Y . .ábQƒdG º°Sƒd ≈£©oŸG »°SÉ°SC’G º∏≤dG ÒZ º∏b ∫ɪ©à°SG ÒZ áeÓY . ballot marked so the voter could be identified. ÖLƒàj .º¡JÉYG~jEGh Registration of Voters The act of entering voters in the voters lists.. It contains basic information about each person . ´GÎb’G ¥h~æ°U ‘ â©°Vho ~b ¿ƒμJ »àdG ábQƒdG »g ≈∏Y º°SƒJ n ⁄ hCG ÉC £N á≤jô£H ⪰Sho É¡fC’ â° aQo øμdh ÒZ ábQh :»g ábQh ¢ aôd á©FÉ°ûdG ÜÉÑ°SC’G . These elected leaders make the governmental decisions.äÉHÉîàfÓd Remote Internet Voting The ability to vote from anywhere an internet connection is available. or was not marked at all when a mark was required.Representative Democracy Register of Electors It is a database of citizens who are qualified to vote. unusual marks. unofficial mark according to the law. ballot with mark for more than one candidate/political party/option when only one was supposed to be chosen.º°S’Éc . Also known as Enrolment.).IO’ƒdG ïjQÉJh .¿Gƒæ©dGh .ájOÉY É¡H ±Î©ŸG IôFG~dG êQÉN áeƒ°Sƒe ábQh hCG . The most common criteria to reject a ballot are: ballot with no mark. or ballot marked in a location prohibited by legislation (outside the circle. sex and date of birth.

. The art of influencing others through the use of words. the voters.ÜGõMC’G Returning Officer A returning officer is responsible for the preparation and conduct of an election in a specific electoral district. past elections.ô˘˘°ûÑ˘˘dGh ∫ÉŸGh ø˘˘eõ˘˘dG »˘˘gh ¿ƒμj ¿CG º¡ŸG øe ~©j ∂dòc . your candidate and any viable opponents. å«˘M .ÚÑ˘Nɢæ˘dG ᢫˘Ñ˘∏˘ ZCɢ H õ˘˘Fɢ˘Ø˘ dG ¿EÉa . the district.»eƒμM Ö°üæe πLCG øe á«HÉîàfG á∏ªëH ΩÉ«≤dG Run The act of campaigning for elective office. åëÑdG/çƒëÑdG Resident º«≤e èFÉàf /´GÎb’G Öàμe ¢ù«FQ ÜÉîàf’G QƒeCÉe áZÓH áªFÉb Rule of Finite Resources IOh~ÙG OQGƒŸG I~YÉb Ruling Party ºcÉM ÜõM . and must make decisions about how to use those resources.øeõdG Results Information as to the successful candidate or candidates or party or parties.¥ÉÑ°ùdG ô¶fG .Running for Office All the information that will influence this election that your campaign can find.äɪ∏μdG Roll See Electoral List. Ω~©H QGôb ¬°ùØf âbƒdG ‘ ƒg Ée πª©d QGôb …CG ¿CG »æ©Jh .Ú«°SÉ«°ùdG ÚH ™FÉ°T øØdG Gòg . Every campaign has a limited number of each of the resources.OQGƒŸG ∂∏J ∫Ó¨à°S’ . an election held to determine a winner with a majority of the votes when none of the candidates received a majority in the first round.á«HÉîàfG áëF’ ô¶fG Every decision to do something is a decision not to do something else.OQGƒŸG øe Oh~fi O~Y á∏ªM πμ∏a .Aɢ˘jƒ˘˘ bC’G . Research is the first step in putting together a campaign strategy and plan. á¨dÉÑŸG ∫ɪ©à°SG .ôNBG A»°T πªY QGô˘≤˘dG ò˘î˘à˘ J ¿CG »˘˘¨˘ Ñ˘ æ˘ jh .” See Race.~©≤ŸÉH RƒØ∏d ¿ƒë°TôŸG ≥HÉ°ùàj í°TÎdG/äÉHÉîàf’G ¢VƒN q ¥ÉÑ°ù∏d ~j~L ¥Ó£fG Running for Office /~©≤ª∏d »°ùaÉæJ ¥ÉÑ°S í°TÎdG q .~j~L ¥ÉÑ°S ‘ ¿É≤∏£æ«°S ¤hC’G IQh~dG ‘ An election campaign is often compared to a running race in which candidates “run for office.á«Ñ∏ZC’G ∂∏àÁ hCG á£∏°ùdG ‘ »°SÉ«°ùdG Üõ◊G . »àdGh .66 Research Research .¢Vô˘˘n©˘ dGh . Run Off In certain systems.á«dÉ©ØH á¨∏dG ∫ɪ©à°SG ≈∏Y IQ~≤dG ∫ɢª˘©˘à˘°SG ∫Ó˘N ø˘e Ò¨˘dG ≈˘∏˘Y ÒKɢà˘dG ø˘˘a . The top two candidates who received the most votes in the first round will run in the run-off election. This may include information about the election rules. hCG Ú뢰TôŸG q ø˘e kGRƒ˘a Rô˘MCG ønà ≥˘q∏˘©˘ à˘ J äɢ˘eƒ˘˘∏˘ ©˘ e »˘˘g . øe á∏jƒW I~Ÿ øq«©e ¿Éμe ‘ ¢û«©j …òdG ¢üî°ûdG .¿ÉμŸG Gòg ‘ ~dho …òdG OôØdG hCG .πÑ≤ŸG ÜÉîàf’Gh ™˘˘°Vƒ˘˘d ¤hC’G Iƒ˘˘£ÿG »˘˘g çƒ˘˘ë˘ Ñ˘ dG AGô˘˘LEGh . this election. time.¤hC’G IQh~dG ‘ ÚÑNÉædG á«Ñ∏ZCG ≈∏Y Úë°TôŸG äGƒ°UC’G á«Ñ∏ZCÉH áªFÉ≤dG ≈∏YCG ÓàMG øjò∏dG Úë°TôŸG . The undue use of exaggeration or display.áæq«©e áq«HÉîàfG IôFGO ‘ É¡FGôLEGh Rhetoric The ability to use language effectively.¥É˘Ñ˘°ùdG á˘Ñ˘∏˘ë˘H É˘Ñ˘dɢZ ᢫˘Hɢî˘à˘f’G á˘∏˘ª◊G ¿Qɢ˘≤˘ J .á«é«JGΰS’G í°VƒJ áHƒàμe á∏ªM á£N ∂d The party that becomes the administrative and policymaking center of the government. äɢHɢî˘à˘ f’G Ò° – ø˘˘Y ∫hDƒ˘ °ùe ƒ˘˘g Üɢ˘î˘ à˘ f’G Qƒ˘˘eCɢ e . It is therefore important to have a written campaign plan which lays out the strategy. The use of rhetoric is common among politicians.ɢ¡˘©˘ª˘L á˘∏˘ª˘ë˘∏˘d ø˘μÁ á˘≤˘Hɢ°ùdG äɢHɢî˘à˘f’Gh ÚÑ˘Nɢæ˘dGh ô˘FGh~˘dGh äɢHɢî˘à˘f’G Ú°ùaÉæŸGh ∂ë°Tôe øY äÉeƒ∏©eh .᪶fC’G ¢ ©H ‘ ø˘e …CG π˘°üë˘j ’ ɢª˘æ˘«˘Mh . øe ~j~ëàd ÜÉîàfG AGôLEG ºàj Ée~æY .ÜÉîàf’G Gòg ‘ ôKDƒà°S »àdG äÉeƒ∏©ŸG πc »g ~YGƒb äɢeƒ˘∏˘©ŸG ø˘ª˘° à˘J ~˘bh . money and people.á£ÿGh á∏ª◊G á«é«JGΰSG Someone who lives at a particular place for a prolonged period or who was born there .

they are salvaged and transferred to the next choice on each ballot.≈¨∏oJ ’ äGƒ°UC’G .äGƒY~dG A person appointed by a candidate to observe voting and the scrutiny and count of ballot papers to satisfy their candidate that the poll was conducted strictly in accordance with the law.Semi-P Proportional System The votes of a dropped candidate.á°ùaÉæŸG IôFGO øe êôN m í°Tôe q äGƒ°UCG »g ‹Éàq dG QÉ«ÿG ¤EG ∫ƒëo q Jh Oq ΰùJ πH . á∏ªë∏d ΩÉ©dG πé°ùdG øY ∫hDƒ°ùe á∏ª◊G øe ¢üî°T ƒg ≈˘˘∏˘ Y Oô˘˘dGh í˘˘°Tô˘˘ª˘ ∏˘ d »˘˘æ˘ eõ˘˘dG π˘˘é˘ °ùdGh ᢢ eɢ˘ fRhô˘˘ dGh . √òg q¿GC ÒZ .¿ƒfÉ≤dG The checking and counting of ballot papers to ascertain the result of an election.´GÎb’G ábQh ≈∏Y Sampling of Results A small part of the results intended as representative of the whole.¿ÉŸÈdG ‘ ~©≤e Seat Allocation In the context of elections. √Qɢ«˘à˘NG á˘jô˘°S ´Î≤˘ª˘∏˘d ø˘ª˘° j …ò˘dG Üɢî˘à˘f’G CG~˘Ñ˘ e . used because the candidate elected then has a seat in parliament.…O~©àdG …ÌcC’G ΩɶædG ájÌcCGh »Ñ°ùædG ΩɶædG á«Ñ°ùf .í°Tôª∏d hCG »°SÉ«°ùdG Üõë∏d Semi-P Proportional System Semi-PR systems are those which inherently translate votes cast into seats won in a way that falls somewhere between the proportionality of Proportional Representation (PR) systems and the majoritarianism of plurality-majority systems.äÉHÉîàf’G Seat Another term for division.äɢ˘Hɢ˘î˘ à˘ f’G ¥É˘˘«˘ °S ‘ ¢SÉ°SCG ≈∏Y Úë°TôŸG hCG á«°SÉ«°ùdG ÜGõMCÓd á«©jô°ûàdG . Secret Ballot Principle of voting that ensures that no one will know which political party or candidate the voter has chosen. ~YÉ≤ŸG O~©H äGƒ°UC’G kÉ°SÉ°SCG ºLÎj …òdG ΩɶædG ƒg ÚH ™≤J á«Ñjô≤J á≤jôW ¤EG ÉC é∏jh ¿ƒë°TôŸG É¡H RÉa »àdG . the process of distributing the seats in a legislative assembly to political parties or candidates on the basis of the number of votes they have obtained.É¡«∏Y Gƒ∏°üM »àdG äGƒ°UC’G O~Y èFÉàædG øe äÉæ«q Y QÉ«àNG ∫ph~néoe Scrutineer ≥qb~e Scrutiny ≥«b~J ~©≤e ~YÉ≤ŸG ™jRƒJ . the candidate’s calendar and responding to invitations. ÖîàæŸG í°Tôª∏d ¿C’ πª©à°ùoJ .67 Salvaged Votes IOq ΰùe äGƒ°UCG S Salvaged Votes .º«°ù≤J áª∏μd ôNBG ÒÑ©J .ÚJQhO ≈∏Y …ÌcCG Ωɶf ô¶fG ´GÎbÓd »HÉîàfG Ωɶf ÊÉãdG /âjƒ°üàdG ájô°S …ô°ùdG ´GÎb’G »Ñ°ùf ∞°üf Ωɶf . Scheduler The person in the campaign responsible for keeping the campaign calendar. è˘Fɢ˘à˘ f ø˘˘e ≥˘˘q≤˘ ë˘ à˘ ∏˘ d ´GÎb’G äɢ˘bɢ˘£˘ H q~˘ Yh ᢢ©˘ LGô˘˘e . ¥GQhCG ~q ˘Yh ≥˘«˘b~˘à˘dh äɢHɢî˘à˘f’G á˘Ñ˘bGôŸ í˘°TôŸG ¬˘æ˘«˘©˘jo Ö°ùM Ò°ùJ äÉHÉîàf’G ¿CÉH ´ÉæàbÓd ∂dPh ´GÎb’G .πμdG π«ã“ ¤EG ±~¡j èFÉàædG øe Ò¨°U AõL Second Ballot Electoral System See Two-Round System. These votes are not dropped. ᢫˘©˘ª÷G ‘ ~˘Yɢ≤ŸG ™˘˘jRƒ˘˘J ƒ˘˘g .

á≤∏£ŸG á«Ñ∏ZC’G ≈∏Y ∫ƒ°ü◊G Single Member Plurality works with single-member districts. πμ°û«°S áëFÓdG ≈∏Y ¬ª°SG OƒLh ¿CG ´Î≤ŸG Gòg ~≤à©j πé°ùj ¿CG øμÁh ¬Jô°SCG OGôaCG ≈∏Yh ¬«∏Y kÉ«°üî°T kGô£N . then either a re-run is provided for in which the permitted number of candidates from the earlier poll are allowed to contest or some other arrangement is put in place to ensure that the winner in the end does command an absolute majority. meaning geographically-defined districts that send one representative to a legislature. the country.Single Member Plurality (SMP) An elector who believes that having their name on the roll will place their personal safety or that of members of their family at risk can apply to have their address not shown on the roll.68 Silent Elector âeÉ°U ´Î≤e Single Mandate /~MGh ~¡Y/I~MGh áj’h OôØe ~©≤e Single Member District /~MGh ƒ° Y äGP IôFGO ájOôa IôFGO Single Member Majority System ~MGh ~©≤à …ÌcCG Ωɶf Single Member Plurality (SMP) ~MGh ~©≤à »Ñ∏ZCG Ωɶf Silent Elector .ôNBG k≈æ©Ã .∂dP ø˘˘e í˘˘°TôŸG n ø˘˘μ˘ ª˘ à˘ j ⁄ GPEG äÉHÉîàf’G øe ¿ƒë°TôŸG É¡«a iQÉÑàjh ká«fÉK äÉHÉîàf’G í˘˘°TôŸG ¿É˘˘ª˘ ° d iô˘˘NCG äGAGô˘˘ LGE ò˘˘ NDƒ˘ ˘J hCG ᢢ ≤˘ ˘Hɢ˘ °ùdG .᢫˘©˘jô˘°ûà˘dG á˘Ä˘ «˘ ¡˘ dG ÌcCG ≈∏Y π°üëj …òdG ƒg õFÉØdGh . he/she must obtain more votes than the combined votes of all the other candidates. However. Voters in a given district cast one vote for their favorite candidate. The point is made that this system may not lead to as broad representation of minority interests as systems by which districts select several people to represent them.~MGh ~©≤à IôFG~dG Ωɶf ™e ΩɶædG Gòg πª©j ¤EG kG~MGh kÓ㇠π°SôJ kÉ«aGô¨L IO~ÙG IôFG~dG ¿CG ∂dP á˘æ˘«˘©˘e Iô˘FGO ‘ ¿ƒ˘YÎ≤ŸG Öî˘à˘æ˘j . If no candidate is able to secure an absolute majority of votes.äGƒ°UC’G πμd í°TôŸG O~– »àdG á«dhC’G »g ¤hC’G . and the candidate receiving the most votes is elected. in which primaries are held to determine a nominee from each major party.kÉJGƒ°UCG kGƒ° Y ÖîàæJ ÉgQh~H »àdG á«HÉîàf’G ôFGh~dG¤EG ~MGh ≈∏Y ∫ƒ°ü◊G Éæg õFÉØdG ≈∏Yh . In other words. This system commonly works in a series of two elections. is also divided into constituencies and each constituency returns only one member to the National Assembly. followed by a general election that pits the primary winners against one another.á«æWƒdG á«©ªé∏d kG~MGh ¬«∏Y ÖLƒàj . »æ©jh .¢UÉî°TCG As in the Single Member Plurality (SMP) or the first Past the Post (FPTP) system.äGƒ°UC’G øe á≤∏£ŸG á«Ñ∏ZC’G . the winner must obtain an absolute majority of votes in the constituency in the (SMM).¢ ©ÑdG º¡° ©H ~°V ÚdhC’G . . ÌcCÓd RƒØdG Ωɶf hCG ~MGh ~©≤à »Ñ∏ZC’G ΩɶædG ‘ ɪc ~©≤à …ÌcC’G ΩɶædG ™Ñàj …òdG ~∏ÑdG º°ù≤ n oj .äÉHÉîàf’G ø˘jõ˘FÉ˘Ø˘dG ¢Vô– »˘à˘dG ᢫˘eƒ˘ª˘©˘ dG »˘˘g ᢢ«˘ fɢ˘ã˘ dGh .á«eƒμ◊G á«©ª÷G ‘ m~MGhm ¢üî°ûH πãªoJ á«HÉîàfG IôFGO π«ã“ ¤EG …ODƒj ’ ΩɶædG Gòg ¿CG ¤EG Éæg IQÉ°TE’G Q~éj I~©H πsãªjo …òdG ôFGh~dG Ωɶf ¢ùμ©H äÉ«∏bC’G ΩɪàgG . in the Single Member Majority System (SMM).π° ØŸG º¡ë°Tôe øe Úà∏°ù∏°S ¢SÉ°SCG ≈∏Y ΩɶædG Gòg πª©jh .ÚbÉÑdG Úë°TôŸÉH káfQÉ≤e äGƒ°UC’G ÌcCG ≈∏Y ∫ƒ°ü◊G AGô˘LEG Oɢ©˘ oj ɢ˘g~˘˘æ˘ Y .á∏ª◊G ¬∏LCG øe ≈©°ùJ …òdG ~©≤ŸÉH í°Tôe An electoral district which sends a single person to represent it in a governmental assembly. ’EG RƒØj ’ å«M .qπé°ùdG ≈∏Y ¬fGƒæY RGôHEG ¿hO ¬ª°SG An election district in which one candidate will win the position sought in this campaign.~MGh ~©≤e äGP á«HÉîàfG IôFGO »gh .Üõ˘˘M .

ÚYÎ≤ŸGh ~YÉ≤ŸG IO~©àŸG ôFGh~dG ´GÎb’G Gòg πª©à°ùj ᢫˘∏˘° aC’G π˘°ù∏˘°ùJ Ö°ùM Ú뢰TôŸG ¿ƒ˘Ñ˘î˘à˘æ˘ j ø˘˘jò˘˘dG ø˘μ˘ ªŸG ø˘˘e . a very short statement.~MGh í°TôŸ q âjƒ°üJ áeÓY AÉ£YEG . A slogan is not a message.kÉ«fƒfÉb ¿CG É¡«∏©a .ÉJƒμdG ™°VƒH q~©dG GC ~Ñj . After the total number of first preferential votes are counted the count begins by establishing the quota.ºμ◊G ≈∏Y ô£«°ùj ¿CG ~MGh »°SÉ«°S Üõ◊ ≥ëj .OƒLƒdÉH ájƒfÉK ÜGõMC’ ìɪ°ùdG øe ºZôdÉHh ¬˘˘Hɢ˘°ûà˘˘ j ’ Üõ◊G Gò˘˘ g . with voters ranking candidates in order of preference on the ballot paper in the same manner as the Alternative Vote.áYGPE’Gh ¿ƒjõØ∏àdG Sound Trucks Automobiles with loud speakers attached to them that go through areas of the district broadcasting a message.õcGôŸG √òg ¿ƒ∏¨°ûj øjòdG ºg äGƒ°UCG áÑ°ùf Single Party System Only one political party is legally allowed to hold effective power.áæ«∏dG ∫GƒeC’G/áÑ∏°üdG ∫GƒeC’G ô¶fG Sound Bite In the reporting of TV news.ÖNÉædÉH ∫É°üJÓd äÉ«FôŸG è¡æe /≠«∏H õLƒe ôjô≤J á«Jƒ°üdG áª≤∏dG »eÓYEG 䃰U äÉHôY . lasting no more than a few seconds. however. 䃰üdG äGÈμe πª– »àdG äÉHô©dGh äGQÉ«°ùdG »gh øe kGAõL ~©Jh . .IôZÉ°T IO~©àe ~YÉ≤e . identical to the government. image.πj~ÑdG âjƒ˘°üà˘dG ‘ ɢª˘c …Qɢ«˘ à˘ N’G äGƒ°UC’G OG~©J ~©H .Sound Trucks Single Non-TTransferable Vote A voting system under which each elector has one vote even though there are multiple seats to be filled.Úë°TôŸG q ±ƒØ°U ÚH øe ~MGhm ¢üî°T ÜÉîàfG πª°ûJ This is a short phrase that voters may remember to identify the candidate or campaign. If they wish they can mark only one. although sometimes positions within the party may in fact be more important than positions within the government. These are considered part of the visibility method of voter contact.áeƒμ◊G ‘ »àdG Uses multi-member districts.∫hCq ’G q»∏«° ØqàdG ´GÎb’G ‘ The election of one person from a field of candidates. they are legally required to accept the leadership of the dominant party.á∏ª◊G ÒZ …Oôa 䃰U/´GÎbG Ò«éà∏d πHÉb ~MGƒdG Üõ◊G Ωɶf Single Transferable Vote πHÉb …Oôa 䃰U/´GÎbG âjƒ°üàdG/Ò«éà∏d IQh~dG /äGQÉ«ÿG ≈∏Y äGQÉ«àNEÓd ᪰SÉ◊G Single-S Seat Election ~MGƒdG ~©≤ŸG äÉHÉîàfG Slogan QÉ©°T Soft Money See Hard Money/Soft Money.ádÉ°SôdG ƒg ¢ù«d QÉ©°ûdGh . Although minor parties may sometimes be allowed. This party may not always be. Those candidates with the highest vote totals fill these positions. or perception that will attract the viewing audience’s attention.Qƒ¡ª÷G ΩɪàgG Üò÷ áæq«©e äɢμ˘Ñ˘°T √Qqô˘μ˘Jh ɢe í˘˘°Tô˘ q ˘e ¬˘˘≤˘ ∏˘ £˘ j ô˘˘KDƒ˘ e ™˘˘bh hP ∫ƒ˘˘b . . that tries to convey a specific idea.º˘˘ cÉ◊G Üõ◊G IOɢ˘ «˘ ˘b π˘˘ Ñ˘ ˘≤˘ ˘J ∂∏J øe ºgCG ~YÉ≤e ≈∏Y ¬FGƒàMG øe ºZôdÉH áeƒμ◊ÉH . Preference marking is optional and voters are not required to rank-order all candidates. OƒLh øe ºZôdÉH kG~MGh kÉJƒ°U ÖNÉædG íæÁ âjƒ°üJ Ωɶf ≈∏YCG ≈∏Y ¿ƒ∏°UÉ◊G ¿ƒë°TôŸG .ádÉ°SôdG øY áæ∏©e IôFG~dG ‘ ∫ƒéàJh . Iôμa hCG kGõLƒe kÉfÉ«H ¬«a Ω~≤oj ájQÉÑNEG Iô°ûf ‘ ™£≤e hCG IQÉÑY .§≤a m¿Gƒãd Ωh~jh . hCG í°TôŸG ~j~ëàH ÚÑNÉædG ôcòJ ~b áÑ° à≤e IQÉÑY ƒgh . /áæ«∏dG ∫GƒeC’G ô°ù«àŸG q ∫ÉŸG .69 Single Non-TTransferable Vote .

and by extension the public. For example. after a debate between the presidential candidates. public service. Sponsors include private businesses.Ú©ªà°ùŸG øe ~°û◊ A media adviser or political consultant employed by a campaign to ensure that the candidate receives the best possible publicity in any given situation.á°UÉÿG ''º¡à¨Ñ°üH'' ¬fƒ¨Ñ°üj hCG ç~◊G hCG ™°VƒdG Ballot paper wrongly marked or damaged which may be replaced by a pooling official.¢SÉædG øe áYƒªÛ É«¡Ø°T Ω~≤J äɶMÓà IOÉY ~©J . Advance Voting and Absentee Voting.ᢢ«˘ ©˘ ª÷G ~bh . ¿ƒμjh »æeõdG ∫h~÷G êQÉN IOÉY ~≤©j ÜÉîàfG ƒgh ‘ ÚYÎ≤ŸG O~˘Y ¢ Ø˘î˘æ˘jh .~˘˘©˘ ≤ŸG ô˘˘¨˘ °ûd ɢ˘«˘ ∏˘ «˘ ª˘ μ˘ J ÜÉîàf’G ô˘¶˘fG .IôXÉæŸG >Ö°ùc' …òdG ƒg º¡ë°Tôe ¿CÉH . hCG .äÉHÉîàf’G Ωƒj ´GÎbÓd É¡«a ºgAɪ°SCG Gƒ∏qé°S »àdG Usually prepared remarks given orally to a group of people or a large audience.äÉeƒμ◊G hG á©eÉL . »HÉ«Z ´GÎbGh An election not held at the usually scheduled time. õcGôe ¤EG Qƒ° ◊G øY øjõLÉ©dG ÚÑîàæª∏d ´GÎbG ábÉ£H Ω~q ≤àe ´GÎbGh ~jÈdG ÈY ´GÎbG ¤EG ô¶fG . øY øjõLÉ©dG ÚÑNÉqædG πLCG øe ICÉ°ûæe äÓ«¡°ùJ »g áq«HÉîàf’G IôFGq~dG øª°V .᪶æe hCG ¢üî°ûH ôeC’G ≥∏©àj ´Ó˘£˘à˘°SG hCG ᢫˘Hɢî˘à˘f’G á˘jɢY~˘dG ∫ƒ“ …ò˘˘dG . hCG Üõ◊G hCG í°TôŸG ÒZ .Üõ◊G hCG í°TôŸG I~FÉØd äÉHÉîàf’G ∫ÓN …CGô∏d hCG á«eƒμM ÒZ ᪶æe hCG á°UÉN á°ù°SDƒe »YGôdG ¿ƒμj .70 Special Ballot /á°UÉN ábQh-ábÉ£H ¢UÉN âjƒ°üJ Special Election ]»FõL[ ¢UÉN ÜÉîàfG Special Voting ¢UÉN q âjƒ°üJ/´GÎbG Speech áÑ£N/ÜÉ£N Spin Doctor/Spin /á«eÓYE’G á≤dò◊G á≤dò◊G PÉà°SCG Spoilt Ballot áØdÉJ ábÉ£H Sponsor »YGôdG /m ´GQ Special Ballot .É¡dG~Ñà°SG ™ª÷G øY ∫hDƒ°ùª∏d An external funding source that enters into an agreement with a person or an organization to support research. often to fill a vacancy in the office.q…OÉYm ´GÎbG õcôe ¤EG ∫ƒ°UƒdG .Sponsor A ballot paper for electors unable to attend a polling station. foundations and other not-for-profit organizations. instruction.»YôØdG hCG »∏«ªμàdG Facilities for electors who on voting day are unable to access a normal voting station in the electoral district in which they are registered to vote.áØ∏àe hCG ÉC £N á≤jô£H áeƒ°Sƒe ´GÎbG ábQh . There is often a much lower voter turnout in a special or by-election. See also Postal vote. corporations.±hô¶dG øe ±ôX …CG ‘ á«eÓYE’G ÚHõ◊G »ë°Tôe ÚH IôXÉæe ~≤©H >á≤dò◊G IòJÉ°SCG' Ωƒ≤j ‘ Iƒ≤dG øWGƒe QÉ¡X’ áaÉë°üdG ∫ÉLôH ∫É°üJ’ÉH á°SÉFô∏d . øμªŸG øeh .ᢰUÉÿG q hCG ᢫˘ ∏˘ «˘ ª˘ μ˘ à˘ dG äɢ˘Hɢ˘î˘ à˘ f’G . ~cCÉà∏d Ée á«HÉîàfG á∏ªM ¬ØXƒJ »°SÉ«°S hCG »eÓYEG QÉ°ûà°ùe ᢢ«˘ £˘ ¨˘ à˘ dG ø˘˘e ø˘˘μ‡ Q~˘˘b π˘˘° aCG ɢ˘¡˘ ë˘ °Tô˘˘ e ∫ɢ˘ æ˘ ˘j ¿CG ø˘˘ e ¿CG ∂dP ≈∏Y ∫Éãe . that their candidate “won” the debate. they are said to be “spinning” or putting “spin” on a situation or event.ΩÓY’G πFÉ°Sh ´ÉæbEG ádhÉfih IôXÉæŸG AÉæKCG º¡ë°Tôe . universities. or other sponsored electoral activities. When these media advisers practice their craft.´GÎb’G . each candidate’s “spin doctors” will seek out journalists so they can point out their candidate’s strengths in the debate and try to convince the press.Qƒ¡ª÷G ‹ÉàdÉHh ''¿ƒ¨Ñ°üj'' Ú«˘˘eÓ˘˘ Y’G ø˘˘ jQɢ˘ °ûà˘˘ °ùŸG ¿EG ∫ɢ˘ ≤˘ ˘j Gò˘˘ μ˘ ˘gh . See By-Election. and all levels governments.

taken in such a haphazard fashion that any results are not based upon the sample being truly representative of the population. hCG ádÉ°SôdG ∫É°üjEG ‘ á∏ª◊G hCG í°TôŸG ôªà°ùj Ée~æY ¿CG ∫hÉëj Ée ÉÑdÉZ ¢ùaÉæŸG . The callers are unlikely to represent all of the important segments/ characteristics of the population as a whole.~©≤ŸÉH RƒØdGh í°TôŸG ÜÉîàf’ ´GÎb’G Ωƒj ≈àM á∏ª◊G .É¡àdÉ°SQ QGôμJ øY G~«©H á∏ª◊G qôéj .á∏ª◊G ±~g ≥«≤– ¤EG …ODƒj ∫É©ØdG ∫Ó¨à°S’G Gògh This is a nonscientific poll. í˘°Tô˘ª˘∏˘d äGAɢ≤˘∏˘ dG ø˘˘e ᢢ∏˘ °ù∏˘˘°S hCG äɢ˘Yɢ˘ª˘ à˘ LG »˘˘gh ~j~–h áeRÓdG äÉeƒ∏©ŸG ™ª÷ Ú°ù«FôdG øjQÉ°ûà°ùŸGh √ò˘˘g ¿ƒ˘˘μ˘ J ¿CG »˘˘¨˘ ˘Ñ˘ ˘æ˘ ˘jh .áëfÉ°S á°Uôa …CG ‘ ¿ƒª° ŸG …OÉØJ º¡ŸG øeh .kÓãe . or short series of meetings. This speech should contain the campaign message as its core and be repeated at every opportunity.áæ«©e áJCÉ°ùŸ âjƒ°üàdG ‘ ''’'' hCG ''º©f'' ∫ƒ≤H Qƒ° ◊G .á∏ªë∏d á£N ᨫ°U ‘ áHƒàμe á«é«JGΰS’G . .á«q HÉîàf’G áëFÓdG ≈∏Y . This strategy must be written down in the form of a campaign plan. of the candidate and any key advisors that will gather the necessary information and determine the overall strategy of the campaign. of what the campaign will do from this point to election day to elect the candidate to the chosen office. .¬Jƒ°üH A’OEÓd ¬°ùØf ÖNÉæq dG ∫~H ¢üî°T ¬Lq ƒàj Ée~æY l Aɢ˘° eE’G ᢢfQɢ˘≤˘ eh ᢢ©˘ ˘LGôŸG ∫Ó˘˘ N ø˘˘ e ¬˘˘ Ø˘ ˘°ûc ø˘˘ μÁ »àdG ∂∏J ™e ÚÑNÉæq dG πq é°S ‘ ô¡¶J »àdG äɪ°üÑdGh äÉHÉîàf’G ô° fi ¤EG áaÉ°VE’ÉH . It will be uncovered and proven by the revision of ballots and the comparison between the signatures and thumbmarks appearing in the Book of Voters and those appearing in the List of Voters with Voting Records used on election day.ÖNÉf áØ°U hCG ´GÎb’G ≥M .É¡æ«M πª©à°ùj …òdG /ádÉ°SôdG ≈∏Y AÉ≤ÑdG /ádÉ°SôdÉH ΩGõàd’G ádÉ°SôdG QGôμJ §«£îàdG á°ù∏L »é«JGΰS’G á«é«JGΰSG Straw Poll /»ª°SQ ÒZ »ÑjôŒ âjƒ°üJ ΩÉ©dG …CGô∏d ´Ó£à°SG Stump Speech áj~YÉb áÑ£N Substitution of Voter ôNBÉH ÖNÉf ∫G~HEG Suffrage /âjƒ°üàdÉH …hÉ°ùàŸG ≥◊G ÜÉîàf’G ≥M The right to vote or the Franchise. ¬H Ωƒ≤à°S Ée hCG .71 Stay on Message .πμc Ö©°ûdG øe kIõ«e /kGAõL âjƒ°üJ’ Gòg πuãÁ A standard speech delivered by a candidate on many occasions. .∂dP ´ƒbh Strategic Planning Session A meeting. written into the Campaign Plan.áëfÉ°S á°Uôa πc ‘ OOôJ When a voter goes to cast a vote instead of another voter. See Campaign Plan.Ö©°ûdG . Often the opponent will try to pull the campaign off their message but it is critical not to let this happen. .äÉÑ°SÉæe I~Y ‘ í°TôŸG É¡dƒ≤j ájQÉ«©e áÑ£N »gh ¿CG ≈∏Y É¡ª«ª°U ‘ á∏ª◊G ádÉ°SQ ≈∏Y …ƒà– ¿CG »¨Ñæjh . An example would be TV broadcasters asking members of the viewing audience to call in with a “yes” or “no” vote regarding a particular issue or question.ᢢ ∏˘ ˘eɢ˘ μ˘ ˘dG ᢢ «˘ ˘é˘ ˘«˘ ˘JGΰS’G .á∏ª◊G á£N ‘ ܃àμŸG è¡æŸG »gh .»ª∏pY ÒZ AÉàØà°SG π«ãªàd áæq«Y ¬fCG ¢SÉ°SCG ≈∏Y »æÑe ÒZ èFÉàædG øe …CGh ¢ ©H øe ¿ƒjõØ∏àdG ƒ©jòe Ö∏£j Ée~æY .Suffrage Stay on Message When a candidate or campaign continues to deliver the same message or theme at every opportunity.á∏ª◊G á£N ô¶fG Strategy The method.á«FGƒ°ûY á≤jô£H ™bGƒdG ‘ PƒNCÉe .

72

Supporters - Swing Voter

Supporters

Voters and others who have been identified
by the campaign as people who will vote
for the candidate or party in this election.

¢UÉî°TCÉc á∏ª◊G øe ºg~j~– ” øjòdG ¿ƒÑNÉædG ºg
.ÜÉîàf’G Gòg ‘ Üõë∏d hCG í°Tôª∏d ¿ƒYÎ≤«°S

Surplus Votes

Are votes that a candidate may have in
excess of the quota of votes in a Single
Transferable Vote Election.

m πμ°ûH ,øq«©e í°Tôe
q É¡«∏Y π°üëj »àdG äGƒ°UC’G »g
m
~ªà©J äÉHÉîàfG ‘ áq«Ñ°ùqædG äGƒ°UC’G ¢ü°üM øY ~jõj
.Ò«éqà∏d πHÉ≤dG …q OôØdG 䃰üdG-´GÎb’G

Anyone speaking on behalf of the candidate or otherwise officially representing
the candidate.

.É«ª°SQ ¬∏ãÁ hCG í°TôŸG øY áHÉfE’ÉH ¢üî°T …CG

The difference between the performance
of a candidate or party at one election in
comparison to a previous election.

äÉHÉîàf’G i~MEG ‘ ÜõM hCG í°Tôe
q AGOCG ÚH ¥ôØdG
.á≤HÉ°S mäÉHÉîàfG ™e káfQÉ≤e

An election district has a history of voting for different parties or different
types of candidates in the same or consecutive elections. Because the district
can “swing” back and forth between different parties or candidates, it is often
important to spend campaign resources
to persuade voters in these districts to
ensure that the campaign wins them.
See Persuadability.

ÜGõMC’ ´GÎb’G øe ïjQÉJ É¡d á«HÉîàfG IôFGO »g h
ÜÉî˘à˘f’G ‘ Ú뢰Tô˘ª˘∏˘d ähÉ˘Ø˘à˘e ƒ˘ë˘f ≈˘∏˘Yh á˘Ø˘∏˘àfl
Úª«dG ÚH íLQCÉàJ É¡fC’ ,ÚàÑbÉ©àe ÚJQhO ‘ hCG ¬°ùØf
.ÚØ˘∏˘àıG Ú뢰TôŸGh á˘Ø˘ ∏˘ àıG ÜGõ˘˘MC’G ÚHh ,Qɢ˘°ù«˘˘dGh
‘ ÚÑNÉædG ´ÉæbE’ ÉgOQGƒe á∏ª◊G ≥ØæJ ¿CG kɪ¡e ~q ©jh
.º¡JGƒ°UCÉH RƒØdG ¿Éª° d IôFG~dG √òg
.´ÉæbE’G á«fÉμeEG ô¶fG

Precincts within a particular election
district that have a history of voting for
different parties or different ideologies
in different elections. The campaign
may want to put extra resources into
these districts to ensure that the candidate wins them. See Precincts.

øe ïjQÉJ É¡dh á«HÉîàf’G IôFG~dG øª°V IÒ¨°U IôFGO »gh
‘ áJhÉØàe äÉ«Lƒdƒj~jEG hCG áØ∏àfl ÜGõMC’ ´GÎb’G
A’Dƒg ~©jh .áØ∏àfl äÉHÉîàfG ‘ hCG ¬°ùØf ÜÉîàf’G
º¡«dEG π°UƒàdG ” GPEG º¡YÉæbEG øμªŸG øª°V ¿ƒÑNÉædG
.iôNCG äÉeƒ∏©Ã hCG I~«L á∏ªM ádÉ°SôH
.á«HÉîàfG IôFGO ô¶fG

Voters who are not tied to a particular
political party or ideology, but have a
history of voting for different parties or
different ideologies in the same or different elections. These voters are considered persuadable and likely to be
reached by a good campaign message or
other information. See Persuadable Voter.

hCG õ˘«‡ »˘°Sɢ«˘°S Üõ˘ë˘H º˘¡˘d á˘∏˘°U ’ ø˘jò˘˘dG ¿ƒ˘˘Ñ˘ Nɢ˘æ˘ dG
hCG ÜGõ˘˘MC’ ´GÎbG ï˘˘jQɢ˘J º˘˘ ¡˘ ˘d ø˘˘ μ˘ ˘dh ᢢ «˘ ˘Lƒ˘˘ dh~˘˘ jCɢ ˘H
.ɢgÒZ hCG ɢ¡˘°ùØ˘f äɢHɢî˘à˘f’G ‘ á˘Ø˘∏˘àfl äɢ«˘Lƒ˘dh~˘jCG
GPEG á«HÉîàf’G á∏ª◊G ádÉ°SôH º¡YÉæbEG øμªjo ¬fCG º¡Jõ«e
.¬YÉæbEG øμªŸG ÖNÉædG ô¶fG .I~«L âfÉc

¿h~jq ƒD e

á° FÉa äGƒ°UCG
Surrogate

πj~H/¢VƒØe/π«ch
Swing

íLQCÉJ
Swing District

áëLQCÉàe IôFGO

Swing Precincts

áëLQCÉàe á«HÉîàfG IôFGO

Swing Voter

íLQCÉàe ÖNÉf

73

Tabulation of Votes

T

Tabulation of Votes - Tendered Ballot

The process of compiling the result of a
count at the election.

.äÉHÉîàf’G ‘ ~©dG èFÉàæd ™ª÷G á«∏ªY

Tactics

A procedure or set of maneuvers engaged
in to achieve an end, an aim, or a goal.

á∏ª◊G OQGƒe ∫Ó¨à°SG ºàj É¡dÓN øe »àdG á∏«°SƒdG »g
.á∏ª◊G ±~g ≥«≤– ‘ »é«JGΰSG ƒëf ≈∏Y

Tally Room

Location where election results are
displayed on election night.

/äGƒ°UC’G ádh~L
äGƒ°U’G ÜÉ°ùàMG

∂«àμàdG
~q ©dG áaôZ

.äÉHÉîàf’G áq«°ûY äÉHÉîàf’G èFÉàf QG~°UEG õcôe ƒg
.´GÎb’G äÉbÉ£H ~©d I~ªà©ŸG IQɪà°S’G

Tally Sheet/
Reconciliation Sheet

The form used for counting of ballots.

Target Voters

Voters whom the campaign believes are
most likely to be persuaded by the
campaign’s message and thus provide
the margin of victory. See Message and
Margin of Victory.

´ÉæbEÓd Ú∏HÉb á∏ª◊G ºgGôJ øjòdG ÚÑNÉædG øe ƒgh
¢ûeÉgh ádÉ°SôdG ô¶fG.RƒØ∏d É°ûeÉg ¿ƒØ«° jh ádÉ°SôdÉH
.RįdG

The process of dividing the voting
population into smaller groups and
determining which of the votes you
want to concentrate your message on to
provide the margin of victory. See
Demographic Targeting and Geographic Targeting.

äɢYƒ˘ª› ¤EG ÚÑ˘Nɢæ˘dG Qƒ˘¡˘ª˘L º˘«˘°ù≤˘J ᢫˘∏˘ª˘ Y »˘˘gh
∂àdÉ°SQ É¡«∏Y õcôJ ¿CG »¨Ñæj É¡æe …CG ~j~–h .ô¨°UCG
‘Gô¨Á~˘dG ±G~˘¡˘à˘°S’G ô˘˘¶˘ fG .Rƒ˘˘Ø˘ dG ¢ûeɢ˘ g ô˘˘ aƒ˘˘ à˘ ˘d
.‘Gô¨÷G ±G~¡à°S’Gh

Telephone voting allows people to call
different telephone numbers to indicate
preference for different options, or a
voter might call one number and indicate
a preference by pressing buttons in a
menu system. Its main drawback is the
difficulty in verifying the identity of the
voter and in permitting only one vote per
person. Its chief advantage is the ease in
getting people to participate.

∞˘JGƒ˘g ΩɢbQCɢH ∫ɢ˘°ü˘˘qJ’G Ö©˘˘°û∏˘
q ˘d ´GÎb’G Gò˘˘g í˘˘æ˘ °ùj
øμÁ hCG áØ∏àıG äGQÉ«àNÓd º¡à«q ∏° aCG QÉ¡XE’ ,IO~q ©àe
≈∏Y §¨° dG
q Ég~©Hh ,ø«q ©e ~MGhm ºbôH ∫É°üqJ’G ´Î≤ª∏d
Gòg ‘ ~«MƒdG ≥FÉ©dG .IO~q fi áªFÉb ∫ÓN øe ΩÉbQC’G
~MGh 䃰U AÉ£YEGh ÖNÉæq dG ájq ƒg áaô©e Ω~Y ƒg Ωɶæq dG
᢫q ˘∏˘ª˘Y ‘ á˘cQɢ°ûŸG π˘«˘¡˘°ùJ »˘¡˘a ¬˘æ˘e I~˘˘Fɢ˘Ø˘ dG ɢ˘eq CG .¬˘˘d
.âjƒ°üàq dG

/äGƒ°UC’G ¿É«H
äGƒ°UC’G ô° fi

¿ƒa~¡à°ùe ¿ƒÑNÉf
Targeting

±G~¡à°SG

Telephone voting

/∞JÉ¡dG ÈY âjƒ°üàdG
´GÎb’G

Teller

Person appointed to help count votes.

»°üÙG
Tendered Ballot

¢SQ~dG ~«b âjƒ°üJ ábQh
¥GQhCG /É¡àë°üd áÑ°ùædÉH
QɶàfÉH á≤∏©ŸG ´GÎb’G
É¡ÑMÉ°U á«∏gCG øe ~cCÉàdG

Ballot, where the right of the voter is
disputed or in doubt. Tendered votes are
placed in envelopes, provisionally
accepted, and subject to verification
before being accepted for the count.

.äGƒ°UC’G Rôa ‘ I~YÉ°ùª∏d øq«©ŸG ¢üî°ûdG
q ƒg
…ôéj .∂°T hCG ∫G~L ‘ ´Î≤ŸG ≥M ™° J »àdG ábQƒdG
É¡æμdh ,kÉàbDƒe ádƒÑ≤e »g h ,±ôX ‘ ábQƒdG √òg ™°Vh
.~©∏d É¡dƒÑb πÑb É¡æe ~cCÉà∏d ká°VôY

74

Term Limits - Touch-S
Screen Electronic Voting Machines

Term Limits

Are restrictions on the number of terms
a board member or elected official may
serve in the same post.

Ö°üæ˘e ‘ Ö˘nî˘à˘æ˘ª˘ ∏˘ d Rƒ˘˘é˘ j ’ …ò˘˘dG äɢ˘j’ƒ˘˘dG O~˘˘Y
.√G~©àj ¿CG »eƒªY

Third Party

Any political party that is not one of the
two parties that dominates politics and
that receives a base of support and plays
a role in influencing the outcome of an
election.

ø˘˘jò˘˘∏˘ dG Ú«˘˘°ù«˘˘ Fô˘˘ dG ÚHõ◊G ÒZ »˘˘ °Sɢ˘ «˘ ˘°S Üõ˘˘ M …CG
É«˘Ñ˘©˘°T ɢª˘YO ≈˘≤˘∏˘jh ,»˘°Sɢ«˘°ùdG Ωɢ¶˘æ˘dG ≈˘∏˘Y ¿É˘æ˘ª˘«˘¡˘j
.äÉHÉîàf’G áé«àf ≈∏Y ÒKCÉàdG ‘ GQhO Ö©∏jh

/äÉj’ƒdG O~Y ~j~–
Oƒ¡©dG
ådÉK ÜõM
Threshold

The starting point for a new state or
experience.

/ÜõM »ë°TôÃ
q áëF’
ábÉ£H

Ticket

A list of candidates for election
nominated by a political party or group;
a slate and/or the declared principles or
policies of a political party or group.

Ticket Splitting

See Vote Splitting.

áÑàY

º°ù≤e âjƒ°üJ

.I~j~L áHôŒ hCG áj’ƒd ¥Ó£f’G ájG~H
ÜõM º¡«qª°ùj øjòdG äÉHÉîàf’G »ë°TôÃ
q áªFÉb »g
áªFÉ≤dG √òg øqª° àJ ~bh ;áq«°SÉ«°S áYɪL hCG q»°SÉ«°S
É¡©Ñqàj »àdG äÉ°SÉ«°ùdG hCG AiOÉÑŸG hCG/h Úë°TôŸG
q Aɪ°SCG
.áq«°SÉ«°S áYɪL hCG q»°SÉ«°S ÜõM
.´GÎbE’G ΩÉ°ùàbG ô¶fG

One of the three resources every
political campaign has, the other two
being people and money. It is important
to determine how much time each campaign activity will take and plan for it.
Unlike the other two resources, time is
the same for each of the campaigns
involved in an election, but not all
campaigns use their time as effectively.
See Campaign Resources.

OQƒe πªμjh ,á«°SÉ«°ùdG á∏ªë∏d áKÓãdG OQGƒŸG øe ƒgh
ø˘˘eõ˘˘ dG ø˘˘ e º˘˘ c O~– ¿CG º˘˘ ¡ŸGh .…ô˘˘ °ûÑ˘˘ dG OQƒŸGh ∫ÉŸG
πμd §«£îàdG »¨Ñæj ,Gòdh .Ée •É°ûf ≥«≤– ¥ô¨à°ù«°S
¬°ùØf âbƒdG ¿C’ ,øjôNB’G øjOQƒŸG øY ∞∏àîjh .•É°ûf
øμdh ,äÉHÉîàf’G ¢VƒîJ »àdG äÓª◊G ∞∏àı ìƒæ‡
.É¡°ùØf áeÉàdG á«dÉ©ØdÉH äÓª◊G ∂∏J ¬∏¨à°ùJ ’
.á∏ª◊G OQGƒe ô¶fG

Top Up

᫨H ÜÉîàf’G IOÉYEG
¿RGƒàq dG

It is when the second votes of a Mixed
Member Proportional election are
used to balance up the proportionality of
the district elected members to the
popular proportionality.

ÊÉqãdG ´GÎb’G ΩG~îà°SG ºq àj Ée~æY IOÉYE’G √òg ç~–
ÚH áfRGƒª∏d ,§∏àıG »q Ñ°ùæq dG ájq ƒ° ©dG Ωɶf øe
.áeÉ©dG á«q Ñ°ùæq dGh ,ôFGh~q dG ‘ ÚÑîn àæŸG AÉ° YC’G á«q Ñ°ùf

Touch-S
Screen
Electronic Voting
Machines

You register your choices electronically
by touching a screen and record them
when you touch Cast Vote.

É¡∏éq °ùJh á°TÉ°ûdG
q ¢ùŸ ~æY kÉ«q fhÎμdG ∂JGQÉ«àNG ¿h~J
q
.''䃰üdÉH
A’OE

G
''
Q
R
¢ùª∏J
Ée~æY
q
q

Time

âbh

¢ùª∏dG äÉ°TÉ°T
á«q HÉîàf’G á«q fhÎμd’G

.äGƒ°UC’G øe º¡à°ü◊ q IO~ÙG áÑ°ùædG øe .èeÉfÈdG . ≥˘M’ âbh ‘ ¬˘FGô˘LEɢH Ωƒ˘≤˘J »˘°Sɢ˘«˘ °S ´Ó˘˘£˘ à˘ °SG ƒ˘˘gh á˘Ø˘∏˘àıG π˘Ñ˘°ùdGh á˘∏˘ª◊G á˘dɢ°SQ âfɢ˘c ∞˘˘«˘ c ~˘˘j~˘˘ë˘ à˘ d . This can be referred to as a percentage or as a real number.í°TôŸG hCG ∫hDƒ°ùŸG ¤G Iô°TÉÑe á∏Ä°SCG ¿hô°VÉ◊G É¡«a ¬Lƒj A political poll taken later in the campaign to determine how the campaign’s message and the various methods of voter contact is affecting undecided and persuadable voters.á°SÉ«°ùdG ‘ . ≈∏Y äɢHɢî˘à˘f’G AGô˘LEG »˘Hɢî˘à˘f’G Ωɢ¶˘æ˘dG Gò˘g π˘©˘é˘j í°Tôe …CG RƒØj ’ »àdG á«HÉîàf’G ôFGh~dG ‘ . the candidate with the most votes wins. or only to those candidates who won more than a specified share of the vote.á«fÉK äÉHÉîàfG π°ü– . In electoral districts where no candidate wins an absolute majority of the votes on the first ballot (or first round of voting). often local. such an alteration could falsify the results of an election.75 Town Meeting /I~∏ÑdG ´ÉªàLG á«∏gCG Ih~f Tracking Poll / Survey /≥M’ ´Ó£à°SG /»Ñq≤©J ´Ó£à°SG . say. a second election is held.. Ö°üæŸ í°Tôe hCG Öîàæe ∫hDƒ°ùe ÚH »ª°SQ ÒZ ΩÉY AÉ≤d . øY ∫É≤«a .äÉHÉîàf’G èFÉàf ∞«jõJ Gò¡c This is the portion of the electorate that actually goes to the polls and votes.º¡JGQÉ«ÿ GQGôb Ghòîàj ⁄ øjòdG ÚÑNÉædG ∂dòch . an activity is transparent if all information about it is freely available. õ˘cGô˘e ¤EG π˘©˘ Ø˘ dɢ˘H ¿ƒ˘˘Ñ˘ gò˘˘j ÚÑ˘˘Nɢ˘æ˘ dG ø˘˘e Aõ˘˘L º˘˘gh áÑ°ùæc º¡«dEG IQÉ°TE’G øμÁh º¡JGƒ°UCÉH ¿ƒd~jh ´GÎb’G .º¡YÉæbEG øμªŸG ÚÑNÉædG ‘ ÉgÒKCÉJh ÖNÉædÉH ∫É°üJÓd ô¶fG .¢SÉædG øe O~Yh »HÉîàfG .í«ë°U O~Y hCG ájƒÄe An election system under which elections may be run in two stages.ájq ô°ùdG ¢ùμY »g á«aÉØ°ûdG q .ôJƒ«ÑeƒμdG õeQ ‘ áëàa »gh πj~Ñàd øμÁ .IOÉY Ú«∏ÙG ÚæWGƒŸG øe .í°ùe/á©HÉàe ´Ó£à°SG Transparency á«aÉØ°T Trapdoor á«q ØN á∏«M/»q ØN ÜÉH Turnout/ Voter Turnout /ÚÑNÉædG ácQÉ°ûe áÑ°ùf ácQÉ°ûŸG áÑ°ùf Two-R Round System/ Run-O Off Election /ÚJQhO ≈∏Y …ÌcCG Ωɶf ÚJQhO ≈∏Y ´GÎbG Town Meeting . in which the audience raises questions directly to the officeholder or candidate. with the contest restricted.(IQhO ‘ äGƒ˘˘°UC’G ᢢjÌcCG ≈˘˘∏˘ Y Ó˘˘°üM ø˘˘jò˘˘dG ø˘˘«r ˘ ˘ën ˘ ˘°TôŸG ÈcCG áÑ°ùæH GhRÉa øjòdG Úë°TôŸG ÚH hCG ∫hC’G ´GÎb’G ´GÎb’G ~©H . See Baseline Poll and Political Poll. πj~ÑJ É¡dÓN øe ºq àj . After the second ballot.»°SÉ«°ùdG ´Ó£à°S’Gh …~YÉ≤dG §ÿG ´Ó£à°SG In Politics.ájq ôëH äÉeƒ∏©ŸG πq c OQGƒàJ Ée~æY ±ÉqØ°T ¬qfGE •É°ûf An opening in a computer code through which a program can be altered.ô°TÉÑŸG ‹B’G π«é°ùàq dG Ωɶf ‘ .Two-R Round System An informal gathering of an officeholder or candidate for office with a group of people.ÚJQhO ∫hCG) ∫hC’G ´GÎb’G ‘ äGƒ°UC’G øe á≤∏£ŸG á«Ñ∏ZC’ÉH ÚH á°ùaÉæŸG ô°üM ™e .äGƒ°UC’G ÌcCÉH RÉa …òdG í°TôŸG ƒg õFÉØdG í°TôŸG ÊÉãdG . In the case of Direct recording electronic voting system. transparency is the opposite of privacy. to the two candidates who won the most votes on the first ballot.

»∏ÙG ¥ÉÑ°ùdG hCG áj’ƒdG ¥ÉÑ°S ‘ kÉ°Uƒ°üN Üõ◊ ™HÉJ ÒZ Registered voter not affiliated with any major political party.¿ÉŸÈdG »°ù∏› ~MCG . Ó˘a . /∞©° à°ùe í°Tôe ∞«©°V Unenrolled /π«ãªàdG …q OÉMCG ¿ÉŸôH ~MGh ¢ù∏éà ¿ÉŸôH Universal Suffrage πeÉ°T/ΩÉY ´GÎbG Unmarked Ballot áeƒ°Sƒe ÒZ ábÉ£H/ábQh Unofficial Results áq«ª°SQ ÒZ èFÉàf Unused Ballot ábQh/á∏ª©à°ùe ÒZ ábÉ£H Upper House É«∏©dG á«©jô°ûàdG áÄ«¡dG The right of all the eligible voters to participate in the electoral process without discrimination based on gender. race. Results published by the media.Upper House Without favor or blame..ɢ«˘fq~˘dG á˘q«˘©˘jô˘°û˘qà˘dG á˘Ä˘«˘¡˘dG . ¬«dEG QÉ°ûoj ..''á©LGôŸG ¢ù∏›'' . ethnicity. However.…OÉ«M . This house is generally less powerful than the lower house. property rights.q»©jô°ûqàdG ¢ù∏ÛG ‘ PƒØf øe πbCG ¢ù∏ÛG Gòg PƒØf .ñƒ«°ûdG q ¢ù∏éà kÉ° jCG ᫪°ùJ ¬˘«˘dEG Ö°ùæ˘oj ɢe kÉ˘Ñ˘dɢZ . It is often called the ‘house of review’ as this is one of its major functions. .äÉHÉîàf’G ∫ÓN Ω~îà°ùoJ It is the Legislative Council. ¿CG ÒZ øe .¢ùæ÷G ¢SÉ°SCG ≈∏Y .ᢢ°Sɢ˘«˘ °ùdG ‘ ¬˘fCG ±hô˘©ŸG ø˘e ø˘μ˘dh .I~©Ñà°ùŸG ábÉ£ÑdG/ábQƒdG ô¶fG . objective. See Rejected Ballot.. residence.܃˘˘∏˘ £ŸG O~˘˘©˘ dG ø˘˘Y ~˘˘jõ˘˘J »˘˘à˘ dG äɢ˘bɢ˘£˘ Ñ˘ dG »˘˘g .ïdEG á«æK’G hCG ¥ô©dG hCG . informally known as “independent”. the candidate who is viewed as trailing his or her opponent and/or is not favored to win the election.¬eÉ¡e RôHCG øe √òg ¿ƒc .äɢHɢî˘à˘f’G ‘ ~˘«˘jCɢà˘H ≈˘¶˘ë˘ j äɢbhô˘Ø˘dG ≈˘∏˘Y Ö∏˘¨˘à˘dG ∞˘©˘° à˘°ùŸG í˘°Tô˘ª˘∏˘d ø˘μ˘ ª˘ jo .ΩÓYE’G Égô°ûæj »àdG èFÉàqædG »g Any ballot in excess of the number required which has not been used during the election.. especially in state and local races.πqé°S ‘ ¬ª°SG êQ~j …òdG ÖNÉqædG ƒg ÒZm πμ°ûH ±ô©«a . . underdogs have been known to overcome the odds. Usually referred to as the Senate. etc.~MGh ¢ù∏› ¿ÉŸÈ∏d ¿ƒμj Ée~æY õ««“ ¿hO øj~°TGôdG ÚæWGƒŸG πc I~FÉØd âjƒ°üàdG ≥M .á«μ∏ŸG hCG .»©°Vƒe .qº¡e q»°SÉ«°S mÜõM q…GC ¤EG Ö°ùàæj .''πq≤à°ùŸÉH'' q»ª°SQ Unicameral Parliament Having a single legislative chamber.76 Unbiased õq«ëàe ÒZ Underdog U Unbiased . one of the two houses of State Parliament. ’ hCG/h ¬˘ª˘ °üN ™˘˘Ñ˘ à˘ j …ò˘˘dG í˘˘°TôŸG ƒ˘˘g .Ωƒd hCG ~«jCÉJ ¿hO In politics.

or with computers.âbƒ˘dG ¢ ©˘H »˘° ≤˘jh í˘°Tô˘ª˘∏˘d ~˘˘jDƒ˘ e ƒ˘˘g . ∫ÓN øe á«° b hCG .º¡JÉbhCG ádh~Lh ÚYƒ£àŸG ÜÉ£≤à°SG Choice by an elector about party.ôJƒ«ÑeƒμdG Iõ¡LCG . or assist. If seen enough this can often raise the candidates name recognition but it does little to persuade voters with a campaign message. Vote Counting Officer can visit premises and conduct the count for.á∏ª◊G ádÉ°SôH ÚÑNÉædG GÒãc ™æ≤J ’ É¡æμdh . cups and just about anything else. ø˘˘Y ∫hDƒ˘ °ùe ᢢ∏˘ ª◊G ‘ Ú∏˘˘eɢ˘©˘ dG ᢢĢ ˘«˘ ˘g ø˘˘ e ¢ü °T .É¡eÉ°ùbCG hCG áeƒμ◊G ´hôa ɢ¡˘à˘MÎbG äGAGô˘LEG ≈˘∏˘Y á˘≤˘ aGƒŸG ¢ aô˘˘J ¿Cɢ H .~YGƒ≤∏d Ék≤ÑW ÜÉîàfG ‘ âjƒ°üàdG ájOCÉJ . marked according to the rules.Ωƒ˘ª˘©˘dG ‘ .''™æeCG ÉfCG'' á«æ«JÓdG øe √ò¡d …Qƒà°S~dG ≥◊G »g hCG .ÚÑNÉædG i~d áHƒZôe ~©J »àdG ÇOÉÑŸG »gh From the Latin term veto means “I forbid”.Ωɢ˘°ùbC’G …ò«ØæàdG ¢ù«FôdG á£∏°S á°UÉN »g .Üõ◊ ´Î≤ŸG QÉ«àNG . πã“h . øe ~MGƒH áWƒæŸG á£∏°ùdG »g .¿ƒfÉ≤c ¬æq °S ôNu ƒD j The voter contact method in which the candidate’s name is advertised on signs. Also known as Formal Vote. t-shirts.ôLCG hCG πHÉ≤e ¿hO á∏ª◊G I~YÉ°ùŸ Volunteer Coordinator A person on the campaign staff responsible for recruiting and scheduling volunteers. The vested power or constitutional right of one branch or department of government to refuse approval of measures proposed by another department.í°Tôe hCG . .»q ª°SôdG âjƒ°üàdG/䃰üdÉH The principles considered desirable by the voters. either manually on paper.í°TôŸG º°SG Volunteer A supporter of the candidate who generally spends some of their time helping the campaign without being paid a salary.´GÎb’G õcôe Qhõj ¿CG ¬æμÁ ÈY ÉeEGh .ΩÉ©dG AÉàØà°S’G hCG ´GÎb’G /ídÉ°U-í«ë°U ´GÎbG 䃰U Values º«b Veto /(ƒà«a) ¢VGÎY’G ≥M ¢ ≤ædG hCG ¢ aôdG ≥M Visibility äÉ«Fôe ´ƒ£àe q ÚYƒ£àŸG u ≥°ùæe u Vote 䃰U Vote Counting Assistant RôØdG QƒeCÉe/~YÉ°ùe Vote Counting Officer äGƒ°UC’G Rôa øY ∫hDƒ°ùe Vote Counting Assistant is the person who assist in counting votes . the Returning Officer.77 Valid Vote V Valid Vote . especially the power of a chief executive to reject a bill passed by the legislature and thus prevent or delay its enactment into law.¥QƒdG ≈∏Y kÉ«q HÉàc Éeq GE .äGƒ°UC’G Rôa ‘ ~YÉ°ùj øe ƒg QƒeCÉe øY kÉ°VƒY RôØdG ôj~jh .í°TôŸG º°SG É¡«a ô¡¶j ÚÑNÉædÉH ∫É°üJÓd á∏«°Sh …CG hCG äÉàaÓdG ≈∏Y Öàμj Éeh áHƒàμŸGh áeƒ°SôŸG äGQÉ©°ûdG ≈∏Y ±ô©àdG øμÁ m±Éc âbƒd É¡àjDhQ OôéªÑa .ôNBG A»°T .ôNBG º°ùb hCG IôFGO hCG ™æÁ ∂dòHh á«©jô°ûàdG á£∏°ùdG ¬Jôq bCG ÉfƒfÉb ¢ aôj ¿CÉH . . É° jC k G ±hô©e .√~YÉ°ùj hCG .Vote Counting Officer A vote cast in an election. expressed through a ballot at an election or a referendum. . candidate or issue.ÜÉîàf’G .

äGƒ°UC’G O~Y ¿CG øe ~cCÉàdGh äGƒ°UC’G Rôah ~Y á«∏ªY Gògh .Üɢî˘à˘f’G ᢫˘∏˘ª˘Y Ωɢ¶˘f Ö©˘°ûdG º˘«˘∏˘©˘à˘ d è˘˘eɢ˘fô˘˘H . See Persuadability. ô˘¶˘fG .Voter Fatigue The Vote Counting topic area deals with the actual counting of votes. See Civic Education.¬°ùØf ´GÎb’G . ᫪gC’G á° ØîæŸG hCG ᪡ŸG ÒZ á«HÉîàf’G äÉbÉÑ°ùdG ‘ ‘ äGƒ°UC’G øY π≤Jh á«f~àe ÚYÎ≤ŸG äGƒ°UCG ¿ƒμJ ’ ÚÑNɢæ˘dG º˘¶˘©˘e ¿C’ .øq«©e ~©≤Ÿ Less important or lower profile races often receive less votes than higher profile races because often voters do not know about the race. do not know the candidates and do not feel comfortable voting for candidates they do not know. See Electorate. äÉHÉîàf’G ‘ âjƒ°üàdG ≈∏Y QOÉb ¢üî°T …CG ƒgh .´ÉæbE’G á«fÉμeEG ô¶fG Vote buying is a widespread phenomenon.¿~àe ´GÎbG hCG ¢ Øîæe ¥ÉÑ°S hCG ÚÑNÉædG ¢VÉØîfG .º˘¡˘JGƒ˘°UCG ≈˘∏˘ Y ∫ƒ˘˘°ü◊G ±~˘˘¡˘ H . Voter fatigue is greatest in low profile or down ballot races.ÖNÉædG äÉeƒ∏©eh á«f~ŸG á«HÎdG Voter Fatigue The tendency of voters not to vote for candidates they do not know or in races they do not care about.¿ƒYÎ≤e/áÑNÉf áÄ«g ô¶fG .á«HÉîàf’G á∏ª◊G ádÉ°SôH ÚÑîàæŸG . See Voter Drop Off. ¿ƒd~j ºK í°TôŸ º¡JGƒ°UCÉH ¿ƒÑNÉædG ‹~j Ée~æY ∂dPh AɪàfG ¬d hCG ∞∏àfl ÜõM øe ôNBG í°TôŸ º¡JGƒ°UCÉH ‘h É¡°ùØf ´GÎb’G ábÉ£H/ábQh ≈∏Y ∞∏àfl »Lƒdƒj~jEG º¡JÉYGÎbG ‘ ¿ƒª°ù≤æj øjòdG ¿ƒÑNÉædÉa .á∏ª◊G ádÉ°SôH ´ÉæàbEÓd Ú∏HÉb ¿h~©j .øeC’Gh áYô°ùdGh áqb~dG Öq∏£àj When voters vote for one candidate in one election and vote for a candidate from a different party or with a different ideology in the next election. Voters who split their votes are considered to be persuadable with a campaign message. ’ øjòdG Úë°Tôª∏d âjƒ°üàdG Ω~Y ¤EG ÚÑNÉædG ¬qLƒJ ƒgh ÖNÉædG AÉ«YEG ™ØJôj É¡H ¿ƒªà¡j ’ »àdG äÉbÉÑ°ùdG ‘ hCG .78 Vote Counting/ Verification Vote Counting/ Verification . ÚÑNÉæ∏d ÉjG~¡dG hCG ∫ÉŸG Ë~≤J . which requires accuracy.º¡fƒaô©j ô¶fG .᢫˘dɢ©˘dG ᢫˘Hɢî˘à˘f’G äɢbÉ˘Ñ˘°ùdG ’h í°TôŸG øY hCG »°ùaÉæàdG ¥ÉÑ°ùdG øY kÉÄ«°T ¿ƒª∏©j .á∏°üÙG äGƒ°UC’G O~Y Ó©a …hÉ°ùj É¡H ìô°üŸG .᢫˘ dɢ˘à˘ dG äɢ˘Hɢ˘î˘ à˘ f’G .kG~L ádhG~àe IôgÉX √òg Iô˘gɢ¶˘dG √ò˘g Èà˘©˘Jh . Voter Information. speed and security.ÉàëH ÉjOÉ°üàbG ’OÉÑJ This is any person who is able to vote in the election for a particular office.´Éæb’G á«fÉμeEG ô¶fG When voters vote for one candidate and vote for a candidate from a different party or with a different ideology on the same ballot in the same election. Voters who shift their votes are considered to be persuadable with a campaign message.º¡fƒaô©j ’ Úë°TôŸ âjƒ°üàdÉH ìÉ«JQ’ÉH ¿hô©°ûj Voter Education Program to instruct the population about the electoral process. See Persuadability. Low Profile and Down Ballot. It is usually viewed as a purely economic exchange in which the voter sells his or her vote to the highest bidder. ºK äÉHÉîàf’G ‘ í°TôŸ ¿ƒYÎ≤ŸG 䃰üj q Ée~æY π°üëj o ‘ iô˘˘NBG ᢢ«˘ Lƒ˘˘dh~˘˘jCG hCG ô˘˘NBG Üõ˘˘M í˘˘ °TôŸ ¿ƒ˘˘ Jƒ˘˘ °üj ´É˘æ˘bEG ø˘e Aõ˘L äGƒ˘°UC’G Ò«˘¨˘J .Ê~àŸG ´GÎb’G ‘ hCG ¢ ØîæŸG »°ùaÉæàdG ¥ÉÑ°ùdG ‘ äGƒ°UC’G ≥«b~J /Rôa Vote Shifting /䃰üdG Ò«¨J 䃰üdG π≤f Vote Splitting /´GÎb’G ΩÉ°ù≤fG º°ù≤e q âjƒ°üJ Vote-B Buying äGƒ°UC’G AGô°T Voter ÖNÉf Voter Drop Off ÚÑNÉædG ¢VÉØîfG /ÖNÉædG ∞«≤ãJ ÚÑNÉædG á«HôJ ÚÑNÉædG AÉ«YEG .

Political parties and candidates may further enhance the voter file by finding out who supports the candidate or what issues are important to voters.79 Voter File .º¡dÉØWCG º«∏©J hCG º¡ØFÉXh . It is a kind of “vote receipt” printed by an electronic voting machine showing the elector his/her vote as it is being acquired by the electoral system.º¡ª¡J »àdG AÉ«°TC’G The act or process of registering a citizen to vote.äÉHÉîàf’G ‘ áæ«q ©e Voters often care about things that affect them directly. and VoteBuying. Ilegally or Improperly “Assisting” Others To Vote Their Absentee Ballot.¥GQhC’G √òg ™Ñ£J »àdG âjƒ°üàq dG ÖNÉædG ∞∏e »HÉîàfG ôjhõJ Voter Information /ÖNÉædG äÉeƒ∏©e ÚÑNÉædG ΩÓYEG Voter Priorities ÚÑNÉædG äÉjƒdhCG Voter Registration ÚÑNÉædG π«é°ùJ /ÚÑNÉædG áÑ°ùf ÚYÎ≤ŸG O~Y á≤q≤ëàŸG ≥«b~àq dG ábQh âjƒ°üàq dG áëq °U øe .Iô°TÉÑe ÚÑNÉædG ∫GDƒ°ùH Voter Fraud This includes: Voter Registration Fraud. The VVPAT is retained by election official as the record of votes cast for purposes of an audit and any recount. See Civic Education. The only way to do this is to ask voters directly.¬˘æ˘Y k’hDƒ˘°ùe äɢHɢî˘à˘f’G ∞˘ qXƒ˘e ¿ƒ˘μ˘jh . such as their job or the education of their children.É¡«∏Y Iô£«°ùdG ¿ƒμ∏Á ’ »àdG áeÉ©dG äÉ°SÉ«°ùdG ÉjÉ° ≤H øY ÚÑNÉædG ¤EG ç~ëàdG Úë°TôŸG øe ôeC’G »° à≤jh . VVPATs are to be considered the official records of the vote in case of recounts. π˘ã˘e º˘¡˘«˘æ˘©˘J »˘à˘dG Aɢ«˘°TC’ɢH ¿ƒ˘Ñ˘Nɢæ˘dG º˘à˘¡˘j ɢe kÉ˘Ñ˘ dɢ˘Z º¡eɪàgG ™LGÎj Ée ÉÑdÉZh .´GÎb’G ‘ ≥HÉ°ùdG º¡îjQÉJh ºgQɪYCGh º¡ØJGƒg ÖNɢæ˘dG ∞˘∏˘e ô˘jƒ˘£˘J Ú뢰TôŸGh ᢫˘°Sɢ«˘°ùdG ÜGõ˘˘MCÓ˘ d »àdG ÉjÉ° ≤dG hCG í°Tôª∏d øj~jDƒŸG ~j~ëàH π° aCG IQƒ°üH ¬LƒàdÉH »g ∂dP πª©d I~«MƒdG á≤jô£dGh .ÉgRôa IOÉYEG hCG É¡«a ≥«b~àq dG äGƒ˘˘°UC’G äÓ˘˘é˘ °S ɢ˘¡˘ qfCG ≈˘˘∏˘ ˘Y ¥GQhC’G √ò˘˘ g Qɢ˘ Ñ˘ ˘à˘ ˘YG ä’BG ÒaƒJ IQhô°V ≈∏Y ΩÉ©dG …CGôq dG íq dCG ~bh . They often care less about policy issues that they have little control over. √ò˘g õ˘μ˘Jô˘˘J . Aɪ°SCG ≈∏Y …ƒà– »àdG äÉeƒ∏©ª∏d äÉfÉ«ÑdG I~YÉb »gh ~b Qƒ£àŸG ÖNÉædG ∞∏eh . An enhanced voter file may have other information about the voters such as their phone numbers. and whether or not they have a history of voting in the past. Voter Education.¬˘˘Jƒ˘˘°U ±~¡H É¡H ‹OGoC »àdG äGƒ°UC’G πé°S øY k’hDƒ°ùe ¿ƒμj Öéj .á«q ª°Sôq dG íæ“ É¡qfGC ¤EG kGô¶f . . äÉeƒ∏©e ≈∏Y õcôjo h Ò°ü≤dG i~ŸG ≈∏Y ~©jo èeÉfôH ∞«≤ãJh á«f~ŸG á«HÎdG ô¶fG .Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail Voter File A database that contains at least the name and address of all the voters in a district. Candidates need to speak to the voters about things they care about. their ages.RôØdG IOÉYEG ∫ÉM ‘h .´Î≤«d øWGƒŸG π«é°ùJ á«∏ªY Voter Turnout The percentage or number of people who voted.IôFG~dG ‘ º¡æjhÉæYh ÚÑNÉædG ΩÉbQCG πãe ÚÑNÉædG øY iôNCG äÉeƒ∏©e ≈∏Y …ƒàëj øμÁh .ÖNÉædG .ÚÑNÉædG º¡J .''âjƒ°üàq dG ∫É°üjEG'' øe ´l ƒf ¬qfGE Ö°ùàMG ~b »q HÉîàf’G Ωɶæq dG q¿GC ÖNÉæq ∏d ø«q ÑJ á«q fhÎμdG ɢª˘c .´GÎb’G ø°S øª°V Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail VVPAT stands for “Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail”.ÚÑNÉædG ≈∏Y ÒKCÉàdG ±~¡H ≥FÉKƒdG ∞∏àfl Short term program focusing on specific election information.Gƒ˘˘YÎbG ø˘˘jò˘˘dG ¢Uɢ˘î˘ °TC’G O~˘˘YhCG á˘˘Ñ˘ °ùf ¿É˘μ˘°ùdGh π˘eɢ°ûdG »˘Hɢî˘à˘f’G π˘«˘é˘°ùà˘dG ≈˘∏˘Y á˘Ñ˘°ùæ˘˘dG . Absentee Ballot Fraud. §¨° dG ‘ πãªàJ ¿ƒfÉ≤∏d á«aÉæe ∫ɪYCÉH ôeC’G ≥∏©àj ô˘jhõ˘Jh âjƒ˘°üà˘dG äɢbɢ£˘Ñ˘H ÖYÓ˘à˘dGh ÚÑ˘NÉ˘æ˘ dG ≈˘˘∏˘ Y . The percentage can be based on voter registration or on voting age population. A huge request of voting machines providing VVPATs is coming âjƒ°üJ ádBG ¬©Ñ£J .

There are many different types of voting machines.´GÎbÓd »ª°SôdG ø°ùdG ¥ƒa ¿Éμ°ùdG O~Y ´ƒª› Record list available in electoral districts containing information about all voters and their signatures. Optical scan Voting Machines.OGôaC’G »bÉH Voting for a Mix of Candidates Voting for more than one candidate that voters believe in.á∏eÉμdG ¥GQhC’G ≈∏Y .âjƒ˘°ü˘àq ˘∏˘d Ω~˘î˘à˘°ùJ ᢫q ˘ μ˘ «˘ fɢ˘μ˘ «˘ e IGOCG »˘˘g I~˘ª˘à˘©ŸG ᢫q ˘fhÎμ˘d’G âjƒ˘°ü˘˘àq ˘dG ä’BG :π˘ã˘e . ºμë«d »°SÉ«°S QÉ«àN’ ΩÉ©dG Ö©°ûdG ¬H Ωƒ≤j Ée Gòg . May also cover how to investigate and get help when something goes wrong with the voting process.âjƒ°üàdGhCG ´GÎb’ÉH ±hô©e kÉ° jCG . IOÉYEG í«àJh .´GÎb’G ≥jOÉæ°U ‘ É¡H ¤~ŸG äGƒ°UC’G O~Y Total number of citizens above the official voting age. .¬˘˘fGƒ˘˘æ˘ Yh . residential address and voter number of each voter and providing a space opposite this information for the voter’s signature.Voting from the public opinion. Touch-Screen Electronic Voting Machines. ≈∏Y …ƒàëj áq«HÉîàf’G ôFGhq~dG πc ‘ OƒLƒe πé°S ƒg »¨Ñæjh . áëF’/ÚÑNÉædG ∫h~L /ÚÑNÉædG πé°S/ÚÑNÉædG Ö£°ûdG íFGƒd áYÎ≤ŸG äGƒ°UC’G O~Y .íLÉædG .»˘°Sɢ«˘°ùdG º˘¡˘«˘Yh iƒ˘à˘°ùà Aɢ≤˘JQ’Gh Úæ˘WGƒŸG ´GÎb’G á«Ø«ch ÜÉîàf’G á«æ≤J ∫ƒM äÉeƒ∏©Ã ºgOhõj q Ée ÉC £N ∫ƒ°üM ∫ÉM ‘ ≥«≤ëàdG á«Ø«c πª°ûjh .¿ƒÑNÉqædG º¡H øeDƒj ~MGhm í°Tôe q øe ÌcCG ídÉ°üd âjƒ°üqàdG Voting Machine A mechanical device used for voting. showing the name.ÖNɢ˘æ˘ dG . . øY ∫õ©Ã ¬Jƒ°üH É¡«a ÖNÉædG ‹~jo ´GÎbÓd IÒéMo .ôFGhO ¤EG É¡ª«°ù≤J qºàj áæq«©e máæj~e ‘ á≤£æe π«ã“ Voting Age Population ø°S øª°V ¿Éμ°ùdG ´GÎb’G Voting Book /âjƒ°üàdG ÜÉàc /âjƒ°üàdG πé°S ÚÑNÉædG πé°S Voting Booth ∫õ©e Úë°TôŸG q øe m§«∏ÿ âjƒ°üàq dG âjƒ°üàq dG ádBG Voting âjƒ°üJ /´GÎbG /ÜÉîàfG á°TÉ°T ¢ùŸ Öq∏£àJ »àdG ∂∏Jh . A voting book for general voting must be based on the list of voters for the voting area for which it is to be used. The main point is that VVPATs give the voter more confidence about the electronic vote.ôJƒ«ÑeƒμdG .áq«æ©ŸG áq«HÉîàf’G IôFGq~dG ‘ ÚÑNÉqædG áëF’ ∫É› ìɢ°ùaEGh .á«HÉîàf’G á«∏ª©dG ‘ Voters List See Electoral List.º¡JGAÉ° eEGh ÚÑNÉædG πc ¢Uƒ°üîH äÉeƒ∏©e ¤EG Ωɢ©˘dG âjƒ˘°ü˘qà˘dɢH ≥˘q∏˘©˘àŸG π˘é˘°ùdG Gò˘˘g ~˘˘æ˘ à˘ °ùj ¿CG º°SG ôcP ™e .80 Voter’s Guide ÖNÉædG π«dO Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail . Also known as polling or balloting.ÊhÎμd’G âjƒ°üqàdÉH ÈcCG ká≤K ÖNÉqædG . Votes Cast The number of votes contained in the ballot boxes.äÉHÉîàf’G èFÉàæH ∂«μ°ûqàdG ∫ÉM ‘ äGƒ°UC’G Rôa Provides voters with summary information on the voting ways used in their local polling places with pointers about the voting technology and how to vote successfully. ≈∏Y Ú°SÉ«°ùdG ÚdhDƒ°ùŸG ∞∏àfl Aɪ°SCG πªëj π«dO ¤EG äÉeƒ∏©ŸG ~jhõJ ¤EG »eôjh »æWƒdGh »∏ÙG iƒà°ùŸG ∂dò˘c .»˘Hɢî˘à˘ f’G ¬˘˘ª˘ bQh .á«q HÉîàf’G áëFÓdG ¤EG IOƒ©dG . ´Gƒ˘fCG ɢ¡˘d . like Full-Face Ballot Electronic Voting Machines.á˘Ø˘∏˘àfl This is what the public does to choose the politician they want to run their area or country.ºg~∏H hCG º¡à≤£æe .Ú©∏d kÉë°ùe Ωõ∏à°ùJ »àdG hCG . and permit to recount votes in case of doubts.ÖNÉqædG AÉ° eE’ ∂dP πHÉ≤e A booth in which a person can cast a private vote.

»HÉ«Z ´GÎbG ô¶fG .§°ùHC’G äÉHÉîàf’G Ωɶf ‘ í˘˘°ùà˘˘cG'' ¬˘˘ qfCG Èà˘˘ ©˘ ˘«o ˘ ˘a .O~fi ïjQÉJ ‘ (AÉàØà°SG Write-iin ballot See Absentee Voting.81 Ward Representation W Ward Representation .qπμc ≥qÑ£ŸG q»HÉîàf’G Ωɶqæ∏d In the simplest kind of election.¢UÉÿG q . or “takes all.πbC’G ≈∏Y ~MGh m䃰U ¥QÉØH . á˘Ø˘°û≤˘ q àŸG º˘«˘eɢ°ü˘qà˘dG hCG/h .äGƒ°UC’G ájq ÌcCG ≈q≤∏àj Writ of Election Writ is a document commanding an electoral officer to hold an election and contains dates for the close of rolls.Write-iin Ballot Representation by an area of a city that is devided into precincts.√qOôe É¡ª¶©e qøμd . the close of nominations. whether of government officials or in the private sector.äÉHÉîàf’G ìÉ°ùàcG Ωɶæd kÉ≤ah .äÉHÉîàf’G º¶©e èFÉàf ôjô≤J ºq àjh . are decided on a winner-take-all basis. the polling day and the return of the writ. øY ∫hDƒ°ùŸG ôeCÉJ á«HÉîàf’G áæé∏dG ¢ù«FQ É¡©bƒj á≤«Kh hCG) á«HÉîàfG á«∏ªY º«¶æàH á«HÉîàfG á©WÉ≤e ‘ äÉHÉîàf’G . Some of these will be the exhausted votes but most are caused by poor election methods and/or poor design features of the entire election system being used.''äÉHÉîàf’G ´É£≤dG AGQ~e hCG Ú«q eƒμ◊G ÚdhDƒ°ùŸG äÉHÉîàfÉH â≤q∏©J øe ƒg õFÉØdÉa .á˘£˘«˘°ùÑ˘dG Üɢî˘à˘f’G π˘Fɢ°Sh . the candidate who receives the most votes wins.äGƒ˘˘ °UC’G ø˘˘ e ÈcC’G O~˘˘ ©˘ ˘dG AGƒ°S . The winner is the person who receives a plurality of at least one vote.áaõæà°ùŸG äGƒ°UC’G ƒg É¡° ©H It is a vote that does not end up on a winning candidate. ≈q≤∏àj …òdG í°TôŸG q RƒØj .” Most elections. ≥WÉæŸG π«ã“ Wasted Votes IO~s Ñe äGƒ°UCG Winner-TTake-A All ÜÉîàf’G ìÉ°ùàcG á«∏ª©dG º«¶æàH ôeCG á«HÉîàf’G ábQh ≈∏Y º°SG áaÉ°VEG ´GÎb’G . .õFÉa m í°Tôe q Ö«°üf øe ¿ƒμJ ’ »àdG äGƒ°UC’G »g .

Éæg ≥°üdG terms äÉë∏£°üe notes äɶMÓe Éæg ≥°üdG .

org .O.Box 13-5320 Chouran 1102-2030 Beirut.org email arabictranslation@ndi.sender’s address National Democratic Institute P. Lebanon tel 961 1 805 632 fax 961 1 805 633 website www.ndi.

Éæg ≥°üdG terms äÉë∏£°üe notes äɶMÓe Éæg ≥°üdG .

Box 13-5320 Chouran 1102-2030 Beirut.sender’s address National Democratic Institute P. Lebanon tel 961 1 805 632 fax 961 1 805 633 website www.org email arabictranslation@ndi.org .O.ndi.

Éæg ≥°üdG terms äÉë∏£°üe notes äɶMÓe Éæg ≥°üdG .

O.org email arabictranslation@ndi.sender’s address National Democratic Institute P.ndi.org . Lebanon tel 961 1 805 632 fax 961 1 805 633 website www.Box 13-5320 Chouran 1102-2030 Beirut.

Éæg ≥°üdG terms äÉë∏£°üe notes äɶMÓe Éæg ≥°üdG .

ndi.org .org email arabictranslation@ndi.Box 13-5320 Chouran 1102-2030 Beirut. Lebanon tel 961 1 805 632 fax 961 1 805 633 website www.sender’s address National Democratic Institute P.O.

Éæg ≥°üdG terms äÉë∏£°üe notes äɶMÓe Éæg ≥°üdG .

sender’s address National Democratic Institute P.ndi.O.org email arabictranslation@ndi.org . Lebanon tel 961 1 805 632 fax 961 1 805 633 website www.Box 13-5320 Chouran 1102-2030 Beirut.

Éæg ≥°üdG terms äÉë∏£°üe notes äɶMÓe Éæg ≥°üdG .

sender’s address National Democratic Institute P.org .ndi. Lebanon tel 961 1 805 632 fax 961 1 805 633 website www.Box 13-5320 Chouran 1102-2030 Beirut.O.org email arabictranslation@ndi.

Éæg ≥°üdG terms äÉë∏£°üe notes äɶMÓe Éæg ≥°üdG .

Lebanon tel 961 1 805 632 fax 961 1 805 633 website www.org email arabictranslation@ndi.O.sender’s address National Democratic Institute P.Box 13-5320 Chouran 1102-2030 Beirut.org .ndi.

Éæg ≥°üdG terms äÉë∏£°üe notes äɶMÓe Éæg ≥°üdG .

Lebanon tel 961 1 805 632 fax 961 1 805 633 website www.Box 13-5320 Chouran 1102-2030 Beirut.O.sender’s address National Democratic Institute P.org email arabictranslation@ndi.ndi.org .

org . DC 20036-3306 tel: (202) 728-5500 fax: (202) 728-5520 www.ndi. NW Washington.2030 M Street. 5th Floor.