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Put in 'mustn't' or 'don't / doesn't have to':

1) We have a lot of work tomorrow. You

2) You

tell anyone what I just told you. It's a secret. mustn't

3) The museum is free. You

4) Children

pay to get in. don't have to

tell lies. It's very naughty. mustn't

5) John's a millionaire. He

6) I

be late. mustn't

go to work. doesn't have to

do my washing because my mother does it for me. don't have to

7) We

rush. We've got plenty of time. don't have to

8) You

smoke inside the school. mustn't

9) You can borrow my new dress, but you

10) We

11) She

get it dirty. mustn't

miss the train, because it's the last one tonight. mustn't

do this work today, because she can do it tomorrow. doesn't

have to
12) I

clean the floor today because I cleaned it yesterday. don't have

13) We

forget to lock all the doors before we leave. mustn't

14) We

stay in a hotel in London; we can stay with my brother. don't

have to
15) I

spend too much money today, as I've only got a little left. mustn't

16) They

17) I

get up early today, because it's Sunday. don't have to

eat too much cake or I'll get fat!. mustn't

18) We

be late for the exam. mustn't

19) You

tidy up now. I'll do it later. don't have to

20) He

cook tonight because he's going to a restaurant. doesn't have

Choose 'must' or 'can't':

Modals of Probability
1) Why is that man looking around like that? He

2) That woman

be lost. must

be a doctor! She looks far too young. can't

3) John always fails the tests, even though he's clever. He

4) The food is really good at that restaurant. They

5) Who's that at the door? It

6) This

study enough. can't

have a great chef. must

be Susie - she'll still be at work now. can't

be John's house. This house has a red door and it's number 24, just like he said. must

7) Julie

8) He

have much money or she would buy a new car. Her old one is falling apart. can't

be at work now, can he? It's nearly midnight. can't

9) What a lot of lovely flowers you have! You

10) David

11) This

12) Her life

drink a lot of coffee. He's finished two packets already this week. must

be Jamie's coat. He's tall and this is tiny. can't

be easy. She has four children and very little money. can't

13) Where's Lucy? She

14) This bill

really like gardening. must

be at the library, as she often goes there at this time. must

be right! 50 for two cups of coffee!. can't

15) Emma's amazingly good at the piano. She

practise a lot. must

16) The car in front is driving so slowly that I think they

17) You've already eaten enough for three people! You

18) This book

still be hungry!. can't

belong to the library. It's certainly not mine. must

19) It only takes three hours to fly from London to Sydney? That

20) There

be looking for something. must

be correct!. can't

be something wrong with the fridge! It's making a very unusual noise. must

We can use have to + infinitive, must + infinitive and should + infinitive to express obligation (something you have to




have to /
don't have to

strong obligation (possibly from outside)

no obligation

Children have to go to school.

I don't have to work on Sundays.

You don't have to eat anything you

don't like.

(sometimes 'have got to')

must / mustn't

strong obligation (possibly based on the

speaker's opinion)

should / shouldn't

I must study today.

mild obligation or advice

negative obligation
You mustn't smoke here.

mild negative obligation or advice

You should save some money.

You shouldn't smoke so much.

Be careful about the difference between mustn't and don't have to!
Mustn't means it's not allowed, or it's a bad idea:

You mustn't eat so much chocolate, you'll be sick

Don't have to means you don't need to do something, but it's fine if you want to do it:

I don't have to get up early at the weekend(of course, if I want to get up early, that's fine, but I can stay in bed if I




had to / didn't have to

obligation in the past

no obligation in the past


I had to wear a school uniform when I

was a child.

changes to 'had to'

We didn't have to go to school on


should have + pp /
shouldn't have + pp

a past action which didn't happen: the advice /

regret is too late

You should have gone to bed earlier,

now you have missed the train.

a past action which didn't happen: the advice /

regret is too late

You shouldn't have taken that job., it

was a bad idea.

* Remember 'must have done' is a modal verb of deduction or speculation, not obligation in the past. For example: Julie
must have left. Her coat's not here. See modals of probabilty for more information.

You ... smoke in this room.


don't have to

You ... put the rubbish into the bin.
has to

don't have to

We ... be quiet.
has to

don't have to

We ... eat sweets in the classrooms.


don't have to

You ... take photos in this museum.



don't have to

I ... do my homework.
have to

don't have to

I ... listen to the music I like. My parents like it too.


don't have to

You ... make noise in this area.


don't have to

I ... watch TV late at night. My parents say I must go to bed early.
don't have to


You ... speak on the mobile phone on an aeroplane.

don't have to

1. If you want to lose weight, you shouldn't eat so much chocolate, so many
candies or drink beer every night.
2. Tomorrow is a holiday.My children don't have to get up early.
3. When I was a child I didn't have to go to school on Saturdays.
4. I must study tonight. My exams are tomorrow.
5. May I see the daily report? ...Thank you very much.
6. May I smoke here? ...No, you can't . I am sorry.
7. Silvia should have visited her grandmother yesterday. She is old and sick.
8. You must stop when the traffic lights turn red.
9. People mustn't drink and drive cars.It is prohibited.
10. He has to wear a tie and a uniform at work.