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ANIMAL CELL

The Animal Cell

They are called the porwerhouse of the cell because energy is created here. or tiny cellular structures. ribosomes are found in large number in all cells. It transports molecules that need certain changes and also molecules to their destination. . Mitochondria is the main energy source of the cell. The golgi bodies modify the molecules from the rough endoplasmic reticulum by dividing them into smaller units with membrane known as vesticles. animal cells also contain other membrane-bound organelles. Centrosomes is located near the nucleus of the cell and is known as the microtubule organizing center of the cell. allowing only a few molecules to move across it. Nucleus is the house for most of the cells genetic material – the DNA and RNA. Ribosomes is the site for protein synthesis where the transaction of the RNA takes place. Parts of Animal Cell Cell membrane is a semi-permeable barrier.Animal cells are eukaryotic cells. Golgi bodies are the packaging center of the cell. They give structural support and maintain the shape of the cell. They have enzymes that helps breakdown the waste molecules and also help in detoxification of the cell. The nucleus is the dark spot in the nucleus. that carry out specific functions necessary for normal cellular operation. or cells with a membrane-bound nucleus. Ribosomes are found freely suspended in the cytoplasm and also are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. RNA helps protein synthesis through transcription process. The RNA moves in/out of the nucleus through these pores. The cell membrane is made up of phospholipids which has polar (hydrophillic) heads and non-polar (hydrophobic) tails. Cytoplasm is the fluid matrix that fills the cell. Unlike prokaryotic cells. As protein synthesis is very important to the cell. They help in digesting long chains of fatty acids and amino acids and help in synthesis of cholesterol. It is surrounded by porous membrane known as the nuclear membrane. DNA in animal cells is housed within the nucleus. Electron microscopic studies of cell membrane show the lipid bi-layer model of the plasma membrane. Cytoskeleton is the network or microtubules and microfilament fibers. Lysosomes is the digestive system of the cell. and it is the location for ribosome formation. This matrix maintains the pressure of the cell. Endoplasmic reticulum is the transport system of the cell. In addition to having a nucleus. The nucleus controls the activity of the cell and is known as the control center. During mitosis the centrosome aids in dividing of the cell and moving of the chromosome to the sides of the cell. Proteins needed by the nucleus through the nuclear pores. Peroxisomes are single membrane bound organelle that contain oxidative enzymes that are digestive function. it also known as the fluid mosaic model. ensures the cell doesn’t shrink or bust. Organelles have a wide range of responsibilities that include everything from producing hormones and enzymes to providing energy for animal cells.

They are both organelles of movement. . Cillia are short and are in large number per cell. while flagella are longer and fewer in number. They differ based on the function they perform and their length. The flagellar motion is undulating and wave like. whereas the cillary movement stroke and recovery stroke.Cilia and Flagella are structurally identical structures.

THE PLANT CELL .

Cell membrane: It is the outer boundary of the cell. secondary cell wall and the middle lamella. Plants cell constitute of membrane bound nucleus and many cellular structures. They maintain the shape and gives support to the cell Microtubules: They are hollow cylinder like structures found in the cytoplasm of the cells. Cell wall is a characteristic feature to cells of plants. They are flattened structures which contain chemical chlorophyll. Tonoplast: A vacuole that is surrounded by a membrane is called tonoplast. Plant cells have large membrane bound chamber called vacuole. enzymes. The DNA in a plant cell is enclosed within the nucleus. These organelles carry out functions that are necessary for the proper functioning and survival of the cell. Plasmodesmata: They are microscopic channels which traverse the cell walls of plant cells and enables transport and communication between them. Parts of Plant Cell Cell wall: The cell wall is a rigid layer that surrounds the plant cells. Vacuole: Vacuoles are known as cells storage center. They have two membranes and have structures that look like stack of coins. hemicellulose and lignin. There are a wide range of operations like producing hormones. Its function is transport and structural support. The chlorophyll is a green pigment that absorbs energy from sunlight to make food for the plants by converting light energy into chemical energy. The cell wall mostly constitutes of cellulose and its main function is providing support and rigidity. and all metabolic activities of the cell. The cell organelles of the plant are enclosed by a cell wall and cell membrane. The most important distinctive structure of plant cell is the presence of the cell wall outside the cell membrane. they perform functions of secretion. glycoproteins. The constituents of the cell are suspended in the cytoplasm or cytosol. Cytoskeleton: It is a network of fibers made up of micro-tubule and micro-filament. Plant cell walls are primarily made up of cellulose. Plants cells also contain many membrane bound cellular structures. protection against mechanical stress and infection. Microfilaments: Microfialments are solid rod like structures whose primary function is structural support. The process of photosynthesis occurs in this region of the plant cell. excretion and storage. allowing only specific substances to pass through and blocking others. Chloroplasts: It is an elongated or disc-shaped organelle containing chlorophyll. Its main function is storage.The Plant Cell Plant cells are eukaryotic cells. pectins. Plant cell wall consists of three layers: the primary cell wall. . These organelles carry out specific functions necessary for survival and normal operation of the cells. it encloses the cytoplasm and the organelles of the cells. It forms the outer lining of the cell. Vacuoles are found in the cytoplasm of most plant cells. strength. Cell wall is made up of cellulose. In plants cells it is inside the cell wall. It is located outside the cell membrane whose main function is to provide rigidity. It is made up of cellulose. The cell membrane is semi permeable. They are membrane bound organelles.

Ribosomes: Ribosomes are smallest and the most abundant cell organelle. Chromoplast: They are plastids responsible for pigment synthesis and storage. They also aid in sequestration of calcium. Most of the genetic material is organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules. It is composed of both rough endoplasmic reticulum and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. They store products like starch for synthesis of fatty acids and terpenes. They are responsible for protein translation. Lysosome: Lysosome contain digestive enzymes. They digest excess or worn out organelles. They are described as the 'power plants' of the cell as they convert glucose to energy molecules (ATP). They are found in photosynthetic eukaryotic species. They possess their own hereditary material which help in self duplication and multiplication. Microbody: It is a single membrane bound organelle that comprises of degradative enzymes Cytoplasm: It is a gel-like matrix inside enclosed by the cell membrane. Golgi complex: The Golgi bodies look like the endoplasmic reticulum and are situated near the nucleus. The nucleus directs all the activities of the cell and also help in protein formation . it allows passage of substances and is a distinctive characteristic of the eukaryotic cell. and production and storage of glycogen and other macromolecules. It comprises of RNA and protein. Nucleus: It is the control center of the cell. The Golgi apparatus is referred to as the cell's packaging center. Their main function is to process and package macromolecules synthesized from other parts of the cell. The cytoplasm supports cell organelles and also prevents the cell from bursting or shrinking.Plastids: Plastids are storage organelles. It is a porous membrane. They are found in all cells because protein are necessary for the survival of the cell. which look like flattened sacs lined side by side. Ribosomes are sites for protein synthesis. food particles and any foreign bodies. They are found in colored organs of plants like fruits and flowers. It is a large network of interconnecting membrane tunnels. Mitochondria: Mitochondria are surrounded by two membranes. It is bound by a double membrane known as the nuclear envelope. and protein transport to be used in the cell membrane. Endoplasmic reticulum: Endoplasmic reticulum is a membrane bound compartment. Leucoplast: They are a type of plastid which are non-pigmented. The ribososomes are known as the protein factories of the cell. They are found in almost all eukaryotic cells.