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easy to prepare Unit in the entire preparation of IIT JEE,

AIEEE, DCE, EAMCET and other engineering entrance

examinations. It is of no doubt that along with Calculus,

Co-ordinate Geometry is the most scoring of all topics in

Mathematics.

The importance of Co-ordinate Geometry lies in the

fact that almost all the students who aspire to get high All

India rank in IIT JEE, AIEEE, DCE, EAMCET and other

engineering entrance examinations give a good emphasis

on Co-ordinate Geometry.

Co-ordinate Geometry is important not only from the

point of view of Mathematics but also from the point of

view of Physics and Physical Chemistry as it helps in

problems pertaining to graphs, especially Cartesian Coordinates.

Co-ordinate Geometry can be further divided into

many parts but The Straight Line and The Circle holds

high importance not only because more questions appear

from these topics but also from the point of view that

these two chapters are prerequisite to Conic Sections.

Conic Sections can be further divided into Parabola,

Ellipse and Hyperbola. It is well known that it is really

easy to score in Conic Sections as questions which come

every year has few fixed pattern and hence can be easily

dealt with.

as they do study some of its basics in earlier classes.

Hence, it is easy to pick up and a good take-off is not

difficult. This gives an early advantage to the students

not only in Mathematics but also in Physics and Physical

Chemistry.

There are few students who find Co-ordinate

Geometry a bit difficult but to these students we can

advise more and more practice.

Wishing you "All the Best" for the preparation of Coordinate Geometry with askIITians.

Topics Covered under Coordinate Geometry are:1.Straight lines

2.Circle

3.Parabola

4.Ellipse

5.Hyperbola

6.3D Geometry

Straight Lines

Straight Lines is a fundamental and an important topic under Coordinate

Geometry.

the position of the points in space. The easiest and most widely used one is

the Cartesian coordinate system, which is based on mutually perpendicular

axes. In this chapter you will learn about this system: locating the points in

this system and finding equations of line passing through these points.

If we say a line passes through two given points, we are imposing two

conditions on this line. The conditions can be imposed in several other

manners also e.g. we may say that a line passes through one point and is

perpendicular to another line. These two conditions are sufficient to uniquely

known our line. In this chapter you will also learn various manners of

imposing conditions and finding the equation of line under those conditions.

Having known the line uniquely in space we shall try to a lots timings with it

e.g. divide it in a given ratio, find distances of other points or lines from it,

find the angles, which this line make with some straight line.

Straight Lines is one of the easiest and important chapters of Co-ordinate

Geometry in the Mathematics syllabus of IIT JEE, AIEEE and other

engineering examinations. These laws are not new to any aspirant as he is

using

the

principles

even

in

day

to

day

life.

The chapter is important not only because it fetches 2-3 questions in most of

the engineering examination but also because it is prerequisite to the other

chapters of Co-ordinate Geometry.

Topics Covered:

Distance between two points

Centroid Incentre and Circum Centre

Area of a triangle

Standard equations of the Straight Line

Different Forms of line

Examples based on straight line

Angle between two straight lines

Equation of Locus

Examples on Angle Between two straight lines

Length of the Perpendicular from a Point on a Line

Distance between two parallel lines

Examples on distance between two parallel lines

Family of lines

Concurrency of Straight Lines

Angle Bisectors

Pair of Straight Lines

Angle between pair of lines

Combined equations of the angle bisectors of the lines

Joint Equation of Pair of Lines

Introduction

Coordinate Geometry is the unification of algebra and geometry in which algebra is used in

the study of geometrical relations and geometrical figures are represented by means of

equations. The most popular coordinate system is the rectangular Cartesian system.

Coordinates of a point are the real variables associated in an order to describe its location in

space. Here we consider the space to be two-dimensional. Through a point O, referred to as

the origin, we take two mutually perpendicular lines XOX and YOY and call them x and y

axes respectively. The position of a point is completely determined with reference to these

axes of means of an ordered pair of real numbers (x, y) called the coordinates of P where |x|

and |y| are the distances of the point P from the y-axis and the x-axis respectively. X is called

the x-coordinate or the abscissa of P and y is called the y-coordinate or the ordinate of P.

We are familiar with the representation of real numbers on a line, which we call a real line. In

this representation we fix a point O (called origin) and represent a real number by a point A

on this line such that its distance OA (see figure given below) is equal to the value of real

number. In the left side of O we represent negative real numbers and in the right side of O

we represent positive real numbers. Thus, not only the magnitude of OA but the direction of

the line OA is also considered for representation.

Hence OA = AO

Similarly ordered pairs are represented in a plane. To represent an ordered pair (a, b) we

take two reference lines which are mutually perpendicular. The ordered pair (a, b) represents

in such a plane, by a point P(a, b) such that (see figure given below) OA = a and OB = b.

This system is called Cartesian co-ordinate system. Since elements of an ordered pair are

not inter changeable (i.e., (a, b) (b, a) unless a = b) so they are represented in particular

order, the first element a is represented on horizontal line called abscissa and the second

element b on a vertical line called ordinate. Like the real number notation the positive side

of the x-axis is the right side of O and positive side of O and positive side of y-axis is upper

side of O.

So, the two lines divide the region in 4 parts. These are called quadrants. These quadrants

are characterized as

I

quadrant

x > 0, y > 0

II

quadrant

x < 0, y > 0

III

quadrant

x < 0, y < 0

IV

quadrant

x > 0, y < 0

Here the point O represents x = 0 and y = 0, hence order pair becomes (0, 0).

There is a second type of representation called the polar co-ordinate system. In this system

a reference is fixed to a line (Called the initial line), and a point called the origin in the

system. Any point P is represented by ordered pair (r, ).

Such that

and POX = The angular displacement of line OP from fixed line i.e. the initial line, (in

the anticlockwise direction)

Clearly a = r cos and b = r sin (see figure given below)

The distance between two points P(x1, y1) and Q(x2, y2) is (see the figure

given below).

Proof:

Let P(x1, y1) and Q(x2, y2) be the two points and let the distance between

them be d. Draw PA, QR parallel to y-axis and PR parallel to x-axis.

Angle QRP = 90o

d2 = PR2 + RQ2

d2 = (x2 x1)2 + (y2 y1)2

Section Formula

Let us say we want to know the co-ordinates of point which divides a line

segment between two points A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) in the ratio m : n.

The coordinates of such a point are given by

(nx1 + mx2/m+n, ny1 + my2/m+n) (for internal division)

Note:

This is called section formula.

Let P divide the line segment AB in the ratio m : n. If P is inside AB then it is

called internal division; if it is outside AB then it is called external division.

However in each case AP/BP [or AP'/BP' or AP"/BP"] = m/n.

Proof:

Consider ? ABB

Since BB||PQ and AP:PB = m:n (see figure given below)

x x1/x2 x1 = m/m+n

x = nx1 + mx2/m+n and y = ny1 + my2/m+n

If P is outside AB (less assume it is at P)

We have

x x1/x2 x1 = m/m+n

x = nx1 + mx2/m+n and y = ny1 + my2/m+n

Similarly if P is at P then

x = mx2+m+n/nm, y = my2+ny1/m+n

Note:

m:n can be written as m/n or :1. So any point on line joining A and B will

be P(x2+x1/+1.y2+y1/+1). It is useful to assume :1 because it involves

only one variable.

illustration:

Find the ratio in which line segment A(2, 1) and B(5, 2) is divided by x-axis.

Solution:

yP = 0 = y2+1.ya/+1 = 2+(1)/+1 = 1/2

AP/BO = 1/2

Illustration:

Prove that altitudes of a triangle are concurrent and prove that the coordinates of the point of con-currency are

(x1 tan A + x2 tan B + x3 tan C/tan A + tan B + tan C, y1 tan A + y2 tan B +

y3 tan C/tan A + tan B + tan C),

Solution:

In triangle A(x1, y1), B(x2, y2) and C(x3, y3), draw AD perpendicular to BC. Our

effort now should be to find the co-ordinates of the point D.

tan B = AD/BD and tan C = AD/CD

BD/DC = tan C/tan B

Now we apply section formulae.

xD = x2 tan B + x3 tan C/tan B + tan C

yD = y2 tan B + y3 tan C/tan B + tan C

(ii)

(i)

We know that orthocenter will lie on AD. We need to find this point and its

co-ordinates.

We should select a point H1 on AD and take the ratio AH1/H1D in such a

manner so that xH1 and yH1 calculated form (i) should be symmetric in x1, x2,

x3, tan A, tan B and tan C. Think before you proceed

Let

xH1 = x1 tan A + x2 tan B + x3 tan C/tan A + tan B + tan C

and yH1 = y1 tan A + y2 tan B + y3 tan C/tan A + tan B + tan C

Since the result is symmetric, this point H1 will lie on other altitude as well

i.e. the altitudes are concurrent

xH = xH1 and yH = yH1

Illustration:

Prove analytically that in a right angled triangle the midpoint of the

hypotenuse is equidistant from the three angular points.

Solution:

While proving a problem analytically take most convenient co-ordinates of

known points.

In the present case triangle is assumed as AOB with coordinates as shown in

figure given below, C is midpoint of AB.

Now AB = a2 + b2

CA = CB = AB/2 (C is mid point of AB)

= a2 + b2

and, we know that the distance between two points C and O is given by

CO = (a/2 0)2 + (b/2 0)2 = a2 + b2/2

Hence CA = CB = CO

Coordinates of the point P dividing the join of two points A(x1, y1) and

B(x2,

y2)

internally

in

the

given

= 1/2 areP(2x1+1x2/2+1, 2y1+1y2/2+1).

ratio

1 : 2 i.e.,

AP/BP

Coordinates of the point P dividing the join of two points A(x1, y1) and B(x2,

y2) externally in the ratio 1 : 2 i.e., Ao/BP = 1/2 areP(2x1+1x2/2

1, 2y1+1y2/21).

Centroid of Triangle

The centroid of a triangle is the point of concurrency of the medians. The centroid G of the

triangle ABC, divides the median AD, in the ratio of 2 : 1.

Illustration:

Find the centroid of the triangle the coordinates of whose vertices are given by A(x 1, y1),

B(x2, y2) and C(x3, y3) respectively.

Solution:

AG/AD = 2/1

Since D is the midpoint of BC, coordinates of D are (x 2+x3/2, y2+y3/2)

Using the section formula, the coordinates of G are

(2(x2+x3/2)+1.x1/2+1, 2(y2+y3/2)+1.y1/2+1)

Coordinates of G are (x1+x2+x3/3, y1+y2+y3/3).

Incentre of Triangle

The incentre I of a triangle is the point of concurrency of the bisectors of the angles of the

triangle.

Illustration:

Find the incentre of the triangle the coordinates of whose vertices are given by A(x 1, y1),

B(x2, y2), C(x3, y3).

Solution:

By geometry, we know that BD/DC = AB/AC (since AD bisects A).

If the lengths of the sides AB, BC and AC are c, a and b respectively, then BD/DC = AB/AC =

c/b.

Coordinates of D are (bx2+cx3/b+c, by2+cy3/b+c)

IB bisects B. Hence ID/IA = BD/BA = (ac/b+c)/c = a/c+b.

Circum Centre of Triangle

This the point of concurrency of the perpendicular bisectors of the sides of the triangle. This

is also the centre of the circle, passing through the vertices of the given triangle.

Orthocentre of Triangle

This is the point of concurrency of the altitudes of the triangle.

Excentre

Excentre of a triangle is the point of concurrency of bisectors of two exterior and third

interior angle. Hence there are three excentres I1, I2 and I3 opposite to three vertices of a

triangle.

If A(x1, y1), B(x2, y2) and C(x3, y3) are the vertices of a triangle ABC,

I1(x, y) = (ax1+bx2+cx3/a+b+c/a+b+c, ay1+by2+cy3/a+b+c).

Similarly co-ordinates of centre of I2(x, y) and I3(x, y) are

I2(x, y) = (ax1bx2+cx3/ab+c, ay1by2+cy3/ab+c)

Area of a triangle

Let (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3) respectively be the coordinates of the vertices

A, B, C of a triangle ABC. Then the area of triangle ABC, is

It follows that the three points (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3) will be collinear

if

= 0.

First of all we plot the points and see their actual order. Let A1(x1, y1),

A(x2, y2), , An(xn, yn) be the vertices of the polygon in anticlockwise order.

Then area of the polygon =

.

Illustration:

Solution:

Area of a triangle

1/2 [3(2 4) + (1) (4 6) + 5 (6 2)]

= 1/2 [ 6 2 + 20] = 6

Area of a ?ABC is

= 1/2 [3(4 2) + (5) (2 6) + (1) (6 4)]

=1/2 [6 20 + 2] = 6

Caution:

Thus we observe that the area of a triangle is positive vertices are taken in

the anticlockwise direction and negative when the vertices are taken the

clockwise direction.

Note:

= 1/2 [x1 y2 y1 x2 + x2 y3 y2 x3 + x3 y1 y3 x1]

This form is important. It can be used to find area of a quadrilateral,

pentagon, hexagon and polygons.

Important:

If three points P1, P2 and P3 are collinear then the determinant at must vanish

i.e. the area of triangle formed must be zero.

Note:

If the vertices are in clockwise order then take modulus.

Illustration:

(p + 3, p 2) and (p, p) remains constant as p varies.

Solution:

Straight Line

Any equation of first degree of the form Ax + By + C = 0, where A, B, C are

constants always represents a straight line (at least one out of A and B is non

zero).

Slope

If is the angle at which a straight line is inclined to the positive direction of

the x-axis, then m = tan, (0 < < 180o) is the slope of the line.

Slope Intercept From:

y = mx + c, where

m = slope of the line

c = y intercept

Intercept Form:

x/a + y/b = 1

x intercept = a

y intercept = b

(a)

(b)

The gradient of the straight line i.e., the slope m of the line

Equation:

y y1 = m(x x1), where (x1, y1) is a point on the straight line.

Illustration:

Pause:

Equation of line in figure (ii) is x = 3, because x-co-ordinate of each point on

the line is 3.

Equation of line in figure (iv) is y = 2, because y-co-ordinate of each point on

the line is 2.

Although every line satisfied the above given basic definition, a line can be

represented in many forms, some of which are given hereunder.

Two points form:

Let there be two points A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) in a co-ordinate plane. If any

point P(x, y) lies on the line joining A and b then m = tan = yy1/xx2 = y2

y1/x2 x1, (see figure given below).

Equation of line can also be written as

y y2 = y2 y1/x2 x1 (x x2) or

= 0.

Illustration:

The ends of a rod of length l move on two mutually perpendicular lines. Find the locus of the

point on the rod, which divides it in the ratio 2 : 1.

Solution:

Suppose the two perpendicular lines are x = 0 and y = 0 and let the end of the rod lie at the

point (0, a) and (b, 0).

h = b+2.0/2+1, k = 2.a+1.0/2+1 a = 3k/2, b = 3h.

Also l2 = a2 + b2.

l2 = (3k/2)2 + (3h)2.

x2 + y2/4 = l2/9, which represents an ellipse.

Similarly, take the ratio AP : BP as 2 : 1 and proceed. We get the result as y 2 + x2/4 = l2/9.

Illustration:

Find the locus of the point of intersection of the liens xcos + ysin = a and xsin ycos =

b. where is a variable.

Solution:

Let P(h, k) be the point of intersection of the given lines.

Then hcos + ksin = a.

hsin kcos = b.

(1)

(2)

Squaring and adding (1) and (2),

We get, (hcos + ksin)2 + (hsin kcos)2 = a2 + b2

h2 + k2 = a2 + b2.

Hence locus of (h, k) is x2 + y2 = a2 + b2.

Two intercept form:

If intercepts of a line on x and y-axis are known then equation of the line can also be found

in two-intercept form. Intercepts are OA and OB on x and y-axis respectively, where A(a, 0)

and B(0, b) are two points through which line is passing. Treating it as a special case of twopoint form, one can write a unique equation of the line as

y0/xa = 0b/a0, where P(x, y) is any point on the line (figure given below)

y/b = x/a + 1.

x/a + y/b = 1.

This is intercept from of the equation of a straight line.

Parametric form:

Consider line PQ with points Q(x1, y1). Then Co-ordinates of any points P(x, y) are

x = x1 + r cos (see figure given below)

y = y1 + r sin

Equation of the line is obtained as follows: xx1/cos = yy1/sin = r

This is parametric form of the equation of a straight line.

Note:

That tan = m = slope of line.

Normal form:

Consider line l as shown in figure given below

ON l and |ON| = p

We have in ?ONA

OA = p/cos

y-axes are p/cos and p/sin respectively. So equation of line l will be (both intercept form)

x cos /p + y sin /p = 1

x cos + y sin = p

This is the equation of a straight line in normal form, where p is perpendicular distance of

the line from origin.

Caution:

tan a m (slope of line)

Note:

P is always measured away from the origin and is always positive in value, a is a positive

angle less than 360o measured from the positive direction OX of the x-axis to the normal

from the origin to the line.

General form:

The general form of the equation of a straight line is

Ax + By+ C = 0

This equation can be reduced to any of the above forms with some rearrangements.

Illustration:

Reduce 3x 4y + 5 = 0 to all other forms.

Solution:

(a) Slope intercept form

y = 3/4 x + 5/4

where, m = slope = 3/4

c = 5/4 (y intercept)

(b)

Intercept form

3x 4y = 5

3x/5 + 4y/5 = 1

x intercept = 5/3

y intercept = 5/4

(c)

Let x = 1, then y = 3/4 + 5/4 = 2

y 2 = 3/4 (x 1)

(d)

parametric form

x1/cos = r, where tan = 3/4

x1/4/5 = y2/3/5 = r

(e)

Normal form

3x 4y = 5

3x + 4y = 5

Dividing by ((3)2 + 4)

3/5 x + 4/5 y = 5/5 = 1

x cos + y sin = p, p > 0

Where cos = 3/5, sin = 4/5, p = 1

Illustration:

The straight line drawn through the point P(0, 3) and making an angle of

30o with positive x-axis, meets the line x + y = 6 at Q. Find the length PQ.

Solution:

Method 1.

Equation of the line through the point P is

x0/cos 30 = y 3/sin 30 = r

xQ = 3/r r, yQ = 3 + r/2, r = distance PQ

Point Q lies on x + y = 6

r3/2 + (3 + r/2) = 6

r = 6/3+1

Method 2.

Equation of the line through the point P is y = 1/3 x + 3

[because here m = tan 30o = 1/3, c = 3]

Solving this line, with x + y = 6, we get

xQ = 33/3+1, yQ = 33+6/3+1

distance PQ = (xQ xP)2 + (yQ yP)2

= 6/3+1

Illustration:

Find the equation of the line whose perpendicular distance from the origin is

4 units and the angle which the normal makes with positive direction of xaxis is 15o.

Solution:

Here, we are given p = 4 and = 15o.

Now cos 15o = 3+1/22

and sin 15o = 31/22

By the normal form, the equation of the line is

x cos 15o + y sin 15o = 4 or 3+1/22 x + 31/22 y = 4

or (3 + 1) x + (3 1)y = 82.

This is the required equation.

Illustration:

Given a line 2x 3y + 5 = 0. Write various forms of the line.

Solution:

Slope intercept form:

y = 2x/3 + 5/3, C = 5/3

Intercept Form:

x/(5/3) + y/(5/3) = 1, a = 5/2; b = + 5/3.

Normal Form:

sin = 3/13, cos = 213

2/13 p = 5/13.

Illustration:

Find the equation to the straight line which passes through the point (5, 4)

and is such that the position of it between the axes is divided by the give

point in the ratio 1 : 2.

Solution:

Let the required straight line be (x/a) + (y/b) = 1.

Using the given conditions, P (2a+1.0/2+1, 2.0+1.b/2+1) is the point which

divides (a, 0) and (0, b) internally in the ratio 1 : 2.

But P is (5/4)

Hence 5 = 2a/3, 4 = b/3 a = 15/2, b = 12.

Hence the required equation is x/(15/2) + y/2 < < .

tan = 8 = slope of line.

We know that the equation of the straight line passing through the point (x1,

y1) having slope m is y y1 = m(x x1).

Therefore the equation of the required line is y 2 = 8 (x 1)

8 x + y 8 2 = 0.

Illustration:

Find the equation of the line joining the points (1, 3) and (4, 2).

Solution:

Equation of the line passing through the points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is

y y1 = y1y2/x1x2 (x x1)

Hence equation of the required line will be

y 3 = 3+2/14 (x + 1) x + y 2 = 0.

Illustration:

Represent the straight-line y = x + 2 in the parametric form.

Solution:

Slope of the given line is = 1 = tan /4.

Equation of the straight line can be written as y 2 = x.

or y2/1/2 = x/1/2= r.

Any point on the line is (r/2, 2 + r/2).

The point (x, y) is at a distance r from the point (0, 2).

Illustration:

A line joining two points A(2, 0) and B(3, 1) is rotated about A in the

anticlockwise direction through an angle of 15o. Find the equation of the line

in the new position. If B goes to C, what will be the coordinates of C, in the

new position?

Solution:

Slope of BAB(m) = 1 m = tan = 1 = 45o.

= tan (60o) (because angle between AB and AC = 15o).

Also AB = AC = 2 and A is (2, 0).

x2/cos60o = y0/sin 60o

or x2/1/2 = y/3/2 = r = 2

C is (2 + 2.1/2, 0 + 2.3/2) i.e. C is (2 + 1/2, 3/2).

Angle bisector of two lines (the line which bisects the angle between the two

lines) is the locus of a point which is equidistant (having equal perpendicular

distance) from the two lines.

L1 : A1x + B1y + C1 = 0

L2 : A2x + B2y + C2 = 0

If point R(p, q) lies on the bisector, then length of perpendicular from P to be

both lines should be equal.

i.e.

generalizing for any point (x, y) the equation of the angle bisector is obtained

as:

A1x+B1y+C1/A12 + B12 = + A2x+B2y+C2/A22 + B22

Note:

1. This equation gives two bisectors: one-acute angle bisector and the other

obtuse bisector.

To determine a bisector which lies in the same relative position with respect

to the lines as a given point S(x 3, y3) does, make the signs of the expressions

A2x3 +

B1y3+

C1 and

A2x3 +

B2y3 +

C2 identical.

(say

positive)

2

2

2

2

then A1x+B1y+C1/A1 + B1 = +A2x+B2y+C2/A2 + B2 gives the bisector

towards this point. If the signs are different multiply one of the equations

with 1 throughout, so that positive sign is obtained. Then above equation

with changed equations of lines will given the required bisector.

3. If (x3, y3) (0, 0) and A2A1 + B2B1 > 0 then the bisector towards the origin

is the obtuse angle bisector.

acute angle, determines both the bisectors and calculate angle between one

of them and the initial line. The bisector for which |tan | > 1 is the obtuse

angle bisector.

Locus

If a point moves according to some fixed rule, its co-ordinates will always

satisfy some algebraic relation corresponding to the fixed rule. The resulting

path (a curve) of the moving point is called the locus of the point. The locus

i.e. the curve now contains all the points satisfying the specified condition

and no point outside the curve satisfies the condition.

When a point moves in a plane under certain geometrical conditions, the

point traces out a path. This path of the moving point is called its locus.

Equation of Locus

The equation to the locus is the relation which exists between the

coordinates of all the point on the path, and which holds for no other points

except those lying on the path.

Procedure for finding the equation of the locus of a point

(i) If we are finding the equation of the locus of a point P, assign coordinates

(h, k) to P.

(ii) Express the given conditions as equations in terms of the known

quantities and unknown parameters.

(iii) Eliminate the parameters, so that the eliminant contains only h, k and

known quantities.

(iv) Replace h by x, and k by y, in the eliminant. The resulting equation is the

equation

of

the

locus

of

p.

The problem of determining the equation of locus of points every pair of

which has constant slope. (see figure given below)

Slope is the tangent (i.e. tan q) of the angle made by a line with the positive

x-axis (remember positive) taken in anticlockwise direction from x-axis to the

line. For any two points P(x1, y1) and Q(x2, y2).

lines.

Illustration:

Draw the lines 3x + 4y 12 = 0 and 5x + 12y + 13 = 0. Find the equation of the bisector of

the angle containing the origin. Also find the acute angle bisector and obtuse angle bisector.

Solution:

Let us make the expression on the left-hand side of the given equations of the same sign

or + ve. After substituting x = 0 and

y = 0.

L.H.S. of (i) is 3.0 + 4.0 12 = 12 = ve

R.H.S. of (ii) is 5.0 + 12.0 + 13 = 13 = + ve

So, multiply equation (i) by (1), we get

3x 4y + 12 = 0

(1)

Equation of the bisector of the angle containing origin is given by +ve sign i.e. 3x

4y+12/5 = + 5x+12y+13/13

64x + 112y 91 = 0

(3)

3x 4y + 12 = 0

(1)

5x + 12y + 13 = 0

(2)

To find out whether this is an acute angle bisector or obtuse angle bisector, let us find the

sign of a1 a2 + b1 b2 from equation (1) and equation (2).

a1 a2 + b1 b2

= (3) (5) + (4) (12) = 15 48 = 63 = ve

the bisector containing the origin is the acute angle bisector.

Now, For obtuse angle bisector, we take ve origin.

i.e. 3x 4y+12/5 = + 5x+12y+13/13

i.e. 14x 8y 221 = 0

(4)

Well, to confirm all this, let us find angle between one of the lines and one of the bisectors

i.e.

5x + 12y + 13 = 0

(2)

64x + 112y 91 = 0

(3)

Slope of line (3) is m3 = 64/112

Let q be the angle between these two lines

tan =

<1

(i)

bx ay + k = 0.

(ii)

Let there be two-lines l1 and l2 with slopes m1 and m2 respectively. So tan = m1, tan =

m2 Angle between them is either

or ( ) depending on the side on considers

tan () = m1+m2/1+m1m2

( = say)

tan( ) = tan . So only the magnitude of can be obtained.

Further tan ( ) = tan .

Since magnitude also includes the other angle i.e.

Supplementary angle. So is given by

tan acute =

Important:

1.

tan = 0 m1 = m2

2.

tan = tan (/2) =

1 + m1 m2 = 0 m1 m2 = 1

3.

Equation of a line parallel to y = mx + c is y = mx + k, i.e. Equation of a line parallel to

ax + by + c = 0 is ax + by + k = 0

4.

Equation of a line perpendicular to y = mx + c is y = 1/m x + k i.e. Equation of a line

perpendicular to ax + by + c = 0 is

bx ay + k = 0

5.

Lines

a1x + b1y + c1 = 0

a2x + b2y + c2 = 0

(i)

(ii)

represents

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

on a Line

The distance of a point from a line is the length of the perpendicular drawn from the point on

the line. Given the equation of the line are different forms, the length of the perpendicular

can be obtained in different forms.

First form:

The normal equation helps us in finding the distance of a point from a straight line. Suppose

we have to find the distance of the point P(x 1, y1) from the line l1 whose equation is x cos +

y sin = p. Let l2 be the line through P parallel to the line l 1. Let d be the distance of P from

l1. Then, the normal from O to l2 is of length p + d. Hence the equation of l2 is

x cos + y sin = p + d.

Since P(x1, y1) lies on it.

x1 cos + y1 sin = p + d

d = x1 cos + y1 sin p.

Note:

1.

Rule to find the perpendicular distance of a given point from a given line in normal

form.

In the left side of the equation (right side being zero), substitute the coordinates of the

point. The result gives the perpendicular distance.

2.

Complete distance formula. If the point P and the origin O, instead of lying on the

opposite sides of l as in figure given above, lie on the same side of line l 1 it may be proved

by proceeding exactly in the same manner that

Hence, the complete distance formula is

d = + (x1 cos + y1 sin p)

The distance of a point from a line is the length of the perpendicular drawn from the point to

the line. Let L : Ax + By + C = 0 be a line, whose distance from the point P(x 1, y1) is d. Draw

a perpendicular PM from the point P to the line L. If the line meets the x and y-axes at the

points Q and R respectively, then coordinates of the points are Q(C/A, 0) and R(0, C/B).

Thus the area of the triangle PQR is given by

area(?PQR) = 1/2 PM QR, which gives PM = 2 are (PQR)/QR

also, area (?PQR) = 1/2 |x1 (0 + C/B) + (C/A) (C/B y1) + 0(y1 0)|

= 1/2 |x1 C/B + y1 C/A + C2/AB|

(1)

QR = (0 + C/A)2 + (C/B 0)2 = |C/AB| A2 + B2

Substituting the values of area (?PQR) and QR in (1), we get

PM = |Ax1+By1+C|/A2+B2.

Or d = |Ax1+By1+C|/A2+B2.

Thus the perpendicular distance (d) of a line Ax + By + C = 0 from a point

(x1, y1) is given by d = |Ax1+By1+C|/A2+B2.

We know that slopes of two parallel lines are equal. Therefore, two parallel lines can be

taken in the form

y = mx + c1

(1)

and y = mx + c2

(2)

Line (1) will intersect x-axis at the point A (c1/m, 0) as shown in figure.

Distance between two lines is equal to the length of the perpendicular from point A to line

(2). Therefore, distance between the lines (1) and 92) is

|(m)(c1/m)+(c2)|/1+m2 or d = |c1c2|/1+m2.

Thus the distance d between two parallel liens y = mx + c 1 and y + mx + c2 is given by d = |

C1C2|/A2+B2.

Illustration:

Find the distance of the point (3, 5) from the line 3x 4y 26 = 0.

Solution:

Given line is 3x 4y 26 = 0.

(1)

A = 3, B = 4 and C = 26.

Given point is (x1, y1) = (3, 5). The distance of the given point from given line is d = |

Ax1+By1+C|/A2+B2 = 3/5.

Illustration:

Find the distance between the parallel lines 3x 4y + 7 = 0 and

3x 4y + 5 = 0.

Solution:

Here A = 3, B = 4, C1 = 7 and C2 = 5.

Illustration:

The coordinates of the vertices A, B, C of a triangle are (6, 3), (3, 5) and (4,2) respectively

and P is any point (x, y). Show that the ratio of the areas of the triangles PBC and ABC is |x +

y 2| : 7.

Solution:

Equation of the line BC is x + y 2 = 0. Let PG and AD be perpendiculars from p and A on

BC.

1/2.BC.PG/1/2.BC.AD = PG/AD. But PG is the length of the perpendicular form P(x, y) on

x + y 2 = 0 and AD is the length of the perpendicular from A(6, 3) on x + y 2 = 0.

Ratio of the areas of ?PBC and ?ABC.

|x+y2/2|/|6+32/2| = |x+y2/7|.

Illustration:

Find the distance from the line 3x 4y + 35 = 0 of the point (0, 0).

Solution:

Writing the given equation in the normal form, we get

3/5 x + 4/5 y 7 = 0

Substituting x = 0, y = 0 in it, d = 3/5 (0) + 4/5 (0) 7 = 7

Changing sign the required distance = 7.

Second form:

To find the perpendicular distance of the point (x1, y1) from the line

ax + by + c = 0.

Let us convert the given equation in the normal form.

a/a2+b2 x + b/a2+b2 y + c/a2+b2 = 0

The perpendicular Distance of (x1, y1) is

d = a/a2+b2 x1 + b/a2+b2 y1 + c/a2+b2

d = ax1+by1+c/a2+b2

This formula can also be obtained independently as under:

Let PM be the perpendicular form P on AB. Then coordinates of A and B are

(c/a, 0) and (0, c/b) respectively,

AB = c2/a2+c2/b2

= c/ab (a2+b2)

Area of ?PAB (Recall from page M4 M 4)

= 1/2 [x1 (c/b 0)+0(0 y1) c/a (y1 + c/b)]

= c/2ab (ax1 + by1 + c)

(1)

= 1/2 PM.c/ab (a2+b2)

From (1) and (2), we have

1/2 PM.c/ab (a2+b2) (ax1 + by1 + c)

(2)

PM = ax1+by1+c/a2+b2

Neglecting the negative sign, as the length of a segment is always positive, we have

PM = |ax1+by1+c/a2+b2|

Note:

1.

Actually

d = + ax1+by1+c/a2+b2

2.

To find the distance of a point from the given line, in the left side of the equation (right

side being zero) substitute the co-ordinates of the point, and divide the result

by (coefficient of x)2 + (coefficient of y)2

3.

When to use complete perpendicular Distance formula? The complete perpendicular

Distance formula is used when the length of the perpendicular to the line is given.

Illustration:

Find the

x y = 5.

distance

of

the

point

P(2,

3)

from

the

line

AB

which

is

Solution:

The equation of the line is

x y 5 = 0 [Making right side zero (note this step)]

Perpendicular Distance of the point (2, 3)

= (2)35/(1)2+(1)2 = 10/2

= 52

Changing the sign, perpendicular Distance in magnitude = 52.

Enquiry:

We can now find the distance of a point form a line but how can we

determine as to which side of the line does the point lie?

From the figure, we observe that

ax0 + by0 + c = 0

(1)

= (ax0 + c) + by1

[x0 = x1 = x2]

= b(y1 y0)

= ve

Consider, ax2 + by2 + c

= (ax0 + c) + by2

= b(y2 y0)

= +ve

Thus we observe that the point is on one side of the line, if put in the expression of line is

gives one sign, while the point is on the other side of the line, if put in the expression of line

it gives opposite sign.

Illustration:

Final the condition so that the points (x 1, y1) and (x2, y2) lie on the same side, of the line ax +

by + c =

Solution:

Since, (ax1 + by1 + c) and (ax2 + by2 + c)

Should be of the same sign.

Their product should be positive i.e.

(ax1+by1+c)(ax2+by2+c) > 0, which is the required condition.

Family of lines

The general equation of the family of lines through the point of intersection of two given

lines is L + L = 0, where L = 0 and L = 0 are the two given lines, and is a parameter.

Illustration:

A

variable

line

through

the

point

of

intersection

of

the

lines

x/a + y/b = 1 and x/b + y/a = 1 meets the coordinate axes in A and B. Show that the locus

of the midpoint of AB is the curve 2xy(a + b) = ab(x + y).

Solution:

Let (h, k) be the midpoint of the variable line AB.

The equation of the variable line AB is

(bx + ay ab) + (ax + by ab) = 0

Coordinate of B are (0, ab(1+)b+a).

Mid point of AB is (ab(1+)2(b+a), ab(1+)2(a+b))

h = ab(1+)2(b+a); k = ab(1+)2(a+b) 1/2h = b+a/ab(1+); 1/2k =

a+b/ab(1+)

1/2h + 1/2k = a+b/ab (h + k)ab = 2hk (a + b).

To find the equation to the straight lines which pass through a given point (x 1, y1) and make

equal angles with the given straight line y = m1x + c.

If m is the slope of the required line and is the angle which this line makes with the given

line, then tana = + m1m/1+m1m.

(i)

The above expression for tan, gives two values of m, say mA and mB.

(ii)

The required equations of the lines through the point (x 1, y1) and making equal

angles with the given line are y y1 = mA (x x1), y y1 = mB(x x1).

Illustration:

Find the equations to the sides of an isosceles right-angled triangle, the equation of whose

hypotenuse is 3x + 4y = 4 and the opposite vertex is the point (2, 2).

Solution:

The problem can be restated as:

Find the equations to the straight lines passing through the given point (2, 2) and

making equal angles of 45o with the given straight line 3x + 4y 4 = 0

Slope of the line 3x + 4y 4 = 0 is m1 = 3/4

So that mA = 1/7,

and mB = 7.

y 2 = mA (x 2) and y 2 = mB(x 2).

7y x 12 = 0 and 7x + y = 16.

Illustration:

The straight lines 3x + 4y = 5 and 4x 3y = 15 intersect at the point A. On these lines

points B and C are chosen so that AB = AC. Find the possible equations of the line BC

passing through (1, 2).

Solution:

The two given straight lines are at right angles.

Since AB = AC, the triangle is an isosceles right angled triangle.

The required equation is of the form y 2 = m(x 1)

(1)

1 = + m+3/4/13m/4 = + m4/3/1+4m/3 m = 7, 1/7.

Substitute the value of m in (1). We get the required equations.

Illustration:

Find the equation of the straight line passing through (2, 7) and having intercept of length 3

units

between

the

straight

lines

4x + 3y = 12 and 4x + 3y = 3.

Solution:

Distance AC between the two given parallel lines

= |c1c2/a2+b2| = 123/16+9 = 9/5.

BC = 12/5. If is the angle between BC and AB, then tan = 9/12 = 3/4.

Slope of the parallel lines = 4/3 = m2.

If m1 is the slope of the required line, then tan = m1m/1+m1m 3/4 = + m14/3/1+4/3m1

i.e. m1 + 4/3 = 3/4 (1 4/3 m1) and m1 + 4/3 = 3/4 (1 4/3 m1).

The slopes are

(i) m1 = 7/24

(ii) m1 =

(the line is parallel to the y-axis).

The required

x + 2 = 0.

equations

of

the

lines

are

7x

24y

182

and

Alternative solution:

Equation of the line, through P(2, 7) and making angle with the x-axis, is x+2/cos =

y+7/sin = r.

If this line intersects the given lines at A and B, with AB = 3, the points A and B are A(2 +

r1 cos , 7 + r1 sin ) and B (2 + (r1 + 3) cos , 7 + (r1 + 3) sin ).

Since A and B lie on the lines 4x + 3y = 3 and 4x + 3y = 12, we have

4r1 cos + 3r1 sin + 12 cos + 9 sin = 41, so that

12 cos + 9 sin = 0 or 4 cos + 3 sin = 3.

Solving this equation we find that = /2 and tan = 7/24.

Hence the required lines are x + 2 = 0

The condition for 3 lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0, a2x + b2y + c2 = 0,

a3x + b3y + c3 = 0 to be concurrent is

(i)

= 0.

(ii) There exist 3 constants l, m, n (not all zero at the same time) such that IL 1 + mL2 +

nL3 = 0, where L1 = 0, L2 = 0 and L3 = 0 are the three given straight lines.

(iii) The three lines are concurrent if any one of the lines passes through the point of

intersection of the other two lines.

Illustration:

Check if lines

a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0

(1)

a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0

(2)

(3)

are concurrent?

Solution:

We can try to find , and by observation as follow:

L3 2L1 + 3L2 = 0

Enquiry: many lines can pass through the intersection of two lines. Can we find

a general equation of these lines?

If L1 = 0 and L2 = 0 are two lines then equation of family of lines passing through their

intersection is given by

L1 + L2 = 0

(A)

L2 = 0)

Note:

To determine a particular line one more condition is required so as to determine or

eliminate .

Illustration:

If x (2q + p) + y(3q + p) = 0

(x + y 1) + q/p (2x + 3y 1) = 0, p 0

Solution:

This equation represents the family of lines passing through the intersection of lines x + y

1 = 0 and 2x + 3y 1 = which is fixed point i.e. (2, 1).

If p = 0 then equation becomes

q(2x + 3y 1) = 0

this also represents a line which passes through fixed points (2, 1).

Hence the given equation represents family of lines passing through a fixed point (2, 1) for

variable p, q.

Illustration:

Find the equation of a line, through the intersection of 2x + 3y 7 = 0 and x + 3y 5 = 0

and having distance from origin as large as possible.

Now, with OA as radius and O itself as centre draw a circle.

There will be infinitely many lines through A and each except one of them produces a

chord of circle and hence their distance from origin i.e. centre of circle is less than OA i.e.

radius of circle.

But the exceptional one which infact is a tangent to circle at A will be at a distance OA

from O.

Thus, tangent to circle at A will be the line through A and is farthest from origin.

Now, OA tangent at A.

(slope of OA) (slope of tangent at A) = 1

Or, 10/20 (slope of tangent at A) = 2

equation of required line is

(y 1) = 2(x 2)

Or

2x + y 5 = 0

Illustration:

Find the point of concurrency of the altitudes drawn from the vertices (at 1t2, a(t1 + r2)), (at2t3,

a2t2 + t3)) and (at3t1, a(t3 + t1)) respectively of a triangle ABC.

Solution:

Slope of AD = t3.

Equation of AD is y a(t1 + t2) = t3(x + at1t2).

(1)

(2)

x = a y = a(t1 + t2 + t1t2t3).

Hence the point of concurrency of the altitudes is

(a, a(t1 + t2 + t3 + t1t2t3)).

given line

Let the line be ax + by + c = 0 and P(x1, y1), Q(x2, y2) be two points.

Case 1:

If P(x1, y1) and Q(x2, y2) are on the opposite sides of the line

ax + by + c = 0, then the point R on the line ax + by + c = 0 divides the line PQ internally in

the ratio m1 : m2, where m1/m2 must be positive.

Co-ordinates of R

are (m1x2+m2x1/m1+m2, m1y2+m2y1/m1+m2).

Point R lies on the line ax + by + c = 0.

m1/m2 = ax1+by1+c/ax2+by2+c > 0

So that ax1 + by1 + c and ax2 + by2 + c should have opposite signs.

Case 2:

If ax1 + by1 + c and ax2 + by2 + c have the same signs then m1/m2 = ve, so that the point R

on the line ax + by + c = 0 will divide the line PQ externally in the ratio m 1 : m2 and the

points P(x1, y1) and Q(x2, y2) are on the same side of the line ax + by + c = 0.

Illustration:

Find the range of in the interval (0, ) such that the points (3, 5) and (sin, cos) lie on the

same side of the line x + y 1 = 0.

Solution:

3 + 5 1 =7 > 0 sin + cos 1 > 0

sin(/4 + ) > 1/2

/4 < /4 + < 3/4

0 < < /2.

Illustration:

Find a, if (, 2) lies inside the triangle having sides along the lines

2x + 3y = 1, x + 2y 3 = 0, 6y = 5x 1.

Solution:

Let A, B, C be vertices of the triangle.

C (1/3, 1/9).

Sign of A w.r.t. BC is ve.

If p lies in-side the ABC, then sign of P will be the same as sign of a w.r.t. the line BC

5 62 1 < 0.

Similarly

2 + 32 1 > 0.

And,

+ 22 3 < 0.

(1)

(2)

(3)

Solving, (1), (2) and (3) for and then taking intersection,

We get

Illustration:

The equations of the perpendicular bisectors of the sides AB and AC of a triangle ABC are

respectively x y + 5 = 0 and x + 2y = 0. If the co-ordinates of A are (1, 2), find the

equation of BC.

Solution:

From the figure,

E (x1+1/2, y12/2),

F (x2+1/2, y22/2).

Since E and F lie on OE and OF respectively,

x1 y1 + 13 = 0

(1)

and x2 + 2y2 3 = 0

(2)

x1 + y1 + 1 = 0.

(3)

And 2x2 y2 4 = 0

(4)

B (7, 6) and C (11/5, 2/5)

Equation of BC is 14x + 23y 40 = 0.

Illustration:

Two fixed points A and B are taken on the co-ordinate axes such that OA = a and OB = b.

Two variable points A and B are taken on the same axes such that OA + OB = OA + OB.

Find the locus of the point of intersection of AB and AB.

Solution:

Let A (a, 0), B (0, b), A (a, 0), B (0, b).

Equation of AB is x/a' + y/b' = 1.

. (1)

. (2)

x(a'a)/aa' + y(bb')/bb' = 0.

x/a(bb'+a) + y/bb', 0 b = a(a+b)y/aybx.

From (2) bx + ay = (4) we get x + y = a + b

[Using a a = b b]

.. (3)

Angle Bisectors

To find the equations of the bisectors of the angle between the lines

a1x + b1y+ c1 = 0 and a2x + b2y + c2 = 0.

A bisector is the locus of a point, which moves such that the perpendiculars drawn from it to

the two given lines, are equal.

The equations of the bisectors are

a1x+b1y+c1/a12+b12 = + a2x+b2y+c2/a22+b22.

Tan (PAN) = tan (/2) is such that |tan /2| < 1.

AP is an obtuse angle bisector if,

Tan (PAN) = tan (/2) is such that |tan /2| > 1.

Notes :

When both c1 and c2 are of the same sign, evaluate a1a2 + b1b2. If negative, then acute

angle bisector is a1x+b1y+c1/a12+b12 = + a2x+b2y+c2/a22+b22.

When both c1 and c2 are of the same sign, the equation of the bisector of the angle which

contains the origin is a1x+b1y+c1/a12+b12 = + a2x+b2y+c2/a22+b22.

a1x+b1y+c1/a12+b12 = +a2x+b2y+c2/a22+b22 if a1 + b1 + c1 and a2 + b2 + c2 have the

same sign.

Bisectors of the angle containing the point (, ) is

a1x+b1y+c1/a12+b12 = +a2x+b2y+c2/a22+b22 if a1 + b1 + c1 and a2 + b2 + c2 have the

opposite sign.

Illustration:

For the straight lines 4x + 3y 6 = 0 and 5x + 12y + 9 = 0 , find the equation of the

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

Solution:

Equations of bisectors of the angles between the given lines are

4x+3y6/42+32 = + 5x+12y+9/52+122

9x 7y 41 = 0 and 7x + 9y 3 = 0.

tan = > 1.

Hence

(i)

(ii)

4x + 3y 6 = 4 1 + 3 2 6 > 0.

5x + 12y + 9 = 12 12 + 9 > 0.

Hence equation of the bisector of the angle containing the point (1, 2) is 4x+3y6/5 =

5x+12y+9/13 9x 7y 41 = 0.

The equation ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0. Represents a second degree equation

where a, h, b doesnt variables simultaneously.

Let a 0.

Now, the above equation becomes

a2 x2 + 2ax (hy + g) = aby2 2afy ac

on completing the square on the left side, we get,

a2 x2 + 2ax (hy + g) = y2 (h2 ab) + 2y (gh af) + g2 ac.

i.e.

(ax + hy + g) = + y2(h2ab)+2y(ghaf)g2ac

We cannot obtain x in terms of y, involving only terms of the first degree, unless the quantity

under the radical sign be a perfect square. The condition for this is,

(gh af)2 = (h2 ab) (g2 ac)

i.e. g2h2 2afgh + a2f2 = g2h2 abg2 abg2 ach2 + a2bc

cancelling and diving by a, we have the required condition

abc + 2fgh af2 af2 bg2 ch2 = 0

Illustration:

What is the point of intersection of two straight lines given by general equation ax 2+ 2hxy +

by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0?

Solution:

The general solution is

ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0

(1)

x = x + ,

y = y +

a(x + )2 + 2h(x + ) (y + ) + b(y + )2 + 2g(x + ) + 2f(y + ) + c = 0

(h + b + f) = 0

ax'2 + 2hxy + by = 0

This cannot be possible unless

a + h + g = 0

h + b + f = 0

Solving

/hfbg = /hgaf = 1/abh2

= hfbg/abb2, = hgaf/abh2

Illustration:

Represent lines y = 2x and y = 3x by a homogeneous equation of second degree

Solution:

(y 2x) (y 3x) = 0

Or 6x2 5xy + y2 = 0

Illustration:

Represent lines parallel to y = 2x and y = 3x by a second degree equation

Solution:

(y 2x c1) (y 3x c2) (where c1 and c2 are constants)

= 6x2 5xy + y2 + (3c1 + 2c2) x + ( c1 c2) y + c1 c2 = 0

Note:

1.

Homogeneous part is same as for the equation of above illustration. Therefore, the

homogeneous part of a general second degree equation determines the slope of the lines

i.e. lines parallel to ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + c = 0 and through the origin are represented by the

equation ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0

2.

The equation ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2fy + c = 0 represents a pair of parallel straight lines

if h/a = b/h = f/g or bg2 = af2

The distance between them is given by 2g2ac/a(a+b) or f2bc/b(a+b)

Illustration:

Does the second degree equation x2 + 3xy + 2y2 x 4y 6 = 0 represents a pair of

lines. If yes, find their point of intersection.

Solution:

We observe that

a = 1, h = 3/2, b = 2, g = 1/2, f = 2, c = 6

\ abc + 2fgh af2 bg2 ch2 = 12 + 3 4 1/2 + 27/2 = 0

Therefore the given second-degree equation represents a pair of lines, x 2 + 3xy + 2y2 x

4y 6 = (x + 2y + 2) (x + y 3).

i.e. ax + hy + g = 0 and hx + by + f = 0

i.e. x + 3/2 y 1/2 and 3/2 x + 2y 2 = 0

Solving these, we get the required point of intersection.

i.e. 2x + 3y 1 = 0

3x 4y 4 = 0

Solving the above equation, we get x = 8, y = 5.

Note:

+ 2hxy

+ by = 0

Comparing the coefficients of x2, y2 and xy, we get

b(y m1x) (y m2x) = ax2 + 2hxy + by2

m1 + m2 = 2h/b and

m1 m2 = a/b

tan acute = |m2m1/1+m1m2|

= |(m1m2)2 4m1m2/1+m1m2|

= |2h2ab/a+b|

Caution:

1.

y = mx and y = m2x, we cannot write

2.

Note:

1.

2.

m1m2 = 1 a + b = 0

i.e. x2 + 2hxy y2 always represents pair of mutually perpendicular lines through origin.

3.

Two lines are equally inclined to axes but are not parallel. For such a case let us take a

line l1 which is inclined at an angle , then l2 is inclined at ( ).

tan ( ) = tan .

which is the condition for two lines inclined equally to axes.

4.

Illustration:

What is the equation of the pair of lines through origin and perpendicular to ax 2 + 2hxy +

by2 = 0

Solution:

Let ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 represents the lines y = m1x (i) and y = m2x (ii)

Lines perpendicular to the lines (i) and (ii) are y = 1/m1 x and y = 1/m2 x respectively and

passing through origin

i.e. m1y + x = 0 and m2y + x = 0

Their combined equation is given by

(m1y + x) (m2y + x) = 0

m1m2 y2 + (m1 + m2) xy + x2 = 0

a/2 y2 2h/b xy + x2 = 0

bx2 2hxy + ay2 = 0 is the equation of the pair of lines perpendicular to pair of lines ax 2 +

2hxy + by2 = 0

Note:

bisectors of the lines represented by ax + 2hxy +by

2

y m1x = 0 and y m2x = 0

Let P(, ) be any point on one of bisectors.

(m1)/1+m12 = + m2/1+m22

(1 + m22) ( m1)2 (1 + m12) ( m2)2 = 0

Locus of P(, ) is

x2 y2 = 2hxy 1m1m2/m1+m1

x2y2/ab = xy/h; is required equation of angle bisectors (1)

Note:

=0

1.

2.

3.

If in (i), coefficient of x2 + coefficient of 2 = 0, then the two bisectors are always

perpendicular to each other

Illustration:

Prove that the angle between one of the lines given by

ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 and one of the lines given by ax2 + 2hxy+ by2 + K(x2 + y2) = 0 is equal

to the angle between the other two lines of the system.

Solution:

Let L1 and L2 be one pair and L3 and L4 be the other pair of lines.

If the angle between L1 and L3 is equal to the angle between L2 and L4 then pair of

bisectors of L1 and L2 would be same as that of L3 and L4. Pair of bisectors of L3 and L4 is

x2y2/(a+k)(b+k) = xy/h

x2y2/ab = xy/h

Which is the same as the bisector pair of L1 and L2.

6.

Angle bisectors of ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 (i) are given by (xx0)2(y

2

y0) /ab = (xx0)(yy0)/h where (x0, y0) is the point of intersection of (i)

Enquiry: If we shift the origin of the coordinate system how can the coordinates

of a point be known in the new system? What will happen if we rotate the axis?

(i)

Linear Transformation:

CP = x, DP = y; AP = x, BP = y

P(x, y) in the new system are

X=xh

Y=yk

You can check it by putting (h = 0, k = 0) that it gets reduced to the same original

coordinate system.

(ii)

Rotation of Axes:

If axes are rotated anticlockwise by angle q then the coordinates of a point P(x, y) changes

to say P(x, y):

OL = x, PL = y

OM = X, PM = Y

OP = R (say)

cos ( + ) = x/R

(i)

sin ( + ) = Y/R

(ii)

cos = x/R

(ii)

sin = Y/R

(iv)

X = x cos + y sin

Y = x sin + y cos

It can be checked that if = 0; then coordinates remain unchanged.

Illustration:

Find the equation of the line 2x + y = 7 when co-ordinates system is shifted to the point (3,

1)

Solution:

x = 3 + X and y = 1 + Y

2(3 + X) + (1 + Y) = 7

or 2X + Y = 0

Note:

Slope of the line remains the same.

The general equation of second degree ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c=0 represents a

= 0.

The homogeneous second degree equation ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 represents a pair of

straight lines through the origin.

If lines through the origin whose joint equation is ax 2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0, are y = m1x and y =

m2x, then y2 (m1 + m2)xy + m1m2x2 = 0 and y2 + 2h/b xy + a/b x2 = 0 are identical. If is

the angle between the two lines, then tan = + (m1+m2)24m1m2/1+m1m2 = + 2h2

ab/a+b.

Origin and the Points of Intersection of a

Line and a Curve

If the line lx + my + n = 0, (n 0) i.e. the line not passing through origin) cuts the curve

ax2 + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 at two points A and B, then the joint equation of straight lines

passing through A and B and the origin is given by homogenizing the equation of the curve

by the equation of the line. i.e.

is the equation of the lines OA and OB.

Illustration:

Prove that the straight lines joining the origin to the points of intersection of the straight line

hx + ky = 2hk and the curve (x k)2 + (y y)2 = c2 are at right angles if h2 + k2 = c2.

Solution:

Making the equation of the curve homogeneous with the help of that of the line, we get

x2 + y2 2(kx + hy) (hx+ky/2hk) + (h2 + k2 c2) (hx+ky/2hk) = 0

or 4h2k2x2 + 4h2k2y2 4h2x(hx+ky) 4h2ky(hx + ky) + (h2 + k2 c)(h2x2 + k2y2 + 2hxy)

= 0.

This is the equation of the pair of lines joining the origin to the points of intersection of the

given line and the curve. They will be at right angles if

Coefficient of x2 + coefficient of y2 = 0 i.e.

(h2 + k2) (h2 + k2 c2) = 0 h2 + k2 = c2

(since h2 + k2 0).

Circle

Circle holds a high pedestal in the entire Syllabus of Co-ordinate

Geometry in Mathematics.

In this chapter, we discuss the algebraic equations representing

a circle and the lines associated with it i.e. a tangent, a pair of

circles and that of common tangents to two circles under

various configurations are given due importance.

Whole of the analysis is illustrated by appropriate examples, while

giving the student ample scope to test him skills through

assignments of different levels.

Circle is one of the most scoring and hence an important

chapter of Co-ordinate Geometry in the Mathematics syllabus

of IIT JEE, AIEEE and other engineering examinations. The

preliminary knowledge of the concept of Straight Lines is

prerequisite to study Circles.

The chapter is not vast and it fetches 2-3 questions in most of the

engineering examination.

Index

1. Basic Concepts

2. Chord of a Circle

3. Chord of Contact

4. Common Tangents

5. Family of Circle

6. Power of a Point with Respect to a Circle

7. Radical Axis

8. Solved Examples

IIT JEE as there are few fixed pattern on which a number Multiple

all the questions based on this to remain competitive in IIT JEE

examination. It is very important to master these concepts at

early stage as this forms the basis of your preparation for IIT JEE,

AIEEE, DCE, EAMCET and other engineering entrance

examinations.

Basic Concepts

Locus has been defined as the path of a point satisfying some geometrical condition; i.e.

constraint equations. The path represents a curve, which includes all the points satisfying

the given condition.

Similarly a circle can be defined as: The locus of a point which moves in such a way that its

distance from a fixed point is always constant and positive. The fixed point is called the

centre of the circle and the given distance the radius of the circle. In real life, when you

rotate a stone tied with one end of a string then the path followed by stone is exactly a circle

whose centre is your finger an radius is length of the string.

The equation of a circle with its centre at C(xc, yc) and radius r is:

(x xc)2 + (y yc)2 = r2

Proof:

Let P(x, y) be any point on the circle. Then by the definition of the locus the constant

distance is (see figure given below)

(x xc)2 + (y yc)2 = r2

which is the required equation of the circle

Note:

(1) If xc = yc = 0 (i.e. the centre of the circle is at origin) then equation of the circle reduce

to x2 + y2 = r2

(2) If r = 0 then the circle represents a point or a point circle.

(i) The simplest equations of the circle is x2 + y2 = r2 whose centre is (0, 0) and radius r.

(ii) The equation (x a)2+ (y b)2 = r2 represents a circle with centre (a, b) and radius r.

(iii) The equation x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 is the general equation of a circle with centre

(g, f) and radius (g2+f2-c).

(iv) Equation of the circle with points P(x1, y1) and Q(x2, y2) as extremities of a diameter is (x

x1) (x x2) + (y y1)(y y2) = 0.

Let us consider a circle of radius r and centre at C(xc, yc) we have:

(y-yc)/r = sin (see figure given below)

y = yc + r sin

Similarly x = xc + r cos

General equation of a circle in polar co-ordinate system

Let O be the origin, or pole, OX the initial line, C the centre and a the radius of the

circle.

Let the polar co-ordinates of C be R and , so that OC = R and XOC = .

Let a radius vector through O at an angle with the initial line cut the circle at P and Q.

Let OP be r.

Then we have

CP2 = OC2 + OP2 2OC . OP cos COP

i.e. a2 = R2 + r2 2 Rr cos ( )

i.e. r2 2 Rr cos ( ) + R2 a2 = 0 (1)

This is the required polar equation.

Particular cases of the general equation in polar coordinates.

Note:

1. Let the initial line be taken to go through the centre C. Then = 0, and the equation

becomes

r2 2Rr cos + R2 a2 = 0.

2. Let the pole O be taken on the circle, so that

R = OC =

The general equation the becomes

r2 2ar cos ( ) = 0,

i.e. r = 2a cos ( ).

3. Let the pole be on the circle and also let the initial line pass through the centre of the

circle. In this case

= 0, and R = a

Now, the general equation reduces to the simple form r=2a cos

For, if OCA were a diameter, we have

OP = OA cos ,

r = 2a cos .

Let us consider a circle such that points P(x 1, y1) and Q(x2, y2) are on it and PQ is one of

the diameters of the circle.

If R(x, y) is any point on the circle then

Recall:

PRQ = /2 (Angle subtended by diameter at any point on the circle is a right angle).

QR PR

(Slope of QR) x (Slope of PR) = 1

(y-y2)/(x-x2 )(y-y1)/(x-x1 ) = 1

(x x1) (x x2) + (y y1) (y y2) = 0

Which gives the required equation.

Note:

This equation can also be obtained considering

PR2 + QR2 = PQ2

The general from of the equation of a circle is:

x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 (1)

(x + g)2 + (y + f)2 = g2 + f2 c

Comparing this equation with the standard equation (x xc)2 + (y yc)2= r2

We have:

Centre of the circle is (g, f), Radius = (g2+f2-c).

Equation (1) is also written as S = 0.

Note:

1. If g2 + f2 c > 0, circle is real

2. If g2 + f2 c = 0, circle is a point circle.

3. If g2 + f2 c < 0, the circle is imaginary.

4. Any second-degree equation ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy+c=0 represents a circle

only when h = 0 and a = b i.e. if there is no term containing xy and co-efficient of x 2 and

y2 are same, provided abc + 2fgh af2 bg2 ch2 0

Illustration:

Find the centre and the radius 3x2 + 3y2 8x 10y + 3 = 0.

Solution:

We write the given equation as x2 + y2 8/3 10/3 y + 1 = 0.

g = -4/3, f = -5/3 , c = 1

(16/9+25/9-1)=(32/9)=(42)/3.

Illustration:

Find the equation of the circle with centre (1, 2) which passes through the point (4,

6).

Solution:

The radius of the circle is ((4-1)2+(6-2)2 )=25 = 5.

Hence the equation of the circle is (x 1)2 + (y 2)2 = 25

x2 + y2 2x 4y = 20.

Illustration:

A circle has radius 3 units and its centre lies on the line y = x 1. Find theequation of

the circle if it passes through (7, 3).

Solution:

Let the centre of the circle be (, ). It lies on the line y = x 1

= 1. Hence the centre is (, 1).

The equation of the circle is (x )2 + (y + 1)2 = 9. It passes through (7, 3)

(7 )2 + (4 )2 = 9 22 22 + 56 = 0

2 11 + 28 = 0 ( 7) = 0 = 4, 7.

Hence the required equations are

x2 + y2 8x 6y + 6 = 0 and x2 + y2 14x 12y + 76 = 0.

Illustration:

Find the equation of the circle whose diameter is the line joining the points (4, 3) and

(12, 1). Find also the intercept made by it on the y-axis.

Solution:

The equation of the required circle is

(x + 4) (x 12) + (y 3) (y + 1) = 0.

On the y-axis, x = 0 48 + y2 2y 3 = 0.

y2 2y 51 = 0 y = 1 52.

Hence the intercept on the y-axis = 2252 = 413.

Illustration:

Find the equation of the circle passing through (1, 1), (2, 1) and (3, 2).

Solution:

Let the equation be x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0.

Substituting the coordinates of three points, we get

2g + 2f + c = 2,

4g 2f + c = 5,

6g + 4f + c = 13.

Solving the above three equations, we obtain:

f = 1/2; g = 5/2, c = 4.

Hence the equation of the circle is

x2 + y2 5x y + 4 = 0.

Illustration:

Write general equation of a circle centered at a point on x-axis.

Solution:

Circle is: x2 + y2 + 2gx + c = 0, g2 c 0

Its centre is (g, 0) and radius (g2-c)

Or

(x + g)2 + (y 0)2 = r2

Illustration:

Write general equation of a circle passing through the origin.

Solution:

Point (0, 0) must satisfy x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0

C=0

Illustration:

Write the equation of a circle centered at x-axis at (x1, 0) and touching y-axis at the

origin. (figure given below)

Solution:

Illustration:

Write the equation of a circle passing through O (0, 0) A (a, 0) and B (0, b)? Obviously

Solution:

(x a) (x 0) + (y 0) (y b) = 0

Illustration:

Find the equation of circle shown in figure given below in polar form.

Solution:

OP = OA cos

r = 2a cos , /2 /2, a is raius of circle

Illustration:

Find the co-ordinates of the centre of the circle represented by

r = A cos + B sin .

Solution:

r = A cos + B sin

= [A/(A2+B2 ) cos +B/(A2+B2 ) sin ] (A2+B2 )

= cos ( ) ((A2+B2 ))

centre is (1/2 (A2+B2 ),tan-1 (B/A) )

Note:

1. The equation of the circle through three non-collinear points

has real roots i.e. if g2 > c. And, the magnitude of the intercept is 2(g2-c).

The Position of a Point with respect to a Circle

The point P(x1, y1) lies outside, on, or inside a circle S x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0,

according as S1 x12 + y12 + 2gx1 + 2fy1 + c > = or < 0.

Chord of a circle

The equation of the chord of the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy +c=0 with M(x1, y1) as the

midpoint of the chord is

xx1 + yy1 + g(x + x1) + f(y + y1) = x12 + y12 + 2gx1 + 2fy1

i.e. T = S1

Illustration:

Find the equation of the circle whose centre is (3, 4) and which touches the line 5x +

12y = 1.

Solution:

Let r be the radius of the circle. Then

r = distance of the centre i.e. point (3, 4) from the line 5x + 12y = 1

= |(15+48-1)/(25-44)|=62/13.

Hence the equation of the required circle is (x 3)2 + (y 4)2 = (62/13)2.

x2 + y2 6x 8y + 381/169 = 0.

Illustration:

Find the co-ordinates of the point from which tangents are drawn to the circle x 2 + y2

6x 4y + 3 = 0 such that the mid-point of its chord of contact is (1, 1).

Solution:

Let the required point be (P(x1, y1). The equation of the chord of contact of P with

respect to the given circle is

xx1 + yy1 3(x + x1) 2(y + y1) + 3 = 0. (1)

The equation of the chord with mid-point (1, 1) is

x + y 3(x + 1) 2(y + 1) + 3 = 1 + 1 6 4 + 3

2x + y = 3.

Equating the ratios of the coefficients of x, y and the constant terms and solving for x 1,

y1 we get x1 = 1, y1 = 0.

Chord of contact

Let AP and AQ be tangents to circle from point P(x 1, y1). Then equation of PQ is known as

equation of chord of contact.

x1x + y1y = a2

For general circle, it is

x1x + y1y + g(x1 + x) + f(y1 +y) + c = 0

Note:

1. It is also written as T = 0

2. The equation of chord AB [A (R cos , R sin ); B (R cos , R sin )] of the circle x2 +

y2 = R2 is given by

x cos (( + )/2) + y sin (( - )/2) = a cos (( - )/2)

3. If a line y = mx + c intersects the circle x2 + y2 = a2 in two distinct points A and B then

length of intercept AB = 2((a2 (1+m2 )-c2)/(1+m2 ))

Caution:

The equation of a chord of contact and the equation of the tangent on a point of the circle

and both given by T = 0. The difference is that while in the case of a tangent the point (x 1,

y1) lies on the circle. In the case of a chord of contact (x1, y1) lies outside the circle.

Illustration:

Write the equations of tangents to the circle x2 + y2 = 9 and having slope 2.

Solution:

Tangents with slope m are given by y = mx + a (1+m 2 ) i.e.

3 (1+4).

Note:

These are two parallel tangents to the circle at the end of the diameter.

Illustration:

Write the equation of tangents to the circle x2 + y2 = 25 at the point (3, 4)?

Solution:

Point (3, 4) lies on the circle.

Required equation of the tangent is : 3x + 4y= 25 using

x1x + y1y = a2, where (x1, y1) (3, 4)

Illustration:

Write the equation of normal to x2 + y2 = 25 at (3, 4)?

Solution:

Recall:

y = 2x

Normal is: y 0 = 4/3 (x 0) (using two point form of straight line) i.e. 3y 4x = 0

Common Tangents

(a) Direct common tangents:

(i) The direct common tangents to two circles meet on the line of centres and divide it

externally in the ratio of the radii.

(ii) The transverse common tangents also meet on the line of centres and divide it

internally in the ratio of the radii.

Notes:

When one circle lies completely inside the other without touching, there is nocommon

tangent.

When two circles touch each other internally 1 common tangent can be drawn to the

circles.

When two circles intersect in two real and distinct points, 2 common tangentscan be

drawn to the circles.

When two circles touch each other externally, 3 common tangents can be drawn to the

circles.

When two circle neither touch nor intersect and one lies outside the other, then 4 common

tangents can be drawn.

P is the point of intersection of two direct common tangents to the circles with centres

C1 and C2 and radii r1, r2 respectively. C1A1, C2A2 are perpendiculars from C1 and C1 to one of

the tangents (figure given below)

(C1 P)/(C2 P)=(C1 A1)/(C2 A2 )=r1/r2 i.e. P is a point dividing C1C2 externally in the ratio r1 :

r2 For finding direct common tangents of two circles, find the point P dividing the line

joining the centre externally in the ratio of the radii. Equation ofdirect common

tangents is SS1 = T2 where S is the equation of one circle.

Caution:

Length C1C2 > |r1 r2|

(b) Transverse Common tangents

P is the point of intersection of two transverse tangents to two non-intersecting circles

with centres C1 and C2 and radii r1, and r2 respectively. Then P lies on the line joining the

centres. C1A1 and C2A2 are perpendiculars from C1 and C2 to one of these tangents. (Figure

given below)

So (C1 P)/(C2 P)=(C1 A1)/(C2 A2 )=r1/r2

i.e. P divides the line joining C1 and C2 internally in the ratio r1:r2

Equation of transverse Common tangents is SS1 = T2 where S is the equation of one of

the circle.

Common Tangents

(i) The direct common tangents to two circles meet on the line of centres and divide it

externally in the ratio of the radii.

(ii) The transverse common tangents also meet on the line of centres and divide it

internally in the ratio of the radii.

Notes:

When one circle lies completely inside the other without touching, there is nocommon

tangent.

When two circles touch each other internally 1 common tangent can be drawn to the

circles.

When two circles intersect in two real and distinct points, 2 common tangentscan be

drawn to the circles.

When two circles touch each other externally, 3 common tangents can be drawn to the

circles.

When two circle neither touch nor intersect and one lies outside the other, then 4 common

tangents can be drawn.

P is the point of intersection of two direct common tangents to the circles with centres

C1 and C2 and radii r1, r2 respectively. C1A1, C2A2 are perpendiculars from C1 and C1 to one of

the tangents (figure given below)

(C1 P)/(C2 P)=(C1 A1)/(C2 A2 )=r1/r2 i.e. P is a point dividing C1C2 externally in the ratio r1 :

r2 For finding direct common tangents of two circles, find the point P dividing the line

joining the centre externally in the ratio of the radii. Equation ofdirect common

tangents is SS1 = T2 where S is the equation of one circle.

Caution:

Length C1C2 > |r1 r2|

(b) Transverse Common tangents

P is the point of intersection of two transverse tangents to two non-intersecting circles

with centres C1 and C2 and radii r1, and r2 respectively. Then P lies on the line joining the

centres. C1A1 and C2A2 are perpendiculars from C1 and C2 to one of these tangents. (Figure

given below)

So (C1 P)/(C2 P)=(C1 A1)/(C2 A2 )=r1/r2

i.e. P divides the line joining C1 and C2 internally in the ratio r1:r2

Equation of transverse Common tangents is SS1 = T2 where S is the equation of one of

the circle.

A system of circles every pair of which has the same radical axis is called a coaxial

system.

The centres of circles of a coaxial system, which are of zero radiuses, are called the

limiting points o the coaxial system.

Let the equation of a system of coaxial circles be

x2 + y2 + 2gx + c = 0

Where g is a parameter and c is a constant.

Its radius (g2-c)and centre is (g, 0)

If g2 c = 0 or g = + c, then radius become zero and for these two values of g we

have two circles of zero radius whose centres are ( c, 0).

These circles of zero radius are just points and according to definition given above are

the limiting points of the co-axial system.

1. If the system of circles is intersecting one, then c is negative and these limiting points are

two imaginary points.

2. If the system of circles are non intersecting then c is positive and these limiting points are

both real.

3. If c = 0, points of intersection are coincident to (0, 0) i.e.

Limiting points coincide at (0, 0).

The angle of intersection between two curves intersecting at a point is the angle

between their tangents drawn at that point. The curves are said to be intersecting

orthogonally, if the angle between their tangents are common point is a right angle.

Consider two circles

S1 x2 + y2 + 2g1x + 2f1y + C1 = 0

S2 x2 + y2 + 2g2x + 2f2y + C2 = 0

They intersect at point P such that tangent PT1 and PT2 are at right angle (see figure

given below)

Since radius of a circle is perpendicular to the tangent. So C 1P and C2P are also

perpendicular.

(C1C2)2 = (C1P)2 + (C2P)2 (g1 g2)2 + (f1 f2)2 = r12 + r22

g12 + g22 2g1g2 + f12 + f22 2f1f2=g12 + f12 C1 + g22 + f22 c2

2g1g2 + 2f1f2 = C1 + C2

which is the required condition for the orthogonal intersection of two circles.

From the triangle C1C2P it is clear that angle can be written as:

cos = (r12+r22-d2)/(2r1 r2 )

Let P(x1, y1) be a fixed point and chords be drawn through this point to a fixed circles S

(see figure given below). The locus of the point of intersection of tangents drawn at the end

points of chords is a line which is called the polar of point P(x 1, y1) (Point P is called the pole)

w.r.t. the circle. So there is a fixed polar for a fixed point and a fixed pole for a fixed line.

The equation of polar of a fixed point P(x1, y1) with respect to the circle x 2 + y2 +

2gx + 2fy + c = 0 is

xx1 + yy1 + g(x + x1) + f(y + y1) + c = 0

i.e. of the form T = 0

Family of Circles

Enquiry: If the numbers of conditions for a circle to be drawn are less than three

then what shall we get?

involves three unknowns i.e. g, f and c so we need at least three conditions to get a unique

circle.

For example, if we are given two circles and we want to determine the third circle

touching both of them. We shall need one more condition. Without the condition we get the

equation of family of circles which satisfies the two given conditions. Imposition of a third

condition will result in the equation representing a particular circle.

Let us now see some of the ways of the providing only two condition and equations of

the family of circles resulting under these conditions.

This equation is given by (x h)2 + (y k)2 = r2 (Figure given below)

Since (h, k) is fixed, so only parameter varying is r. This is one parameter family of

circles, and is the equation of the family of concentric circles. Fixation of the radius will give

a particular circle.

and S2 = 0.

The general equation of the family of circles passing through the intersection of

S1 and S2 in given by S1 + kS2 = 0. Here again we have the one-parameter (k) equation of

family of circles. The particular value of the parameter gives a unique circles.

Caution:

If k = 1, we get equation of common chord i.e. straight line instead of circle.

Let S1 x2 + y2 + 2g1x + 2f1y + c1 = 0

S2 x2 + y2 + 2g2x + 2f2y + c2 = 0

Since, point lies on both the circles,

x2A + y2A + 2g1xA + 2f1yA + c1 = 0

x2A + y2A + 2g2xA + 2f2yA + c2 = 0

x2A + y2A + 2g1xA + 2f1yA + c1 + (x2A + y2A + 2g1xA + 2f1yA + c1)=0

Point A(xA, yA) lies on S1 + S2 = 0 R

Similarly point B(xB, yB) lies on S1 + S2 = 0 R

S1 + S2 = 0 is the family of circles through the intersection of S 1 = 0 and S2 = 0

This equation is given by S + L = 0

The particular value of the parameter gives a unique circle.

4. Family of circles touching the circle S = 0 and line L = 0 at their point of

contact

Equation S + L = 0, where is the required family.

5. Family of circle passing through two given points A(x 1, x1) and B(x2, y2)

6. Family of circles touching a given line L = 0 at a point (x1, x1) on the line is (x x1)2 + (y

x1)2 + L = 0, the particular value of the parameters gives a unique circle.

Family of Circles

(i) If S x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c=0 and S x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c=0 are two intersecting

circles, then S + S = 0, 1, is the equation of a family of circlespassing through the

points of intersection of S = 0 and S = 0.

(ii) If S = x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 is a circle which is intersected by the straight line =

ax + by + c = 0 in two real and distinct points, then S + = 0 is the equation of a family

of circles passing through the points of intersection of S = 0 and = 0.

(iii) The equation of a family of circles passing through two given points (x 1, x1) and (x2, y2)

can be written in the form

where is a parameter.

(iv) The equation of the family of circles which touch the line y x1 = m

(x x1) at (x1, x1) for any values of m is (x x1)2 + (y x1)2 +

[(y x1) m(x x1)] = 0.

Notes:

The two circles are said to intersect orthogonally if the angle of intersection of the circles

i.e., the angle between their tangents at the point of intersection is 90o.

The condition for the two circles to cut each other orthogonally is 2gg 1+ 2ff1 = c + c1 where

(g, f) and (g1, f1) are the centres of the respective circles, S = 0 and S1 = 0.

Illustration:

Find the equation of the circle described on the common chord of the circles x 2 + y2

4x 5 = 0 and x2 + y2 + 8y+ 7 = 0 as diameter

Solution:

Equation of the common chord is S1 S2 = 0

x + 2y + 3 = 0

Equation of the circle through the two circles is S1 + S2 = 0

x2 + y2 -4/(1+ ) x+8y/(1+ )+(7 -5)/(1+ ) = 0.

Its centre (2/(1+ ),-4/(1+ )) lies on x + 2y + 3 = 0

2/(1+ )-8/(1+ ) + 3 = 0 2 8 + 3 + 3 = 0 = 1.

Hence the required circle is x2 + y2 2x + 4y + 1 = 0.

Illustration:

The line Ax + By + C = 0 cuts the circle x2 + y2 + ax + by + c = 0 in P and Q. The Line A?

x + B?y + C? = 0 cuts the circle x2 + y2 + a'x + b'y + c' = 0 in R and S. If P, Q, R, S are

concyclic, prove that

Solution:

The equation of the circle through the first line and the first circle, i.e. through P and Q

is

x2 + y2 + ax + by + c + 1 (Ax + By + C) = 0. ........................ (1)

x2 + y2 + a'x + b'y + c + 2 (A'x + B'y + C') = 0.................... (2)

Since P, Q, R, S are concyclic, (1) and (2) are identical.

1 = (a+1 A)/(a'+2 A' )=(b+1 B)/(b'+2 B' )=(c+1 C)/(c'+2 C' )

1A-2A' + a - a' = 0,

1B -2B' + b - b' = 0,

C- 2C' + c - c' = 0.

Illustration:

Show that the circle passing through the origin and cutting the circles x 2 + y2 - 2a1x 2b1y + c = 0 and x2 + y2 - 2a2x - 2b2y + c = 0 orthogonally is

Solution:

Let the equation of the circle passing through the origin be

x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy = 0. ..................... (1)

It cuts the given two circles orthogonally

-2ga1 - 2fb1 = c1 c1 + 2ga1 + 2fb1 = 0 ? (2)

and -2ga2 - 2fb2 = c2 c2 + 2ga2 + 2fb2 = 0 ? (3)

Illustration:

Find that member of the family of circles having centre at (2, 3) which has radius of 5

unit.

Solution:

Family of circles having fixed centre (2, 3) is

(x - 2)2 + (y - 3)2 = r2

here we want that particular circle that has radius 5 units i.e. r = 5, the required circle is,

(x - 2)2 + (y - 3)2 = 25

Illustration:

Find a circle passing through the intersection of x 2 + y2 - 4 = 0 and x2 + y2 - 6x + 5 = 0

which passes through the point (2, 1)?

Solution:

Family of required circles is S1 + S2 = 0

(x2 + y2 - 4) + (x2 + y2 - 6x + 5) = 0

Since the required circle passes through the point (2, 1), the previous equation is satisfied

for the point (2, 1)

(4 + 1 - 4) + (4 + 1 - 12 + 5) = 0

1 - 2 = 0 = 1/2

Equation of the required circle is

(x2 + y2 - 4) + 1/2 (x2 + 2y - 6x + 5) = 0

x2 + y2 - 2x - 1 = 0

External and Internal Contacts of Circles

If two circles with centres C1(x1, y1) and C2(x2, y1) and radii r1 and r2 respectively, touch each

other externally, C1C2 = r1 + r2. Coordinates of the point of contact are A ((r1 r2+r2 r1)/

(r1+r2 ),(r1 y2+r2 y1)/(r1+r2 )).

C1C2 = r1 r2.

T ((r1 x2+r2 x1)/(r1+r2 ),(r1 y2+r2 y1)/(r1+r2 )).

Illustration 11:

Examine whether the two circles x2 + y2 2x 4y = 0 and x2 + y2 8y 4 = 0 touch

each other externally or internally.

Solution:

Let C1 and C2 be the centres of the circles.

C1(1, 2) and C2(0, 4). Let r1 and r2 be the radii of the circles

r1 = 5 and r2 = 25. Also C1C2 = (1+4)=5.

But r1 + r2 = 35 and r2 r1 = 5 = C1C2.

Hence the circles touch each other internally.

Illustration 12:

2y + 1 = 0.

Solution:

The centres and the radii of the circles are

C1 (1, 3) and r1 = (1+9-9) = 1, C2(3, 1) and r2 = (9+1-1) = 3,

C1C2 = 20, r1 + r2 = 4 = 16 and C1C2 > r1 + r2.

Sense the circles are non-intersecting. Thus there will be four common tangents.

Transverse common tangents are tangents drawn from the point P which divides

C1C2 internally in the ratio 1 : 3.

Direct common tangents are tangents drawn from the point Q which divides

C1C2 externally in the ratio 1 : 3.

Coordinates of P are

((1(-3)+3.1)/(1+3),(1.1+3.3)/(1+3)) i.e. (0,5/2).

and coordinates of Q are (3, 4).

Transverse tangents are tangents through the point (0,5/2).

Any line through (0,5/2) is

y 5/2 = mx (1)

mx y + 5/2 = 0

Applying the usual condition of tangency to any of the circle, we get

(m.1 3 + 5/2 = 0)/((m2+1) ) = 1 (m-1/2)2 = m2 + 1

m 3/4 = 0 or 0.m2 m 3/4 = 0.

m = 3/4 and as coefficient of m2 is zero.

Therefore from (1),

(y-5/2)/x = m = and -3/4 x = 0 is a tangent and

3x + 4y 10 = 0 is another tangent.

Direct tangents are tangents drawn from the point Q(3, 4).

y = 4, 4x 3y = 0.

The power of a point P(x1, y1) with respect to a given circle defined as

Power = PA PB

Where A and b are the points on the circle where the line PAB intersects it. (See figure

given below).

Power = PT2 = Square of the length of tangent from point P

(x1, y1) to the circle.

Radical Axis

This radical axis of two circles is the locus of a point from which the tangent segments to

the two circles are of equal lengths.

Equation of the Radical Axis

In general S S = 0 represents the equation of the Radical Axis to the two circles

i.e. 2x(g g) + 2y(f f) + c c = 0

where S x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0

and S x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0

(i) If S = 0 and s = 0 intersect in real and distinct points then S S = 0 is the equation of

the common chord of the two circles.

(ii) If S = 0 and S = 0 touch each other, then S S = 0 is the equation of the common

tangent to the two circles at the point of contact.

The radial axis of two circles is perpendicular to the line joining the centres.

The radical axis of three circles taken two at a time are concurrent and the point of

concurrency is known as the radical centre.

The radical axis of two circles bisects their direct common tangents.

If two circles cut a third circle orthogonally, then the radical axis of the two circles will

pass through the centre of the third circle.

Solved Examples

Example 1:

Find the equation of the circle circumscribing the triangle formed by the lines x + y =

6, 2x + y = 4, x + 2y = 5.

Solution:

Method 1.

Consider the equation

(x + y 6) (2x + y 4) + 1 (2x + y 4) (x + 2y 5) + 2

(x + 2y 5) (x + y 6) = 0 (1)

This equation is satisfied by the points of intersection of any two of the given three

lines, i.e. it is satisfied by the vertices of the triangle formed by the given lines.

Result:

Now if (i) represents a circle then

(a) coefficient of x2 = coefficient of y2 and

(b) coefficient of xy = 0

And

3 + 51 + 32 = 0 1 = 6/5

Substituting these values in (i) and simplifying

We get

x2+ y2 17x 19y + 50 = 0 (Ans.)

Which is the equation of the required circle.

Method 2.

Solve the lines in pair to find the vertices of the triangle and then obtain theequation

of the circle through these three points.

Example 2:

Find the locus of the point of intersection of perpendicular tangents to the circle x 2 +

y = 4.

2

Solution:

Method 1.

y = mx + 2 (1+m2 ) is tangent to x2 + y2 = 4 for all values of m.

It passes through (h, k) if

k = mh + 2 (1+m2 )

(k mh)2 = 4 (1 + m2)

m2 (h2 4) 2h km + (k2 4) = 0 (i)

The roots m1 and m2 of this quadratic equation are the slopes of PT and PT. If PT and

PT are at right angle then m1m2 = 1.

From (i)

m1m2 = (k2-4)/(h2-4)

(k2-4)/(h2-4) = 1

h2 + k2 = 8

Locus of P(h, k) is x2 + y2 = 8

Method 2:

Equation of tangent at the point T(2 cos , 2 sin )

is 2 cos x + 2 sin y = 4

i.e. x cos + y sin = 2 (i)

If TOT = 90o

i.e. AOT = 90 +

Co-ordinates of T are (2 cos (90 + ), 2 sin (90 + ))

Equation of tangent at the point T is

2 sin x + 2 cos y = 4

or, x sin + y cos = 2 (ii)

Think:

How to get the locus of point P(h, k)?

Caution:

Do not simply square and add (i) and (ii). Though we get the required result, but that it

not the right approach.

Well, lines (i) and (ii) both pass through the point P(h, k)

h cos + k sin = 2 and

h sin + k cos = 2

.Now we want to get a relation between h and k and also eliminate

The best way to do this is to square and ad above two

Equations and we get h2 + k2 = 8

Locus of P(h, k) is x2 + y2 = 8

Method 3:

OP2 = OT2 + TP2 ( OTP is a right angled triangle)

OP2 = OT2 + OT2

OP2 = 2R2

h2 + k2 = 2(4) = 8

Locus of P(h, k) is x2 + y2 = 8.

Note:

x2 + y2 = 8 is director circle of the circle x2 + y2 = 4

Example 3:

Find the condition that the line 3x + 44y p = 0 is tangent to the circle x 2 + y2 4x 6y

+9=0

Solution:

Radius of the given circle is 2 and centre is (2, 3). So for line 3x + 4x p = 0 to be

tangent to the circle we have,

|(3.2+4.3-p)/(32+42 )| = 2.

|18 p| = 10

18 p = 10 p = 8

18 p = 10 p = 28

Hence the required condition is p = 8 or p = 28. (Ans.)

Example 4

A circular plot of land in the form of a unit circle is to be divided into two equal parts by

the arc of a circle whose centre is on the circumference of the circular plot. Show that the

radius of the circular arc is 2 cos , where is given by sin 2 2 cos 2 = /2.

Solution:

Let O be the centre of the given circular plot of radius 1 i.e. OA = OB = OC = 1 and A

be any point on its circumference. Again BDC be the arc of the circle with centre A and

dividing the given circle into two equal parts. Let r the radius of the new circle, then AB = AC

= AD = r.

Let AOB =

Then OBA = OCA = , and AOB = ( 2).

Now area ABDCA must be = 1/2 area of unit circle = ( (1) 2)/2 = /2 (i)

r/sin( -2 ) =1/(sin ) r = 2 cos .

Required Area APBDCQA = Area of sector ABDCA + area of sector OCQAPB 2 area of

OAB

/2 = 1/2 r2 (2) + 1/2 (1)2 (2 4) 2 1/2 (1)2 sin ( 2)

sin 2 2 cos 2 = /2 (Ans.)

Example 5:

Find the equation of the circle which passes through the point (2, 0) and whose

centre is the limit of the point of intersection of lines 3x + 5y = 1, (2 + c)x + 5c 2 y = 1.

Solution:

Solving, 3x + 5y = 1, (2 + c)x + 5c2y = 1

We get,

when c 1

Pause:

We will study limits in detail in module 5.

Now, we want to find out the equation of the circle which passes through (2, 0) and

has its centre at (2/5), 1/25).

Equation of the circle is

(x-2/5)2+(y+1/25)2=(2/5-2)2+(1/25)2

This is the required equation of the circle.

Example 6:

Find the equation of circle having the lines x2 + 2xy + 3x + 6y = 0 as its normals

and having size just sufficient to contain the circle, x(x 4) + y(y 3) = 0

Solution:

The combined equation of two normal of the circle is given by

x2 + 2xy + 3x + 6y = 0

(x + 3)(x + 2y) = 0

x = 3, x = 2y

Recall:

A normal to a circle always passes through the centre of the circle. Now solving these,

we get the co-ordinates of the centre of the circle as (3, 3/2); because the two normal

intersect at the centre of the circle

The required circle just contains the circle

x(x 4) + y(y 3) = 0

i.e. x2 + y2 4x 3y = 0 (i)

Hence the required circle will touch the circle given by (1) internally.

Let r be the radius of the required circle. Now the two circles given by (1)

= ([22+(3/2)2 ] )=5/2 and centre = (2,3/2)

Now the required circle will touch the circle (i) internally, if

We have distance between the centre of the two circles = difference between their radii.

((-3-2)2+(3/2-3/2)2 )=(r-5/2)

r = 15/2

Hence the equation of the required circle is given by

(x + 3)2 + (y-3/2)2=(15/2)2

x2 + y2 + 6x 3y 45 = 0 (Ans.)

Example 7:

A tangent is drawn to each of the circles x2 + y2 = a2, x2 + y2 = b2. Show that if these

two tangents are perpendicular to each other, the locus of their point of intersection is a

circle concentric with the given circles.

Solution:

Method 1:

Let P (x1, y1) be the point of intersection of the tangents PA and PB where A, B are

points of contact with the circles respectively.

As PA is perpendicular to PB, the corresponding radii OA and OB are also perpendicular.

Let AOX =

BOX = 90 +

Using the parametric from of the circle we can take

A (a cos , a sin )

B (b sin , b cos )

The equation of PA is

x (a cos) + y (a sin ) = a2

y cos x sin = b

Since P(x1, y1) lies on these tangents

x1 cos + y1 sin = a and y1 cos x1 sin = b

. Squaring and adding above equation (we get).as is a variable quantity; we eliminate

x12 + y12 = a2 + b2

locus of p is x2 + y2 = a2 + b2, which is concentric with given circles.

Method 2:

OAPB is a rectangle

OP2 = OA2+ AP2

x1 2 + y 1 2 = a 2 + b 2

Locus of P(x1, y1) is x2 + y2 = a2 + b2

Example 9:

The circle x2 + y2 = 1 cuts x-axis at P and Q. Another circle with centre at Q and

variable radius intercepts the first circle at R above x-axis and the line segment PQ at S. Find

the maximum area of the triangle QSR.

Solution:

Method 1.

Equation of circle centred at Q is (x + 1)2 + y2 = 2

2 = (cos + 1)2 + (sin )2 = 2 + 2 cos

= 2 (2cos2 /2) = 2 cos /2

A = Area of QSR = 1/2 base altitude

= 1/2 sin

= cos /2 sin (i)

dA/d = cos cos /2-1/2 sin /2 sin

Pause:

We will study maxima and minima in module 5.

For max./min. dA/d = 0

tan = 2 cot /2

2t/(1-t2 )=2/t (where t=tan /2)

t = tan /2=1/2

(d2 A)/(d2 ) = sin cos /2-1/2 cos sin /2-1/2 sin /2 cos 1/4 cos /2 sin

From (i)

Maximum area = cos /2 sin

= 2 sin /2 (cos /2)2

4/(33) sq. units. (Ans.)

Method 2.

Equation of circle I is

x2 + y2 = 1 It cuts x-axis

where P (1, 0) and

Q (1, 0)

Let QR = then equation of the circle II.

Centred at Q(1, 0) and radius = is given by

(x + 1)2 + y2 = 2 (1)

Solving it with x-axis; we get S ( 1, 0).

Also solving the two circles, we get the co-ordinates of R

as [(2/2)-1,/2 ((4-2 ) )]

The area of QRS = 1/2 QS RL

= 1/2 /2 ((4-2 ) )

= A (say)

Now A is max./min. means A2 is max./min.

Let A2 = Z.

Then Z = 4/16 (4 )2

dz/d=1/4. 43 (65)/16

For max./min. of A i.e. max./min. of A2 or Z. we get

dZ/d = 0 = (8/3) and then

(d2 z)/d2 = 3.8/3-30/10.64/9 = ve

For = ((8/3))

Thus area is max when = ((8/3))

Also max. area of QRS

1/4.8/3 ((4/3))=(4/33) sq. units.

Example 10:

Distances from the origin to the centres of three circles x2 + y2 2x = c2(where c is

constant and is variable) are in G.P. Prove that the lengths of tangents drawn from any

point on the circle x2 + y2 = c2 to the three circles are in G.P.

Solution:

The equation of the three circles is

x2 + y2 2x = c2 (1)

where = 1, 2, 3. Their centres are:

(

13 = 22 (2)

Now, let P(h, k) be any point on the circle

x2 + y2 = c2, then h2 + k2 = c2 (3)

If r1, r2, r3 are the lengths of the tangents from P(h, k) on

The three circles, we then obtain

r12 = h2 + k2 21h c2 = c2 h c 22, using (3)

r12 = 2h

Similarly r22 = 22h

r32 = 23h

= r12 r32 = 41 2 h2 = 422 h2 = (r22)2

= r2r3 r22 r1, r2, r3 are in G.P.

(Proved).

Example 11:

Show that the equation x2 + y2 4x ky 5 = 0 represents (for variable k) a family of

circles passing through two fixed points A and B. Find the equation of the circle belonging to

this family and cutting circle x2 + y2 6x 5y = 0 at right angles.

Solution:

x2 + y2 4x ky 5 = 0

(x2 + y2 4x 5) + k ( y) = 0

This is the equation of family of circles passing though the intersection point of x 2+ y2 4x

5 = 0 (a circle) and a straight line putting y = 0, in x 2 + y2 4x 5 = 0 gives

x2 4x 5 = 0

x = 1, 5

Hence the given circle passes through two fixed points (1, 0) and (5, 0)

For given family of circles

x2 + y2 4x ky 5 = 0 (1)

g = 2, f = k/2, c = 5

One member of family (1) and circle x2 + y2 6x 5y 0 (2)

Intersect orthogonally

For circle (2)

g = 3, f = 5/2, c = 0

For two circle to be orthogonal

2(gg + ff) = (c + c)

2[(2) (3) + (k/2)(5/2)] = 5 + 0

2 [6+5K/4] = 5

12 + 5K/2 = 5

5K/2 = 17

K = 34/5

Required equation of circle is

x2 + y2 4x + 34/5 y 5 = 0 (Ans.)

Example 12:

Lines 5x + 12y 10 = 0 and 5x 12y 40 = 0 touch a circle C 1 of diameter 6. If the

centre of C1 lies in first quadrant, find the equation of circle C2 which is concentric with

C1 and cuts intercept of length 8 on these lines.

Solution:

Recall:

If a circle touches two lines L1 and L2 then the centre of the circle lies on the angle

bisectors of the lines.

Angle bisector of given lines are

(5x+12y-10)/13=(5x-12y-40)/13

Taking +ve sign: y = (-5)/4

Taking ve sign: x = 5

Given lines L1 and L2 intersect at (5,-5/4)

Since the centre of C1 lies in the first quadrant, it can lie on x = 5 only.

Let the centre of C1 be (5, y1)

|(5(5)+12y1-10)/(52+122 )| = 3

15 + 12y1 = 39

y1 = 2 or y1 = -54/12 (Neglect)

Centre of C1 is (5, 2)

Since C2 is concentric with C1, its centre is also (5, 2)

5x + 12y 10 = 0 and 5x 12y 40 = 0

AB = CD = 8

Recall:

Perpendicular from centre bisects the chord.

AN = 4

C2 N = 3 (given)

Radius of C2 = r (say)

r2 = (AN)2 + (C2N)2 = 16 + 9

r=5

Equation of C2 is (x 5)2 + (y 2)2 = 25

Example 13:

Find the equation of the circle which passes through the point (2a, 0) and whose radical

axis with respect to the circle x2 + y2 = a2 is the lines x = a/2.

Solution:

Recall:

Let equation of circle is

x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 (i)

radical axis of circle (i) and circle x2 + y2 a2 = 0 is given by

x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = x2 + y2 a2

2gx + 2fy + c + a2 = 0 (ii)

It is given that radical axis is x a/2 = 0 (iii)

Comparing (ii) and (iii)

We get f = 0, (c+a2)/2g=-a/2

ag + a2 + c = 0 (iv)

Circle (i) passes through (2a, 0)

4ag + 4a2 + c = 0 (v)

From (iv) and (v)

3ag + 3a2 = 0

g = a

c = (ag + a2) from (iv)

= (a2 + a2) = 0

Equation of circle is

x2 + y2 2ax = 0 (Ans.)

Example 14:

Show that x2 + y2 + 4y 1 = 0, x2 + y2 + 6x + y + 8 = 0 and x2 + y2 4x 4y 37 = 0

touch each other.

Solution:

S1 x2 + y2 + 4y 1 = 0

S2 x2 + y2 + 6x + y + 8 = 0

S3 x2 + y2 4x 4y 37 = 0

C1 (0, 2), C2 (3, 1/2), C3 (2, 2)

r1 = (4+1) = 5

r2 = (9+1/4-8)=5/2

r3 = (4+4+37)=45=35

C2C3 = ((2+3)2+(2+1/2)2 )=(25+25/4)=5/2 5

C1C3 = ((2-0)2+(2+2)2 )=25

r1 + r2 = 3/2 5 = C1C2

r3 r2 = 5/4 5 = C2C3

r3 r1 = 25 = C1C3

Recall:

Two circles touch each other.

(i) externally if C1C2 = r1 + r2

(ii) internally if C1C2 = r1 r2

Example 15:

Find the four common tangents to the circles x2 + y2 22x + 4y + 110 = 0 and x2 + y2

22x 4y 100 = 0

Solution:

S1 x2 + y2 22x + 4y + 100 = 0

S2 x2 + y2 + 22x 4y 100 = 0

C1 (11, 2), C2 (11, 2)

r1 = ((11)2+(-2)2-100) = 5

r2 = ((-11)2+(2)2+100) = 15

Out of four common tangents are transverse tangents and other two direct tangents. (1)

and (2) are direct common tangents while (3) and (4) are transverse common tangents.

Recall:

Transverse common tangents divide line joining centres in ratio of radii internally while

direct tangents divides line joining centres in ratio of radii externally.

Let T1, T2 divide C1C2 in ratio of r1 : r2 internally and externally respectively.

Co-ordinates of T1 are (1511+5(-11))/(15+5) and (15(-2)+52)/(15+5)

That is T1 is the point (11/2,-1)

Co-ordinates of T2 are (1511-5(-11))/(15-5) and (15(-2)-52)/(15-5)

that is T2 is the point (22, 4)

Let the equation to either of the tangents, passing through T1 be

y + 1 = m (x 11/2) (A)

Then the perpendicular from the point (11, 2) on it is equal to + 5 and hence

(m(11-11/2)-(-2+1))/(1+m2 ) = 5

On solving, we have m = -24/7 or 4/3

The required tangents through T1 are therefore

24x + 7y = 125, and 4x 3y = 25

Similarly the equation to the tangents through T2 is

y + 4 = m (x 22) (B)

where (m(11-22)-(-2+4))/(1+m2 ) = 5

On solving, we have m = 7/24 or 3/4

On substitution in (B) the required equations are therefore

x 24y = 250 and 3x + 4y = 50

The four common tangents are therefore found. (Ans.)

Example 16:

The circle x2 + y2 4x 4y + 4 = 0 is inscribed in a triangle which has two of its sides

along the co-ordinate axes. The locus of the circumcentre of the triangle is x + y xy + k

(x2 + y2)1/2 = 0 Find k?

Solution:

Method 1.

The equation of the incircle can be put in the from (x 2)2 + (y 2)2 = 4

This implies that the inradius r = 2 (i)

Let the hypotenuse of the triangle meet OX and OY at A (a, 0) and B (0, b) respectively.

r = (Area of AOB) / ((1/2)(Sum of sides of AOB)) = ((1/2)ab) / ((1/2)

(a+b+(a2+b2 )))

2 = ab/(a+b+(a2+b2 ))

Let M (x1, y1) be the circumcentre of OAB. Since OAB is right angled, its circumcentre is

the mid point of hypotenuse.

x1 + y1 + (x12+y12 ) = x1y1

Hence the equation of the locus of M(x1, y1) is

x + y xy + (x2+y2 ) = x1y1

Comparing it with the given equation of the locus, we find that

k = 1. (Ans.)

Method 2.

Equation of AB is x/a + y/b = 1 (1)

(x1, y1) (a/2,b/2), where M(x1, y1) is the circumcentre of OAB i.e. midpoint of the

hypotenuse.

(1) becomes: x / (2x1 )+y / (2y1 ) = 1 (2)

In circle (x 2)2 + (y 2)2 = 4 touches line (2)

(2/(2x1 )+2 / (2y1 )-1) / ((1/2x1 )2+ (1/2y1 )2 ) = 2

x1 + y1 x1 y1 + (x12+y12 ) = 0

Locus of M(x1, y1) is

x + y xy + (x2+y2 ) = 0

Comparing it with the given equation of the locus, we find that k = 1.

Note:

Distance from (2, 2) to the line x/2x1 +y/2y1 -1 = 0 has been taken 2, because origin and

this point lies on the same side of the origin.

Parabola

Parabola Definition

Parabola is the chief and easiest chapter in the Conic Sections of Co-ordinate Geometry in

Mathematics. Let us start analyzing the thought A point always moves such that the ratio of

its distances from a fixed point and a fixed line is constant. Can we get some meaningful

result? Yes we get a parabola, which follow the above rule/thought. We can represent the

curve mathematically using the co-ordinates and this curve is useful in finding out the many

physical/practical phenomenons.

If we take a Right Circular Cone and cut it by a horizontal plane, we get a cross-section

which is circular. If we cut this cone by planes of different orientations, different planes

produce different type of curves. As all these curves are sections of a right circular cone, we

call them conic sections. When we analyze these curves in detail we find that when the

ratio of the distances of a point on the curve from a fixed point to its distance from a fixed

line, is equal to 1 we have one type of curve, for ratio less than 1, we have second type of

curve and for ratio more than 1, we have third type of curve. With this basis we can analyze

these three curves.

In this sections well discuss the curve of 1st type for which the ratio is equal to 1 i.e. the

distance from the fixed point is always equal to the distance from the fixed line. We call this

a Parabola.

Parabola is one of the easiest and important chapters of Conic Sections of Co-ordinate

Geometry in the Mathematics syllabus of IIT JEE, AIEEE and other engineering examinations.

The chapter is important because it fetches 1-2 questions in most of the engineering

examination

Index

2. Focal Chord

3. Chord

4. Tangent to a Parabola

5. Normal to a Parabola

6. Propositions on the Parabola

7. Solved Examples

Parabola is important from the perspective of scoring high in IIT JEE as there are few fixed

pattern on which a number Multiple Choice Questions are framed on this topic. You are

expected to do all the questions based on this to remain competitive in IIT JEE examination.

It is very important to master these concepts at early stage as this forms the basis of your

preparation for IIT JEE, AIEEE, DCE, EAMCET and other engineering entrance examinations.

Conic Sections

Conics or conic sections are the curves corresponding to various plane sections of a

right circular cone by cutting that cone in different ways.

Each point lying on these curves satisfies a special condition, which actually leads us

towards the mathematical definition of conic sections.

If a point moves in plane in such a way that the ratio of its distance from a fixed point to

its perpendicular distance from a fixed straight line, always remains constant, then the locus

of that point I called a Conic Section.

The fixed point is called the focus and the fixed line is called directrix of the conic. The

constant ratio is called the eccentricity and is denoted by e.

According to the value of there are three types o conic i.e. for e = 1, e < 1 and e > 1 the

corresponding conic is called parabola, ellipse and hyperbola respectively.

A conic section or conic is the locus of a point, which moves so that its distance from a

fixed point is in a constant ratio to its distance from a fixed straight line, not passing through

the fixed point.

The fixed point is called the focus.

The fixed straight line is called the directrix.

The constant ratio is called the eccentricity and is denoted by e.

When the eccentricity is unity i.e. e = 1, the conic is called a parabola; when e < 1, the

conic is called an ellipse; and when e > 1, the conic is called a hyperbola.

The straight line passing through the focus and perpendicular to the directrix is called the

axis of the parabola.

The point of intersection of a conic with its axis is called vertex.

The chord passing through focus and perpendicular to axis is called latus rectum.

Any chord of the parabola which is perpendicular to the axis is called double ordinate.

The straight line perpendicular to axis of the parabola passing through vertex is called

tangent at the vertex.

The line through focus and perpendicular to the directrix is called the axis of the conic. The

intersection point o conic with axis is known as the vertex of the conic.

Enquiry: How do we mathematically define a parabola and what are its various

features?

The locus of the point, which moves such that its distance from a fixed point (i.e. focus)

is always equal to its distance from a fixed straight line (i.e. directrix), is called parabola.

Equation of Parabola:

Let S be the focus, V be the vertex, ZM be the directrix and x-axis be the axis

of parabola. We require therefore the locus of a point P, which moves so that its distance

from S, is always equal to PM i.e. its perpendicular distance from ZM. After appropriate

configuration let S = (a, 0)

(x a)2 + y2 = (a + x)2

y2 = 4ax This is the standard equation of a parabola.

There are four common forms of parabola according to their axis, with their vertex at origin

(0, 0).

(a) Focal Distance:

The distance of a point on the parabola from its focus is called the focal distance of the

point Focal distance of P = SP = x + a.

(b) Focal Chord:

A chord of the parabola, which passes through its focus, is called Focal chord.

(c) Latus Rectum:

The chord through focus and perpendicular to the axis of the parabola is called the latus

rectum.

The co-ordinates of the end point of the latus rectum are (a, 2a) and (a, 2a) and length

of latus rectum = |4a|.

Let us consider origin (0, 0) as the vertex A of the parabola and two equidistant points

S(a, 0) as focus and Z(a, 0) a point on the directrix now let P(x, y) be the moving point.

Draw SZ perpendicular from S on the directrix. Then SZ is the axis of the parabola. Now the

middle point of SZ, that is A, will lie on the locus of P.

i.e. AS = AZ.

The x-axis along AS, and the y-axis along the perpendicular to AS, as A, as in the figure. Now

by definition PM = PS MP2 = PS2

So, that, (a + x)2 = (x a)2 + y2.

Hence, the equation of horizontal parabola is y2 = 4ax.

Let us consider origin (0, 0) as the vertex A of the parabola and two equidistant points

S(0, b) as focus and Z(0, b) a point on the directrix now let P(x, y) be the moving point.

Draw SZ perpendicular from S on the directrix. Then SZ is the axis of the parabola. Now the

middle point of SZ, that is A, will lie on the locus of P i.e. AS = AZ.

The y-axis along AS, and the x-axis along the perpendicular to AS at A, as in the figure.

Now by definition PM = PS

MP2 = PS2

So that, (b + y)2 = (y b)2 + x2.

Hence, the equation of vertical parabola is x2 = 4by.

For finding the end points of latus rectum LL of the parabola y2 = 4ax, we put x = a as latus

rectum passes through focus (a, 0) therefore we have

y2 = 4a2

y = + 2a

Hence the end points are (a, 2a) and (a, 2a).

Also LSL = |2a (2a)| = 4a = length of double ordinate through the focus S.

Note:

Two parabolas are said to be equal when their latus recta are equal.

The important points & lines related to standard Parabola

Note:

1. The points and lines of two parabolas can be interchanged by transformations.

2. If a > 0 & a < 0 the parabola will be forward opening and backward opening

respectively.

3. If b > 0 & b < 0 the parabola will be forward opening and downward opening

respectively.

The forms of the horizontal and vertical parabola having vertex at (h, k) can be obtained by

shifting the origin at (h, k) as below

Illustration:

Find the vertex, axis, directrix, tangent at the vertex and the length of thelatus

rectum of the parabola 2y2 + 3y 4x 3 = 0.

Solution:

The given equation can be re-written as (y-3/4)2= 2 (x+33/32)

Which is of the form Y2 = 4aX.

Hence the vertex is (-33/32,-3/4).

The axis is y + 3/4 = 0 y = 3/4.

The directrix is X + a = 0.

x + 33/32+1/2 = 0 x = -49/32.

The tangent at the vertex is x + 33/32 = 0 x = 33/32.

Length of the latus rectum = 4a = 2.

Illustration:

The extreme points of the latus rectum of a parabola are (7, 5) and (7, 3). Find the

equation of the parabola and the points where it meets the coordinate axes.

Solution:

Focus of the parabola is the mid-point of the latus rectum.

S is (7, 4). Also axis of the parabola is perpendicular to the latus rectum and passes

through the focus. Its equation is

y 4 = 0/(5-3) (x 7) y = 4.

Length of the latus rectum = (5 3) = 2.

Hence the vertex of the parabola is at a distance 2/4 = .5 from the focus. We have two

parabolas, one concave rightwards and the other concave leftwards. The vertex of the first

parabola is (6.5, 4) and its equation is

(y 4)2 = 2(x 6.5) and it meets the x-axis at (14.5, 0).

The equation of the second parabola is (y 4)2 = 2 (x 7.5).

15).

Suppose that the equation of a tangent to the parabola y2 = 4ax. (i)

is y = mx + c. (ii)

The abscissa of the points of intersection of (i) and (ii) are given by the equation (mx +

c) = 4ax. But the condition that the straight line (ii) should touch the parabola is that it

should meet the parabola in coincident points hence discriminant should be zero

2

c = a/m.

Hence, y = mx + a/m is a tangent to the parabola y2 = 4ax, whatever be the value of m.

Equation (mx + c)2 = 4ax now becomes (mx a/m)2 = 0.

x = a/m2 and y2 = 4ax

y = 2a/m.

Thus the point of contact of the tangent y = mx + a/m is (a/m2 ,2a/m).

Taking 1/m = t where t is a parameter, i.e., it varies from point to point. Theparabola y2 =

4ax as a parametric form is given by the co-ordinate (at 2, 2at) and we refer to it as point t.

Illustration:

Prove that the area of the triangle inscribed in the parabola y2 = 4ax is a2 |(t1 t2) (t2

t3) (t3 t1)| where t1, t2 and t3 are the vertices.

Solution:

The three points on the parabola are (at12, 2at1), (at22, 2at2) and (at32, 2at3).

We shall now obtain the equation of a parabola when the focus is any point and the

dircectrix is any line.

Let (h, k) be the focus S and lx + my + n = 0 the equation of the directrix ZM of a parabola.

Let (x, y) be the coordinates of any point P on the parabola. Then the relation, PS = distance

of P from ZM, gives

(x h+) + (y k)2 = (lx + my + n)2/(l2 + m2)

(mx ly)2 + 2gx + 2fy + d = 0.

This is the general equation of a parabola. It is clear that second-degree terms in the

equation of a parabola form a perfect square.

The converse is also true, i.e. if in an equation of the second degree, the second-degree

terms from a perfect square then the equation represents a parabola, unless it represents

two parallel straight lines.

Note:

The general equation of second degree i.e. ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0

represents a parabola if 0 and h2 = ab. ( = abc + 2fgh af2 bg2 ch2).

Special case:

Let the vertex be (, ) and the axis to be parallel to the x-axis. Then the equation of

parabola is given by (y )2 = 4a (x ) which is equivalent to x = Ay 2 + By + C.

If three points are given we can find A, B and C.

Similarly, when the axis is parallel to the y-axis, the equation of the parabola is y = Ax2 +

Bx + C.

Illustration:

Find the equation of the parabola whose focus is (3, 4) and directrix

x t + 5 = 0.

Solution:

Let P(x, y) be any point on the parabola. Then

((x-3)2 (y+4) )=|x-y+5|/(1+1)

(x 3)2 + (y + 4)2 = (x-y+5)2/2

x2 + y2 + 2xy 22x + 26y + 25 = 0.

(x + y)2 = 22x 26y 25.

Illustration:

Find the equation of the parabola having focus (6, 6) and verte (2, 2).

Solution:

Let S(6, 6) be the focus and A(2, 2) the vertex of the parabola. On SA take a point K

(x1, y1) such that SA = AK. Draw KM perpendicular on SK. Then KM is the directrix of

the parabola.

Since A bisects SK, ((-6+x1)/2,(-6+y1)/2) = (2, 2)

6 + x1 = 4, and 6 + y1 = 4

Or (x1, y1) = (2, 10).

Also gradient of

SK = (10-(-6))/(2-(-6) )=16/8 = 2; m = (-1)/2

So that equation (1) becomes y 10 = 1/2 (x 2)

or x + 2y 22 = 0 is the directrix.

Next, let PM be a perpendicular on the directrix KM from any point

P(x, y) on the parabola.

Form SP = PM, the equation of the parabola is

({(x+6)+(y+6)2 } )=(x+2y-22)/((12+22 ) )

or 5 = (x2 + y2 + 12x + 12y + 72) = (x + 2y 22)2

or 4x2 + y2 4xy + 104x + 148 y 124 = 0.

or (2x y)2 + 104x + 148y 124 = 0.

Illustration:

If the point (2, 3) is the locus and x = 2y + 6 is the directrix of a parabola, find

(i) the equation of the axis,

(ii) the co-ordinates of the vertex,

(iii) length of the latus rectum,

(iv) equation of the latus rectum.

Solution:

(i) We know that the axis of a parabola is the line through the focus

And perpendicular to the directrix.

The equation of any line passing through the focus (2, 3) is

y 3 = m (x 2) mx y = 3 2m

If the line be perpendicular to the directrix x 2y = 6, we have,

m (1/2) = 1 m = 2.

Hence the equation of the axis is y 3 = 2 (x 2) 2x + y = 7.

(ii) The co-ordinates of the point of intersection (say) A of the directrix x 2y = 6 and the

axis 2x + y = 7 are obtained by solving the two equations; thus they are (4, 1). Since the

vertex is the middle point of A (4, 1) and the focus S(2, 3); the co-ordinates of the vertex

are ((4+2)/2,(3-1)/2), i.e. (3, 1).

(iii) Since OS = ((3-2)2+(1-3)2 )=5,

The length of the latus rectum = 4OS = 45.

(iv) Since the latus rectum is the line through the focus parallel to the directrix, its

equation is x 2y + c = 0, where c is given by 2 2.3 + c = 0, i.e. c = 4.

Focal Chord

Any chord to y2 = 4ax which passes through the focus is called a focal chord of

the parabola y2 = 4ax.

Let y2 = 4ax be the equation of a parabola and (at2, 2at) a point P on it. Suppose the

coordinates of the other extremity Q of the focal chord through P are (at12, 2at1).

Then, PS and SQ, where S is the focus (a, 0), have the same slopes

(2at-0)/(at2-a)=(2at1-0)/(at12-a)

tt12 t = t1 t2 (tt t1

+ 1) (t1 t) = 0.

The extremities of a focal chord of the parabola y2 = 4ax may be taken as the points t and

1/t.

Illustration:

Prove that the circle with any focal chord of the parabola y2 = 4ax as its diameter

touches its directrix.

Solution:

Let AB be a focal chord. If A is (at2, 2at), then B is (a/t2 ,-2a/t).

Equation of the circle with AB as diameter is

(x at2) (x-a/t2 ) + (y 2at) (y+2a/t) = 0.

For x = a, this gives (a2 (1+t2 )2)/t2 + y2 2ay (t-1/t) 4a2 = 0.

a2 (t-1/t)2 + y2 2ay(t 1/t) = 0

[y a(t 1/t)]2 = 0, which has equal roots.

Hence x + a = 0 is a tangent to the circle with diameter AB.

Illustration:

Find the locus of the centre of the circle described on any focal chord of

aparabola as diameter.

Solution:

Let the equation of the parabola be y2 = 4ax.

Let t1, t2 be the extremities of the focal chord. Then t1 . t2 = 1.

The equation of the circle on t1, t2 as diameter is

(x at22) (x at22) + (y 2at1) (y 2at2) = 0

or x2 + y2 ax (t12 + t22) 2ay (t1 + t2) + a2 t12 t12 + 4a2 t1t2 = 0

x2 + y2 ax (t12 + t22) 2ay (t1 + t2) 3a2 = 0. ( t1t2 = 1)

If (,) be the centre of the circle, then = a/2 (t 12+t22 ) If (, ) be the centre of the circle,

then = a/2 (t12+t22 )

= a (t1 + t2) (t1 + t2)2 =2/a2 t12 + t22 + 2t1t2 =2/a2 2/a-2= 2/a2

2a 2a2 = 2 2 = 2a ( a).

Hence locus of (, ) is y2 = 2a(x a).

Focal Distance of a Point

The focal distance of a point P on the parabola

y2 = 4ax is the distance between the point P and the focus S, i.e. PS. Thus thefocal

distance of P = PS = PM = ZN = ZA + AN = a + x.

or

Position of a point relative to a Parabola

Consider the parabola y2 = 4ax.

If (x1, y1) is a given point and y12 4ax1 = 0, then the point lies on the parabola. But when

y12 4ax1 0, we draw the ordinate PM meeting the curve in L. Then P will lie outside

the parabola if PM > LM, i.e., PM2 LM2 > 0.

Now, PM2 = y12 and LM2 = 4ax1 by virtue of the coordinates of L satisfying the equation of

the parabola. Hence, the condition for P to lie outside the parabolabecomes y12 4ax1 >

0.

Similarly, the condition for P to lie inside the parabola is y12 4ax1 < 0.

Chord

Intersection of a Straight Line with a Parabola

The combined equation of straight line y = mx + c and parabola

y2 = 4ax gives us the co-ordinates of point(s) of their intersection. The combined equation

m2x2 + 2x (mc 2a) + c2 = 0 will give those roots. The straight line therefore meets

the parabola at two points.

Points of Intersection of a straight line with the parabola y2 = 4ax

Points of intersection of y2 = 4ax and y = mx + c are given by (mx+c)2=4ax

Since (i) is a quadratic equation, the straight line meets the parabola in two points, real,

coincident, or imaginary. The roots of (i) are real or imaginary according as {2(mx 2a)} 2

4m2c2 is positive or negative, i.e. according as amc + a 2 is positive or negative, i.e.

according as mc is less than or greater than a, (taking a as positive).

Note:

When m is very small, one of the roots of equation (i) is very large; when m is equal to zero,

this root is infinitely large. Hence every straight line parallel to the axis of

the parabola meets the curve in one point at a finite distance and in another point at an

infinite distance from the vertex. It means that a line parallel to the axis of

theparabola meets the parabola only in one point.

As in the preceding article, the abscissae of the points common to the straight line y = mx +

c and the parabola y2 = 4ax are given by the equation m2x2 + (2mx 4a) x + c2 = 0.

Illustration:

Find the Length of the chord intercepted by the parabola y2 = 4ax from the line y =

mx + c. Also find its mid-point. Solution:

Simply by applying the formula o length of the joining (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) we get,

Length of the chord = ((x1-x2 )2+(y1-y2 )2 )

= ((x1-x2 )2+m2 (x1-x2 )2 )

= |x1 x2| (1+m2 ) = 4 (a(a-mc) ) (1+m2 )

[ x1+x2=(-2(m-2a) )/m2 and x1 x2=c2/m2 ]

The midpoint of the chord is ((2a-mc)/m2 ,2a/m)

Tangent to a Parabola

Let P(x1, y1) and Q(x2, y2) be two neighbouring points on the parabola y2 4ax. Then

the equation of the line joining P and Q is

y y1 = (y2-y1) / (x2-x1 ) (x x1) (1)

Since, points P and Q lies on the parabola, we have

y12 = 4ax1 (2)

y22 = 4ax2 (3)

(equation 3 and 2) give

(y2-y1)/(x2-x1 )=4a/(y1+y2 )

Equation of chord PQ (i.e. equation (1) becomes):

y y1 = 4a/(y1+y2 ) (x x1) (4)

Our aim is to in the equation of tangent at point P. For that, let point Q approach point P i.e.

x2 x1 and y2 y1.

y y1 = 4a/(2y1 ) (x x1)

y1y = 2a (x1 + x) (using equation (2))

This is the required equation of the tangent to the parabola y2 4ax at P(x1, y1).

Note:

The angle between the tangents drawn to the two parabolas at the point of their

intersection is defined as the angle of intersection of two parabolas.

Tangent at the point (x1, y1)

Let the equation of the parabola be y2 = 4ax.

Hence, value of dy/dx at P(x1, y1) is 2a/y1 and the equation of the tangent at P is

y y1 = 2a/y1 (x x1) i.e. yy1 = 2a(x x1) + y12.

Alternatively, we write the equation of the chord joining the points P(x1, y1) and Q(x2, y2)

on the parabola y2 = 4ax. Equation of the chord is (x-x1)/(x2-x1 )=(y-y1)/(y2-y1 )

or (x-x1)/(x2-x1 ) = (y-y1 )(y2+y1 )/(y22-y12 )= (y-y1 )(y2+y1 )/((x2-x1 ) )

or 4a(x x) = (y y1) (y2 + y1).

When the two points P and Q tend to coincide, y 2 y1 and the line PQ becomestangent

to the parabola. Its equation is 4a (x x1) = (y y1) (2y1) = 2yy1 2y12= 2yy1 8ax1 or

yy1 = 2a(x + x1).

Tangent in terms of m

Suppose that the equation of a tangent to the parabola y2 = 4ax (i)

is y = mx + c. (ii)

The abscissae of the points of intersection of (i) and (ii) are given by the equation (mx +

c)2 = 4ax. But the condition that the straight line (ii) should touch the parabola is that it

should meet the parabola in coincident points

(mx 2a)2 = m2c2 (iii)

c = a/m. (iv)

Hence, y = mx + a/m is a tangent to the parabola y2 = 4ax, whatever be the value of m.

Equation (mx + c)2 = 4ax now becomes (mx a/m)2 = 0.

x = a/m2 and y2 = 4ax y = 2a/m.

Thus the point of contact of the tangent y = mx + a/m is (a/m2 ,2a/m).

Illustration:

Find the condition that the line y = mx + c may touch the Parabola y2 = 4ax and also

find its point of contact.

Solution:

Slope of tangent at any point is

dy/dx=2a/y = m (say) (2)

y = 2a/m

from (1), x = a/my2

point of contact is (a/my2 ,2a/m)

Equation of tangent is

y 2a/m = m (x-a/my2 )

or y = mx + a/m

Therefore, the condition that y = mx + c touches the Parabola

yy2 = 4ax is c = a/m.

Illustration:

Find the equation of normal to the Parabola yy2 = 4ax, having slope m.

Solution:

Slope of tangent at any point is

dy/dx=2a/y

Slope of normal at that point is

-y/2a = m (say)

Point of contact of a normal having slope m with the Parabola

yy2 = 4ax is (amy2, 2am)

So, equation of normal at this point is

y + 2am = m (x amy2)

or y = mx 2am amy3.

Illustration:

If the line 2x + 3y = 1 touches the Parabola yy2 = 4ax, find the length of its latus

rectum.

Solution:

Equation of any tangent to yy2 = 4ax is

y = mx + a/m my2x my + a = 0.

Comparing it with the given tangent 2x + 3y 1 = 0, we find

my2/2=(-m)/3=a/(-1), m = (-2)/3, a = m/3 = -2/9.

Hence the length of the latus rectum.

= 4a = 8/9, ignoring the negative sign for length.

Alternative Solution:

Writing the given equation as

y = -2/3 x + 1/3=-2/x x-(2/9)/(-2/3), we find that a = 2/9.

Hence the length of the latus rectum = 4a = 8/9.

tangent at the point t

Equation of the tangent at t is ty = x + aty2. T

the point of intersection of the tangents at t1 and t2 is (at1t2, a(t1 + t2)).

Illustration:

One the Parabola yy2 = 4ax, three points E, F, G are taken so that their ordinates are

in G.P. Prove that the tangents at E and G intersect on the ordinate of F.

Solution:

Let the points E, F, G be (at1y2, 2at1), (at2y2, 2at2), (at3y2, 2at3) respectively. Since the

ordinates of these points are in G.P., t22 = t1t3. tangents at E and G are t1y = x + at12 and

t3y = x + at32. Eliminating y from these equation, we get x = at1t3 = at22. Hence the point lies

on the ordinates of F.

Illustration:

Prove that the area of the triangle formed by three points on a parabola is twice the

area of the triangle formed by the tangents at these points.

(at1, t2, a(t1 + t2)}, {at2t3, a(t2 + t3)}, {at3 t1, a(t3 + 1)}.

The area of the formed by these points=1/2 a2(t1 t2) (t2 t3) (t3 t1).

Let y = mx + a/m be any tangent to y2 = 4ax passing through the point (x1, y1).

Then, we have

y1 = mx + a/m or m2x1 m1 + a = 0

If m1 and m2 are to roots of (i) then

m1 + m2 = y1/x1 and m1m2 = a/x1

Also the two tangents are y = m1x + a/m1 , and y = m2x + a/m2

Their combined equation is

(y m1x a/m1 ) (y m2x a/m2 ) = 0

On solving this we get

(y2 4ax) (y12 4ax1) = [yy1 2a (x + x1)]2

SS1 = t2.

Where S = y2 4ax, S1 = y12 4x1

Let y2 = 4ax be the equation of a parabola and (x1, y1) an external point P. Then, equation

of the tangents is given by

SS1 = t2, where S = y2 4ax, S1 = y12 4ax1, T = yy1 2a(x + x1).

If the tangents from the external point (x1, y1) touch the parabola at P and Q, then PQ is

the chord of contact of the tangents.

Illustration:

Prove that through any given point (x1, y1) there pass, in general, twotangents to

the parabola y2 = 4ax.

Solution:

The equation to any tangent is y = mx + a/m. (1)

If this passes through the fixed point (x1, y1), we have

y1 = mx1 + a/m, i.e. m2x1 m y1 + a = 0. (2)

This is a quadratic equation and gives two values of m (real or imaginary). Corresponding to

each value of m we have, two different tangents. The roots of (2) are real and different if

y12 4ax1 > 0, i.e. If the point (x1, y1) lies outside the curve. The roots are equal, if y12

4ax1 = 0 i.e. if the point (x1, y1) lies on the curve. In this case the two tangent merge into

one. The two roots are imaginary if y12 4ax1 < 0, i.e. if the point (x1, y1) lies within the

curve.

Chord of Contact

The chord joining the points of contact of the tangents on the parabola from an external

point is called the chord of contact.

Let the tangent drawn from the point P(x1, y1) touch Parabola at Q(x2, y2) and R(x3, y3)

then QR is the chord of contact of the point P(x1, y1) with respect to y2= 4ax.

The equation of tangents at Q and R are

yy2 = 2a(x + x2) (1)

yy3 = 2a(x + x3) (2)

y1y2 = 2a(x1 + x2) (3)

y1y3 = 2a(x1 + x3) (4)

From (ii) and (iv) we find that the points Q(x2, y2) and R(x3, y3) lie on yy1 = 2a (x2+ x1), which

being of first degree in x and y represents a straight line. Hence the equation of the chord

of contact of P(x1, y1) is

yy1 = 2a (x + x1) and is of the form T = 0.

Equation of the chord of contact of the tangents drawn from a point (x1, y1) to

theparabola y2 = 4ax is T = 0, i.e. yy1 2a(x + x1) = 0.

Note:

The equation of the chord of the parabola y2 = 4ax with mid point

(x1, y1) is T = S1.

Illustration:

Find the equation of the chord of the parabola y2 = 12x which is bisected at the

point (5, 7).

Solution:

Here (x1, y1) = (5, 7), and y2 = 12x = 4ax a = 3.

The equation of the chord is S1 = T

Or 6x + 7y + 19 = 0.

Normal to a Parabola

Normal at the point (x1, y1)

The equation of the tangent at the point (x1, y1) is yy1 = 2a(x + x1). Since the slope of the

tangent = 2a/y1, slope of the normal is y1/2a. Also it passes through (x1, y1).

Hence, its equation is y y1 = -y1/2a (x x1). (i)

Normal in terms of m

In equation (i), put -y1/2a = m so that y1 = 2a and x1 = (y12)/4a = am2, then the equation

becomes y = mx 2am am3

where m is a parameter. Equation (ii) is the normal at the point (am 2, 2am) of

theparabola.

Note:

If this normal passes through a point (h, k), then k = mh 2am am3.

For a given parabola and a given point (h, k), this cubic in m has three roots say m1, m2,

m3 i.e. from (h, k) three normals can be drawn to the parabola whose slopes are m1, m2, m3.

For this cubic, we have m1+ m2+ m3 = 0, m1 m2 + m2 m3 + m3 m1 = (2a h)/a, m1 m2 m3 =

k/a.

If we have an extra condition about the normals drawn from a point (h, k) to a

given parabola y2 = 4ax then by eliminating m1, m2, m3 from these four relations between

m1, m2, m3, we can get the locus of (h, k).

Since the sum of the roots is equal to zero, the sum of the ordinates of the feet of

the normals from a given point is zero. These points are called Co-Normal Points.

Illustration:

Find the locus of the point of intersection of two normals to a parabolawhich are at

right angles to one another.

Solution:

y = mx 2am am3.

It passes through the point (h, k) if

k = mh 2am am3 => am3 + m(2a h) + k = 0. (1)

Let the roots of the above equation be m1, m2and m3. Let the

perpendicularnormals correspond to the values of m1 and m2 so that m1 m2 = 1.

From equation (1), m1 m2 m3 = -k/a. Since m1 m2 = 1, m3 = k/a.

Since m3 is a root of (1), we have a (k/a) 3+k/a (2a h) + k = 0. k2 + a(2a h) + a2 =

0

k2 = a(h 3a).

Hence the locus of (h, k) is y2 = a(x 3a).

The normal, being perpendicular to the tangent at (at, 2at) is given by y = tx + 2at + at 3.

Note:

If normal at the point at1 meets the parabola again at the point at2, then at2 = at1

2/at1 .

Point of intersection of the normals to the parabola y2 = 4ax (at12, 2at1) and (at2t2,

2at2) is (2a+a(t12+t22+t1t2), a t1t2(t1+t2)).

Illustration:

Prove that the normal chord to a parabola at the point whose ordinate is equal to

the abscissa subtends a right angle at the focus.

Solution:

If the normal to the parabola y2 = 4ax at P(at1t2, 2at1) meets it again at the point t2,

then we have t2 = t1 2/t1 .

If the abscissa and the ordinates of P be equal, then at 12 = 2at1

t1 = 2 (rejecting t1 t= 0)

=21=3

The co-ordinates of P and Q are therefore (4a, 4a) and (9a, 6a) respectively.

The focus is the point S (a, 0).

Slope of PS = and slope of QS = .

PSQ = right angle. Hence the result.

Illustration:

Find the locus of the middle points of the normal chords of the parabolay2 = 4ax.

Solution:

Equation of the normal chord at any point (at2, 2at) of the parabola is

y + tx = 2at + at3. (1)

Equation of the chord with mid point (x1, y1) is T = S1

or yy1 2a(x + x1) = y12 4ax1 or yy1 2ax = y12 2ax1. (2)

Since equations (1) and (2) are identical, 1/y1 =t/(-2a)=(2at+at3)/t = 2a + ((2a)/y1 )2

or -(y12)/2a + x1 = 2a + 4a3/(y12 ) or x1 2a = (y12)/2a+4a3/(y12 )

Hence the locus of the middle point (x1, y1) is

x 2a = y2/2a+4a3/y2 .

Illustration:

P and Q are the points t1 and t2 on the parabola y2 = 4ax. If thenormals to

the parabola at P and Q meet at R, (a point on the parabola), show that t1t2 = 2.

Solution:

Let the normals at P and Q meet at R(at2, 2at).

Then t = t1 2/t1 and t = t2 2/t2 .

Therefore t1 + 2/t1 = t2 + 2/t2 (t1 t2) = 2(t1-t2 )/(t1 t2 ) t1t2 = 2.

Illustration:

Find the equations of the normals to the parabola y2 = 4ax at the extremities of

its latus rectum. If the normals meet the parabola, again at P and Q, prove that PQ = 12a.

Solution:

The ends of the latus rectum are (a, 2a) and (a, 2a). The equations of the normals

to the parabola at these points are (put t = 1 and 1)

y + x = 3a and y x = 3a.

These

lines meet the parabola again at P(9a, 6a) and Q(9a, 6a) respectively.

PQ = 6a + 6a = 12a.

(i) The tangent at any point P on a parabola bisects the angle between the focal chord

through P and the perpendicular from P on the directrix.

The tangent at P (at2, 2at) is ty = x + at2.

It meets the x-axis at T(at2, 0).

Hence ST = a (1 + t2).

MPT = PTS = SPT TP bisects SPM.

(ii) The portion of a tangent to a parabola cut off between the directrix and the

curve subtends a right angle at the focus.

Let P(at2, 2a), be a point on the parabola y2 = 4ax.

The tangent at P is ty = x + at2.

Point of intersection of the tangent with the directrix x + a = 0 is (a, at a/t).

Now, slope of SP is (2at-0)/(at2-a)=2t/(t2-1)

and slope of SK is (at-a/t-0)/(-a-a)=-(t2-1)/2t

(Slope of the SP).(Slope of SK) = 1.

Hence SP is perpendicular to SK i.e. KSP = 90.

(iii) Tangents at the extremities of any focal chord intersect at right angles on the

directrix.

Let P(at2, 2at) and P(at12, 2at1) be the end points of a focal part on the parabola.

Then t.t1 = 1. Equations of the tangents at the point P and the point P are ty = x + at 2 and

t1y = x + at12 respectively.

Let these tangents intersects at a point (h, k). Then h = att1 and k = a(t + t1).

Since the tangents are perpendicular, tt1 = 1 h a.

Hence the locus of the point (h, k) is x = a which is the equation of the directrix.

(iv) Any tangent to a parabola and the perpendicular on it from the focus meet on

the tangent at the vertex.

Equation of the perpendicular to the tangent ty = x + at 2 (1)

From the focus (a, 0) is tx + y = at. (2)

and (2) intersect at x = 0 which is the equation of the tangent at the vertex.

The locus of the point of intersection of tangents drawn at the extremities of the chord

of the conic drawn through a point is called the polar of that point with respect to the conic.

This point itself is called the pole.

Equation of the polar of a point (x1, y1) with respect to the parabola y2 = 4ax.

Let us draw the chord QR from the point P(x1, y1) and if the tangents drawn from point

Q and R meet at the point T(h, k), required locus of (h, k) is polar. Since QR is the chord of

contact of tangents from (h, k), its equation is

ky = 2a(x + h)

This straight line passes through the point (x1, y1), we have

ky1 = 2a(x1 + h) (1)

Since the relation (1) is true, it follows that point (h, k) always lies on the line.

yy1 = 2a(x + x1) (2)

Hence (2) is the equation to the polar of pole (x1, y1)

Co-normal Points:

The three points on the parabola, the normals at which pass through a common point,

are called the co-normal points.

Diameter:

The locus of the middle point of a system of parallel chords of a parabola is called its

diameter.

y2 = 4ax. (i)

let y = mx + c (ii)

be a system of parallel chords to (i) for different chords, only c varies, m remains constant.

y2 = 44a (y c)/m

my2 4ay + 4ac = 0

let y2 and y3 be the roots of (iii), then y2 and y3 are the ordinates of the points where (ii) cuts

(i)

from (iii), y2 + y3 = 4a/m

Also, if (x1, y1) be the midpoint of the chord them

y1 = (y2-y3)/2=2a/m

Locus of (x1, y1) is y = 2a/m, which is the equation of the diameter.

Note:

y = 2a/m is a straight line parallel to the axis of the parabola.

Solved Examples

Example 1:

Find the equation of the parabola whose focus is (3, 4) and directrix is the line

Solution:

Let (x, y) be any point on the parabola. Then by definition, the distance between (x, y)

and the focus (3, 4) must be equal to the length of perpendicular from (x, y) on directrix.

So first we will find the equation of the directrix.

The line parallel to 6x 7y + 9 = 0 is

6x 7y + 6 = 0 (1)

Since directrix passes through (3/2,2), this point wil satisfy equation 91) hence

6 (3/2) 7 (2) + k = 0

K = 9 + 14 = 5.

Equation of directrix is 6x 7y + 5 = 0

Now by definition of parabola,

({(x-3)2+(y+4)2 } )= (6x-7y+5)/(62+72 )

85 {(x 3)2 + (y + 4)2} = (6x 7y + 5)2

49x2 + 36y2 + 84xy 570x + 750y + 2100 = 0

Example 2:

Find the equation of the parabola whose directrix makes an isosceles right angled

triangle of area 4 square units with the axis in the 3rd quadrant and focus is on the line y =

x, 2 units away from the origin.

Solution:

First we find the equation of directrix. Let the directrix form the isosceles triangle OAB

with OA = OB = a.

( OAB) = 4

1/2 a2 = 4

a = 22

Therefore the co-ordinate, of A and B are (22, 0) and (0, 22) respectively.

So, equation of directrix

(y 0) = ((0+22)/(-22-0)) (x + 22) x + y + 22 = 0

Now the focus S is on line y = x and 2 units away from the origin i.e.

OS = 2 point (2, 2) by definition of parabola, we have

((x-2)2+(y-2)2 )=|(x+y+22)/(12+12 )|

x2 + y2 82x 82y 2xy = 0

Example 3:

The x and y co-ordinate of any point P are expressed as x = (v cos ) t, y = (v sin )

t 1/2 gt2, where t is parameter and v, , g are constants, show that the locus of the point

P(x, y) is a parabola. Find the coordinate of the vertex of thisparabola.

Solution:

We are given x = (v cos ) t (1)

y = (v sin ) t 1/2 gt2 (2)

From (1) : = x/(v cos )

Put this value in (2)

From equation (3) it is clear that this is a equation of parabola whose vertex is the point

with the co-ordinates

((v2 sin cos )/g,(v2 sin2 )/2g)

Example 5:

Find the equation of the common tangents to the parabola y2 = 32x and x2 = 108y.

Solution:

The equation of the tangent to the parabola y2 = 4ax, is

y = mx + a/m (1)

The equation of tangent to the parabola

y2 = 32x (2) is

y = mx + 8/m (3)

If this line given by (3) is also a tangent to the parabola

x2 = 108y, then (3) meets x2 = 108y (4)

in two coincident points

Substituting the value of y from (3) in (4) we get

x2 = 108 [mx+(8/m) ]

mx2 108m2x 864 = 0

The roots of this quadratic are equal provided b2 = 4ac.

i.e. ( 108 m2)2 = 4m (864)

m = (-2)/3 (m 0, from geometry of curves)

Substituting their value of m in (3), the required equation is

y = (-2)/3 x + 8/(2/3)

y = (-2)/3 x 12

2x + 3y + 36 = 0

Example 6:

Find the equation of the tangent to the parabola y2 = 6x, which is parallel to the line

cutting intercepts 3 and 4 on x and y axis respectively.

Solution:

The line cutting intercepts 3 and 4 on x and y-axis respectively is,

x/3+y/4 = 1

4x + 3y = 12 (1)

The equation of the parabola is y2 = 4 (3/2) x (2)

The equation of any tangent to (2) is

y = mx + (3/2m) (3)

for all value of m

If this tangent is parallel to line (1), then

m = (-4)/3

Hence from (3) required equation of the tangent is

y = (-4)/3 x + (3/2(-3)/4)

y = (-4)/3 x-9/8

32x + 24y + 27 = 0

Example 7:

Find the angle of intersection of the parabola y2 = 8x and x2 = 27y.

Solution:

The given parabolas are

y2 = 8x (1)

and x2 = 27y (2)

Solving (1) and (2) we get

(x2/27)2 = 8x

x4 = 5832x

x4 5832x = 0

x(x3 5832) = 0

x = 0, x = 18

The point of intersection are (0, 0), (18, 12)

At the point (0, 0)

y2 = 8x dy/dx=4/y dy/dx|(0,0) =

x2 = 27y dy/dx=2x/27 dy/dx|(0,0) = 0

the two curves intersect at the point (0, 0) at right angle.

At the point (18, 12)

y2 = 8x dy/dx|(18,12) =4/12=1/3 = m1 (say)

x2 = 27y dy/dx=2x/27 dy/dx|(18,12)= (218)/27=4/3 = m2 (say)

Let be the angle at which the two curves intersect at the point (18, 12)

Then tan acute = |(m2-m1)/(1+m1 m2 )|=3/13

acute = tan-1 (3/13)

Example 8:

Prove that (x + a)2 = (y2 4ax), is the locus of the point of intersection of the

tangents to the parabola y2 /4.= 4ax, which includes an angle

Solution:

Let two tangent to the parabola y2 = 4ax (1)

be yt1 = x + at12 (2)

and yt2 = x + at22 (3)

Let the point of intersection of the tangent be (x1, y1) then solving equation (1) and (2) we

get,

x1 = at1 t2

y1 = a(t1 + t2)

Also the slope of these tangents are 1/t1 and 1/t2

If be the angle between these two tangents then

tan = ((t2-t1)/(1+t2 t1 ))

we are given = /4

tan /4 = 1 = ((t2-t1)/(1+t2 t1 ))

(1 + t1t2)2 = (t2 t1)

{1+(x1/a)2 } = (t1 t2)2 4t1t2 = (y1/a)2-4x1/a

(x1 + a)2 = y12 4ax1

Required locus of (x1, y1) is (x + a)2 = (y2 4ax)

Example 9:

Prove that normal at one end of latus rectum of a parabola is parallel to the tangent

at the other end.

Solution:

Let the parabola be y2 = 4ax (1)

The end points of latus rectum are (a, 2a) & (a, 2a) and

The equation of the normal to (1) at (a, 2a) is

(y 2a) = (x a)

y = x + 3a (2)

The equation of the tangent to (1) at (a, 2a)

y + 2a = (x a)

y=xa

and from (2) and (3), we find that the slope of normal to one end of the latus rectum is equal

to the slope of tangent at other end of tangent to the other end. Hence the required fact is

proved.

Example 10:

Find the length of the focal chord of parabola y2 = 4ax whose one end point is P(at2,

2at)

Solution:

Let Q (at12, 2at) be the other end of this focal chord.

The equation of the line joining (at2, 2at) and (at12, 2at1) is

(y 2at) = (2at1-2at)/(at12-at2 ) (x at2)

If this passes through the focus (a, 0), then

2at = 2/(t1+t) (a at2)

t (t + t1) = 1 t2

tt1 = 1

t1 = 1/t

Then Q is the point (a/t2 ,(-2a)/t)

The length of the focal chord PQ

= a |t+1/t| ((t-1/t)2+4)

a (t-1/t)2

Example 11:

Prove that the locus of the point of intersection of two mutually perpendicular tangents

one to each of the parabola y2 = 4a (x + a) and y2 = 4b (x + b), is a line parallel to y-axis.

Solution:

The given parabolas are

y2 = 4a(x + a) (1)

and y2 = 4b(x + b) (2)

Any tangent to (1) is y = m (x + a) + a/m (3)

Similarly any tangent to (2) is y = m (x + b) + b/m (4)

mm = 1

or m = -1/m

(4) becomes y = {(x + b)/m} bm (5)

The required locus is obtained by eliminating m between (3) and (5).

For this subtracting (5) from (3), we get

0 = x (m+1/m)+a(m+1/m)+b(m+1/m)

x+a+b=0

This is the required locus which is parallel to y axis.

Example 12:

If two tangents to a parabola intercept a constant length on any fixed tangent, find

the locus of their point of intersection.

Solution:

Let yt = x + at2 (1)

be a fixed tangent to the parabola y2 = 4ax (2)

Let the other two tangent to (2) be

yt1 = x + at12 (3)

And yt2 = x + at22 (4)

The point of intersection of (1) with (3) and (4) are P {att1, a(t1 + t2)} and Q{at t2, a (t +

t2)}

Given PQ is constant or PQ2 = constant

a2t2 (t1 t2)2 + a2(t1 t2)2 = constant

a2(t2 + 1) (t1 t2)2 = constant

(t1 t2)2 = constant since t is constant as (1) is a fixed tangent.

(t1 t2)2 = c (say) (5)

Let (x1, y1) be the point of intersection of (3) and (4),

We know that

(t2 t1)2 = (t1 + t2)2

From equation (5), (6) and 97) we get

c = (y1/a)2- 4x1/a

or y12 = 4x1 a a2c = 4a (x1+1/4 ac)

the locus of (x1, y1) is

y2 = 4a (x+1/4 ac)

The required locus is a parabola whose latus rectum is 4a i.e. equal to latus rectum of

y = 4ax.

2

Example 13:

Find the locus of the poles of normals to parabola y2 = 4ax.

Solution:

Any normal to the parabola y2 = 4ax is (1)

y = mx 2am am3 (2)

Let (x1, y1) be the pole of (2) with respect to (1), then (2) is the polar of (x 1, y1) w.r.t (1)

i.e.

yy1 = 2a (x + x1)

comparing (2) & (3), we get

2a/m=y1/1=(2ax1)/(-2am-am3 )

Hence we get

x1 = 2a am2 (4)

and y1 = 2a/m (5)

Eliminating m between (4) & (5) we get

The required locus of (x1, y1) is

(x + 2a) y2 + 4a3 = 0

Example 14:

Find the locus of the point P if the perpendicular from that point P upon its polar with

respect to parabola, is of constant length.

Solution:

Polar of P (x1, y1) with respect to the parabola y2 = 4ax is

y1y = 2a (x1 + x)

or y1y = 2ax 2ax1 = 0 (1)

We are given that the distance of P (x1, y1) from line (1) is constant, say

|y12-2ax1-2ax1 |/(y12+(2a)2 ) = (constant)

Locus of (x1, y1) is

(y2 4ax)2 = 2 (y2 + 4a2)

Example 15:

Find the locus of the point, from which the three normals to the parabola y 2 = 4ax

cut the axis at points whose distance from the vertex are in A.P.

Solution:

Any normal to the parabola y2 = 4ax is y = mx 2am am3 (1)

If (1) passes through (x1, y1) then

y1 = mx1 2am am3

am3 + m (2a x1) + y1 = 0 (2)

m1 + m2 + m3 = 0 (3)

m1 m2 m3 = (-y1)/a (5)

Also, the normal with slope m1, i.e. y = m1x 2am1 am13 cuts axis of theparabola at

the point A(2a + am12, 0) similarly, normals with slope m2 and m3 cut the axis at B(2a +

am22, 0) and c(2a + am32, 0).

OA, OB and OC are in A.P. (given) where O is origin or vertex of the parabola.

2OB = OA + OC (6)

2m22 = m12 + m32

(m1 + m2 + m3)2 2 (m1 m2 + m2 m3 + m3 m1)

= 0 2 ((2a-x1)/a)

m22 = 2/3 ((x1-2a)/a) (7)

From equation (3), we have

m22 = (m1 + m3)2

= m12 + m32 + 2 m1 m3

= 2m22 + 2 (-y1/am2 ) (using 6 and 5)

m32 = -2y1/a (8)

Cubing equation (7) and squaring equation (8) we get

27 ay12 = 2(x1 2a)3

Locus of point (x1, y1) is

27 ay2 = 2(x 2a)3

Example 16:

Show that the locus of the mid point of all focal chords, of a parabola is also a

parabola.

Solution:

Method 1:

Let the parabola be given by

y2 = 4ax

Then its focus is (a, 0). Let (x1, y1) be the mid point of a chord of the given parabola. Then

it equation is

S1 = T

or y12 4ax1 = y.y1 2a (x + x1)

It passes through the focus (a, 0) of (1), then

y12 4ax1 = 0.y1 2a (a + x1)

y12 = 2a(x1 a)

The required locus of (x1, y1) is

y2 = 2a (x a), which is a parabola.

Method 2:

Equation of chord AB is

y (t1 + t2) = 2(x + at1t2) (1)

It passes through the focus (a, 0) (2)

0 = 2(a + at1 + t22) t1t2 = 1

2h = a(t12 + t22) and k = a (t1 + t2) (3)

2h = a((t1 + t2)2 2t1t2)

= a ((k/a)2+2) using (2) and (3)

k2 = 2a (h a)

Locus of M (h, k) is

y2 = 2a (x a)

Example 17:

A tangent to the parabola y2 + 12x = 0 cuts the parabola y2 = 4ax at P and Q. Find

the locus of middle points of PQ.

Solution:

Any tangent to the parabola y2 = 4bx is y = mx b/m

y = mx 3/m

Let (x1, y1) be the mid point of PQ, where P and Q are point of intersection o line (1) and

y = 4ax

2

Equation of chord PQ is

S1 = T

y12 4ax1 = y1y 2a(x + x1)

y1y 2ax y12 + 2 ax1 = 0 (2)

Equation (1) can be written as

my m2 x + 3 = 0 (3)

equation (2) and (3) represent the same line

m/y1 =m2/2a=3/(2ax1-y12 ) (4)

m = 2a/y1 (from 4)

Again, from (4), we get

m/y1 =3/(2ax1-y12 )

2a/y1 =3/(2ax1-y12 )

Locus of (x1, y1) is

4a2x = y2 (3 + 2a)

Example 18:

The normal at any point P of the y2 = 4ax meets the axis in G and to thetangent at

the vertex at H. If A be the vertex and the rectangle AGQH be completed, prove that the

locus of Q is x3 = 2ax2 + ay2.

Solution:

is y = mx 2am am3 (2)

This normal (2) meets the axis y = 0 of (1) in G and the tangent at the vertex i.e. x = 0

in H

The coordinates of G and H are (2a + am2, 0) and (0, 2am am3) respectively. Also the

vertex A is (0, 0). Let Q be (x1, y1)

Given that AGQH is a rectangle. AQ and GH are its diagonals and therefore there mid

points are same. Now the mid point of AQ is (1/2 x1,1/2 y1 ) and that of GH is

[1/2 (2a+am2+0) 1/2 (0-2am-am3 ) ]

i.e. [1/2 (2a+am2 )-1/2 (2am+am3 ) ]

The mid points coincide so we have

1/2 x1 = 1/2 (2a + am2), 1/2 y1 = -1/2 (2am + am3)

or x1 = 2a + am2, y1 = (2am + am3)

The required locus of Q is obtained by eliminating m between these.

Now y12 = (m2a2) (2 + m2)2

= a (m2a) [2+am2/a]2

= a (x1 2a) (x1/a)2

ay12 = (x1 2a) x12

So the locus of Q is

ay2 + 2ax2 = x3

Ellipse

Ellipse is one of the easiest topics in the Conic Sections of Co-ordinate Geometry in

Mathematics.

"Ellipse" is defined as the locus of a point which moves such that the ratio of its distance

(Eccentricity) from a fixed point (Locus) and a fixed line (Directrix) is less than one i.e. a

point moves such that its distance from a fixed point is always less than the distance from a

fixed line, we get a different types of curve for one value of eccentricity, which are similar for

all values of eccentricity less than one. Thus curve looks like a circle but it is not exactly a

circle. Rather it is more like the edges of an egg. And if we plot the movement of the Earth

and other planets around the Sun, it is the same curve satisfying the above condition of

eccentricity less than one. This beautiful curve has been named as "Ellipse".

In this chapter we will discuss in detail the nature/properties of this beautiful and important

curve. As you will see, the curve is symmetrical about two axes. We will study the standard

form of ellipse where the X and y-axes will be taken as these axes. The main emphasis in

this chapter should be on learning the properties ofellipse. The judgement of using

parametric co-ordinates, which can reduce the complexity of the problem, should also be

learnt.

Topics Covered under Ellipse are:-

1. Basic Concepts

2. Tangent and Normal

3. Propositions of an Ellipse

4. Solved Examples of Ellipse

Basic Concepts

If we slice an egg obliquely there will appear a typical curve by its edge. We find the similar

but larger curve if we trace the curve of the movement of earth around the sun. Our

mathematicians and scientist, named this curve as the ellipse. Ellipse one of the conic

sections is obtained by cutting one nappe of cone with a plane that does not pass through

the vertex.

Definition

An ellipse is locus of a point, which moves in a plane such that the ratio of its distances

from a fixed point and a fixed line is constant and always less than one.

In other words "Ellipse" is a conic for which the eccentricity

e < 1. Let S be the focus of ellipse, P any point on the ellipse and PM perpendicular

distance of the directrix from P, then

SP/PM = e < 1

Let S be the focus and ZM be the directrix of the ellipse. Let be itseccentricity.

We draw SZ perpendicular to the directrix and divide SZ internally and externally in the

ratio e : 1 and let A and A' be the internal and external point of division.

Then we have SA = e AZ

And SA' = e A'Z

...... (1)

...... (2)

Let AA' = 2a and take O the midpoint of AA' as origin. Let P(x, y) be any point on

theellipse referred to OA and OB as co-ordinate axis.

Then from figure it is evident that

AS = AO - OS = a - OS

AZ = OZ - OA = OZ - a

A'S = A'O + OS = a + OS

A'Z = OZ + OA' = OZ + a

Substituting these values in (1) and (2), we have

a - OS = e (OZ - a)

a + OS = e (OZ + a)

...... (3)

...... (4)

2a = 2 e OZ

Or

OZ = a/e

...... (5)

2 OS = 2ae => OS = ae

...... (6)

.. The directrix MZ is x = OZ = a/e and the co-ordinate of the focus S are (OS, 0)

i.e. (ae, 0). Now as P(x, y) lies on the ellipse.

So we get

SP = e PM or SP2 = e2 PM2

(x - ae)2 + y2 = e2 [OZ - x co-ordinate of P]2

=> (x - ae)2 + y2 = e2 [a/e - x]2 = (a - ex)2

...... (7)

or x2/a2 + y2/a2(1-e2) = 1

This is the standard equation of an ellipse, O is called the centre of the ellipse, AA' and

BB' are called the major and minor axes of ellipse (where b < a).

There exists a second focus and second directrix for the curve. On the negative side of

the origin take a point S', which is such that SO = S'O = ae and another point Z' such that

ZO = OZ' = a/e.

The equation (7) may also be written in the form

(x + ae)2 + y2 = (a + ex)2

=>

S'P2 = e2 (PM')2

Hence, any point P on the curve is such that its distance from S' is e times to its

distance from Z'K' so we should have obtained the same curve, if we had started with S' as

focus, a Z'K' as directrix and the same eccentricity.

Pause:

We have considered a > b, now if we consider b > a, what will be the shape of

the ellipse x2/a2 +y2/b2? In this case the major axis AA' of the ellipse is along the y-axis and

is of length 2b. See figure.

The minor axis of BB' = 2a. The foci S and S' are (0, be) and (0, -be) respectively.

The directrix are MZ and M'Z' given by y = + b/e, respectively. Also here a 2 = b2 (1 - e2).

Note:

Let P(x1, y1) be any point. This point lies outside, on or inside the ellipse (8) according as

x21/a2 + y21/b2 = 1 > 0 or = 0 or < 0.

Central Curve

A curve is said to be a central curve if there is a point, called the centre, such that every

chord passing through it is bisected at it.

Latus rectum:

The length of a chord through the focus and at right angle to the major axis of

the ellipse is known as the latus rectum of the ellipse.

There being two foci of an ellipse, there are two rectum, which are of equal length.

yL = b2/a

.. The length of latus rectum LSL' = 2b2/a

Notes:

The major axis AA' is of length 2a and the minor axis BB' is of length 2b.

Focal Distance of a Point

Since S'P = ePN', SP = ePN,

S'P + SP = e(PN + PN')

e (NN') = e(2a/e) = 2a

=>

the sum of the focal distances of any point on the ellipse is equal to its major axis.

Let ellipse be x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1

...... (i)

Its foci S and S' are (ae, 0) and (-ae, 0). The equation of its directrices MZ and M'Z'

are x = a/e and x = -a/e respectively. Let P(x 1, y1) be any point on (i)

Now SP = e PM = e NZ = e (OZ - ON) = e[(a/e)-x 1] = a - ex1

.. SP + S'P = 2a = AA'

So by this property an ellipse can also be defined as "the locus of a point which moves such

that the sum of its distances from two fixed point is always constant.

Other Forms

If in the equation x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1, a2 < b2, then the major and minor axis of

theellipse lie along the y and the x-axis and are of lengths 2b and 2a respectively. The foci

become (0, + be), and the directrices become y = + b/e where e = (1-a2/b2 ). The length of

the semi-lactus rectum becomes a2/b2.

If the centre of the ellipse be taken at (h, k) and axes parallel to the x and the yaxes, then the equation of the ellipse is (x-h)2/a2 +(y-k)2/b2 = 1.

(h, k).

If P(x, y) is any point on the ellipse, then

PS2 = e2 PM2

ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 ... (*) where

= abc + 2fgh + af2 - bg2 - ch2 0, h2 < ab.

These are the necessary and sufficient conditions for a general quadratic equation given by

(*) to represent an ellipse.

The point P(x1, y1) is outside or inside the ellipse x2/a2 + y2/b2 = 1, according as the

quantity ((x12)/a2 +(y12)/b2 -1) is positive or negative.

Clearly, x = a cos, y = b sin satisfy the equation x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1 for all real values of .

Hence, the parametric equations of the ellipse x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1 are x = a cos,

y = b sinq where is the parameter.

Also (a cos , b sin ) is a point on the ellipse x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1 for all values of

(0 < < 2).

The point (a cos, b sin) is also called the point . The angle is called the eccentric angle

of the point (a cos, b sin) on the ellipse.

Draw a circle with AA' (the major axis) as the diameter. This circle is called the auxiliary

circle of the ellipse. The equation of the circle is x2 + y2 = a2. Any point Q on the circle is (a

cos, a sin). Draw QM as perpendicular to AA' cutting the ellipseat P. The x-co-ordinate of

P = CM = a cos.

=> P (a cos, b sin).

Illustration:

Find the centre, the length of the axes and the eccentricity of the ellipse 2x2 + 3y2 - 4x 12y + 13 = 0.

Solution:

The given equation can be written as 2(x - 1)2 + 3(y - 2)2 = 1

=>(x-1)2/(1/2)+(y-2)2/(1/3) = 1 => The centre of the ellipse is (1, 2).

The major axis = 2. 12 = 2.

The minor axis = 2.1/3=2/3 => e2 = 1 1/2 = 1/3 => e = 1/3.

Illustration:

Find the equation of the ellipse whose foci are (2, 3), (-2, 3) and whose semi minor axis is

of length 5.

Solution:

Here S is (2, 3), S' is (-2, 3) and b = 5.

=> SS' = 4 = 2ae ae = 2.

But b2 = a2 (1 - e2) => 5 = a2 - 4 => a = 3.

Centre C of the ellipse is (0, 3).

=> 5x2 + 9y2 - 54y + 36 = 0.

Illustration:

Find the equation of the ellipse having centre at (1, 2), one focus at (6, 2) and passing

through the point (4, 6).

Solution:

With centre at (1, 2) the equation of the ellipse is (x-1)2/a2 +(y-2)2/b2 = 1. It passes

through the point (4, 6).

=>

9/a2 +16/b2 = 1.

...... (1)

=>

b2 = a2 - a2e2 = a2 - 25.

...... (2)

Solving for a2 and b2 from the equations (1) and (2), we get a2 = 45 and b2 = 20.

Hence the equation of the ellipse is (x-1)2/45+(y-2)2/20 = 1.

Illustration:

Find the equation of the ellipse (in standard form) having latus rectum 5

andeccentricity 2/3.

Solution:

Let the ellipse be x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1 with a > b.

Latus rectum = 5 = 2b2/a => 2b2 = 5a.

...... (1)

=> 5a/2 = 5a2/9 => a = 9/2 and hence b2 = 5/2a = 45/4.

The equation of the ellipse, in the standard form, is thus x2/(81/4)+y2/(45/4) = 1.

Illustration:

Find the equation of the ellipse, which cuts the intercept of length 3 and 2 on positive x

and y-axis. Centre of the ellipse is origin and major and minor axes are along the positive xaxis and along positive y-axis.

Solution:

x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1

...... (1)

According to the given condition the ellipse (1) passes through (3, 0) and (0, 2), so

we have.

9/a2 = 1 => a2 = 9

And 4/b2 = 1 => b2 = 4

Therefore, the equation of the ellipse is x2/9 + y2/4 = 1

Illustration:

Obtain the equation of an ellipse whose focus is the point (-1, 1) whose directrix is the

line passing through (2, 5) having the unit gradient and whose eccentricity is .

Solution:

Let P(x, y) be any point on ellipse.

Its focus is S (-1, 1).

Let the directrix be y = x + c

...... (1)

(. gradient m = 1)

Line (1) passes through (2, 5) so,

5 = 2 + c => c = 3

The directrix is y = x + 3

=> x - y + 3 = 0

...... (2)

(2). By definition of ellipse SP = e PM

or SP2 = e2 PM2

=> (x + 1)2 + (y - 1)2 = (1/2)2 [(x-y+3)/((12+12 ))]2

=> 7x2 + 7y2 + 2xy + 10x - 10y + 7 = 0,

This is the required equation of ellipse.

The ellipse is x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1

...... (1)

Let P(x1, y1) and Q(x2, y2) be two points on the ellipse. The equation of the line PQ is,

y - y1 = ((y2-y1)/(x2-x1 )) (x - x1)

...... (2)

(y2-y1)/(x2-x1 )=(-b2 (x2-x1 ))/(a2 (y2-y1 ) )

So (2) becomes

y - y1 =(-b2 (x2-x1 ))/(a2 (y2-y1)) (x - x1)

As point Q approaches towards point P along the ellipse, the line PQ tends to thetangent at

P. So, by substituting x1 and y1 for x2 and y2 in the above equation, we have the equation of

the tangent at P as

y - y1 = (-b2 (2x1 ))/(a2 (2y1)) (x - x1)

=> (xx1)/a2 + yy1/b2 =(x12)/a2 +(y`1)/b2 = 1

...... (3)

Equation of the tangent in terms of 'm'

Let the line y = mx + c

....... (4)

...... (5)

x2 (b2 + a2m2) + 2a2mcx + a2(c2 - b2) = 0

...... (6)

If (4) touches (5) then the roots f (6) must be coincident i.e. D = 0

solving this we get c = +(a2 m2+b2)

So the equation of tangent is y = mx + (a2 m2+b2) for all real m

......(7)

From the equation (6) and (7) we get the point of contact as ((+_a2 m)/(a2

m2+b2 ),(b2)/(a2 m2+b ))

* Let the equation of the ellipse be x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1 . Slope of tangent at

(x1, y1) = dy/dx(x1,y1)=-b2/a2 x2/y1

Hence the equation of the tangent at (x1, y1) is y - y1 = (-b2 x1)/(a2 y1)(x - x1)

=>

(xx1)/a2 +(yy1)/b2 = 1.

* Equation of tangent at the point q i.e. (a cos, b sin) is obtained by putting x 1= a cos,

y1 = b sin

=> (x cos )/a+(y sin )/b = 1.

To find the condition that the line y=mx+ c may touch the ellipse x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1.

Tangent to the ellipse at (a cos, b sin) is (x cos)/a+(y sin)/b = 1.

If y - mx = c is also a tangent to the given ellipse at 'q', then comparing coefficients, we

get

(cos)/am = (sin)/b=1/c or 1/c =(sin)/b=(cos)/(-am)=((sin2+cos2)/(b2+(am)2))=1/(a2 m2+b2 )

=> c = (a2 m2+b2 ).

Therefore, the equation of a tangent to the ellipse x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1 is

y = mx (a2 m2+b2 ) for all values of m.

Illustration:

Find the locus of the point of intersection of the tangents to the ellipse x2/a2+y2/b2 = 1

(a > b) which meet at right angles.

Solution:

The line y = mx (a2 m2+b2) is a tangent to the given ellipse for all m. Let is passes

through (h, k).

=> k - mh = (a2 m2+b2 ) => k2 + m2h2 - 2hkm = a2m2 + b2

=> m2 (h2 - a2) - 2hkm + k2 - b2 = 0.

If the tangents are at right angles, then m1m2 = -1.

=> (k2-b2)/(h2-a2 ) = - 1 => h2 + k2 = a2 + b2.

Hence the locus of the point (h, k) is x2 + y2 = a2 + b2 which is a circle. This circle is called

the Director Circle of the ellipse.

Note:

The locus of the point of the intersection of two perpendicular tangents to anellipse is a

circle known as the director circle.

Illustration:

Prove that the locus of the mid-points of the intercepts of the tangents to

theellipse x2/a2 + y2/b2 = 1 = 1, intercepted between the axes, is a2/x2 +b2/y2 = 4.

Solution:

The tangent to the ellipse at any point (a cos, b sin)(x cos)/a+(y sin )/b = 1.

Let it meet the axes in P and Q, so that P is (a sec, 0)

and Q is (0, b cosec). If (h, k) is the mid-point of PQ, then h = (a sec)/2.

=> cos = a/2h

Hence the locus of (h, k) is a2/x2 +b2/y2 = 4.

Illustration:

Prove that the product of the lengths of the perpendiculars drawn from the foci to

any tangent to the ellipse x2/16+y2/9 = 1 is equal to 9.

Solution:

For the given ellipse a = 4, b = 3 and hence 9 = 16 (1 - e2)

=> e = 7/4. The foci are thus located at (7,0) and (-7,0).

Equation of a tangent to the given ellipse is

y = mx + (16m2+9)

(as a = 4, b = 3).

p1 = ((16m2+9)+7 m)/(1+m2 ) and p2 = ((16m2+9)-7 m)/(1+m2)

=>

Note:

The product of lengths of the perpendiculars drawn from the foci to any tangent to

the ellipse x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1 is b2.

The normal to a curve is a line perpendicular to the tangent to curve through eh point of

contact.

.. The slope of normal at point (x1, y1) = a2y1/b2x1 and so its equation is (x-x1)/((x1/a2))=(yy1)/((y1/b2 ) ).

* To find the equation of the normal to the ellipse x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1 at (x1, y1):

Equation of the tangent at (x1, y1) is (xx1)/a2 +(yy1)/b2 = 1

=>

y - y1 = a2/b2 +y1/x1 (x - x1) =>(x-x1)/(x1/a2)=(y-y1)/(y1/b2 ).

* Equation of the normal at (a cos, b sin) is (x-a cos)/((a cos)/a2) = (y-b sin )/((b

sin)/b2).

=> ax sec - by cosec = a2 - b2.

or ax1((1+t2)/(1-t2)) - by1 ((1+t2)/2t) = a2 - b2, where t = tan /2.

On simplification, this equation gives

by1t4 + 2(ax1 + a2 -b2)t3 + 2(ax1 - a2 + b2)t - by1 = 0.

This is a 4th degree equation in t which gives, in general, four values fo t. Hence from a fixed

point four normals can be drawn to the given ellipse.

Illustration:

If the normals to the ellipse x2/a2 + y2/b2 = 1 at the points (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3) are

concurrent, prove that

= 0.

Solution:

The equation of the normal to the given ellipse at (x1, y1) is

a2xy1 - b2yx1 - (a2 - b2)x1y1 = 0.

...... (1)

a2xy2 - b2yx2 - (a2 - b2)x2y2 = 0.

...... (2)

...... (3)

Eliminating a2x, b2y and (a2 - b2) from (1), (2) and (3), we find that the three lines are

concurrent if

= 0.

Illustration:

If the normals at the end of a latus rectum of the ellipse x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1 passes through

the extremity of a minor axis, prove that e4+e2-1=0.

Solution:

Equation the normal to te given ellipse at

(ae,b2/a) is (x-ae)/(ae/a2) = (y-b2/a)/(b2/ab2).

- a2 = - ab - b3

=> a2 = ab + a2 (1 - e2)

or b = ae2 => b2 = a2e4

or a2 (1 - e2) = a2e2 a4 + e2 - 1 = 0.

Enquiry:

We know that y = mx + (a2 m2+b2) is a tangent to the ellipse x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1 for real

values of m. If this tangent passes through a point (x1, y1) we have y1 = mx1 +

((a2 m2+b2)).

or m2(x12 - a2) - 2x1y1m + (y12 - b2) = 0, which being a quadratic equation in m gives two

values of m. Thus from a point two tangents corresponding two values of m) can be drawn

to an ellipse.

From a fixed point (x1, y1) in general two tangents can be drawn to an ellipse. The equation

of the pair of tangents drawn to the ellipse x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1 is given by (x2/a2 +y2/b2-1)

((x12)/a2 +(y12)/b2-1) = (xx1/a2 + yy1/b2-1)2.

In symbols we write SS1 = T2, where

S x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1, S1 (x12)/a2 +(y12)/b2 1 and T xx1/a2 + yy1/b2 1

* If from the point P(x1, y1) tangents PQ and PR be drawn to the ellipse x2/a2+y2/b2 = 1,

then the line joining the points of contact Q and R is called the chord of contact. Equation of

the chord of contact is xx1/a2 + yy1/b2 - 1 = 0 or T = 0.

* Equation of the Chord Joining the Points ( cos, sin),

( cos, sin) is

x/a cos((+)/2)+ y/b sin((+)/2) = cos((-)/2)

* Equation of a chord which is bisected at the point (x1, y1) is xx1/a2 + yy1/b2 -1 = (x12)/a2 +

(y12)/b2 - 1 or = S1

* Length of the chord ... (from package).

To find the length of the chord intercepted by the ellipse x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1 on the

straight line y = mx + c.

Points of intersection of the ellipse and the line are given by x2/a2 +(mx+c)2/b2 = 1

i.e. (a2 m2 + b2)x2 + 2a2 cmx + a2(c2 - b2) = 0

...... (1)

Therefore the straight line meets the ellipse in two points (real, coincident or imaginary).

If (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) be the points of intersection, the length of the chord is

((x1-x2 )2+(y1-y2)2 )=(1+m2 )= |x1 - x2|

...... (2)

where x1 and x2 are the roots of the equation (1), and

x1 + x2 = -(2a2cm)/(a2 m2 + b2), x1 x2 (a2 (c2 - b2))/(a2 m2 + b2) so that

(x1 - x2)2 = (x1 + x2)2 - 4x1 x2 = (4a2 c2 m2)/(a2 m2 + b2)2 -(4a2(c2 - b2))/((a2m2

+ b2))=(4a2 b2 (a2 m2 + b2 - c2))/(a2 m2 + b2)2.

Hence the length of the chord is (((1+m2)4a2 b2 (a2 m2 + b2 - c2))/(a2 m2 + b2)2).

i.e. 2ab/(a2 m2 + b2)2) ((1+m2))(a2) m2)+b2)-c2))).

=> e cos(+)/2 = cos(-)/2

=> e [cos /2 cos /2 + sin /2 sin /2] = cos /2 cos /2 + sin /2 sin /2

=> e [1 - tan /2 tan /2] = 1 + tan /2 tan /2 => tan /2 . tan/2 = (e-1)/(e+1).

If the chord passes through (-ae, 0) then tan/2 . tan/2 = (e+1)/(e-1).

Illustration:

The tangent and normal at a point P on an ellipse meet the minor axis at A and B. Prove

that AB subtends a right angle at each of foci.

Solution:

The equations of the tangents and normal at a point P(x1, y1) on the ellipse x2/a2+ y2/b2 =

1 are

xx1/a2 + yy1/b2 = 1

...... (1)

and (x-x1)/((x1/a2))+(y-y2)/((y1/b2)) = 1

...... (2)

Solving (1) and x = 0, we have A (0, b2/y1)

Solving (2) and x = 0, we have B (0, y1 - a2y1/b2)

Let S(ae, 0) be one of the foci of the ellipse. Then the slope of SA = ((b2/y1) - 0)/(0-ae)=

b2/aey1 = m1

(say)

And the slope of SB = ([y1 (a2/b2 ) y1 ]-0)/(0-ae)

= y1/ae ((a2-b2 ))/b2= (y1 a2 e2)/(aeb2) [. b2 = a2(1 - e2)]

= aey1/b2 = m2

(say)

i.e. AB subtends a right angle at S(ae, 0). Similarly we can show that AB subtends a right

angle at the other focus S'(-ae, 0)

Illustration:

Prove that the locus of the middle points of the portion of tangent to

the ellipsex2/a2 +y2/b2 = (a+b) between the axis is the curve a/x2 + b/y2 = 4/((a+b)).

Solution:

Any tangent to the ellipse x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1 , is

y = mx + (a2 m2 + b2)

y = x + (a(a+b) m2+b(a+b))

...... (1)

(2) Meets y-axis at {0,(a(a+b) m2+b(a+b))}

Let (x1, y1) be the mid points of the portion of the tangent intercepted between the axes,

then

x1 = 1/2 [{-(a(a+b) m2 + b(a+b))/m} + 0]

y1 = 1/2 [0+{(a(a+b) m2+b(a+b))} + 0]

=> 4x12 = (a(a+b) m2+ b(a+b))/m2

and 4y12 = a(a + )m2 + b(a + b)

Eliminating m, we get

a(a+b)/(4x12) - b(a+b)/(4y12) = am2/(am2+b) + b/(am2+b) = 1

.. The locus of (x1, y1) is a/x2 + b/y2 = 4/(a+b) = 1

Illustration:

If PS1Q and PS2R be two focal chord of the ellipse whose two foci are S1 and S2and the

eccentric angle of P is '' then show that the equation of chord QR is x/a cos + y/b.(1+e 2)/

(1-e2) sin + 1 = 0.

Solution:

Let Q be (a cos , b sin ) and R be (a cos , b sin ) then the equation of the chord QR is

x/ cos(+)/2 + y/b sin(+)/2 = cos(-)/2

which on simplifying becomes

x/a (1-tan /2 tan /2)+y/b (tan /2+tan /2) = 1 + tan /2 tan /2 ..... (1)

Also, PQ and PR are focal chord thus

tan /2 tan /2 = (e-1)/(e+1) and tan /2 tan /2 = (e+1)/(e-1)

(From previous illustration)

On substituting the values of tan /2 and /2 in (1), we get

Illustration:

Show the locus of middle points chord of the ellipse x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1 which subtend right

angle at the centre is x2/a4 + y2/b4 =(1/a2 +1/b2 ) (x2/a2 + y2/b2)2.

Solution:

Let (x1, y1) be the middle point of chord PQ, then its equation is

T = S1 or 1/a2 + yy1/b2 =(x1/b2)/a2 +(y1/b2)/b2

...... (1)

Since the origin 'O' is the centre so the equation of pair of lines OP and OQ can be obtained

by homogenizing the equation of the ellipse x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1, with the help of (1), thus

or ((x12)/a2 +(y12)/b2)2 (x2/a2 +y2/b2 ) = (x2 x12)/a4 +(y2 y12)/b4 + (2xyx1 y1)/(a2b2).

It represents a pair of perpendicular lines if

1/a2 ((x12)/a2 +(y12)/b2 )2 - (x12)/a4 + 1/b2 ((x12)/a2 +(y12)/b2)2-(y12)/b4 = 0.

or, (x12)/a4 +(y12)/b4 = (1/a2 +1/b2)(x2/a4 +y2/b4)2.

So the locus of (x1, y1) is

x2/a4 + y2/b4 = (1/a2 + 1/b2 ) (x2/a2 +y2/b2 )2.

Propositions on Ellipse:

Auxiliary circle of an ellipse

Auxiliary circle of an ellipse which is a circle described on the major axis of anellipse as

its diameter.

Let the ellipse be

x2/a2 + y2/b2 =1

...... (1)

...... (2)

Through P, draw a line perpendicular to major axis intersecting major axis in N and auxiliary

circle in P'.

+ y12 = a2

(y22)/(y12)=(a2-12)/(b2 {1-(x12/a2)}) = a2/b2

=> y2/1 = a/b

Now, let OP' make an angle f with the major axis of the ellipse (1), P' being the

corresponding point of P on the auxiliary circle of the ellipse. Then is called the

eccentric angle of the point P. From the figure it is evident that if (x 1, y1) are the co-ordinates

of P, then x1 = ON = OP' cos = a cos. Also P(x1, y1) is a point on (1).

So solving(x12)/a2 +(12)/b2 =1 for y1, we get y1 = b sin

Therefore (a cos , b sin ) are the parametric co-ordinates of any point P on theellipse,

where is the eccentric angle of P.

Propositions on Ellipse:

Note:

1.

The equation of the line PQ reduces to that of tangent when x/a cos + y/b sin = 1

...... (a)

2.

Equation of normal can be derived by using the formula of equation of straight line passing

through point (a cos, b sin) and perpendicular to tangent (a) i.e. (y - b sin ) = (a sin /b

cos ) (x - a cos ).

=> a x sec - b y cosec = a2 - b2

Diameter of an ellipse

The locus of the middle points of a system of parallel chords of an ellipse is called

the diameter of the ellipse.

Let y = mx + c

...... (1)

...... (2)

In (1) m is constant and c varies from chord to chord. Let K (x1, y1) be the midpoint of a

chord PQ of this system.

Eliminating y between (1) and (2) we get

(a2m2 + b2)x2 + 2a2mcx + a2(c2 - b2) = 0

...... (3)

But x1 = (x2+x3)/2 =(-a2 mc)/(a2 m2+b2)

Or c = (-x(a2 m2+b2))/(a2 m2)

Also K (x1, y1) is a point on (1) so

y1 = mx1 + c => y1= -b2x1/a2m

.. The locus of K (x1, y1) is y = -b2x/a2m which is a diameter of the ellipse x2/a2 + y2/b2 = 1.

Note:

1. Conjugate Diameters: Two diameters of an ellipse which bisects chords parallel to each

other are called conjugated diameters. Therefore the diameters y = mx and y = m 1x of

the ellipse x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1 are conjugate if mm1 = -b2/a2.

2. In an ellipse, the major axes bisects all chords parallel to the minor axes and vice-versa,

therefore major axes and minor axes of an ellipse are conjugate diameters but they do not

satisfy the condition

mm1 = -b2/a2 and are the only perpendicular conjugate diameters.

3.

Equi-conjugate diameter:

If the length of two conjugate diameters of ellipse be equal then they are called equi

conjugate diameters.

The equation of equi conjugated diameters are x2/a2 y2/b2 = 1.

a right angle i.e., if one end of a diameter (PQ) is

P(a sin , b cos ).

5. The sum of the squares of any two conjugate semi-diameters of an ellipse is constant

and equal to the sum of the squares of the

semi-axis of the ellipse i.e. OP2 + OP2 = a2 + b2.

6. The produce of the focal distances of a point on an ellipse is equal to the square of the

semi-diameters, which is conjugate to the diameter through the point.

7. The tangents at the ends of a pair of conjugate diameters of an ellipse form a

parallelogram and the area of the parallelogram is constant and is equal to the product of

the axis i.e. equal to 4ab.

The director circle is the locus of the point of intersection of pair of perpendicular tangents

to an ellipse.

Two perpendicular tangents of ellipse x2/a2 + y2/b2 = 1 are

y - mx = (a2 m2+b2)

and my + x = (a2+b2 m2)

...... (1)

...... (2)

To obtain the locus of the point of intersection (1) and (2) we have to eliminate m squaring

and adding (1) and (2), we get

(y - mx)2 + (my + x)2 = (a2m2 + b2) + (a2 + b2m)

=> x2 + y2 = a2 + b2, which is the equation of the director circle.

Enquiry:

y1)?

Any line through (x1, y1) is y - y1 = m(x - x1)

...... (1)

...... (2)

x2 (b2 + a2m2) + 2ma2 (y1 - mx1) x + a2 [(y1 - mx1)2 - b2] = 0

If x2 and x3 are the roots of this equation then

x2 + x3 = -2ma2 (y1 - mx1)/(b2 + a2m2)

But (x1, y1) the mid point of the chord.

.. x1 = (x2+x3)/2=(-ma2 (y1-mx1 ))/(b2+a2 m2)

=> m = (-b2 x1)/(a2 y1)

.. From (2) and (3) the equation of the chord where mid point is (x 1, y1) is

y - y1 = ((-b2 x1)/(a2 y1)) (x - x1)

=>

Or

The locus of the points of intersection of tangents drawn at the point extremities of the

chords passing through a fixed point is called the polar of that fixed point and the fixed point

is called the pole.

x2/a2 + y2/b2 = 1 is

xx1/a2 + yy1/b2 =1

Illustration:

How to find out pole of the line lx + my + n = 0 w.r.t. the ellipse x2/a2+y2/b2 = 1.

Solution:

Let (x1, y1) be the pole of line lx + my + n = 0.

w.r.t. the ellipse x2/a2 + y2/b2 = 1

...... (1)

...... (2)

xx1/a2 + yy1/b2 = 1

...... (3)

Since (1) and (3) represents the same polar, so comparing them we have

(x1/a2)/l+(y1/b2)/b2 = (-1)/n

or

x1 = (-a2 l)/n

y1 = (-b2 m)/n

Example 1:

Find the points on the ellipse x2 + 3y2 = 6 where the tangent are equally inclined to the

axes. Prove also that the length of the perpendicular from the centre on either of

these tangents is 2.

Solution:

The given ellipse is x2 + 3y2 = 6

Or x2/6+y2/2 = 1

...... (1)

If the coordinates of the required point on the ellipse (1) be (6 cos ,2 sin ) then

the tangent at the point is x/6 cos + y/2 sin = 1

...... (2)

Slope of (2) = (-cos )/62/(sin )=(-2)/6 cot

-1/3 cot = + tan 45o = + 1

.. tan = + 1/3

The coordinates of the required points are

(63/2, 21/2) and (63/2, +-21/2)

= ((32)/2,1/2) and ((32)/2,+-1/2)

Again the length of perpendicular from (0, 0) and (2),

= (6.2)/(2 cos2 + 6 sin2)=(23)/((2,3/4)+(6.1/4) )=(23)/3 = 2

Example 2:

If P be a point on the ellipse x2/a2 + y2/b2 = 2/c whose ordinate is 2/c, prove that the angle

between the tangent at P and SP is tan-1 (b2/ac), where S is the focus.

Solution:

The given ellipse x2/a2 + y2/b2 = 2/c

...... (1)

Then the tangent at P will be:(xx')/a2 +(yy')/b2 = 1

(xx')/(a2(2/c) )+(yy' ((2/c)))/(b2 (2/c))= 1

The slope of tangent at P is (-b2 (2/c) x')/(a (2/c)(2(2/c)))= m1 (say)

If S be the focus, then slope of PS = = y'/(x'+ae)=(2/c)/(x'+a(2/c)e)= m 2 (say)

If angle between the focal distance SP and tangent at P is , then

tan = (m2-m1)/(1+m2 m1).

(a2 (2/c)+b2 x'2+ aeb2 x' (2/c))/((a2 x'+a3 e(2/c)-b2 x')(2/c))

point (x',(2/c)) lies on ellipse (1), we have

b2 x'2 + a2(2/c)=(2a2 b2)/c

and . a2 - b2 = a2 e2 so we have

(-(2a2 b2)/c + aeb2 x' (2/c))/((a2 e2 x'+a2 e(2/c)) (2/c)) = ((2/c) ab2 ((2/c)

.. = tan-1 b2/ae. Hence proved.

Example 3:

If P, Q, R are three points on the ellipsex2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1 whose eccentric angles are , and

then find the area of PQR.

Solution:

The coordinates of the gives points P, Q, R on the ellipse x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1, will be (a cos , b

sin ), (a cos , b sin ) and (a cos , b sin ). Area of triangle PQR formed by these points

= 1/2 [x1y2 - x2y1 + x2y3 - x3y2 + x3y1 - x1y3]

= 1/2 [ab cos sin - ab sin cos + ab cos sin - ab sin cos + ab in cos - ab

cos sin ]

= 1/2 ab [2 sin(-)/2 cos (-)/2 + 2 sin (-)/2 cos (-)/2 + 2 sin (-)/2 cos (-)/2]

= ab sin(-)/2 (cos(++2)/2 cos(-)/2)

= 2ab sin (-)/2 cos (-)/2 cos (-)/2.

Example 4:

Find the locus of the extremities of the latus recta of all ellipses having a given major axis

6a.

Solution:

Let LSI be the latus rectum, C be the centre of the ellipse and the coordinates of L be (x, y)

then x = CS = 3 ae

...... (1)

And y = SL = b2/3a =(9a2(1-e2))/3a = 3a (1 - e2)

...... (2)

Eliminating the variable 'e' from (1) and (2) we get eh locus of L.

Hence putting the value of e from (1) and (2), we get

y = 3a(1-x2/9a2)

=> x2 = 9a2 - 3ay

=> x2 = 3a(3a - y), which is clearly a parabola. Similarly we can show that the locus of L' is

x2 = 3ay(y + 3a) which is again a parabola.

Example 5:

Find the equation of the normals at the end of the latus rectum of the ellipsex2/a2 +y2/b2 =

c2 and find the condition when each normal through one end of the minor axis.

Solution:

The ellipse x2/a2 + y2/b2 = c2

=> x2/(a2 c2+y2/(b2 c2) = 1

...... (1)

The normal at this point will be

(x-ace)/(ace/(a2 c2)) = (y-b2 c/a)/((b2 c/a)/(b2 c2))

=> ((x-ace))/e ac = (y-(b2 c)/a) ac

=> (x-ace)/e = y-(b2 c)/a

If this normal passes through (0, - bc), then, we have

(-ace)/e = -bc-b2/a c

=> a = b + a(1 - e2)

=> b - ae2 = 0

=> b/1-e2 => b2/a2 = e4

=> e4 + e2 = 1. This is required condition.

Example 6:

The circle x2 + y2 = 4 is concentric with the ellipse x2/7 + y2/3 = 1; prove that the

common tangent is inclined to the major axis at an angle 30o and find its length.

Solution:

The ellipse x2/7+y2/3=1

...... (1)

x2 + y2 = 4

...... (2)

i.e. y = mx + (7m2+3)

...... (3)

is always the tangent on the ellipse. If this is also a tangent on the circle (2) then length

of perpendicular from the centre (0, 0) on the line (1) must be equal to radius of circle i.e. 2.

Hence, (7m2+3)/(1+m2) = 2

=> 7m2 + 3 = 22 (1 + m2)

=> 7m2 - 4m2 = 4 - 3

=> m2 = 1/3

=> m = + 1/3

Hence the common tangent to the two curves is inclined at an angle of tan -1 (+1/3) i.e.

30o to the axis.

Note:

We can also prove the above result by using the fact that the line = mx + (7m 2+3) will

be tangent to x2 + y2 = 4 if discriminent of x2 + (m + (7m2+3))2 = 4 is zero.

Let P and Q be the points of contact of the common tangent with ellipse and circle

respectively and O be the common centre of the two, then PQ = (OP 2-OQ2)[ CPQ = 90o]

The coordinates of P are [(-a2m)/(a2 m2 + b2), b2/(a2 m2 + b2)]

i.e. [(-7/3)/(16/3),3/(16/3)]

i.e.[(-7)/4,(33)/4]

and coordinate of O are (0, 0)

So, OP = (((-7)/4)2+ ((33)/4)2) = (19/4)

As OQ = r = 2

.. PQ = (OP2-OQ2 ) = (19/4-4) = 3/2

Example 7:

If q be the angle between CP and normal at point P, on the ellipse a2 x2 + b2 y2 = 1, then

find out tan and prove that its greatest value is (b2-a2)/2ab. C is centre of ellipse and P is

any point on ellipse.

Solution:

The equation of the ellipse be

x2/(1/a2)+y2/(1/b2) = 1

..... (1)

If be the angle between the normal at P = (1/a cos ,1/b sin and PC where C is the

centre of the ellipse given by (1) equation to the normal PG is

x/a sec - y/b cosec = 1/a2 -1/b2

=> bx sec - ay cosec = (b2 - a2)/ab

Its slope = (b sec )/(a cosec ) = b/a tan = m 1 (say)

The slope of PC = (1/b sin )/(1/a cos ) = a/b tan = m2 (say)

tan = (m1-m2)/(1+m1 m2) = (a/b tan -a/b tan )/(1+(b/a) tan (a/b) tan ) = ((b 2-a2 )tan

)/ab(1-tan2 )

(b2-a2)/2ab.(2tan)/(1-tan2 )

tan = (b2 - a2)/2ab sin 2

The value of tan will be maximum when sin 2 is maximum, sin 2 is maximum i.e. sin 2

is 1. Therefore the greatest value of tan is (b2-a2)/2ab.

Example 9:

Find the locus of the point of intersection of the two straight lines (x tan )/a - y/b + tan x =

0 and x/a+(y tan )/b where a is fixed angle. Also find the eccentric angle of the point of

intersection.

Solution:

Equation of the lines are given as

(x tan )/a-y/b + tan = 0

...... (1)

...... (2)

To find the locus of the point of intersection, we have to eliminate the variable 'tan a' from

(1) and (2), so by (2),

y/b=1/(tan ) (1-x/a) and by (1)

y/b = tan (1+x/a)

Multiplying we get

y/b)2-(1-x/a)(1+x/a)

=> x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1

This is the equation of an ellipse

Again solving (1) and (2), we get

x = a(1-tan2 )/((1+tan2 ))

x = a(1-tan2 )/(sec2 )

Let the abscissa of the point of intersection be a cos f, then

x = a cos = a(1-tan2)/(sec2 )

=> cos = (1-tan2 )/(sec2 )

=> (1-cos )/(1+cos )=(sec2 -(1-tan2))/(sec2 +(1-tan2 ) )

(By components & dividendo)

= (2 tan2 )/2 = tan2

=> (2 sin2/2)/(2 cos2 ) = tan2

=> tan2 /2 = tan2

=> tan /2 = tan

Hence = 2

Example 10:

If TP and TQ are perpendiculars upon the axes from any point T on the ellipsex2/a2+ y2/b2 =

4. Prove that PQ is always normal to fixed concentric ellipse.

Solution:

The ellipse is given by x2/(4a2 )+ y2/(4b2 ) = 1

...... (1)

x-axis and y-axis respectively, the co-ordinates of P and Q will be (2a cos f, 0) and (0, 2b sin

f) respectively.

Now equation to PQ is

y - 0 = (2b sin -0)/(0-2a cos )(x - 2a cos )

=> x/a sec + y/b cosec = 2

...... (2)

Now equation to the normal at point (A cos , B sin ) with respect to any other

concentric ellipse

x2/A2 +y2/B2 = 1 is

Ax sec - By cosec = A2 - B2

...... (3)

A/(12a)+B/(12b) = A2 - B2

...... (4)

B = (2a2b)/(a2-b2) and A = (-2 ab2)/(a2-b2 )

So the line (2) i.e. x/2a sec + y/2 cosec = 1 is a normal to the fixed ellipsex2/A2 +y2/B2.

Where A = (-ab2)/(a2-b2)and B =(a2 b)/(a2-b2).

Example 11:

If the straight line y = 2x + 2 meet the ellipse 2x2 + 3y2 - 6, prove that equation to the

circle, described on the line joining the points of intersection as diameters, is 7x 2+ 7y2 + 12x

- 4y - 5 = 0.

Solution:

The line is given as

y = 2x + 2

...... (1)

x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1

Solving (1) and (2), we gets

x2/3+(2x+2)2/2 = 1

=> x2/3 + 2(x2 + 2x + 1) = 1

=> 7x2 + 12x + 6 = 3

=> 7x2 + 12x + 6 = 3

...... (2)

x1 + x2 = -12/7

and x1x2 = 3/7

...... (3)

...... (4)

Let y1 and y2 be the corresponding ordinates for the abscissa x1 and x2; so the co-ordinates

of the points of intersection will be (x1, y1) and (x2, y2). As these lie on line

y = 2(x + 1)

We have y1 = 2(x1 + 1) and y2 = 2(x2 + 1)

Where y1 + y2 = 2(x1 + x2) + 4

y1y2 = 4(x1 + 1) (x2 + 1)

...... (5)

...... (6)

The equation to the circle drawn with the line joining (x1, y1) and

(x2, y2) as diameter is

(x - x1) (x - x2) + (y - y1) (y - y2) = 0

=> x2 + y2 - x(x1 + x2) - y(y1 + y2) + x1x2 + y1y2 = 0

=> x2 + y2 - x(x1 + x2) y[2(x1 + x2) + 4] + x1x2 +......+ 4[x1x2 + (x1 + x2) + 1] = 0

(By (5) and (6))

Putting the values from (3) and (4)

x2 + y2 - x (-12/7) - y[2(-12/7)+4] + 3/7 + 4[3/7+(-12/7)+1] = 0

= 7x2 + 7y2 + 12x - 4y - 5 = 0. Hence proved.

Example 12:

If the product of the perpendiculars from the foci upon the polar of P be constant and equal

to c2. Find the locus of P.

Solution:

Suppose the equation to the ellipse x2/a2 + y2/b2 = 1. The co-ordinate of foci are (ae, 0) and

(-ae, 0).

Let the co-ordinates of P be (h, k). Then polar of P is

xh/a2 +yk/b2 = 1

Or b2xh + a2yk - a2b2 = 0

...... (1)

If P1 and P2 be the lengths of the perpendiculars on the line (1) from (ae, 0) respectively are

P1 = (b2 hae-a2 b2)/(b2 h2 + a4 k2)

And P2 = (-a2 b2-b2 hea)/(b2 h2+a4 x2)

.. P1P2 = (-b2 h2 a2 e2+a4 b4)/(b4 h2+a4) = c2 (By hypothesis)

=> a4b4 - b4h4a2e2 = c2b4h2 - c2a4k2

=> b4h2 (c2 + a2e2) + c2a4k2 = a4b4

Generalizing the locus of the point P(h, x) is

b4 x2 (c2 + a2 e2) + c2 a4 y2 = a4 b4

Example 13:

Chords of ellipse x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1 always touch another concentric ellipse x2/2+ y2/2 =

1, show that the locus of their poles is ( 2 x2)/a2 + (2 y2)/b2 = 1.

Solution:

Let (x1, y1) be the pole of a chord of the ellipse

x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1

...... (1)

Then the equation of this cord is the same as the polar of (x 1, y1) with respect to (1)

i.e. xx1/a2 + yy1/b2 = 1

If (2) touches the ellipse x2/2 + y2/2 = 1, then

(b2/y1)2 = 2{-{b2x1/a2y1}}2 + 2

=> b4/y21 = (2b4x21/a4y21) + 2

=> (2 x12)/a4 +(2 y12)/b4 = 1

.. The locus of (x1, y1) is (2 x2)/a2 +(2 y2)/b4 = 1

Hence proved.

Example 14:

...... (2)

If the straight line y = x tan + ((a2 tan2 +b2)/2), being the angle of inclination,

intersects the ellipse x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1. Then prove that the straight lines joining the centre to

their point of intersection are conjugate diameters.

Solution:

The equation of the ellipse be

x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1

...... (1)

y = x tan + ((a2 tan2 +b2)/2), being angle of inclination.

We can write this equation as,

y = mx + ((a2 m2 +b2)/2)

=> ((y-mx)/2)/(a2 m2 + b2 ) = 1

...... (2)

To get the equation to the lines joining the point of intersection to the origin, making (1)

homogeneous with the help of (2), we have

x2/a2 + y2/b2 = [((y-mx)/2)/(a2 m2 + b2 )]2

= 2((y2 + m2 x2 - 2mxy))/(a2 m2 + b2)

=> (b2 x2 + a2 y2) (a2m2 + b2) = 2a2 b2(y2 + m2x2 - 2mxy)

y2 a2(a2m2 - b2) + 4m2 - b2xy - b2x2 (a2m2 - b2) = 0

=> y2 + (4 mb2)/((a2 m2+b2)) xy -b2/a2 x2 = 0

...... (3)

This equation represents two straight lines y = m1x and y = m2x then the combined equation

will be y2 - (m1 + m2)xy + m1m2x2 = 0.

Comparing (3) and (4); we get

m1m2 = -b2/a2

which is the condition of diameter to be conjugate. Hence the lines are the conjugate

diameters.

Example 15:

The eccentric angles of two points P and Q on the ellipse 1, 2. Find the area of the

parallelogram formed by the tangents at the ends of diameters through P and Q.

Solution:

The ellipse is

x2/a2 +y2/b2 = 1

Equation to the tangent at the points P and Q are

x/a cos 1 + y/b sin 1 = 1

...... (1)

...... (2)

and

Solving (1) and (2), we will have the coordinates of the point of intersection. Multiplying (1)

by sin 2 and (2) by sin 1 and subtracting, we get

x/a (sin 2 cos 1 - cos 2 sin 1) = sin 2 - sin 1

=> x/a sin (2 - 1) = 2 sin (2 - 1)/2cos (2 + 1)/2

.. x = a (cos((1 - 2)/2))/(cos(1 - 2)/2); y = b (sin(1 + 2)/2)/(cos (1 - 2)/2)

Above are co-ordinates of the point of intersection L of tangents at p and Q, i.e. at 1 and 2.

Putting 1 = p + 1 in above we get the co-ordinates of the point of intersection M of

tangent at Q and P' as

= 4 . 1/2 (x1 y1 - x2 y2)

= 2 ab/(sin (1 - 2)/2 cos (1 - 2)/2) [ - cos2 (1 + 2)/2-sin (1 + 2)/2]

= (-4ab)/(sin(1 - 2))

= - 4ab cosec (1 - 2) Area can't be (-) ve

So the area = 4ab cosec (1 - 2)

Hyperbola

We have studied earlier about parabolas and ellipses as two conic sections. In this chapter we will

study another conic section called hyperbola which can be obtained by cutting a right circular come

at both the nappe by a plane. Thus it has two branches, one on each nappe.

Hyperbola is the locus of a point which moves in a plane such that it distance from a fixed point is

e(>1) times its distance from a fixed straight line. It is symmetrical about two axes and one branch

is the reflection of other about one of the axes. Since, we have studied ellipse in the previous

chapter, it will be easier to understand this chapter. We will give you a proportion by which you can

easily get the formulae for hyperbola if you know the formulae for ellipse.

Most of the properties of hyperbola are similar to those of the ellipse. We will introduce the

concept of asymptotes. You will also learn about rectangular hyperbolas and conjugate hyperbola.

The rectangular hyperbola can be very simply represented in a parametric form. It is advisable

that this fact should always be kept in the fore while solving problems on and related to rectangular

hyperbola.

Wishing you All the Best for the preparation Hyperbola with askIITians.com.

Topics Covered:

Basic Concepts of Hyperbola

Relation between Focal Distances

Parametric Coordinates

Important Properties of Hyperbola

Examples Based on Hyperbola

Ellipse Vs Hyperbola

Propositions of a Hyperbola

Examples on Propositions of a Hyperbola

Rectangular hyperbola

Intersection of a Circle and a Rectangular Hyperbola

Conjugate hyperbola

Examples on finding locus of point

Solved Examples on Hyperbola Part-I

Solved Examples of Hyperbola (Part-II)

Basic Concepts

As we have studied earlier that by slicing a cone with a plane in different orientations, we

obtain conic sections. The hyperbola is obtained by cutting a right circular cone at both the

nappes by a plane. The hyperbola is to be thought of a single curve consisting of two

branches, one on each nappe.

Definitions

A hyperbola is the locus of a point which moves in a plane such that its distance from a fixed

point (called the focus) is e ( >1) times its distance from a fixed straight line (called the

directrix).

The hyperbola is a conic section for which the eccentricity (e) is greater than unity.

Standard Equation

Let S be the focus and ZM the directrix of a hyperbola.

Since e > 1, we can divide SZ internally and externally in the ratio e : 1; let the points of

division be A and A as in the figure. Let AA = 2a and be bisected at C. Then, SA = e.AZ, SA

= e.ZA

SA + SA = e(AZ + ZA) = 2ae

i.e., 2SC = 2ae or SC = ae.

Similarly by subtraction, SA SA

= e(ZA ZA) = 2e.ZC 2a = 2eSC SC = a/e.

Now, take C as the origin, CS as the x-axis, and the perpendicular line CY as the y-axis. Then,

S is the point (ae, 0) and ZM the line x = a/e. Let P(x, y) be any point on the hyperbola. Then

the

condition

PS2 = e2.(distance of P from ZM) 2 gives (x ae)2 + y2 = e2 (x a/e)2 or x2(1 e)2+ y2 = a2(1

e 2)

i.e. x2/a2 y2/a2(e21) = 1.

(i)

Since e > 1, e2 1 is positive. Let a 2 (e2 1) = b2. Then the equation (i) becomes x2/a2

y2/a2 = 1.

The eccentricity e of the hyperbola x2/a2 y2/a2 = 1 is given by the relation e2 = (1 + b2/a2).

Since the curve is symmetrical about the y-axis, it is clear that there exists another focus S

at (ae, 0) and a corresponding directrix ZM with the equation x = a/e, such that the same

hyperbola is described if a point moves so that its distance from S is e times its distance

from ZM.

The points A and A where the straight line joining the two foci cuts the hyperbola are

called the vertices of the hyperbola.

The straight line joining the vertices is called the transverse axis of the hyperbola, its

length AA is 2a.

The middle point C of AA possesses the property that it bisects every chord of the

hyperbola passing through it. It can be proved by taking P(x 1, y1) as any point on the

hyperbola. If (x1, y1) lies on the hyperbola then so does P(x 1, y1) because the hyperbola is

symmetrical about the x and the y axes. Therefore PP is a chord whose middle point (0, 0),

i.e. the origin C. On account of this property the middle point of the straight line joining the

vertices of the hyperbola is called the centre of the hyperbola.

The straight line through the centre of a hyperbola which is perpendicular to the

transverse axis does not meet the hyperbola in real points. If B and B be the points on this

line such that BC=CB=b, the line BB is called the conjugate axis.

A latus rectum is the chord through a focus at right angle to the transverse axis.

The length of the semi-latus rectum can be obtained by putting x = ae in the equation of

the hyperbola. Thus y = b a2e2/a21 = be21 = b.b/a = b2/a.

Foci and Directrices:

Since the curve is symmetrical about x-axis, therefore there exists another focus at point

(ae, 0) of the hyperbola. (Similar to ellipse).

Corresponding to these foci, there are two directrices whose equations are x = a/e and x =

a/e.

The difference of the focal distances of a point on the hyperbola is constant. PM and PM are

perpendiculars to the directrices MZ and MZ and PS PS = e(PM PM) = eMM = e(2a/e)

= 2a = constant.

A hyperbola can be defined in another way; Locus of a moving point such that the difference

of its distances from two fixed points is constant, would be a hyperbola.

Transverse and Conjugate axes:

The points A(a, 0) & A(a, 0) are called the vertices of the hyperbola and the line AA joining

the vertices is called the transverse axis and the line perpendicular to it, through the centre

(0, 0) of the hyperbola is called conjugate axis.

Centre:

Any chord of the hyperbola through C will be bisected at C (by symmetry), therefore C is

called the centre of hyperbola.

Thus hyperbola is a central curve.

Latus rectum:

The chord of a hyperbola through one of the foci and at right angle to the transverse axis is

called the latus rectum:

If 2l be the length of the latus rectum, then the co-ordinates of one of its extremities is (ae,

l).

The point (ae, l) lies on the hyperbola x2/a2 y2/b2, so we have

e2 (l2/b2) = 1

l2 = b2(e21) = b2a2(e21)/a2 = b4/a2 (? b2 = a2(e2 1)

l = b2/a2

The length of the latus rectum = 2 b2/a2

Relative Position of a Point with respect to the Hyperbola

The quantity x12/a2 y12/b2 = 1 is positive, zero or negative, according as the point (x1, y1)

lies within, upon or without the curve.

Parametric Coordinates

We can express the coordinate of a point of the hyperbola x 2/a2 y2/b2 = 1 in terms of a

single parameter, say .

In the adjacent figure OM = a sec and PM = b tan . Thus any point on the curve, in

parametric form is x = a secq, y = b tan.

In other words, (a sec , b tan ) is a point on the hyperbola for all values of . The point (a

sec, b tan) is briefly called the point .

Since the fundamental equation of the hyperbola only differs from that of the ellipse in

having b2 instead of b2, it will be found that many propositions for the hyperbola are derived

from those for the ellipse by changing sign of b 2. Some results for the hyperbola x 2/a2y2/b2 =

1 are

The tangent at any point (x1, y1) on the curve is xx1/a2 yy1/b2 = 1.

The tangent at point is x sec/a y tan/b = 1.

The straight line y = mx + c is a tangent to the curve, if c 2 = a2 m2 b2. In other words, y =

mx + a2m2b2 touches the curve for all those values of m when m > b/a or m < b/a.

Equation of the normal at any point (x1, y1) to the curve is xx1/x1/a2 = yy1/y1(b)2.

The

equation

of

the

chord

through

the

points 1 and 2 is

The equation of the normal at is ax cos + by cot = a2 + b2.

Through a given point, four normals (real or imaginary) can be drawn to a hyperbola.

The tangent drawn at any point bisects the angle between the lines, joining the point to

the foci, whereas the normal bisects the supplementary angle between the lines.

Equation of the director circle is x 2 + y2 = a2 b2. That means if a2 > b2, there would exist

several points such that tangents drawn from them would be mutually perpendicular. If a 2 <

b2, no such point exist. For a2 = b2, centre is the only point from which two perpendicular

tangents (asymptotes) to the hyperbola can be drawn.

From any point (x1, y1) in general two tangents can be drawn to hyperbola. The equation of

the pair of tangents is

(x1/a2 y2/b2 1) (x12/a2 y12/b2 1) (xx1/a2 yy1/b2 1)2 or SS1 = T2

The equation of the chord of contact is xx1/a2 yy1/b2 1 = 0 or T = 0.

The equation of the chord bisected at the point (x1, y1) is

xx1/a2 yy1/b2 1 = x12/a2 y12/b2 1 or T = S1.

Equation of the chord the points (a sec , b tan ) and (a sec ?, b tan ?) is

x/a cos ?/2 y/b sin +?/2 = cos +?/2.

Illustration:

Find the equation of the hyperbola whose directrix is 2x + y = 1, focus is (1,

1) and eccentricity is 3.

Solution:

Let S(1, 1) be focus and P(x, y) be any point on the hyperbola. From P draw

PM perpendicular to the directrix then PM =2x+y1/22+12 = 2x+y1/5

Also from the definition of the hyperbola, we have

SP/PM = e SP = ePM

(x1)2+(y1)2 = 3 (2x+y1/5)

(x 1)2 + (y 1)2 = 3 (2x+y1)2/5

5[(x2+12x)+(y2 + 1 2y)]=3(4x2 + y2 + 1 + 4xy 4x 2y)

7x2 2y2 + 12xy 2x 4y 7 = 0

Illustration:

Find the directrix, foci and eccentricity of the hyperbola

ax2 y2 = 1

Solution:

The given hyperbola is

ax2 y2 = 1

or

x2/(1/a) y2/1 = 1

(1)

Here a2 = 1/a, b2 = 1

If e be the eccentricity of the hyperbola, then

b2 = a2(e2 1)

1 = (e2 1)

a = (e2 1)

or e2 = a + 1 or e =a+1

Also the foci are given by (+ ae, 0)

The required foci are

(+ 1/a (a+1), 0)

or (+ a+1/a, 0)

And the directricies are given by x = + (a/e)

x = + [1/a/a+1]

x = + 1/a(a+1)

Illustration:

(? a = 1/a, e = 1/a+1)

Find the locus of a point, the difference of whose distances from two fixed

points is constant.

Solution:

Let two fixed points be S (ae, 0) and S (ae, 0). Let P(x, y) be a moving point

such that

SP SP = Constant = 2a (say).

Then [(xae)2 + (y0)2] [x+ae]2+(y0)2 = 2a

[(xae)2+y2] = + 2a + [(x+ae)2+y2

(x ae)2 + y2 = 4a2 + (x + a2)2 + y2 + 4a [(xae)2+y2]

(x ae)2 (x + ae)2 4a2 = + 4a [(xae)2+y2]

4aex 4a2 = + 4a [(xae)2+y2]

(ex + a)2 = (x + ae)2 + y2

(e2 1)x2 y2 = a2(e2 1)

x2/a2y2/b2 = 1 taking b2 = a2(e2 1)

This is a hyperbola.

Illustration:

If A, B, C are three points on the hyperbola xy = c2 and AC is perpendicular to

BC, prove that AB is parallel to the normal to the curve at C.

Solution:

Let the three points A, B, C respectively be (ct1, c/t1), (ct2, c/t2) and (ct3, c/t3).

Since AC is perpendicular to BC,

(c/t3c/t1/ct3ct1) = 1 t1t2 = 1

(1)

y = xt32 + 2/t3 (1t34) and its slope is t32 = 1/t1t2

(2)

AB is parallel to the normal at C.

Illustration:

Find the equation of the hyperbola the distance between whose foci is 16,

whose eccentricity is 2 and whose axis is along the x-axis centre being the

origin.

Solution:

We have b2 = a2(e2 1) = a2 b = a.

Also 2ae = 16 ae = 8 a = 42.

Hence the equation of the required hyperbola is

x2/32 y2/32 = 1 x2 y2 = 32.

Illustration:

The perpendiculars drawn from the centre of a hyperbola x2/a2 y2/b2 = 1

upon the tangent and normal at any point of the hyperbola meet them in Q

and R. Find the locus of Q and R.

Solution:

Tangent at any point P(a sec , b tan ) is sec y/b tan = 1. (1)

Equation of the line through centre (origin) perpendicular to (1) is y = a

sin /b x

sin = by/ax

Eliminating from (1), we get x/a cos y/b cos (by/ax) = 1.

x2 + y2 = ax cos (x2 + y2)2 = a2x2(1 b2y2/a2x2)

Or (x2 + y2)2= a2x2 b2y2, which is the locus of Q.

Normal at the point P (a sec , b tan ) is ax cos + by

cot = a2 + b2

(2)

y = bx/a sin

(3)

sin = bx/ay and ax 1b2y2/a2x2 + by 1b2x2/a2y2 . ay/bx = a2 + b2

(x2 + y2)2 (a2y2 b2x2) = (a2 + b2)2 x2y2, which is the locus of R.

Ellipse Vs Hyperbola

Enquiry: How do we get formulae for hyperbola if we know the

formulae for ellipse?

Most of the results obtained in the case of the ellipse x 2/a2 y2/b2 = 1 hold

good for the hyperbola x2/a2 y2/b2 = 1, when only the sign of b 2 is changed.

The proofs of these results can be derived exactly in the same manner as

they were derived for ellipse. So let us see some final results.

1. Tangent at (x1, y1) to the hyperbola x2/a2 y2/b2 = 1 is xx1/a2 yy1/b2= 1 i.e.

T = 0.

2. Equation of tangent in terms of m is y = mx + (a2m2b2).

3. Equation of the normal at (x 1, y1) to the hyperbola is xx 1/(x1/a2)yy1/

(y1/b2).

4. Equation of pair of tangents drawn from point (x 1, y1) to the

hyperbolax2/a2 y2/b2 = 1 is given by SS1 = T2

Where S = x2/a2 y2/b2 = 1

S1 = x12/a2 y12/b2 = 1

T = xx1/a2 yy1/b2 = 1

5. The Chord of Contact of tangents from (x 1, y1) to the hyperbola x2/a2

y2/b2 = 1 is given by T = 0 i.e. xx1/a2 yy1/b2 = 1.

6. The Polar of Pole (x1, y1) to the hyperbola x2/a2 y2/b2 = 1 is given by T = 0

i.e. xx1/a2 yy1/b2 = 1.

(x1, y1) is given by T = S1 i.e. x12/a2 y12/b2 = xx1/a2 yy1/b2 = 1.

Pause:

Try to get above results yourself using traditional methods similar to the

ellipse.

Enquiry: Can we represent a hyperbola mathematically in form of one

parameter and is there any geometrical significance of that parameter like

eccentric angle in case of ellipse?

Yes. Before that let us understand the concept of the auxiliary circle of a

hyperbola. The circle described on the transverse axis of hyperbola as its

diameter is called its auxiliary circle.

We know that the line AA joining the vertices A(a, 0) and A(a, 0) of the

hyperbola x2/a2 y2/b2 = 1 is called the transverse axis.

The equation of the auxiliary circle, described on AA as diameter, is

(x a) [x (a)] + (y 0)] + (y 0)(y 0) = 0

or

x2 + y2 = a2

Now let us draw the foot N of any ordinate NP of the hyperbola draw a

tangent NU to this circle, and join CU. The

CU = CN cos NCU

i.e.

x = CN = a sec NCU

Also NU = CU tan ? = a tan ?

So that NP : NU = b : a

So the ordinate of the hyperbola is therefore in a constant ratio to the length

of the tangent drawn from its foot to the auxiliary circle.

When it is desirable to express the co-ordiantes of any point of the curve in

terms of one parameter than we use

x = a sec ?, and y = b tan ?

Note:

This angle ? is not so important an angle for the hyperbolas the eccentric

angle is for the ellipse.

Propositions of a Hyperbola:

Diameter of a hyperbola

The locus of the middle point of a system of parallel chords of a hyperbola is

called its diameter.

The equation of the diameter is y = b2x/(a2m), where m is the slope of the

system of parallel chords.

Note:

Conjugate Diameters:

Two diameters of a hyperbola which bisect chords parallel to each other are

called conjugate diameters.

The diameters y = mx and y = m1x of the hyperbola x2/a2 y2/b2 = 1 are

conjugate if mm1 = b2/a2.

Director circle of a hyperbola

The director circle is the locus of the point of intersection of a pair of

perpendicular tangents to a hyperbola.

Equation of the director circle of the hyperbola x2/a2 y2/b2 = 1 is x2 + y2 =

a2 b2 i.e. a circle whose centre is origin and radius is (a2b2).

Note:

If b2 = a2, the radius of the circle is zero, and it reduces to a point circle at

the origin. In this case the centre is only point from where tangents at right

angle can be drawn to the hyperbola.

If b2 > a2, the radius of the circle is imaginary, so that there is no such circle,

and so no tangents at right angles can be drawn to the circles.

Asymptote

A line, which is tangent to the hyperbola at infinity, but which is not itself at

infinity, is called the asymptote of the curve.

To find the equation of the asymptotes of the hyperbola x2/a2 y2/b2 = 1.

Let y = mx + c be an asymptotic to the given hyperbola. Then eliminating y,

the abscissas of the points of intersection of y = mx + c

or x2(b2 a2m2) 2a2mcx a2(b2 + c2) = 0

(1)

hyperbola at infinity i.e. both the roots of the equation (1) are infinite and for

this we must have b2 a2m2 = 0 and 2a2mc = 0. Hence we get m = + (b/a)

and c = 0.

The asymptotes are y = + (b/a) x

Or x2/a2 + y2/b2 =

0which shows that the equation of the asymptote differs from that of the

hyperbola in the constant term only. Also the angle between the asymptotes

is 2 tan1 (b/a).

The lines x2/a2+y2/b2=0 are also asymptotes to the conjugate hyperbolax 2/a2

y2/b2=1.

Remarks:

The equation of the hyperbola and that of its pair of asymptotes differ by a

constant. For example, if S = 0 is the equation of the hyperbola, then the

combined equation of the asymptotes is given by S + K = 0. The constant K

is obtained from the condition that the equation S + K = 0 represents a pair

of lines. Finally the equation of the corresponding conjugate hyperbola is S +

2K = 0.

Any line drawn parallel to the asymptote of the hyperbola would meet the

curve only at one point.

Illustration:

Find the hyperbola whose asymptotes are 2x y = 3 and 3x + y 7 = 0 and

which passes through the point (1, 1).

Solution:

The equation of the hyperbola differs from the equation of the asymptotes by

a constant.

The equation of the hyperbola with asymptotes 3x + y 7 = 0 and 2x y

= 3 is (3x + y 7) (2x y 3) + k = 0. It passes through

(1, 1) k = 6.

Hence the equation of the hyperbola is (2x y 3)(3x + y 7) = 6.

Illustration:

Find the angle between the asymptotes of the hyperbola x 2/a2y2/b2 = 1, then

length of whose latus rectum is 4/3 and which passes through the point (4,

2).

Solution:

Also, the hyperbola passes through the point (4, 2).

Hence 16/a2 4/b2 = 1 16/a2 6/a = 1

Or a2 + 6a 16 = 0 (a 2)(a + 8) = 0 a = 2 b2 = 4/3.

The asymptotes of the given hyperbola are y = + b/a x or y + 1/3 x.

If 1 and 2 are the angles which the asymptotes make with the positive xaxis, then

tan 1 = 1 = /6 and tan 2 = 1/3 2 = /6.

Hence the angle between the asymptotes = /3.

Illustration:

Prove that the chords of the hyperbola x2/a2y2/b2 = 1, which touch its

conjugate hyperbola are bisected at the point of contact.

Solution:

Let P(x1, y1) be the mid-point of the chord of the given hyperbola, so that the

equation of the chords is xx1/a2yy1/b2 = x12/a2y12/b2.

(1)

x2/a21/b2 [xx1/a2x12/a2+y12/b2]2.b4/y12 +

Simplifying, we find that

will

have

equal

roots.

roots so that

4x12/a2 [x12/b2y12/a2]+4[y12/b2x12/a2][[y12/b2x12/a2]2y12/b2]= 0

or, x12/a2 [x12/a2y12/b2][x12/a2y12/b2]2 +

x12/a2+y12/b2)+y12/b2= 0

y12/b2 =

0 or (x12/a2y12/b2)(x12/a2

Hence the chord (1) touches the conjugate hyperbola at its midpoint (x1, y1).

Alternative solution:

x = my + b2m2a2.

(2)

a4/x12 [x12/a2 y12/b2]2 = b2m2 a2 = b2a4y12/b4x12 a2

Or [x12/a2 y12/b2]2 = y12/b2 x12/a2 or x12/a2 y12/b2 = 1

(x1, y1) lies on the conjugate hyperbola.

the chord (1) touches conjugate hyperbola and is bisected at the point of

contact.

Rectangular hyperbola

If the asymptotes of a hyperbola are at right angles to each other, it is called

a rectangular hyperbola.

rectangular hyperbola. The angle between asymptotes of the hyperbola

x2/a2 y2/b2 = 1, is 2 tan1 (b/a).

This is a right angle if tan1 b/a = /4, i.e., if b/a = 1 b = a.

The equation of the rectangular hyperbola referred to its transverse and

conjugate axes as axes of coordinates is therefore:

x2 y2 = a2.

(1)

we rotate the axes of reference through 45o. Thus we have to write

x/2 + y/2 for x and x/2 + y2 for y.

The equation (i) becomes

(1/2) (x + y)2 (1/2)(x y)2 = a2 i.e. xy = a2 or xy = c2 where c2 = a2/2.

Equation:

x2/a2 y2/b2 = 1

are given by y = + (b/a) x

(1)

(2)

= tan1 (m1m2/1+m1m2) = tan1 ((b/a)(b/a)/1+(b/ab/a))

tan1 (2(b/a)/1(b2/a2)) = 2 tan1 (b/a)

But if the hyperbola is rectangular, then =/2

i.e., /2 = 2 tan1 (b/a)

or tan (/2) = b/a b = a

From (1) the equation of the rectangular hyperbola is x2 y2 = a2

It should be noted that:

(i)

In a hyperbola b2 = a2 (e2 1). In the case of rectangular hyperbola (i.e.,

when b = a) result become a2 = a2(e2 1) or e2 = 2 or e =2

i.e. the eccentricity of a rectangular hyperbola =2

(ii) In case of rectangular hyperbola a = b i.e., the length of transverse axis

= length of conjugate axis.

Hence it is also called an equilateral hyperbola.

Intersection

of

a

Circle

Rectangular Hyperbola

and

A rectangular hyperbola and a circle meet in four points. The mean of these

four points is the middle point of the centres of the hyperbola and that of the

circle.

Let the rectangular hyperbola be xy = c 2 and the equation of the circle be

x2 + y2 + 2gcp + 2fy + k = 0. Any point on the hyperbola is (cp, c/p). If it lies

on the circle, then c2p2 + c2/p2 + 2gcp + 2fc/p + k = 0.

c2p4 + 2gcp3 + kp2 + 2fcp + c2 = 0.

This is fourth degree equation in p, which has four roots. Hence the circle and

the hyperbola intersect in four points. If p 1, p2, p3, p4 are the roots of this

equation, then

p1 + p2 + p3 + p4 = 2gc/c2 = 2g/c cp1 + cp2 + cp3 + cp4 = 2g

x1+x2+x3+x4/4 = g/2

Also 1/p1 + 1/p2 + 1/p3 + 1/p4 = p1p2p3/p1p2p3p4 = 2fc/c2/c2/c2 = 2f/c

c/p1 + c/p2 + c/p3 + c/p4 = 2f y1+y2+y3+y4/4 = f/2.

Hence the mean of the four points is (g/2, f/2) which is the mid-point of the

centre of the hyperbola and that of the circle.

Illustration:

line AB passes through the centre of the circle, prove that the centre of the

hyperbola lies at the mid-point of CD.

Solution:

The line AB passes through the centre of the circle. Hence AB is the diameter

of the circle and the mid-point of AB is the centre of the circle. Let the coordinates of A, B, C, D be respectively (x 1, y1) (x2, y2), (x3, y3) and (x4, y4). Let

the centres of the hyperbola and the circle be (h, k) and (g, f).

Then x1+x2x3+x4/4 = h+g/2. But g = x1+x2/2

2g+x3/x4/4 h+g/2 x3+x4/2 = h

Similarly y3+y4/2 = k.

Hence (h, k) is the mid-point of CD.

Enquiry: As the asymptotes of a rectangular hyperbola are mutually

perpendicular, can we find the equation of a hyperbola whose asymptotes are

the co-ordinate axes?

Let transverse and conjugate axes as axes of co-ordinates (XOX and YOY in

the above figure), the equation of rectangular hyperbola is

X 2 Y2 = a2

(1)

angles to each other.

Let Ox and Oy be the asymptotes, each making as angle of /4 with the coordinate axes. Rotate the axes through as angle of /4 with the co-ordinate

axes. To find the equation of the rectangular hyperbola referred to

asymptotes as axes. We have to substitute for X and Y in (1) the xcos(/4)

ysin(/4) and ycos(/4) + xsin(/4) respectively.

So from (1) equation of the rectangular hyperbola referred to asymptotes as

axes is

(x+y/2)2 = (yx/2)2 = a2 xy = a2/2

xy = c2 where 2c2 = a2

The shape of the above rectangular hyperbola referred to asymptotes as coordinate axes is as shown is the adjacent figure.

Note:

1. Parametric co-ordinates of any point on the rectangular hyperbola xy =

c2 is (ct, c/t) where t is the parameter.

2. Equations of tangent and normal at any point (ct, c/t) on the rectangular

hyperbola xy = c2 are x + yt2 = 2ct and xt3 yt ct4 + c = 0 respectively.

Conjugate hyperbola

A hyperbola whose transverse and conjugate axes respectively are the

conjugate and transverse axes of a given hyperbola is called the conjugate

hyperbola of the given hyperbola. The asymptotes of these two hyperbolas

are also the same.

Equation of a conjugate hyperbola is x2/a2 y2/b2 = 1

of the given hyperbola x2/a2 y2/b2 = 1

(1)

Its transverse and conjugate axes are along y and x axes respectively.

Note:

2.The equation of the conjugate hyperbola to xy = c2 is xy = c2.

3.By comparing the equations of hyperbola x2/a2 y2/b2 = 1.

asymptotes x2/a2 y2/b2 = 0

and conjugate hyperbola x2/a2 y2/b2 = 1 we find that:

(a) The equation of the hyperbola and asymptotes differ by the same

constant by which the equations of the asymptotes and the conjugate

hyperbola differ.

(b) Hyperbola + Conjugate hyperbola = 2 (Asymptotes). (check yourself).

4.The tangents drawn at the points, where a pair of conjugate diameters

meets a hyperbola and its conjugates form a parallelogram, whose vertices

lie on the asymptotes and whose area is constant. (prove yourself).

5.If a pair of conjugate diameters of hyperbola meet the hyperbola and its

conjugate in P, P and D, D respectively, then the asymptotes bisect PD and

PD. (Prove yourself).

Illustration:

If e1 and e2 are the eccentricities of the hyperbola x2/a2 y2/b2 = 1 and its

conjugate hyperbola, prove that e12 + e22 = 1.

Solution:

b2 = a2(e12 1).

(1)

a2 = b2(e22 1).

(2)

1 = (e12 1)(e22 1) 0 = e12 e22 e12 e22

e12 + e22 = 1.

Example:

C is a centre of the hyperbola x2/a2y2/b2 = 1 and the tangent at any point P meets

asymptotes in the point Q and R. Find the equation to locus of the centre of the circle

circumscribing the triangle CQR.

Solution:

x2/a2y2/b2 = 1

(1)

Let P any point on it as (a sec ?, b tan ?), then the equation of tangent at P is

(2)

x/a = y/b

(3)

(4)

(acos?/1sin?, bcos?/1sin?)

(acos?/1+sin?, bcos?/1+sin?)

Let O be the centre of the circle passing through C, Q and R having its coordinates as (h,

k). Then clearly OC = OQ

h2 + k2 = (hacos?/1sin?)2 + (kbcos?/1sin?)2

h2 + k2 = (hacos?/1sin?)2 + (kbcos?/1sin?)2

(5)

Similarly OC = OR

(6)

to get the locus of the point O we have to eliminate f from (5) and (6), so multiplying the

two we get

Example:

A straight line is drawn parallel to the conjugate axis of a hyperbola meets it and the

conjugate hyperbola in the points P and Q. Find the locus of point of intersection of

tangents at P and Q.

Solution:

x2/a2y2/b2 = 1

(1)

y2/b2x2/a2 = 1

(2)

Let p be any point (a sec ?, b tan ?) on P. The equation of the line parallel to the

conjugate axis (1) i.e. y-axis passes through P will be

x = a sec ?

(3)

The line (3) will cut the conjugate hyperbola (2) at Q where x = a sec ? and hence y = b

(1+sec2?), therefore the coordinates of Q will be {asec?, b(1+sec 2?)}

or

(4)

(5)

Squaring we have,

Example:

From a point A, perpendiculars AB and AC are drawn to two straight lines OB and OC. If

the area OBAC is constant, find the locus of A.

Solution:

Let the bisectors of the angles BOC be taken as axis. So the equations of OB and OC are

respectively.

x cos + y sin = 0

AB = Perpendicular from A on OB

(1)

and similarly

AC = Perpendicular from A on C

= h cos k sin

(2)

(h x) sin + (y k) cos = 0

(3)

(h x) sin (y k) cos = 0

= 00+hcos+ksin/cos2+sin2

= h sin k cos

= h sin + k cos .

= 1/2 OB AB + 1/2 OC AC

= 1/2 [h sin kcos][h cos + k sin] + 1/2 [h cos k sin] [h sin + k cos]

Therefore the locus of the point (h, k) will be x2 y2 = a2, which is hyperbola.

Example:

Show that the line 4x 3y = 9 touches the hyperbola 4x2 9y2 = 27.

Solution:

then c2 = a2m2 b2

Here the hyperbola is

x2/(27/4)y2/(27/9) = 1

b2 = 27/9 = 3

m = 4/3,

c = 3

or a2m2 b2 = c2

Example:

Prove that the mid points of chords of the hyperbola x2/a2y2/b2 = 1 parallel

to the diameter y = mx lie on the diameter a2my = b2x

Solution:

The hyperbola is x2/a2y2/b2 = 1

(1)

y = mx is y = mx + c

(2)

x2/a2(mx+c)2/b2 = 1

x2(b2 a2m2) 2a2m cx a2(b2 + c2) = 0

b2x3 = a2my3

The locus of (x3, y3) is

b2x = a2my

Hence proved.

Example:

Prove that the angle subtended b any chord of a rectangular hyperbola at the

centre is the supplement of the angle between the tangents at the end of the

chord.

Solution:

points on it such that their coordinates are respectively (a sec ?1, a tan ?1)

and (a sec ?2, a tan ?2) and C be the centre of the hyperbola.

Equation of the line PC is y 0 = atan?10/asec?10 (x 0)

y = x sin ?1

(1)

(2)

tan = sin?1sin?2/1+sin?1sin?2

(3)

x a sec ?1 y a tan ?1 = a2

y = x/sin?1 acos?1/sin?1

(4)

y = x/sin?2 a cos?2/sin?2

If b be the angle between the tangents at f1 and f2, then

tan = 1/sin?2 1/sin?2/1+1/sin?1 1/sin?2 = sin?2sin?1/1+sin?1sin?2

= (sin?1sin?2)/1+(sin?1sin?2)

tan = tan

tan = tan ( )

(By (3))

Hence proved.

Example:

The normal to the hyperbola 16x 2 9y2 = 144 meets the axes in M and N. MP

and NP and are drawn at right angles to the axes. Find the locus of P.

Solution:

The equation to the hyperbola is

x2/a2 y2/b2 = 1

(1)

Let L be any point on it having the coordinates (3 sec ?, 4 tan ?) then the

equation to the normal at this point will be given by

3x sin ? + 4y = (9 + 16) tan ?

(2)

Let this normal cut the axis of x at M whose coordinates are (x, 0) and the

axis of y at N whose coordinates are (0, y) solving (2) with y = 0, we get

x = 9+16/3cos? = 25/3cos?

(3)

y = (9+16)tan?/4 = 25tan?/4

(4)

P = (x, y) will be clearly given by (3) and (4). The required locus of P will be

obtained by eliminating ? from (3) and (4).

Using the fact sec2 ? tan2 ? = 1, we get

9x2 16y2 = 625

Example:

Prove that a circle can be drawn through the foci of a hyperbola and the

points at which any tangent meets the tangents at the vertices of the

hyperbola.

Solution:

Recall:

If four points (x1, y1), (x2, y2), (x3, y3) and (x4, y4) are concyclic then

These points are (ae, 0), (ae, 0), (a, b tan ?/2) and (a, b cot f/2)

= (2ae)

= (2aeb) [(a2 e2 a2 b2) cot ?/2 + 9a2e2 b2 a2) tan ?/2] = 0

points S, S, R and Q are conclycic.

Example:

On a level plain the crack of the rifle and the thud of the ball striking the

target are heared at the same instant, prove that the locus of the hearer is a

hyperbola.

Solution:

Suppose A to be the target and B to be the firing point and let the hearer be

at a point P. If V1 and V2 be the velocity of the sound and bullet respectively,

then the time taken by the bullet in reaching from B to the target A =

BA/v2 and the time taken by the sound in reaching from A to P = AP/v1.

Again the time taken by the sound in reaching from B to P = BP/v1.

As by hypothesis the sound reaches the hearer at P, simultaneously, the time

taken by the sound to reach upto the position P from then target together

with the time taken by the bullet to reach the target must be same as the

time taken by the sound in reaching from the rifle upto P.

Hence BA/v2 + AP/v1 = BP/v1

BA/v2 = BP/v1 AP/v1 = 1/v1 (BP AP)

BP AP = v1/v2 AB

As v1, v2 and AB are constants, hence

BP AP = Constant

Therefore the locus of the point P is the hyperbola having foci at A and B and

transverse axis equal to v1/v2 AB

Example:

Prove that the locus of the pole of a chord of the hyperbola which subtends a

right angles at the vertex, is, x = a2b2/a2+b2.

Solution:

The coordinates of the vertex are (a, 0). Transferring the origin to this point,

the equation of the hyperbola x2/a2y2/b2 becomes;

(x+a)2/a2 y2/b2 = 1

x2/a2y2/b2 = 2x/a

b2x2 a2y2 = 2ab2x

(1)

b2hx a2hky = a2b2

(2)

or

(3)

The equation of the lines joining the points of intersection of the hyperbola

and the chord to the origin is obtained by making (1) homogeneous with the

help of (3). Hence on simplification, this equation becomes

(a2b2 ab2h) (b2x2 a2y2) = 2ab2x(b2xh a2yk)

If they are at right angles, the sum of the coefficients of x2 and y2 must be

zero; hence

b2 a2 + 2b2h/ah = 0

generalizing for (h, k), we get the required locus as

x = a a2b2/a2+b2

Example:

Find the locus of intersection of tangent to a hyperbola, which meet at a

constant angle .

Solution:

Let the equation to the hyperbola be

x2/a2y2/b2 = 1

(1)

y = mx + a2m2b2

If the tangent passes through a point (h, k) when we must have

k = mh + (a2m2b2)

or

(2)

m1 = tan1 and m2 = tan2, we have

tan1 + tan2 = 2hk/h2a2

tan1 tan2 = k2+b2/h2a2

and as (tan1 tan2)2 = 4h2k24(k2+b2)(h2a2)/(h2a2)2.

= 4(a2k2b2h2+a2b2)/(h2a2)2

If the two tangents met at an angle , clearly = (1 2).

Hence cot = cot(1 2)

= 1/tan(12) = 1+tan1tan2/tan1tan2

cot2 = (1+tan1tan2)2/(tan1tan2)2 = (h2+k2+b2a2)2/4(a2k2b2h2+a2b2)2

Simplifying, the required locus is

(x2 + y2 + b2 a2)2 = 4cot2b(a2y2 b2x2 + a2b2)2

Example:

Find the equation to the hyperbola whose asymptotes are the straight lines x

+ 3y 1= 0 and 2x y + 7 = 0, and which passes through the point (1, 2).

Solution:

Equation to the asymptotes are given as

x + 3y 1 = 0

and

2x y + 7 = 0

(1)

(2)

(x + 3y 1)(2x y + 7) = 0

(3)

As the equation to the hyperbola will differ from (3) only by a constant, it

may be given by

(x + 3y 1)(2x y + 7) =

(4)

(where is a constant)

(1, 2) lies on the curve given by (4), we have

(1 + 6 1)(2 2 + 7) =

= 42

Hence the equation to the hyperbola will be

(x + 3y 1)(2x y + 7) = 42

2x2 xy + 6xy + 7x 3y2 + 21y 2x + y 7 = 42

3D Geometry

The moving power of mathematical invention is not reasoning but

imagination. A.DEMORGAN

We constantly describe both the shapes and positions of three dimensional objects. For

example, one simple way to describe a 3D object is to approximate its shape as a

mesh of triangles. Each triangle is de?ned by three vertices, and the positions of each of

these vertices will have to be described by three coordinates [x,y,z]t.

In this chapter, we shall study the direction cosines and direction ratios of a line

joining two points and also discuss about the equations of lines and planes in space

under different conditions, angle between two lines, a line and a plane, shortest

distance between two skew lines and distance of a point from a plane.

Lower level geometry of planes and graphical two dimensional coordinates moves into a

three dimensional space in three dimensional geometry.

Topics Covered:

Direction cosines of a line

Direction Ratios

Parallel Lines

Projection of a Line

Theory of 3D Plane

Theory of 3D Straight Line

Shortest Distance between Two Non Intersecting Lines

Theory of Sphere

Solved Problems of 3D Geometry Part I

Solved Problems of 3D Geometry Part II

Solved Problems of 3D Geometry Part III

Solved Problems of 3D Geometry Part IV

Solved Problems of 3D Geometry Part V

Solved Problems of 3D Geometry Part VI

SPACE

Let O be any point in space

and

be

three lines perpendicular to each

other. These lines are known as

coordinate axes and O is called

origin. The planes XY, YZ, ZX are

known as the coordinate planes.

Coordinates of a Point in

Space:

position of the point P is given by

triad (x, y, z) where x, y, z are

perpendicular distance from YZplane, ZX-plane and XY-plane

respectively.

along OX, OY, OZ respectively,

then position vector of point P is xi

+ yj + zk or simply (x, y, z).

x-axis = {( x, y, z) | y = z = 0}

y-axis = {(x, y, z) | x = z = 0}

z-axis = {(x, y, z) | x = y = 0}

xy plane = {(x, y, z) | z = 0}

yz plane = {(x, y, z) | x = 0}

zx plane = {(x, y, z) | y = 0}

OP = x2 + y2 + z2

point without changing the

directions of the axes is called

the translation of

axes.

another point

O' (x', y', z') without changing

the direction of axes. Let the

new coordinate frame be

O'X'Y'Z'. Let P (x, y, z) be a

point with respect to the

coordinate frame OXYZ.

w.r.t. new coordinate frame

O'X'Y'Z' is (x1, y1, z1), where

x1 = x x', y1 = y y', z1 = z

z'

Example -1:

If the origin is shifted (1, 2, 3) without changing the directions of

the axes then find the new coordinates of the point (0, 4, 5) with

respect to new frame.

Solution:

x' = x x1,

y' = y y1

z' = z z1

x' = 0 1 = 1

y' = 4 2 = 2

z' = 5 + 3 = 8

The coordinates of the point w.r.t. to new coordinate frame is (-1, 2, 8).

Note:

Distance between the points P(x1, y1, z1) and Q (x2, y2, z2) is

The point dividing the line joining P(x1, y1, z1) and Q(x2, y2, z2) in m : n ratio is

The coordinates of centroid of a triangle having vertices A (x1, y1, z1), B (x2, y2, z2) and

C (x3, y3, z3) is G (x1 + x2 + x3 / 3, y1 + y2 + y3 / 3, z1 + z2 + z3 / 3).

Example -2:

Find the coordinates of the point which divides the line joining

points (2, 3, 4) and (3, 4, 7) in ratio 3 : 5.

Solution:

Example -3:

are collinear.

Prove that the three points A (3, 2, 4), B (1, 1, 1) and C (1, 4, 2)

Solution:

The general coordinates of a point R which divides the line joining A (3, 2, 4)

and B (1, 1, 1) in the ratio : 1 are ( + 3 / + 1, 2 / + 1, + 4 / + 1)

(1)

If C (1, 4, 2) lies on the line AB, then for some value of m the coordinates

of the point R will be the same as those of C.

Then, + 3 / + 1 = 1 => = 2

Putting = 2 in (1) the coordinates of R are (1, 4, 2) which are also the

coordinates of C.

DIRECTION COSINES OF A

LINE

If , , be the angles which a given directed line makes

with the positive directions of the co-ordinate axes, then

cos, cos, cos are called the direction cosines of the

given line and are generally denoted by l, m, n respectively.

Thus, l = cos, m = cos and n = cos

By the definition it follows that the direction cosine of the

axis of x are respectively cos0, cos90, cos 90i.e. (1, 0,

0).

Similarly direction cosines of the axes of y and z are

respectively (0, 1, 0) and (0, 0, 1).

direction cosines l, m, n.

Let P (x, y, z) and OP = r

Then OP2 = x2 + y2 + z2 = r2

(1)

coordinate axes, so that

OA = x, OB = y, OC = z.

Also, POA = , POB = and POC = .

From triangle AOP, l = cos = x/r => x = lr

cosines

Similarly y = mr and z = nr

Hence from (1)

Note:

If the coordinates of any point P be (x, y, z) and l, m, n be the direction cosines of the line

OP, O being the origin, then (lr, mr, nr) will give us the co-ordinates of a point on the line OP

which is at a distance r from (0, 0, 0).

Direction Ratios:

If a, b, c are three numbers proportional to the direction cosine l, m, n of a straight

line, then a, b, c are called its direction ratios. They are also called direction

numbers or direction components.

Hence by definition, we have

1/a = m/b = n/c = k (say)

=> l = ak, m = bk, n = ck => k2(a2 + b2 + c2) = l2 + m2 + n2 = 1

=> k = 1 / a2 + b2 + c2 = 1/a2

l = a/a2. Similarly m = b/a2 and n = n/a2

where the same sign either positive or negative is to be chosen throughout.

are 2/7, 3/7, 6/7.

Note:

Direction cosines of a line are unique but direction ratios of a line in no way

unique but can be infinite.

Parallel Lines:

Since parallel lines have the same direction, it follows that the direction cosines of two or more parallel

straight lines are the same. So in case of lines, which do not pass through the origin, we can draw a

parallel line passing through the origin and direction cosines of that line can be found.

CXmhaU -4:

Find the direction cosines of two lines which are connected by the relations l5m

+ 3n = 0 and 7l2 + 5m2 3n2 = 0.

hb :

l5m + 3n = 0 => l = 5m 3n

(1)

(2)

l = 5m 3n = m or 1/m = 1

Thus, m/n = 2/3 and i/m = 1/2 giving i/1 = m/2 = n/3 = 1/v1 2 + 22 + 32 = 1/v14

The direction cosines of the other line are 1/v14, 2/v14, 3/v14.

The direction ratios of line PQ joining P (x1, y1, z1) and Q(x2, y2,

z2) are x2 x1 = a(say), y2 y1 = b (say) and z2 z1 = c (say).

l = (x2 x1) / (x2 x1)2, m = (y2 y1) / (x2 x1)2, n = (z2

z1) / (x2 x1)2

a line

CXmhaU -5:

Find the direction ratios and direction cosines of the line joining the points

A(6, 7, 1) and B(2, 3, 1).

hb :

a 2 + b 2 + c2 = 9

Let be the angle between two straight lines AB and AC whose direction

cosines are given whose direction cosines are l1, m1, n1 and l2, m2,

n2 respectively, is given by cosq = l1l2 + m1m2 + n1n2

If direction ratios of two lines are a1, b1, c1 and a2, b2, c2 are given, then angle

between two lines is given by

cos =

Particular Results:

= (i12 + m12 + n12)(i22 + m22 + n22) (l1l2 + m1m2 + n1n2)2

Condition of perpendicularity:

Condition of parallelism:

l1m2 l2m1 = 0, m1n2 m2n1 = 0 and n1l2 n2l1 = 0 => I1/l2 = m1/m2 = n1/n2

CXmhaU -6:

hb :

Show that two lines having direction ratios 1, 3, 2 and 2, 2, 2 are perpendicular.

Projection of a

Line:

Projection of the line joining two point P (x1,

y1, z1) and Q (x2, y2, z2) on another line

whose direction cosines are l, m, n is

AB = l(x2 x1) + m(y2 y1) + n(z2 z1)

having direction cosines l, m, n.

AN = projection of line AP on straight line AB

= l(x a) + m(y b) + n(z c)

and AP = (xa)2 + (yb)2 + (zc)2

perpendicular distance of point P

PN = AP2 AN2

CXmhaU -7:

Find out perpendicular distance of point P (0, 1, 3) from straight line passing

through A (1, 3, 2) and having direction ratios 1, 2, 2.

hb :

Area of a Triangle

THE PLANE

Definition: Consider the locus of a point P(x, y, z). If x, y, z are allowed to vary without any restriction

for their different combinations, we have a set of points like P. The surface on which these points lie, is

called the locus of P. It may be a plane or any curved surface. If Q be any other point on its locus and all

points of the straight line PQ lie on it, it is a plane. In other words if the straight line PQ, however small

and in whatever direction it may be, lies completely on the locus, it is a plane, otherwise any curved

surface.

Equation of Plane in Different Forms:

Equation of the plane in Normal form is lx + my + nz = p where p is the length of the normal from

the origin to the plane and (l, m, n) be the direction cosines of the normal.

The equation to the plane passing through P(x1, y1, z1) and having direction ratios

(a, b, c) for its normal is a(x x1) + b(y y1) + c (z z1) = 0

The equation of the plane passing through three non-collinear points (x1, y1, z1),

=0

The equation of the plane whose intercepts are a, b, c on the x, y, z axes respectively is x/a + y/b

+ z/c = 1 (a b c 0)

Equation of YZ plane is x = 0,

Equation of ZX plane is y = 0,

Equation of XY plane is z = 0,

Four points namely A (x1, y1, z1), B (x2, y2, z2), C (x3, y3, z3) and D (x4, y4, z4) will be coplanar if one

point lies on the plane passing through other three points.

CXmhaU -8: Find the equation to the plane passing through the point (2, -1, 3) which is the foot of the

perpendicular drawn from the origin to the plane.

hb :

=> 2x y + 3z 14 = 0

Angle between the planes is defined as angle between normals of the planes drawn from any point to the

planes.

Angle between the planes a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0 and a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0

is

Note:

If a1a2 +b1b2 +c1c2 = 0, then the planes are perpendicular to each other.

If a1/a2 = b1/b2 = c1/c2 then the planes are parallel to each other.

hb :

CXmhaU -10:

axis.

hb :

Find the equation of the plane passing through (2, 3, 4), (1, 1, 3) and parallel to x-

(1)

a + 4b 7c = 0

(2)

Perpendicular Distance:

The length of the perpendicular from the point P(x1, y1, z1) to the plane ax + by + cz + d = 0 is |ax1 + by1 +

cz1 + d / a2 + b2 + c2|.

Family of Planes:

Equation of plane passing through the line of intersection of two planes u = 0 and v = 0 is

u + v = 0.

If equation of a plane is ax + by + cz + d = 0, then direction cosines of normal to this plane are a, b, c. So

angle between normal to the plane and a straight line having direction cosines l, m ,n is given by

cos = al + bm + cn / a2 + b2 + c2.

Then angle between the plane and the straight line is /2 .

CXmhaU -11:

Find the equation of plane passing through the intersection of planes 2x 4y + 3z +

5= 0, x + y + z = 6 and parallel to straight line having direction cosines (1, 1, 1).

hb :

(2x 4y + 3z + 5) + (x + y z 6) = 0

i.e. (2 + )x + (4 + )y + z(3 ) + (5 6)

=0

i.e. x + 7y 6z 23 = 0.

The equation of the planes bisecting the angles between two given planes a 1x +b1y +c1z +d1 = 0 and a2x +

b2y + c2z +d2 = 0 is

Straight line in three dimensional geometry is defined as intersection of two planes. So general equation

of straight line is stated as the equations of both plane together i.e. general equation of straight line is a 1x

+ b1y + c1z + d1 = 0, a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0

(1)

So, equation (1) represents straight line which is obtained by intersection of two planes.

Symmetrical Form:

Equation of straight line passing through point P (x1, y1, z1) and whose direction cosines are l, m, n

is xx1 = y y1/m = z z1 / n

Equation of straight line passing through two points P (x1, y1, z1) and Q (x2, y2, z2) isxx1 / x2 x1 =

yy1 / y2 y1 = z y1 / z2 z1

Note:

The general coordinates of a point on a line is given by (x 1 + lr, y1 + mr, z1 + nr) where r is

distance between point (x1, y1, z1) and point whose coordinates is to be written.

CXmhaU 10. Find the equations of the straight lines through the point (a, b, c) which are

(a) parallel to z-axis

(b) perpendicular to z-axis

10. (i) Equation of straight lines parallel to z-axis have = 90 0, = 900, = 00

=> l = 0, m = 0, n = 1

Therefore equation of straight line is parallel to z-axis and passing through (a, b, c) is x a / 0 = y

b/0=zc/1

(ii)

Then equation of straight lines perpendicular to z axis and passing through (a, b, c) is xa / cos

= y b / sin = z c / 0

=> x a / l = y b / m = z c / 0.

CXmhaU -12:

Find the coordinates of the point where the line joining the points (2, 3, 1) and (3,

4, 5) cuts the plane 2x + y + z = 7.

hb :

x2 / 1 = y + 3 / 1 = z 1 / 6 = r (say)

Note:

If equation of straight line is given in general form, it can be changed into symmetrical form. The

method is described in following Example.

CXmhaU -13:

3x + 2y z 4 = 0= 4x + y 2z + 3.

hb :

3x + 2y z 4 = 0, 4x + y 2z + 3 = 0

(1)

Let l, m, n be the direction cosines of the line. Since the line is common to both the planes,

it is perpendicular to the normals to both the planes.

Hence 3l + 2m n = 0, 4l + m 2n = 0

1/4+1 = m4+6 = n/38 i.e. 1/3 = m/2 = n/5 = 1/(3)2 + 22 + (5)2 = 1/38

Now to find the coordinates of a point on a line. Let us find out the point where it meets the

plane z = 0. Putting z = 0 in the equation given by (1), we have

3x + 2y 4 = 0, 4x + y + 3 = 0

i.e. .

Intersecting Line:

Two lines are called non intersecting lines if they do not lie in the same plane. The straight line which is

perpendicular to each of non-intersecting lines is called the line of shortest distance. And length of

shortest distance line intercepted between two lines is called length of shortest distance.

(1)

(2)

Any point on line (1) is P (x1 + l1r1, y1 + m1r1, z1 + n1r1) and on line (2) is

This line is perpendicular to both given line. By using condition of perpendicularity we obtain 2 equations

in r1 and r2.

So by solving these, values of r1 and r2 can be found. And subsequently point P and Q can be found. The

distance PQ is shortest distance.

Note:

If any straight line is given in general form then it can be transformed into symmetrical form and

we can further proceed.

CXmhaU -14:

Find the shortest distance between the lines , x3/3 = y 8/1 = z3/1, x + 3/3

= y+7/2 = z6/4 . Also find the equation of line of shortest distance.

hb :

= x+3 / 3 = y + 7 / 2 = z 6 / 4 = r2 (say)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

THE SPHERE

A sphere is a locus of a point which moves in space such that its distance from a fixed point is constant.

Fixed point is called centre of sphere and constant distance is called radius of sphere.

(x a)2 + (y b)2 + (z c)2 = r2.

Centre of sphere = (u, v, w), radius = 2 + v2 + w2 d.

Diameter form: Equation of a sphere whose extremities of diameter are A (x 1, y1, z1) and B (x2,

y2, z2) is (x x1) (x x2) + (y y1) (y y2) + (z z1) (z z2) = 0.

CXmhaU 13. Find the equation of the sphere which passes through the points (1, 3, 4), (1, 5, 2) and (1,

3, 0) and whose centre is on the plane x + y + z = 0.

hb :

x2 + y2 + z2 + 2ux + 2vy + 2wz + d = 0

its centre is (- u, - v, - w) which is on x + y + z = 0

=> u + v + w = 0

(1)

(2)

(1, - 5, 2) => 2 u - 10 v + 4 w + d = - 30

(3)

(4)

u = - 1, v = 3, w = - 2 and d = 10

Therefore required equation of the sphere is

x2 + y2 + z2 - 2 x + 6 y - 4 z + 10 = 0.

CXmhaU -15:

Find the equation of the sphere whose centre is (2, 3, 4) and which passes through

the point (1, 2, 1).

hb :

Equation of the sphere is (x 2)2 + (y + 3)2 + (z 4)2 = (51)2

i.e. x2 + y2 + z2 4x + 6y 8z 22 = 0.

SOLVED PROBLEMS

OBJECTIVE

1.

The angle between two lines whose direction cosines are given by the equation l + m + n =

0, l2 + m2 + n2 = 0 is

hb :

(A) /3

(B) 2/3

(C) /4

if l = 0, then m + n = 0 i,e. m = n

=> l/0 = m/1 = n/1, giving the direction ratios of one line.

If m = 0, then l + n = 0 i.e. l = n

=> l/0 = m/1 = n/1, giving direction ratios of the other lines.

2.

The equation of the plane which contains the line of intersection of the planes x + y + z 6

= 0 and 2x + 3y + z + 5 = 0 and perpendicular to the xy plane is:

hb :

(A) x 2y + 11 = 0

(B) x + 2y + 11 = 0

(C) x + 2y 11 = 0

(D) x 2y 11 = 0

i.e. 0 . x + 0 . y + z = 0

By condition of perpendicularity

0.(1 + 2) + 0. (1 + 3) + (1 + ) .1 = 0 i.e. = 1

3.

The coordinates of the foot of the perpendicular drawn from the origin to the plane 3x + 4y

6z + 1 = 0 are :

hb :

(1)

The direction ratios of the normal to the plane (1) are 3, 4, 6. So equation of the line

through (0, 0, 0) and perpendicular to the plane (1) are

(2)

The coordinates of any point P on (2) are (3r, 4r, 6r). If this point lie on the plane (1), then

Putting the value of r coordinates of the foot of the perpendicular P are (3/61, 4/61,

6/61).

4.

The distance of the point (1, 2, 3) from the plane x y + z = 5 measured parallel to the

line x/2 = y/3 = z/6 is:

(A) 7 unit

(B) 4 unit

(C) 1 unit

(D) 2 unit

hb :

Here we are not to find perpendicular distance of the point from the plane but distance

measured along with the given line. The method is as follow:

The equation of the line through the point (1, 2, 3) and parallel to given line is

= the distance between the points (1, 2, 3) and (9/7, 11/7, 15/7)

5.

(A) (3, 5, 2)

(B) (3, 2, 5)

(C) (5, 3, 2)

(D) (2, 5, 3)

hb :

As it is clear from the figure that PQ will

be perpendicular to the plane and foot of this

perpendicular is mid point of PQ i.e. N.

So, direction ratios of line PQ is 2, 1,

1

=> Equation of line PQ = x1/2 = y3/

1 = z4/1 r (say)

Any point on line PQ is (2r + 1, r + 3, r

+ 4)

If this point lies on the plane, then

2(2r + 1) (r + 3) + (r + 4) + 3 =

0 => r = 1

coordinate of foot of perpendicular N

= (1, 4, 3)

As N is middle point of PQ

=> x1 = 3, y1 = 5, z1 = 2

6.

The equation of the sphere which passes through the points (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0) and (0, 0, 1)

and has its radius as small as possible is :

hb :

(1)

As sphere passes through points (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0) and (0, 0, 1). So we have

1 + 2u + d = 0, 1 + 2v + d = 0, 1 + 2w + d = 0

On solving u = v = w = 1/2 (d + 1)

r = u2 + v2 + w2 d

for r to be minimum

7.

a:

A point moves so that the ratio of its distances from two fixed points is constant. Its locus is

(A) plane

(C) circle

(D) sphere

hb :

Let the coordinates of moving point P be (x, y, z). Let A (a, 0, 0) and B (a, 0, 0) be two

fixed points. According to given condition

8.

hb :

The ratio in which yzplane divides the line joining (2, 4, 5) and (3, 5, 7)

(A) -2 : 3

(B) 2 : 3

(C) 3 : 2

(D) -3 : 2

9.

A line makes angles , , , with the four diagonals of a cube then cos2 +

2

2

cos + cos + cos2 =

(A) 1

(B) 4/3

(C) 3/4

hb

(1, 1, 1)

(D) 4/5

Similarly direction cosine of AS are (1/3,

1/3, 1/3)

BP are (1/3, 1/3, 1/3)

10.

The points (0, -1, -1), (-4, 4, 4), (4, 5, 1) and (3, 9, 4) are

(A) collinear

(B) coplanar

hb :

Equation of the plane passing through the points (0, -1, -1), (-4, 4, 4) and (4, 5, 1)

is

=0

. (1)

11.

A variable plane passes through a fixed point (a, b, c) and meets the coordinate axes in A,

B, C. The locus of the point common to plane through A, B, C parallel to coordinate planes is

hb :

Now the points of intersection of the plane with the coordinate axes are A(, 0, 0), B(0, ,

0) & C(0, 0, )

=> Equation to planes parallel to the coordinate planes and passing through A, B & C are x

= , y = and z = .

12.

Of these statements:

hb :

13.

The equation of the plane containing the line x = /l, y = /m and z =/n is a(x ) +

b(y ) + c(z ) = 0, where al + bm + cn is equal to

(A) 1

(B) 1

(C) 2

(D) 0

hb :

Since straight line lies in the plane so it will be perpendicular to the normal at the given

plane. Since direction cosines of straight line are l, m, n and direction ratios of normal to the plane are a,

b, c. So, al + bm + cn = 0.

14.

The shortest distance between the two straight lines x4/3 / 2 = y+6/5 / 3 = z3/2 /

4 and 5y+6/8 = 2z3/9 = 3x4/5 is

hb :

(A) 29

(B) 3

(C) 0

(D) 610

Since these two lines are intersecting so shortest distance between the lines will be 0.

15.

A straight line passes through the point (2, 1, 1). It is parallel to the plane 4x + y +

z + 2 = 0 and is perpendicular to the line x/1 = y/2 = z5/1. The equations of the straight line are

hb :

4l + m + n = 0

l 2m + n = 0

16.

sphere is

If centre of a sphere is (1, 4, 3) and radius is 3 units, then the equation of the

(A) x2 + y2 + z2 2x 8y + 6z + 17 = 0

(D) x2 + y2 + z2 + 2x + 8y 6z 17 = 0

hb :

17.

If equation of a sphere is 2(x2 + y2 + z2) 4x 8y + 12z 7 = 0 and one extremity of

its diameter is (2, 1, 1), then the other extremity of diameter of the sphere will be

hb :

(B) (0, 9, 7)

(C) (0, 5, 7)

The centre of the sphere is (1, 2, 3) so if other extremity of diameter is (x 1, y1, z1), then

18.

The direction cosines of the line which is perpendicular to the lines with direction cosines

proportional to (1, 2, 2), (0, 2, 1) is

hb :

Therefore a - 2 b - 2 c = 0

And 2 b + c = 0

=> c = - 2 b

a - 2 b + 4b = 0 => a = - 2 b

Therefore direction ratios of the required line are <- 2b, b, - 2b> = <2, - 1, 2>

19.

hb :

The points (4, 7, 8), (2, 3, 4), (1, 2, 1) and (1, 2, 5) are :

(B) collinear

(D) concyclic

So, AB parallel to CD

20.

The equation of the plane parallel to the plane 4x 3y + 2z + 1 = 0 and passing through the

point (5, 1, 6) is :

(A) 4x - 3y + 2z - 5 = 0

(B) 3x - 4y + 2z - 5 = 0

(C) 4x - 3y + 2z + 5 = 0

(D) 3x - 4y + 2z + 5 = 0

hb :

so, 20 - 3 - 12 + k = 0 k = - 5

21.

A plane is passed through the middle point of the segment A (2, 5, 1), B (6, 1, 5) and is

perpendicular to this line. Its equation is :

hb :

(A) 2x - y + z = 4

(B) 2x - y + z = 4

(C) x - 3y + z = 5

(D) x - 4y + 2z = 5

22.

A plane meets the co-ordinates axes in A, B, C such that the centroid of triangle ABC is (a, b, c).

The equation of the plane is :

hb :

The plane meets the co-ordinate axes at A, B, C such that centroid of the triangle ABC is (a, b, c)

So, X-intercept = 3 a

=> Y-intercept = 3 b

=> Z-intercept = 3 c

23.

hb :

(A) 2

(B) 2

(C) 3

(D) 3

(- 1, 2, - 1) and (- 3, 4, - 3)

24.

(A) zero

(C) constant

hb :

(B) one

=l+m+n

which is constant.

25.

The angle between straight lines whose direction cosines are (1/2, 1/2, 1/2) and(1/3, 1/3,

1/3) is

hb :

26.

Which one of the following is best condition for the plane ax + by + cz + d = 0 to intersect the x

and y axes at equal angle

hb :

(B) a = b

(C) a = b

(D) a2 + b2 = 1

27.

hb :

28.

hb :

If P (2, 3, 6) and Q (3, 4, 5) are two points, the direction cosines of line PQ are

29.

hb :

The ratio in which yzplane divide the line joining the points A(3, 1, 5) and B(1, 4, 6) is

(A) 3 : 1

(B) 3 : 1

(C) 1 : 3

(D) 1 : 3

30.

A straight line is inclined to the axes of x and z at angels 450 and 600 respectively, then the

inclination of the line to the y-axis is

hb :

(A) 300

(B) 450

(C) 600

(D) 900

l2 + m2 + n2 = 1

=> m2 = 1/4

=> m = 1/2

31.

hb :

cos = a2 + a2 + a2 / a2 + a2 + a2 a2 + a2 + a2 of side is a

= 1/3.

32.

Given that A (3, 2, 4), B (5, 4, 6) and C (9, 8, 10) are collinear. The ratio in which B divides AC

(A) 1 : 2

(B) 2 : 1

(C) 1 : 2

(D) 2 : 1

hb :

9 + 3/+1 = 5 => 9 - 5 = 2

=> = 1/2.

33.

If P1P2 is perpendicular to P2P3, then the value of k is, where P1(k, 1, 1), P2(2k, 0, 2) and P3(2 +

2k, k , 1)

hb :

(A) 3

(B) 3

(C) 2

(D) 2

Therefore 2 k - k - 3 = 0

=> k = 3.

34.

A is the point (3, 7, 5) and B is the point (3, 2, 6). The projection of AB on the line which joins the

points (7, 9, 4) and (4, 5, 8) is

(A) 26

(B) 2

(C) 13

(D) 4

hb :

Distances of the line joining (7, 9, 4) and (4, 5, - 8) is < 3/13, 4/13, 12/13 >

Exercise # 1

35.

The shortest distance of the point from the x-axis is equal to(Ref.P.K.Sharma_Three

Dimen._P.C6.1Q.1)

Ans.

(C)

hb . Foot of perpendicular drawn from P to x-axis will have its coordinates as (x, 0, 0).

36.

The point of intersection of the xy plane and the line passing through the points and is:

(Ref.P.K.Sharma_Three Dimen._P.C6.1Q.4)

(A)

(13/5, 23/5, 0)

(B)

(13/5, 23/5, 0)

(C)

(13/5, 23/5, 0)

(D)

(13/5, 23/5, 0)

Ans.

(B)

Z=0

=> x3/2 = y4/3 = 1/5

=> x=3 2/5 = 13/5, y = 4 + 3/5 = 23/5

37.

The projections of the line segment AB on the coordinate axes are 9, 12, -8 respectively. The

direction cosines of the line segment AB are:(Ref.P.K.Sharma_Three Dimen._P.C6.1Q.5)

Ans.

(A)

38.

The direction cosines of two mutually perpendicular lines are l 1,m1,n1 andl2,m2,n2. The direction

cosines of the line perpendicular to both the given lines will be:(Ref.P.K.Sharma_Three

Dimen._P.C6.1Q.6)

Ans.

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(D)

We must have,

Thus

n = l1m2 l2m1

39.

A directed line segment angles ,, with the coordinate axes. The value ofcos2 is always

equal to:(Ref.P.K.Sharma_Three Dimen._P.C6.1Q.7)

Ans.

(A)

-1

(B)

(C)

-2

(D)

(A)

cos2 = (2cos21)

= 2l23

= 1

40.

Ans.

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

(D)

xy + yz = 0

=> x(y+z) = 0

X = 0, y + z = 0

41.

The plane 2x 3y + 6z 11 = 0 makes an angle (a) with x-axis. The value of a is equal to:

(Ref.P.K.Sharma_Three Dimen._P.C6.2Q.10)

Ans.

(A)

3/2

(B)

2/3

(C)

2/7

(D)

3/7

(C)

=> a = (2/7)

42.

Ans.

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

none of these

(B)

Clearly, given planes have a common line of intersection namely the z-axis.

43.

The equation of a plane passing through (1, 2, -3), (0, 0, 0) and perpendicular to the plane 3x 5y

+ 2z = 11, is:(Ref.P.K.Sharma_Three Dimen._P.C6.2Q.13)

Ans.

(A)

3x + y + 5/3 z = 0

(B)

4x + y + 2z = 0

(C)

3x y + z/3

(D)

x+y+z=0

(D)

Ax + by + cz = 0.

We have 3a 5b + 2c = 0, a + 2b 3c = 0

=> a : b : c = 11 : 11 : 11

Thus plan is

x+y+z=0

44.

The direction ration of a normal to the plane passing through (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0) and making an

angle /4 with the plane x + y = 3 are:(Ref.P.K.Sharma_Three Dimen._P.C6.2Q.15)

(A)

(1, 2, 1)

(B)

(1, 1,2)

(C)

Ans.

(1,1,2)

(D)

(2, 1, 1)

(B)

.=> a = b = 1

Also,

=> c = 1/2

(1,1,2) or

(1,1,2)

45.

The equation of a plane passing through the line of intersection of the planes x + y + z = 5, 2x y

+ 3z = 1 and parallel to the line y = z = 0 is:(Ref.P.K.Sharma_Three Dimen._P.C6.2Q.16)

(A)

3x z = 9

(B)

3y z = 9

(C)

x 3z = 9

(D)

y 3z = 9

Ans.

(B)

Since, (1 + 2a) = 0

a = 1/2

i.e.,

3y z = 9

46.

The angle between lines whose direction cosines are given by l + m + n = 0, l2 + m2 n2 = 0, is:

(Ref.P.K.Sharma_Three Dimen._P.C6.2Q.17)

(A)

/2

(B)

/3

(C)

/6

(D)

None of these

Ans.

(D)

.l + m + n = 0, l2 + m2 n2 = 0

We also have

l2 + m2 + n2 = 1

=> 2n2 = 1

Also,

l2 + m2 = n2 = ((l+m))2

47.

Centroid of the tetrahedron OABC, where , , and O is the origin is (1, 2, 3). The value of is equal

to:(Ref.P.K.Sharma_Three Dimen._P.C6.3Q.19)

Ans.

(A)

75

(B)

80

(C)

121

(D)

None of these

(A)

We have

4 = a + 1 + 2 + 0,

=> a = 1,

8=2+b+1+0

=> b = 5,

12 = 3 + 2 + c + 0.

=> c = 7,

a2 + b2 + c2 = 1 + 25 + 49 = 75

48.

The equation of the plane passing through the points (2, -1, 0), (3, -4, 5) and parallel to the line 2x

= 3y = 4z is:(Ref.P.K.Sharma_Three Dimen._P.C6.3Q.20)

Ans.

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(D)

Give line is 2x = 3y = 4z

i.e.,

Ax + by + cz = 1.

We have

6a + 4b + 3c = 0

2a b = 1

3a 4b + 5c = 1.

49.

A plane passes through the point . If the distance of this plane from the origin is maximum, then

its equation is:(Ref.P.K.Sharma_Three Dimen._P.C6.4Q.1)

Ans.

(A)

x + 2y 3z + 4 = 0

(C)

2y - x + 3z = 0

(B)

x + 2y + 3z = 0

(D)

(B)

and .OA = 1 + 4 = 0 = 14

x - 2y + 3z = 0

x + 2y + 3z = 14.

50.

The shortest distance of the plane 12 + 4y + 3z = 327, from the sphere , is equal to:

(Ref.P.K.Sharma_Three Dimen._P.C6.4Q.3)

Ans.

(A)

39 units

(B)

26 sq. units

(C)

13 units

(D)

None of these

(C)

Center and radius of given sphere are (2, 1, 3) and 13 unit respectively.

51.

The lines x = ay + b, z = cy + d and x = ay + b, z = cy + d will be mutually perpendicular

provided:(Ref.P.K.Sharma_Three Dimen._P.C6.4Q.5)

(A)

(a + a)(b + b)(c + c)

(B)

aa + cc + 1 = 0

(C)

aa + bb + cc + 1 = 0

(D)

(a + a) (b + b) (c + c) + 1 = 0

Ans.

(B)

52.

The straight lines x2/1 = y3/1 = z4/k and x1/k = y4/2 = z5/1, will intersect provided:

(Ref.P.K.Sharma_Three Dimen._P.C6.4Q.6)

Ans.

(A)

k = {3, -3}

(B)

k = {0, -1}

(C)

k = {-1, 1}

(D)

k = {0, -3}

(D)

P1 = (r1 + 2, r1 + 3, kr1+4)

r1 + 2 = kr2 + 1,

r1 + 3 = 2r2 + 1,

kr1 + 4 = r2 + 5,

r1 + kr2 + 1 = 0, r1 = 2r2 + 1,

k2 + 3k = 0

.=> k = {3,0}

53.

The plane ax + by + cz = d, meets the coordinate axes at the points, A, B and C respectively. Area

of triangle ABC is equal to:(Ref.P.K.Sharma_Three Dimen._P.C6.4Q.7)

(A)

d2a2 + b2 + c2 / |abc|

(B)

d2a2 + b2 + c2 / 2|abc|

(C)

d2a2 + b2 + c2 / 4 |abc|

(D)

None of these

Ans.

(B)

54.

Equation of the plane passing through (-1, 1, 4) and containing the line x1/3 = y2/1 = z/5, is:

(Ref.P.K.Sharma_Three Dimen._P.C6.4Q.9)

(A)

9x 22y + 2z + 23 = 0

(C)

9x + 22y - 3z = 1

(B)

(D)

x + 22y + z = 25

22y 9x + z = 35

Ans.

(D)

Equation of any plane containing the line x1/3 = y2/1 = z/5 will be

a(x1) + b (yz) + cz = 0

where,

3a + b + 4c = 0

. (i)

2a b + 4c = 0

. (ii)

9(x 1) + 22(y 2) + z = 0

i.e.,

22y 9x + z = 35

55.

Equation of the plane containing the lines x/1 = y2/3 = z+4/1 and x4/2 = y/3 = z/1 is,:

(Ref.P.K.Sharma_Three Dimen._P.C6.5Q.10)

Ans.

(A)

x + y 4z = 6

(B)

x - y + 4z = 6

(C)

x + y + 4z = 6

(D)

None of these

(D)

Equation of any plane containing the line x/1 = y2/3 = z+4/1 is ax + b (y2) + c (z+4) = 0

where a + 3b c = 0

2a 3b + c = 0

and

4a b(0 2) + c(0 + 4) = 0

a = 0, b = 0, c = 0.

56.

Equation of the plane such that foot of altitude drawn from (-1, 1, 1) to the plane has the

coordinate (3, -2, -1), is:(Ref.P.K.Sharma_Three Dimen._P.C6.5Q.11)

Ans.

(A)

x+y+z=0

(B)

4x - 3y 2z = 20

(C)

3x + y z = 8

(D)

4x + 3y z = 7

(B)

4, 3, 2

4x 3y 2z = d

i.e,,

d = 12 + 6 + 2 = 20

4x 3y 2z = 20.

57.

The distance of the point (-1, 2, 6) from the line x2/6 = y3/3 = z+ 4/4, is equal to:

(Ref.P.K.Sharma_Three Dimen._P.C6.5Q.13)

Ans.

(A)

7 units

(B)

9 units

(C)

10 units

(D)

12 units

(A)

Direction ration of the line segment PQ, where Q = (1, 2, 6), are

=>

r1 = 1.

Thus, P = (4, 0, 0)

Required distance = 9 + 4 + 36

= 7 units.

58.

The point of intersection of the lines x+1 / 3 = y + 3/5 = z + 5 / 7 and x2/1 = y4/3 = z6/5 is:

(Ref.P.K.Sharma_Three Dimen._P.C6.5Q.14)

Ans.

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(B)

3r1 1 = r2 + 2,

5r1 3 = 3r2 + 4.

7r1 5 = 5r1 + 6.

59.

The shortest distance between the line x + y + 2z 3 = 2x + 3y + 4z 4 = 0 and the z-axis is:

(Ref.P.K.Sharma_Three Dimen._P.C6.5Q.15)

Ans.

(A)

1 unit

(B)

2 units

(C)

3 units

(D)

4 units

(B)

We have,

x + y + 2z 3 = 0, x + 2z 2 + 3/2 y = 0

Y = 2.

60.

The length of projection, of the line segment joining the points (1, -1, 0) and (-1, 0, 1), to the plane

2x + y + 6z = 1, is equal to:(Ref.P.K.Sharma_Three Dimen._P.C6.5Q.17)

Ans.

(A)

255/61

(B)

237/61

(C)

137/61

(D)

155/61

(B)

2, 1, 1.

Length of projection

= (AB) sin

61.

Reflection of the line x1/1 = y2/3 = z3/1 in the plane x + y + z = 7 is:(Ref.P.K.Sharma_Three

Dimen._P.C6.5Q.18)

Ans.

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(C)

Given line passes through (1, 2, 4) and this point also lies on the given plane.

i.e,

a + b + c = 4,

and

=> a = , b = 5 + , c = 5 +

=> 10 + 3 = 4

=> = 2

Thus, Q = (2, 3, 3)

3, 1, 1

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