PROCESS DESIGNER
JOSEPH KAFUMBILA
Material balance in froth flotation using Microsoft Excel Solver
© 2017 Joseph Kafumbila
jokafumbila@hotmail.com
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322385532_Necessity_to_use_filblast_technolo
gy_for_cobalt_III_leaching_performed_in_agitated_open_leach_tanks
Joseph Kafumbila
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Contents
1. INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................... 3
2. MATERIAL BALANCE.............................................................................................................. 3
4. REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................ 32
Joseph Kafumbila
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1. Introduction
Material balance calculations define an engineering problem where flow parameters between unit
operations are partly known. The purpose of a material balance is to mathematically examine the known flow
parameters to solve for the unknown flow parameters. Two main types of material balances are commonly
made: design material balance and operating plant material balance.
The design material balance is typically faced during plant design when the test work results and a
flowsheet diagram are the only known values. Design material balance purpose is to find values for the unknown
flow parameters.
Operating plant material balance is tried to have a large amount of data from operating plant.
Operating plant material balance purpose is to produce a picture of the state of an operating plant.
This paper will give a procedure of operating plant material balance using Microsoft Excel Solver on
Excel spreadsheet. An example solving a copper concentrator flotation circuit is presented and the process flow
diagram is given below.
2. Material balance
In mineral processing, the flow is the pulp which is a suspension of particles in water. The suspended
particles will be called solid. Therefore, the flow will always consist of two components: solid and water.
It will be discussed first the characterization of solid before the characterization of pulp. The
characterization means, in this paper, designation of parameters and development of equations linking these
parameters.
2.1.1. Solid
Solid is characterized by a mass (Ms ) expressed in (ton) and a volume (Vs ) expressed in (m3). The
specific gravity (SGs ) expressed in (kg/m3) is the ratio of mass on volume of solid. Equation (1) gives the
mathematical expression that links mass, volume and specific gravity of solid.
Ms (
SGs = x 1000
Vs (1)
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2.1.1.1. Solid specific density
There are two methods for obtaining a specific gravity of solid: laboratory method and mineralogical
composition method.
A. Laboratory method
In the case where it is possible to have physically a solid, laboratory method for obtaining a specific
gravity of solid consisting of mineral rock finely crushed is as follows:
Water mass is the difference between pulp mass and solid mass.
Water volume is the ratio of water mass on water specific gravity (1,000 kg/m3).
Solid volume is the difference between pulp volume and the water volume.
Finally, solid specific gravity is the ratio of mass on volume of solid.
Table 1 shows an example for obtaining a solid specific gravity by the laboratory method. This method
seems simple, but it requires great accuracy during weighing and measuring of values.
In the case where a solid is not provided in order to obtain a specific gravity by the laboratory method,
obtaining of solid specific gravity is taken place by using mineralogical composition method. This method is
based on the principle that rock is a juxtaposition of minerals. Therefore, the mass of rock is the sum of mineral
masses and the volume of rock is the sum of mineral volumes. Based on these assumptions, the method for
obtaining the rock specific gravity consists of:
The weakness of this method is that it ignores porosities or structural defects of solid. Table 2 shows an
example for obtaining a specific gravity of solid by using the mineralogical composition method.
Results from Table 2 shows that for a total solid weight of 1,000 ton and a total solid volume of 359.77
m3 which is the sum of mineral volumes, the value of solid specific gravity is 2,779.55 kg/m3.
Solid is constituted with chemical elements. The index “k” is an identification number of a chemical
element in this paper. At this level, two other parameters are defined; a mass of chemical element of index “k”
(Mk ) expressed in (kg) into a solid and a grade of chemical element of index “k” (Tk ) expressed in (%) into a
solid. Equation (2) gives mathematical expression that links mass of chemical element of index “k”, grade of
chemical element of index “k” and solid mass.
Tk (
Mk = Ms x 100 x 1000
(2)
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2.1.2. Water
Water is characterized by a mass (ML ) expressed in (ton) and a volume (VL ) expressed in (m3). The
specific gravity (SGL ) expressed in (kg/m3) is the ratio of mass to volume of water. The value of water specific
gravity is 1,000 kg/m3.
2.1.3. Pulp
The pulp is a mixture of solid and water. The pulp will be characterized by a mass “MP ” expressed in
(ton), a volume “VP ” expressed in (m3) and a specific gravity “SGP ” expressed in (kg/m3). Equation (3) gives
mathematical expression that links mass, volume and specific gravity of pulp.
MP (
SGP = x 1000
VP (3)
Pulp mass is a sum of solid and water masses. Mathematical expression of this principle is given by
equation (4).
(
MP = M S + ML
(4)
Pulp volume is a sum of solid and water volumes. Mathematical expression of this principle is given by
equation (5).
(
VP = VS + VL
(5)
Solid mass can also be calculated from pulp volume and specific gravities of pulp, solid and water.
Equation (6) gives the mathematical expression.
(SG −1000) (
Ms = (SGP−1000) x SGs x Vp / 1000
S (6)
Volume percent of solid in the pulp expressed in (%) is given by equation (7).
V
Cvs = V s x 100 (%) (
p (7)
Weight percent of solid in the pulp expressed in (%) is given by equation (8).
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2.2. Unit operation of froth flotation circuit
2.2.1.1. Description
Froth flotation is a method for physically separating particles based on differences in the facility of air
bubbles to selectively adhere to specific mineral surfaces into a pulp. The particles attached to air bubbles are
then carried to the tank surface; however the particles that are not attached to air bubbles stay into the pulp. In
the industrial practice, chemical treatments are used to selectively alter mineral surfaces so that they have the
necessary properties to adhere or not to air bubbles.
Figure 1 gives a flow diagram of froth flotation unit operation. A froth flotation receives a feed flow
and produces concentrate flow and tailing flow. Exponent f, c ant t will respectively designate feed, concentrate
and tailing.
In a continuous system at steady state, the principle of conservation of matter gives the following
mathematical expression:
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MSf x Tkf x 10 = MSc x Tkc x 10 + MSt x Tkt x 10 (15)
Froth flotation metallurgical performances are given by the following mathematical expression:
Mass pull (%) is the ratio of concentrate solid mass on feed solid mass.
Metal recovery (%) is the ratio of element mass in the concentrate on element mass in the feed.
2.2.2. Hydrocyclone
2.2.2.1. Description
A hydrocyclone is a separator mechanism that uses centrifugal force to separate solids from liquids.
Figure 2 gives flow diagram of a hydrocyclone. In the mineral processing, a hydrocyclone receives a
feed flow and produces underflow and overflow. Pulp specific gravity of underflow is greater than that of
overflow. Exponent f, u ant o will designate respectively feed, underflow and overflow.
In a continuous system at steady state, the principle of conservation of matter gives the following
mathematical expression:
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Figure 2: Flow diagram of a hydrocyclone
2.2.3.1. Description
Ball mill is a pulverizing machine consisting of a rotating drum which contains pebbles or metal balls as
the grinding implements.
Figure 3 and 4 give flow diagrams of ball mill. In mineral processing, ball mill is generally coupled with
a hydrocyclone. Figure 3 gives a flow diagram where ball mill receives hydrocyclone underflow and sometimes
water and produces a pulp. Figure 4 gives a flow diagram where a ball mill receives new feed pulp, hydrocyclone
underflow and sometimes water and produces a pulp. Exponent i and o will designate respectively inlet and
outlet pulps of a ball mill.
In a continuous system at steady state, the principle of conservation of matter gives the following
mathematical expression:
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Figure 3: Ball mill flow diagram (ball mill inlet pulp = hydrocyclone UF + water)
Figure 4: Ball mill flow diagram (ball mill inlet pulp = hydrocyclone UF + feed + water)
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MLi = MLo (29)
Figure 5 gives the flow diagram of an operating plant. This operating plant is processed copper sulfide
ore. The unit operations of the operating plant are the following:
A. – Rougher
B. – Scavenger
C. – Regrind Ball Mill
D. – Hydrocyclone
E. – Cleaner
F. – Cleaner scavenger
G. – Recleaner
1. – Feed
2. – Cleaner scavenger tailing
3. – Rougher concentrate
4. – Rougher concentrate launder water addition
5. – Rougher concentrate pulp
6. – Rougher tailing
7. – Scavenger concentrate
8. – Scavenger concentrate launder water addition
9. – Scavenger concentrate pulp
10.– Scavenger tailing
11.– Outlet regrind ball mill
12.– Cleaner scavenger concentrate
13.– Cleaner scavenger concentrate launder water addition
14.– Cleaner scavenger concentrate pulp
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Figure 5: Operating plant flow diagram
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15.– water
16. – Hydrocyclone feed
17. – Hydrocyclone underflow
18. – Hydrocyclone overflow
19. – Recleaner tailing
20.– Cleaner concentrate
21.– Cleaner concentrate launder water addition
22.– Cleaner concentrate pulp
23.– Cleaner tailings
24.– Recleaner concentrate
Sampling campaign has been done and Table 3 gives data of the operating plant for each flow.
The hydrocyclone feed data come from the control room. In this case, mathematical expression (32)
gives the relationship between solid specific gravity and copper grade. In general for complex ore, solid specific
gravity must be found for each flow by using method explained in chapter 2.
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3.3. Material balance using Microsoft Excel Solver
The simulation table of material balance of froth flotation of the operating plant is given in Table 4 as it
appears on the Excel spreadsheet. Table 4 is divided into two small tables. Table 4A takes flows from 1 to 10
and Table 4B take flow from 11 to 20. In Table 4A and 4B, lines from 6 to 20 and from 28 to 42 give the values
of flow parameters of each flow. Below table 4B, there is simulation constraint table that will contain excel
solver constraints.
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A B C D E F G H I J K L
1
2 Table 4A Material balance simulation table
3
4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
5 Feed SCT RC RCW RT SC SCW ST ORBM SCC
6 Solid
7 Mass t/h
8 Vol. m3/h
9 SGS kg/m3
10 Cu %
11 Cu kg/h
12 Water
13 Mass t/h
14 Vol. m3/h
15 SGS kg/m3
16 Pulp
17 Mass t/h
18 Vol. m3/h
19 SGS kg/m3
20 CwS %
21
22
23
24 Table 4B Material balance simulation table
25
26 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
27 SCCW W HF HUF HOF ReCT CC CCW CT ReCC
28 Solid
29 Mass t/h
30 Vol. m3/h
31 SGS kg/m3
32 Cu %
33 Cu kg/h
34 Water
35 Mass t/h
36 Vol. m3/h
37 SGS kg/m3
38 Pulp
39 Mass t/h
40 Vol. m3/h
41 SGS kg/m3
42 S %
Cw
43
44
45 Simulation solver constraint table
46 Constraint 1
47 Constraint 2
48 Constraint 3
49 Constraint 4
50
51
52
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3.3.2. Material balance simulation procedure
Material balance of froth flotation circuit of the operating plant will be done step by step. The
procedure is as follow:
 Known parameters:
 In the excel cell “C7” (solid mass flowrate), type number “1243.01”.
 In the excel cell “C10” (copper grade), type number “1.93”.
 In the excel cell “C19”(pulp specific gravity), type number “1239”.
 In the excel cell “C15” (water specific gravity), type number “1000”.
 In the excel cell “C9” (solid specific gravity), type “=(0.0005*C10^2+0.0259*C10+2.6728)*1000”
(equation 32).
 In the excel cell “C8” (solid volume flowrate), type “=C7/C9*1000”.
 In the excel cell “C11” (copper mass flowrate), type “=C7*C10*10”
 In the excel cell “C20” (solid percent), type “=100*C9*(C19C15)/(C19*(C9C15))” (equation 8).
 In the excel cell “C17” (pulp mass flowrate), type “=C7/C20*100”.
 In the excel cell “C13” (water mass flowrate), type “=C17C7”.
 In the excel cell “C14” (water volume flowrate), type “=C13/C15*1000”.
 In the excel cell “C18” (pulp volume flowrate), type “=C8+C14”.
 Known parameters:
o Copper grade.
o Pulp specific gravity.
o Water specific gravity.
The solid mass flowrate of the scavenger cleaner tailing is an unknown value (recycle flow) and it
becomes the Excel solver variable. The starting value of the solid mass flowrate of the scavenger cleaner tailing
is “100”.
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 In the excel cell “D7” (solid mass flowrate), type number “100” (blue color).
 In the excel cell “D9” (solid specific gravity), type “=(0.0005*D10^2+0.0259*D10+2.6728)*1000”
(equation 32).
 In the excel cell “D8” (solid volume flowrate), type “=D7/D9*1000”.
 In the excel cell “D11” (copper mass flowrate), type “=D7*D10*10”
 In the excel cell “D20” (solid percent), type “=100*D9*(D19D15)/(D19*(D9D15))” (equation 8).
 In the excel cell “D17” (pulp mass flowrate), type “=D7/D20*100”.
 In the excel cell “D13” (water mass flowrate), type “=D17D7”.
 In the excel cell “D14” (water volume flowrate), type “=D13/D15*1000”.
 In the excel cell “D18” (pulp volume flowrate), type “=D8+D14”.
 Known parameters:
o Copper grade.
o Water specific gravity.
o Pulp specific gravity.
The solid mass flowrate of rougher concentrate will be estimate by using the mathematical expression
(16). The mathematical expression (16) needs known values of copper grades of rougher feed and rougher
tailing. The rougher feed copper grade is the copper grade of the mixture of plant feed (flow 1) and scavenger
cleaner (flow2).
 In the excel cell “D22” (rougher feed copper grade designation), type “RT%Cu”.
 In the excel cell “E22” (rougher feed copper grade), type “=(C11+D11)/(C7+D7)*10)”.
 In the excel cell “G10” (rougher tailing copper grade), type number “0.84”.
 In the excel cell “E7” (solid mass flowrate), type “=(E22G10)/(E10G10)*(C7+D7)” ( equation 16).
 In the excel cell “E9” (solid specific gravity), type “=(0.0005*E10^2+0.0259*E10+2.6728)*1000”
(equation 32).
 In the excel cell “E8” (solid volume flowrate), type “=E7/E9*1000”.
 In the excel cell “E11” (copper mass flowrate), type “=E7*E10*10”
 In the excel cell “E20” (solid percent), type “=100*E9*(E19E15)/(E19*(E9E15))” (equation 8).
 In the excel cell “E17” (pulp mass flowrate), type “=E7/E20*100”.
 In the excel cell “E13” (water mass flowrate), type “=E17E7”.
 In the excel cell “E14” (water volume flowrate), type “=E13/E15*1000”.
 In the excel cell “E18” (pulp volume flowrate), type “=E8+E14”.
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4. Calculation of unknown parameters of flows 4 (rougher concentrate launder water addition)
 Known parameters:
 In the excel cell “F7” (solid mass flowrate), type number “0”.
 In the excel cell “F10” (copper grade), type number “0”
 In the excel cell “F14” (water volume flowrate), type number “2”.
 In the excel cell “F15” (water specific gravity), type number “1000”.
 In the excel cell “F9” (solid specific gravity), type number “0”.
 In the excel cell “F8” (solid volume flowrate), type number “0”.
 In the excel cell “F11” (copper mass flowrate), type number “0”.
 In the excel cell “F13” (water mass flowrate), type “=F14*F15/1000”.
 In the excel cell “F17” (pulp mass flowrate), type “=F7+F13”.
 In the excel cell “F18” (pulp volume flowrate), type “=F8+F14”.
 In the excel cell “F19” (pulp specific gravity), type “=F17/F18*1000”.
 In the excel cell “F20” (solid percent), type “=F7/F17*100”.
 Known parameters:
o Copper grade.
o Water specific gravity.
o Pulp specific gravity.
To close the water balance into the rougher cells, the rougher tailing specific gravity will be calculated.
 In the excel cell “G15” (water specific gravity), type number “1000”.
 In the excel cell “G7” (solid mass flowrate), type “=C7+D7E7”.
 In the excel cell “G9” (solid specific gravity), type “=(0.0005*G10^2+0.0259*G10+2.6728)*1000”
(equation 32).
 In the excel cell “G8” (solid volume flowrate), type “=G7/G9*1000”.
 In the excel cell “G11” (copper mass flowrate), type “=G7*G10*10”
 In the excel cell “G13” (water mass flowrate), type “=C13+D13E13”.
 In the excel cell “G14” (water volume flowrate), type “=G13/G15*1000”.
 In the excel cell “G17” (pulp mass flowrate), type “=G7+G13”.
 In the excel cell “G18” (pulp volume flowrate), type “=G8+G14”.
 In the excel cell “G19” (pulp specific gravity), type “=G17/G18*1000”.
 In the excel cell “G20” (solid percent), type “=100*G9*(G19G15)/(G19*(G9G15))” (equation 8).
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6. Calculation of unknown parameters of flows 6 (scavenger concentrate)
 Known parameters:
o Copper grade.
o Water specific gravity.
o Pulp specific gravity.
The solid mass flowrate of scavenger concentrate will be estimate by using the mathematical expression
(16). The mathematical expression (16) needs known value of copper grade of scavenger tailing.
 In the excel cell “J10” (copper grade of scavenger tailing), type number “0.67”.
 In the excel cell “H7” (solid mass), type “=(G10J10)/(H10J10)*G7” ( equation 16).
 In the excel cell “H9” (solid specific gravity), type “=(0.0005*H10^2+0.0259*H10+2.6728)*1000”
(equation 32).
 In the excel cell “H8” (solid volume flowrate), type “=H7/H9*1000”.
 In the excel cell “H11” (copper mass flowrate), type “=H7*H10*10”
 In the excel cell “H20” (solid percent), type “=100*H9*(H19H15)/(H19*(H9H15))” (equation 8).
 In the excel cell “H17” (pulp mass flowrate), type “=H7/H20*100”.
 In the excel cell “H13” (water mass flowrate), type “=H17H7”.
 In the excel cell “H14” (water volume flowrate), type “=H13/H15*1000”.
 In the excel cell “H18” (pulp volume flowrate), type “=H8+H14”.
 Known parameters:
 In the excel cell “I7” (solid mass flowrate), type number “0”.
 In the excel cell “I10” (copper grade), type number “0”
 In the excel cell “I14” (water volume flowrate), type number “4”.
 In the excel cell “I15” (water specific gravity), type number “1000”.
 In the excel cell “I9” (solid specific gravity), type number “0”.
 In the excel cell “I8” (solid volume flowrate), type number “0”.
 In the excel cell “I11” (copper mass flowrate), type number “0”.
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 In the excel cell “I13” (water mass flowrate), type “=I14*I15/1000”.
 In the excel cell “I17” (pulp mass flowrate), type “=I7+I13”.
 In the excel cell “I18” (pulp volume flowrate), type “=I8+I14”.
 In the excel cell “I19” (pulp specific gravity), type “=I17/I18*1000”.
 In the excel cell “I20” (solid percent), type “=I7/I17*100”.
 Known parameters:
o Copper grade.
o Water specific gravity.
o Pulp specific gravity.
To close the water balance into the scavenger cells, the scavenger tailing specific gravity will be
calculated.
 In the excel cell “J15” (water specific gravity), type number “1000”.
 In the excel cell “J7” (solid mass flowrate), type “=G7H7”
 In the excel cell “J9” (solid specific gravity), type “=(0.0005*J10^2+0.0259*J10+2.6728)*1000” (equation
32).
 In the excel cell “J8” (solid volume flowrate), type “=J7/J9*1000”.
 In the excel cell “J11” (copper mass flowrate), type “=J7*J10*10”.
 In the excel cell “J13” (water mass flowrate), type “=G13H13”.
 In the excel cell “J14” (water volume flowrate), type “=J13/J15*1000”.
 In the excel cell “J17” (pulp mass flowrate), type “=J7+J13”.
 In the excel cell “J18” (pulp volume flowrate), type “=J8+J14”.
 In the excel cell “J19” (pulp specific gravity), type “=J17/J18*1000”.
 In the excel cell “J20” (solid percent), type “=100*J9*(J19J15)/(J19*(J9J15))” (equation 8).
 Known parameter:
 In the excel cell “K15” (water specific gravity), type number “1000”.
The solid mass flowrate of the outlet regrind ball mill is an unknown value (recycle flow) and it
becomes the excel solver variable). The starting value of the solid mass flowrate is “100”.
 In the excel cell “K7” (solid mass flowrate), type number “100” (blue color).
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The copper grade of the outlet regrind ball mill is the same as the copper grade of hydrocyclone
underflow.
The pulp specific gravity of the outlet regrind ball mill is the same as the pulp specific gravity of
hydrocyclone underflow.
 In the excel cell “K19” (pulp specific gravity), type number “1740”.
 In the excel cell “K20” (solid percent), type “=100*K9*(K19K15)/(K19*(K9K15))” (equation 8).
 In the excel cell “K17” (pulp mass flowrate), type “=K7/K20*100”.
 In the excel cell “K13” (water mass flowrate), type “=K17K7”.
 In the excel cell “K14” (water volume flowrate), type “=K13/K15*1000”.
 In the excel cell “K18” (pulp volume flowrate), type “=K8+K14”.
 Known parameters:

o Copper grade.
o Water Specific gravity.
o Pulp specific gravity.
The solid mass flowrate of scavenger cleaner concentrate is an unknown value (recycle flow) and it
becomes the Excel solver variable. The staring value of the solid mass flowrate of the scavenger concentrate is
“100”.
 In the excel cell “L7” (solid mass flowrate), type number “100”.
 In the excel cell “L9” (solid specific gravity), type “=(0.0005*L10^2+0.0259*L10+2.6728)*1000”
(equation 32).
 In the excel cell “L8” (solid volume flowrate), type “=L7/L9*1000”.
 In the excel cell “L11” (copper mass flowrate), type “=L7*L10*10”
 In the excel cell “L20” (solid percent), type “=100*L9*(L19L15)/(L19*(L9L15))” (equation 8).
 In the excel cell “L17” (pulp mass flowrate), type “=L7/L20*100”.
 In the excel cell “L13” (water mass flowrate), type “=L17L7”.
 In the excel cell “L14” (water volume flowrate), type “=L13/L15*1000”.
 In the excel cell “L18” (pulp volume flowrate), type “=L8+L14”.
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11. Calculation of unknown parameters of flows 11 (scavenger cleaner concentrate launder water
addition)
 Known parameters:
 In the excel cell “C29” (solid mass flowrate), type number “0”.
 In the excel cell “C32” (copper grade), type number “0”
 In the excel cell “C36” (water volume flowrate), type number “5”.
 In the excel cell “C37” (water specific gravity), type number “1000”.
 In the excel cell “C31” (solid specific gravity), type number “0”.
 In the excel cell “C30” (solid volume flowrate), type number “0”.
 In the excel cell “C33” (copper mass flowrate), type number “0”.
 In the excel cell “C35” (water mass flowrate), type “=C36*C37/1000”.
 In the excel cell “C39” (pulp mass flowrate), type “=C29+C35”.
 In the excel cell “C40” (pulp volume flowrate), type “=C30+C36”.
 In the excel cell “C41” (pulp specific gravity), type “=C39/C40*1000”.
 In the excel cell “C42” (solid percent), type “=C29/C39*100”.
 Known parameters:
 In the excel cell “E37” (water specific gravity), type number “1000”.
 In the excel cell “E40” (pulp volume flowrate), type number “1275”.
 In the excel cell “E41” (pulp specific gravity), type number “1301”.
 In the excel cell “E29” (solid mass flowrate), type “=E7+F7+H7+I7+K7+C29+L7”.
 In the excel cell “E33” (copper mass flowrate), type “=E11+F11+H11+I11+K11+C33+L11”
 In the excel cell “E32” (copper grade), type “=E33/E29/10”.
 In the excel cell “E31” (solid specific gravity), type “=(0.0005*E32^2+0.0259*E32+2.6728)*1000”
(equation 32).
 In the excel cell “E30” (solid volume flowrate), type “=E29/E31*1000”.
 In the excel cell “E36” (water volume flowrate), type “=E40E30”.
 In the excel cell “E35” (water mass flowrate), type “=E36*E37/1000”.
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 In the excel cell “E39” (pulp mass flowrate), type “=E29+E35”.
 In the excel cell “E42” (solid percent), type “=100*E31*(E41E37)/(E41*(E31E37))” (equation 8).
 Known parameters:
 In the excel cell “D29” (solid mass flowrate), type number “0”.
 In the excel cell “D32” (copper grade), type number “0”.
 In the excel cell “D37” (water specific gravity), type number “1000”.
 In the excel cell “D36” (water volume flowrate), type number “=E36C36L14K14I14H14F14E14”.
 In the excel cell “D31” (solid specific gravity), type number “0”.
 In the excel cell “D30” (solid volume flowrate), type number “0”.
 In the excel cell “D33” (copper mass flowrate), type number “0”.
 In the excel cell “D35” (water mass flowrate), type “=D36*D37/1000”.
 In the excel cell “D39” (pulp mass flowrate), type “=D29+D35”.
 In the excel cell “D40” (pulp volume flowrate), type “=D30+D36”.
 In the excel cell “D41” (pulp specific gravity), type “=D39/D40*1000”.
 In the excel cell “D42” (solid percent), type “=D29/D39*100”.
 Known parameters:
o Solid mass.
o Copper grade.
o Pulp specific gravity.
o Water specific gravity.
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 In the excel cell “F36” (water volume flowrate), type “=F35/F37*1000”.
 In the excel cell “F40” (pulp volume flowrate), type “=F30+F36”.
 Known parameters:
 In the excel cell “G37” (water specific gravity), type number “1000”.
To close the copper and water balance into the hydrocyclone, the copper grade and the pulp specific
gravity will be calculated.
 Known parameters:

o Copper grade.
o Water specific gravity.
o Pulp specific gravity.
The solid mass flowrate of Recleaner tailing is an unknown value (recycle flow) and it becomes the
solver variable. The starting value of the solid mass flowrate is “100”.
 In the excel cell “H29” (solid mass flowrate), type number “100”.
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 In the excel cell “H31” (solid specific gravity), type “=(0.0005*H32^2+0.0259*H32+2.6728)*1000”
(equation 32).
 In the excel cell “H30” (solid volume flowrate), type “=H29/H31*1000”.
 In the excel cell “H33” (copper mass flowrate), type “=H29*H32*10”.
 In the excel cell “H42” (solid percent), type “=100*H31*(H41H37)/(H41*(H31H37))” (equation 8).
 In the excel cell “H39” (pulp mass flowrate), type “=H29/H42*100”.
 In the excel cell “H35” (water mass flowrate), type “=H39H29”.
 In the excel cell “H36” (water volume), type “=H35/H37*1000”.
 In the excel cell “H40” (pulp volume flowrate), type “=H30+H36”.
 Known parameters:
o Copper grade.
o Water specific gravity.
To close the water balance into the cleaner cells, the pulp specific gravity of cleaner concentrate will be
calculated from the known value of cleaner tailing pulp specific gravity.
The cleaner flotation feed is the mixture of the hydrocyclone overflow and the recleaner tailing. The
copper grade of cleaner flotation feed is calculated.
 In the excel cell “H44” (cleaner copper grade designation), type “CF %Cu”.
 In the excel cell “I44” (cleaner copper grade), type “=(G33+H33)/((G29+H29)*10)”.
The estimation of the solid mass flowrate of cleaner concentrate needs the value of copper grade of
cleaner tailing.
 In the excel cell “K32” (cleaner tailing copper grade), type number “2.57”.
 In the excel cell “I29” (solid mass flowrate), type “=(I44K32)/(I32K32)*(G29+H29)” ( equation 16).
 In the excel cell “I31” (solid specific gravity), type “=(0.0005*I32^2+0.0259*I32+2.6728)*1000” (equation
32).
 In the excel cell “I30” (solid volume flowrate), type “=I29/I31*1000”.
 In the excel cell “I33” (copper mass flowrate), type “=I29*I32*10”
 In the excel cell “I35” (water mass flowrate), type “=G35+H35K35”.
 In the excel cell “I36” (water volume flowrate), type “=I35/I37*1000”.
 In the excel cell “I39” (pulp mass flowrate), type “=I29+I35”.
 In the excel cell “I40” (pulp volume flowrate), type “=I30+I36”.
 In the excel cell “I41” (pulp specific gravity), type “=I39/I40*1000”.
 In the excel cell “I42” (solid percent), type “=100*I31*(I41I37)/(I41*(I31I37))” (equation 8).
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18. Calculation of unknown parameters of flows 18 (cleaner concentrate launder water addition)
 Known parameters:
 In the excel cell “J29” (solid mass flowrate), type number “0”.
 In the excel cell “J32” (copper grade), type number “0”
 In the excel cell “J36” (water volume flowrate), type number “4”.
 In the excel cell “J37” (water specific gravity), type number “1000”.
 In the excel cell “J31” (solid specific gravity), type number “0”.
 In the excel cell “J30” (solid volume flowrate), type number “0”.
 In the excel cell “J33” (copper mass flowrate), type number “0”.
 In the excel cell “J35” (water mass flowrate), type “=J36*J37/1000”.
 In the excel cell “J39” (pulp mass flowrate), type “=J29+J35”.
 In the excel cell “J40” (pulp volume flowrate), type “=J30+J36”.
 In the excel cell “J41” (pulp specific gravity), type “=J39/J40*1000”.
 In the excel cell “J42” (solid percent), type “=J29/J39*100”.
 Known parameters:
To close the water balance into the scavenger cleaner cells, the pulp specific gravity of cleaner tailing
will be calculated.
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20. Calculation of unknown parameters of flows 20 (Recleaner concentrate)
 Known parameters:
o Copper grade.
o Water specific gravity.
To close the water balance into the recleaner cells, the pulp specific gravity of the recleaner
concentrate will be calculated.
At this level, the nonoptimized results are given in Table 5 as it appears on Excel spreadsheet.
1) On the ‘Data’, in the ‘Analysis group’ click solver (if the solver command is not available, you must
activate the solver addin).
2) In the ‘Set objective’ box, enter the cell reference “E46” of simulation constraint table.
3) Click “Value of” and then type the number “0” in the box.
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A B C D E F G H I J K L
1
2 Table 5A Material balance simulation table
3
4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
5 Feed SCT RC RCW RT SC SCW ST ORBM SCC
6 Solid
7 Mass t/h 1243.0 100.0 99.0 0.0 1244.0 58.6 0.0 1185.5 100.0 100.0
8 Vol. m3/h 456.2 37.1 31.4 0.0 461.6 21.0 0.0 440.6 34.6 33.7
9 SGS kg/m3 2724.6 2696.0 3156.3 0.0 2694.9 2792.8 0.0 2690.4 2893.2 2963.6
10 Cu % 1.93 0.88 14.57 0.00 0.84 4.28 0.00 0.67 7.44 9.49
11 Cu kg/h 23990.1 880.0 14420.2 0.0 10449.9 2507.4 0.0 7942.5 7440.0 9490.0
12 Water
13 Mass t/h 2835.8 567.8 257.6 2.0 3146.0 226.4 4.0 2919.6 53.9 912.8
14 Vol. m3/h 2835.8 567.8 257.6 2.0 3146.0 226.4 4.0 2919.6 53.9 912.8
15 SGS kg/m3 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0
16 Pulp
17 Mass t/h 4078.9 667.8 356.6 2.0 4390.1 285.0 4.0 4105.1 153.9 1012.8
18 Vol. m3/h 3292.1 604.9 289.0 2.0 3607.7 247.4 4.0 3360.2 88.4 946.5
19 SGS kg/m3 1239.0 1104.0 1234.0 1000.0 1216.9 1152.0 1000.0 1221.7 1740.0 1070.5
20 CwS % 30.47 14.97 27.76 0.00 28.34 20.55 0.00 28.88 64.99 9.87
21
22 RF%Cu 1.85
23
24 Table 5B Material balance simulation table
25
26 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
27 SCCW W HF HUF HOF ReCT CC CCW CT ReCC
28 Solid
29 Mass t/h 0.0 0.0 357.6 100.0 257.6 100.0 111.0 0.0 246.5 88.3
30 Vol. m3/h 0.0 0.0 120.7 34.6 86.1 37.0 33.1 0.0 89.9 24.7
31 SGS kg/m3 0.0 0.0 2962.9 2893.2 2991.1 2704.1 3352.1 0.0 2742.7 3571.4
32 Cu % 0.00 0.00 9.47 7.44 10.26 1.18 19.15 0.00 2.57 23.78
33 Cu kg/h 0.0 0.0 33857.5 7440.0 26417.5 1180.0 21261.8 0.0 6335.8 20993.4
34 Water
35 Mass t/h 5.0 307.4 1154.3 53.9 1100.5 838.3 458.2 4.0 1480.6 376.1
36 Vol. m3/h 5.0 3.07.4 1154.3 53.9 1100.5 838.3 458.2 4.0 1480.6 376.1
37 SGS kg/m3 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0
38 Pulp
39 Mass t/h 5.0 307.4 1511.9 153.9 1358.0 938.3 569.2 4.0 1727.1 287.8
40 Vol. m3/h 5.0 307.4 1275.0 88.4 1186.6 875.3 491.3 4.0 1570.5 287.8
41 SGS kg/m3 1000.0 1000.0 1301.0 1740.0 1144.5 1072.0 1158.6 1000.0 1099.7 819.1
42 S % 0.00 0.00 34.92 64.99 18.97 10.66 19.51 0.00 14.27 30.67
Cw
43
44 CFCu% 7.72
45 Simulation solver constraint table
46 Constraint 1 146.818
47 Constraint 2 46.528
48 Constraint 3 51.611
49 Constraint 4 77.254
50
51
52
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A B C D E F G H I J K L
1
2 Table 6A Material balance simulation table
3
4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
5 Feed SCT RC RCW RT SC SCW ST ORBM SCC
6 Solid
7 Mass t/h 1243.0 89.2 98.9 0.0 1233.3 58.1 0.0 1175.2 404.2 21.8
8 Vol. m3/h 456.2 33.1 31.3 0.0 457.6 20.8 0.0 436.8 139.7 7.4
9 SGS kg/m3 2724.6 2696.0 3156.3 0.0 2694.9 2792.8 0.0 2690.4 2893.2 2963.6
10 Cu % 1.93 0.88 14.57 0.00 0.84 4.28 0.00 0.67 7.44 9.49
11 Cu kg/h 23990.1 785.4 14415.6 0.0 10359.9 2485.8 0.0 7874.1 30073.6 2068.4
12 Water
13 Mass t/h 2835.8 506.7 257.5 2.0 3085.1 224.5 4.0 2860.6 217.7 199.0
14 Vol. m3/h 2835.8 506.7 257.5 2.0 3085.1 224.5 4.0 2860.6 217.7 199.0
15 SGS kg/m3 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0
16 Pulp
17 Mass t/h 4078.9 596.0 356.5 2.0 4318.4 282.6 4.0 4035.8 621.9 220.7
18 Vol. m3/h 3292.1 539.8 288.9 2.0 3542.7 245.3 4.0 3297.4 357.4 206.3
19 SGS kg/m3 1239.0 1104.0 1234.0 1000.0 1218.9 1152.0 1000.0 1223.9 1740.0 1070.0
20 CwS % 30.47 14.97 27.76 0.00 28.56 20.55 0.00 29.12 64.99 9.87
21
22 RF%Cu 1.86
23
24 Table 6B Material balance simulation table
25
26 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
27 SCCW W HF HUF HOF ReCT CC CCW CT ReCC
28 Solid
29 Mass t/h 0.0 0.0 583.0 404.2 178.8 17.5 85.2 0.0 111.0 67.8
30 Vol. m3/h 0.0 0.0 199.3 139.7 59.5 6.5 25.4 0.0 40.5 19.0
31 SGS kg/m3 0.0 0.0 2926.0 2893.2 3003.8 2704.1 3352.1 0.0 2742.7 3571.4
32 Cu % 0.00 0.00 8.41 7.44 10.61 1.18 19.15 0.00 2.57 23.78
33 Cu kg/h 0.0 0.0 49043.4 30073.6 18969.8 206.0 16322.0 0.0 2853.8 16116.0
34 Water
35 Mass t/h 5.0 166.1 1075.7 217.7 858.0 146.4 298.7 4.0 705.7 156.3
36 Vol. m3/h 5.0 166.1 1075.7 217.7 858.0 146.4 298.7 4.0 705.7 156.3
37 SGS kg/m3 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0 1000.0
38 Pulp
39 Mass t/h 5.0 166.1 1658.8 621.9 1036.8 163.8 383.9 4.0 816.7 224.1
40 Vol. m3/h 5.0 166.1 1275.0 357.4 917.6 152.8 324.1 4.0 746.2 175.3
41 SGS kg/m3 1000.0 1000.0 1301.0 1740.0 1130.0 1072.0 1184.5 1000.0 1094.6 1278.3
42 S % 0.00 0.00 35.15 64.99 17.25 10.66 22.20 0.00 13.60 30.24
Cw
43
44 CFCu% 9.77
45 Simulation solver constraint table
46 Constraint 1 0.000
47 Constraint 2 0.000
48 Constraint 3 0.000
49 Constraint 4 0.000
50
51
52
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4) In the “By Changing Variable Cells” box, enter the reference for each solver variable (blue color in
Table 5). Separate the references with commas (English version).
5) In the ‘Subject to the constraints’ box, enter solver constraints by doing the following:
a) In the ‘Solver Parameters’ dialog box, click ‘Add’.
b) In the ‘Cell Reference’ box, enter the cell reference “E47” of simulation constraint table
c) Click the ‘relationship’ ‘=‘, in the ‘Constraint’ box, type the number ‘0’.
d) Click ‘Add’ for the solver constraint 3. When the last solver constraint 4 is added (excel cell
‘E49’), click ‘OK’ to return to ‘Solver Parameters’ dialog box.
6) Click ‘Solve’. To keep the solution values on the worksheet, in the ‘Solver Results’ dialog box, click
‘Keep solver solution’.
At this level, the optimized results are given in Table 6 as it appears on Excel Microsoft spreadsheet.
Figure 6 gives the summary of results.
Table 7 gives comparison between sampling data and material balance results for the sampling data
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Figure 6: Summary of simulation results
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4. References
1. Luis A. Cistermas, David A. Mendez, Edelmira D. Galvez, Rodrigo E. Jorquera, A MILP model for design of
flotation circuits with bank/column and regrind/no regrind selection, International journal of mineral processing, 79
(2006) 253263
2. Metso (2006), basics in Minerals Processing, 5th Edition.
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