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Passenger Car on the NEDC Driving Cycle

MATLAB Commands

How to define matrix a

Sum: +

Difference: Array multiply (it should be performed only between matrixes with the same dimension): .*

a=[3 4]

b=[5 6]

MATLAB Commands

Matrix multiply: *

a=[3 4]

b=[5; 6]

Array divide: ./

Matrix divide: /

Array Power: .^

Matrix Power: ^

Transpose:

Write ; at the end of each line to suppress the output in the command window

MATLAB Commands

Conditionally executed statements: if

Z=interp2(x_map,y_map,z_map,X,Y)

Create an M-file: edit esercitazione.m

Get data and text from Excel spreadsheets: xlsread

nedc=xlsread(dati_es_cicloNEDC.xls,NEDC);

Speed [km/h]

Time

Gear

Get Columns time, speed, gear

time=nedc(:,1);

speed=nedc(:,2);

gear=nedc(:,3);

mass=1168;

ratio_I=3.563;

eta_I=0.94;

...

pq=dlmread(piano_quot_cons_kg_h_vers_matlab.pqm,\t);

rpm_pq=pq(1,2:end);

bmep_pq=pq(2:end,1);

fc_pq=pq(2:end,2:end);

Choice of the Gear Ratio:

for i=1:length(speed)

if gear(i)==0

ratio=0

eta=0;

elseif gear(i)==1

ratio=ratio_I;

eta=0

elseif ...

...

end

...

rpm:

Km

v

* 60

h

rev

rpm

fd gear

rpm(i)=speed(i)*60/2/pi/r_wheel/3.6*ratio_fin*ratio;

if rpm(i)<rpm_idle

rpm(i)=rpm_idle;

end

To

avoid

downspeeding

below idling speed

BMEP:

fres(i)=F0+F1*speed(i)+F2*speed(i)^2;

m_trasl(i)=mass+J_wheel/r_wheel^2+J_eng/r_wheel^2*ratio^2*ratio_fin^2

acc(i)=(speed(i)-speed(i-1))/(time(i)-time(i-1));

!!!!!

pwr(i)=(fres(i)+m_trasl(i)*acc(i))*speed(i);

bmep(i)=1200*pwr(i)/rpm(i)/Vtot;

Interpolation to Calculate Engine Fuel Rate:

fc(i)=interp2(rpm_pq,bmep_pq,fc_pq,rpm(i),bmep(i));

CAUTION: The performance map is not defined for speed <850 rpm e BMEP<0.5

bar ! In these conditions the idle fuel consumption should be applied.

NOx Emission Rate:

nox=xlsread(piano_quotato_nox_g_h.txt);

...

fc_tot = fc_tot + fc(i)*( time(i)-time(i-1) )/3.6;

[g]

nox_tot=nox_tot+nox(i)*(time(i)-time(i-1))/3600;

[g]

Distance Travelled:

km_tot = km_tot + speed(i)*( time(i)-time(i-1) )/3600;

Alternative function: km_tot = cumtrapz( time [s], speed [km/h])/3600 [km]

l_100km=fc_tot/fuel_dens/km_tot*100;

nox_spec=nox_tot/km_tot;

CO2 emissions:

co2=...

mCO2 mC x H y

CO

mC H 3.167

C H

2

mCO2

f [ kg / l ]

[ g / km]

V [l / 100km]

0.0315

Post-processing

I.e. rpm vs time plot

plot(time,rpm)

grid on

Insert a grid

hold on

plot(time,bmep)

P=bmep_pq*rpm_pq*V/1200;

[kW]

bsfc=fc_pq./P*1000;

[g/kWh]

Post-processing

BSFC map

V=[200 210 220 230 240 250 275 300 325 350 375 400];

[c,h]=contour(rpm_pq,bmep_pq,bsfc,V)

clabel(c,h)

max=xlsread('dati_es_cicloNEDC.xls','curva di potenza');

max_rpm=max(:,1);

max_pme=max(:,2);

hold on

plot(max_rpm,max_pme,--r)

Additional Features

Cut-off: the fuel consumption should be zero when

BMEP < 0 e rpm > speed_threshold

if bmep(i)<0 & rpm>1000

fc(i)=0

elseif

...

end

Energy Consumption

kj=kj+pwr(i)*(time(i)-time(i-1))

positive

if pwr(i)<0

pwr_regen(i)=pwr(i);

else

pwr_regen(i)=0;

end

kj_regen=kj_regen+pwr_regen(i)*(time(i)-time(i-1))*-1;

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