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Separation

Separation can be divided into 2 classes:


Diffusional operations: transfer of material between phases
Mechanical separation: based on physical differences, e.g. size,
shape, density

Mechanical separation are applied to heterogeneous


mixtures, NOT to homogeneous mixtures

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Mechanical Separation
Separation of
solids from gases
liquid drops from gases
solids from solids
solids from liquids

Mechanical separation can be achieved by:


Sieve or membrane: Screen of filter
Settling: different rate of sedimentation of particles or drops as
they move through gas or liquid
Special cases: Electrostatic, magnetic etc.
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Screening
Separating particles due to size ONLY
Single screen gives unsized fractions
Series of screens provides sized fractions
Commonly applied for large scale for the separation
Generally applicable for particles of a size as small as
about 50 m

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Screening
For very fine materials
difficulty of producing accurately woven fine gauze of sufficient
strength
screens become clogged
other methods of separation are usually more economical

Woven wire cloth is generally used for fine sizes and


perforated plates for the larger meshes

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Screening
Commonly done in dry mode, occasionally in wet mode
With coarse solids the screen surface may be
continuously washed by means of a flowing stream of
water
to keep the particles apart
to remove the finer particles from the surface of larger particles
to keep the screen free of adhering materials

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Screening
Fine screens are normally operated wet, with the solids
fed continuously as a suspension
Concentrated suspensions have high effective viscosities
and frequently exhibit shear-thinning non-Newtonian
characteristics
By maintaining a high cross-flow velocity over the surface of the
screen, or by rapid vibration, the apparent viscosity of the
suspension may be reduced and the screening rate substantially
increased.
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Multiphase systems
Dissolved or
dispersed
phase

Continuous
medium

Solution

Colloid

Coarse dispersion

Gas

Gas

Gas mixture: air (oxygen and other


gases in nitrogen)

None

None

Liquid

Gas

None

Aerosols of liquid particles: fog, mist, vapor, hair


sprays

Aerosol

Solid

Gas

None

Aerosols of solid particles: smoke, cloud, air


particulates

Solid aerosol: dust

Gas

Liquid

Solution: oxygen in water

Liquid foam: whipped cream, shaving cream

Foam

Liquid

Liquid

Solution: alcoholic beverages

Emulsion

Emulsion: milk, mayonnaise, hand cream

Solid

Liquid

Solution: sugar in water

Liquid sol: pigmented ink, blood

Suspension: mud (soil, clay or silt particles are


suspended in water)

Gas

Solid

Solution: hydrogen in metals

Solid foam: aerogel

Foam: dry sponge

Liquid

Solid

Solution: amalgam

Gel: agar, gelatin, silica gel, opal

Wet sponge

Solid

Solid

Solution: alloys

Solid sol: cranberry glass

Gravel, granite

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Source: Wikipedia

Non-Newtonian fluid

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Non-Newtonian fluid

Time-dependent
viscosity

Rheopectic

Apparent viscosity increases with


Printer ink
duration of stress

Thixotropic

Yogurt, aqueous iron


oxide gels, gelatin gels,
Apparent viscosity decreases with
some clays, some drilling muds,
duration of stress
many paints,
colloidal suspensions

Shear thickening Apparent viscosity increases with Suspensions of corn starch in


(dilatant)
increased stress
water, sand in water

Timeindependent
viscosity

Shear thinning
(pseudoplastic)

Nail polish, whipped


cream, ketchup, molasses,
Apparent viscosity decreases with
syrups, paper pulp in water, latex
increased stress
paint, blood, some silicone oils,
some silicone coatings

Viscosity is constant
Generalized
Stress depends on normal and
Newtonian fluids shear strain rates and also the
pressure applied on it

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Custard, Water

Screening Equipment
In most cases, the particles drop through the openings
by gravity
Coarse particles drop through easily, but with fine
particles, screen must be agitated
Agitation can be done by
shaking
vibrating
mechanically or electrically

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Stationary screen & Grizzly


Made of longitudinal bars up to 3 m long, fixed in a
rectangular framework
Space between bars is 2 8 in.
Usually inclined at an angle to the horizontal
Greater the angle, the greater is the throughput BUT the
screening efficiency is reduced
Effective for very coarse free-flowing solids containing
few fine particles
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Grizzlies

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Source: Google Image

Electromagnetic screen

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The screen itself is vibrated

Mechanical screen

The whole assembly is vibrated


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Mechanical screen
As very rapid accelerations and retardations are produced, the
power consumption and the wear on the bearings are high
Generally mounted in a multi-deck fashion with the coarsest
screen on top, either horizontally or inclined at angles up to
45
With the horizontal machine, the vibratory motion fulfils the
additional function of moving the particles across the screen

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Mechanical screen
The screen area which is required for a given operation
cannot be predicted without testing the material under
similar conditions on a small plant

In particular, the tendency of the material to clog the


screening surface can only be determined experimentally

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Trommel
A very large mechanically operated screen

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Electrostatic separator

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Cyclone separator

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Slurry Transport
Mechanical Operations (CH 31007)

Flow condition

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Rheological models for homogeneous slurries

Although no slurry is ever perfectly homogeneous or non-settling, the


homogeneous condition is a limiting form of flow behaviour that actual
slurries can approach.

The solid particles settle so slowly that continuum fluid models can be
used to describe the flow behaviour of slurries.

Like liquids, non-settling slurries may exhibit either Newtonian or nonNewtonian flow behaviour.

At higher solids concentration, homogeneous slurry mixtures behave


essentially as single-phase liquids with flow properties markedly
different from that of the original liquid (before the solids are added).

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Rheological models for homogeneous slurries

The viscosity of a slurry can be measured if the particles settle slowly.

For dilute suspensions of fine particles, slurries may exhibit Newtonian


behaviour.

In this case, the viscosity of a very dilute suspension (solids volume fraction less
than 2%) of uniform, spherical particles can be described by the theoretical
equation derived by Einstein

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Rheological models for homogeneous slurries

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Flow profiles

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Flow profiles

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Pressure Drop Prediction for Power-law


Laminar flow

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Friction factor

Laminar flow

Turbulent flow
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Non-Newtonian Yield Stress Models

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Velocity profile

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Pressure Drop Prediction for Bingham Plastic

Laminar flow

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Pressure Drop Prediction for Bingham Plastic


Turbulent flow

Hedstrom number

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Transition Reynolds number

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Heterogeneous Slurry

Critical deposition velocity is an essential component of pipeline design.

Below the critical deposition velocity, pipeline blockage may result.

The critical deposition velocity and the pressure drop depend on


particle size, pipe diameter, particle concentration, particle density, etc.

Many of these correlations are based on experiments that do not report


all relevant variables, the values obtained by these correlations should
be regarded as estimates and one should not expect their predictive
ability to be much better than 20%.

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Critical Deposition Velocity


Durand and Condolios (1954)

Wasp et al. (1977)

Gillies et al. (2000)


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Components of a Slurry Flow System

Addition of the liquid phase to the dry solids


Chemical treatment for corrosion inhibition, or modification of slurry
rheology by particle size reduction
Types of slurry

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Pumps

The selection of a pump for a specific slurry transport line is based on the
discharge pressure requirement and the particle characteristics (particle size
and abrasivity)

Either positive displacement pumps or centrifugal pumps

For discharge pressures under approximately 45 bar, centrifugal pumps


offer an economic advantage over positive displacement pumps

Efficiencies of 65% are common for centrifugal pumps compared with


efficiencies of 8590% for positive displacement pumps

Transport of very large particles, even up to 150 mm in size, in centrifugal


pumps, however, for positive displacement pumps, the maximum particle
size is typically on the order of 2 mm

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Pipeline

Pipe material should be able to withstand the applied pressure and


that the pipe material should be wear-resistant.

Erosive wear is likely to be a problem for transporting abrasive


particles at higher velocities > 3m/s.

Pipe materials generally fall into the broad categories of hardened


metals, elastomers (rubbers and urethanes), and ceramics.

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Slurry De-watering

Particle sedimentation by gravity or assisted by a centrifugal field

Filtration by gravity, assisted by a centrifugal field, pressure or


vacuum

Thermal drying

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Pumping system characteristics

Resistance of the system: Pressure is needed to pump the liquid


through the system at a certain rate. This pressure has to be high
enough to overcome the resistance of the system, which is also
called head. The total head is the sum of static head and friction
head.

Static head: Static head is the difference in height between the


source and destination of the pumped liquid.

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Static head

Suction head (hS): resulting from lifting the liquid relative to the
pump center line.
The hS is positive if the liquid level is above pump centerline, and
negative if the liquid level is below pump centerline (also called suction
lift)

Static discharge head (hd): the vertical distance between the


pump centerline and the surface of the liquid in the destination
tank.

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Friction head

This is the loss needed to overcome that is caused by the resistance


to flow in the pipe and fittings.

It is dependent on size, condition and type of pipe, number and


type of pipe fittings, flow rate, and nature of the liquid.

The friction head is proportional to the square of the flow rate

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Pump performance curve


The head and flow rate determine the performance of a
pump

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Pump operating point


The rate of flow at a certain head is called the duty point

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Pump suction performance (NPSH)

Cavitation or vaporization is the formation of bubbles inside the


pump. This may occur when at the fluids local static pressure
becomes lower than the liquids vapor pressure (at the actual
temperature).

A possible cause is when the fluid accelerates in a control valve or


around a pump impeller.

Vaporization itself does not cause any damage. However, when the
velocity is decreased and pressure increases, the vapor will
evaporate and collapse.

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Cavitation

Erosion of vane surfaces, especially when pumping water-based


liquids

Increase of noise and vibration, resulting in shorter seal and bearing


life

Partially choking of the impeller passages, which reduces the pump


performance and can lead to loss of total head in extreme cases.

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NPSH

Net Positive Suction Head Available (NPSHA) indicates how


much the pump suction exceeds the liquid vapor pressure, and is a
characteristic of the system design.

NPSH Required (NPSHR) is the pump suction needed to avoid


cavitation, and is a characteristic of the pump design.

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TYPE OF PUMPS

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Positive displacement pumps

Positive displacement pumps are distinguished by the way they


operate: liquid is taken from one end and positively discharged at
the other end for every revolution.

Positive displacement pumps are widely used for pumping fluids


other than water, mostly viscous fluids.

Positive displacement pumps are further classified based upon the


mode of displacement:
Reciprocating pump
Rotary pumps

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Reciprocating pump

Displacement is by reciprocation of a piston plunger.

Reciprocating pumps are used only for pumping viscous liquids and
oil wells

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Rotary pumps

Displacement is by rotary action of a gear, cam or vanes in a


chamber of diaphragm in a fixed casing

Rotary pumps are further classified such as internal gear, external


gear, lobe and slide vane etc.

These pumps are used for special services with particular conditions
existing in industrial sites.

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Positive displacement pump


In all positive displacement type pumps, a fixed
quantity of liquid is pumped after each revolution.
So if the delivery pipe is blocked, the pressure rises to a
very high value, which can damage the pump.

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Dynamic pumps
Dynamic pumps are also characterized by their mode of
operation: a rotating impeller converts kinetic energy
into pressure or velocity that is needed to pump the
fluid.
There are two types of dynamic pumps:
Centrifugal pumps
Special effect pumps

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How a centrifugal pump works

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How to calculate pump performance

The work performed by a pump is a function of the total head and


of the weight of the liquid pumped in a given time period.

Pump shaft power (Ps) is the actual horsepower delivered to the


pump shaft, and can be calculated as

Pump output, water horsepower or hydraulic horsepower (hp) is the


liquid horsepower delivered by the pump, and can be calculated as

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Selecting the right pump

In selecting the pump, suppliers try to match the system curve


supplied by the user with a pump curve that satisfies these needs as
closely as possible.

It is impossible for one operating point to meet all desired operating


conditions.

Best Efficiency Point (BEP): at which the efficiency of the pump is


highest.

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Affinity Laws

Flow rate (Q) is proportional to the rotating speed (N)

Head (H) is proportional to the square of the rotating speed

Power (P) is proportional to the cube of the rotating speed

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A coalwater slurry with 65% volume fraction of coal (specific gravity = 2.5) is pumped
at a rate of 3.41 m3/h from a storage tank through a 50 m long, 1.58 cm I.D. horizontal
pipe to a boiler. The storage tank is open to the atmosphere and the slurry is
discharged at a gauge pressure of 1.38 bar. Assume that the slurry behaves as a
Bingham plastic fluid with a yield stress of 80 Pa and a plastic viscosity of 0.2 Pa.s.
Calculate the Reynolds number and Hedstrom number of this flow? Assuming laminar
flow condition, calculate the pumping power (in kW) required for that slurry transport?

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Pneumatic Transport/conveying

Use of a gas to transport a particulate solid through a pipeline

Wheat flour to wheat grain and plastic chips to coal

Done in dilute suspension using large volumes of air at high velocity

Attractions of dense phase transport lie in its low air requirements

A low air requirement also generally means a lower energy


requirement

The resulting low solids velocities mean that in dense phase


transport product degradation by attrition, and pipeline erosion are
not the major problems

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Dilute Phase and Dense Phase Transport

Dilute phase flow:


High gas velocities (> 20 m/s)
low solids concentrations (< 1% by volume)
low pressure drops per unit length of transport line (typically 5 mbar/m)
dilute phase pneumatic transport is limited to short route
fluid-particle forces dominate

Dense phase flow:


Low gas velocities (15 m/s)
High solids concentrations ( > 30% by volume)
High pressure drops per unit length of pipe (typically greater than 20 mbar/m)
Interaction between the particles

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Dilute Phase and Dense Phase Transport


Konrad (1986) lists four alternative means of distinguishing dense phase
flow from dilute phase flow:
(a) on the basis of solids/air mass flow rates
(b) on the basis of solids concentration
(c) dense phase flow exists where the solids completely fill the cross
section of the pipe at some point
(d) dense phase flow exists when, for horizontal flow, the gas velocity is
insufficient to support all particles in suspension, and, for vertical flow,
where reverse flow of solids occurs
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Pressure drop across the length


pressure drop due to gas acceleration
pressure drop due to particle acceleration
pressure drop due to gas-to-pipe friction
pressure drop related to solid-to-pipe friction
pressure drop due to the static head of the solids
pressure drop due to the static head of the gas

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Choking Velocity in Vertical Transport

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Saltation Velocity in Horizontal Transport

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For a length of transport pipe into which particles and gas at mass
flow rates of Mp and Mf, respectively. The continuity equations are:

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Pressure drop
write down the momentum equation for a section of pipe

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Total pressure drop along a straight length of pipe carrying solids


(1) pressure drop due to gas acceleration
(2) pressure drop due to particle acceleration
(3) pressure drop due to gas-to-wall friction
(4) pressure drop related to solids-to-wall friction
(5) pressure drop due to the static head of the solids
(6) pressure drop due to the static head of the gas

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If the gas and the solids are already accelerated in the


line ..!!
If the pipe is horizontal ..!!
The main difficulties are in knowing what the solids-towall friction is, and whether the gas-to-wall friction can
be assumed independent of the presence of the solids

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Design for Dilute Phase Transport


Design of a dilute phase transport system involves
selection of a combination of pipe size and gas velocity to ensure
dilute flow,
calculation of the resulting pipeline pressure drop and
selection of appropriate equipment for moving the gas and
separating the solids from the gas at the end of the line

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Gas velocity

In both horizontal and vertical dilute phase transport it is desirable to


operate at the lowest possible velocity in order to minimize frictional
pressure loss, reduce attrition and reduce running costs

For a particular pipe size and solids flow rate, the saltation velocity is
always higher than the choking velocity. Therefore, in a transport
system comprising both vertical and horizontal lines, the gas velocity
must be selected to avoid saltation.

Uncertainty in the correlations for predicting choking and saltation


velocities, safety margins of 50 % and greater are recommended when
selecting the operating gas velocity

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Pipeline pressure drop

gas-to-wall friction

solids-to-wall friction

gas-to-wall friction is often assumed independent of the presence


of the solids and so the friction factor for the gas may be used

for vertical transport

for horizontal transport

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Bends

Bends complicate the design of pneumatic dilute phase transport systems


and when designing a transport system it is best to use as few bends as
possible

Bends increase the pressure drop in a line, and also are the points of most
serious erosion and particle attrition

Solids normally in suspension in straight, horizontal or vertical pipes tend to


salt out at bends due to the centrifugal force encountered while travelling
around the bend.

Because of this operation, the particles slow down and are then re
entrained and re-accelerated after they pass through the bend, resulting in
the higher pressure drops associated with bends

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There is a greater tendency for particles to salt out in a horizontal


pipe which is preceded by a downflowing vertical to horizontal bend
than in any other configuration.

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Bend pressure drop

In spite of a considerable amount of research into bend pressure


drop, there is no reliable method of predicting accurate bend
pressure drops other than by experiment for the actual conditions
expected.

In industrial practice, bend pressure drop is often approximated


by assuming that it is equivalent to approximately 7.5m of vertical
section pressure drop.

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Mechanical Separation
Mechanical Operations (CH 31007)

Efficiency of separation and grade efficiency

It is useful to represent the efficiency with which various sizes or


grades of particles are distributed between the outputs of separation
devices.

Process efficiency is commonly represented as a function of


particle size, termed grade efficiency.

Consider a continuous particle separator, operating at steady state,


in which particles are introduced in suspension at a fixed volumetric
feed rate and at a constant solids concentration on a volume basis.

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Efficiency of separation and grade efficiency


Fluid and particles are divided between a coarse product
outlet (underflow) and a fine product outlet (overflow)

The most desirable division of solids in a device for


solid/liquid separation, such as a thickener, is where all
of the solids report to the underflow so that the overflow
is clarified liquid

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Efficiency of separation and grade efficiency

If the efficiency of separation (E) is defined as:

the mass solids (of all sizes) in the underflow / to that in the feed

then a clarified overflow corresponds to an efficiency of 100 %.

In processes where classification or separation of particles is


required:

The efficiency of separation will be a function of one or more


distributed properties of the particles.

The function which describes the efficiency with which particles are
separated by size (d) is usually termed the grade efficiency, G(d).

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Efficiency of separation and grade efficiency


For particles in a narrow size interval between d and d +
dd, G(d) is defined as the mass ratio of such particles in
the underflow to that in the feed.

The overall separation efficiency E corresponds to the


particle size d for which G(d) equals E.

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Efficiency of separation and grade efficiency


The grade efficiency reflects the properties of the
particles exploited in the separation
Can be influenced by
the nature of the fluid/solid system
by the operating conditions which determine the magnitude of
the separating effect
the period during which particles are subjected to it

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Centrifugal Separations
There is now a wide range of situations where centrifugal
force is used in place of the gravitational force in order to
effect separations.
The resulting accelerations may be several thousand times
that attributable to gravity.
Some of the benefits include
far greater rates of separation
the possibility of achieving separations which are either not
practically feasible, or actually impossible, in the gravitational field
a substantial reduction of the size of the equipment
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Centrifugal Separations

Centrifugal fields can be generated in two distinctly different ways:


By introducing a fluid with a high tangential velocity into a cylindrical or
conical vessel, as in the hydrocyclone and in the cyclone separator
In this case, the flow pattern in the body of the separator approximates
to a free vortex in which the tangential velocity varies inversely with the
radius
By the use of the centrifuge.
In this case, the fluid is introduced into some form of rotating bowl
and is rapidly accelerated. Under these conditions, the tangential
velocity will be directly proportional to the radius at which the fluid is
rotating

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Centrifugal Separations

In any application, the size of the particles to be removed from the


gas determine, to a large extent, the method to be used for their
separation.

Generally, particles larger than about 100 m can be separated


easily by gravity settling.

For particles less than 10 m, more energy intensive methods


such as filtration, wet scrubbing and electrostatic precipitation must
be used.

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Typical grade efficiency curves for gasparticle separators

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Gas cyclones are generally not suitable for separation involving


suspensions with a large proportion of particles less than 10 m.

Centrifugal Separations

They are best suited as primary separation devices and for relatively
coarse particles, with an electrostatic precipitator or fabric filter
being used downstream to remove very fine particles.

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Simple Theoretical Analysis


The net flow of gas is radially inwards towards
the central gas outlet.
The forces acting on a particle following a
circular path are
drag
buoyancy
centrifugal force
The balance between these forces determines the
equilibrium orbit adopted by the particle.
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Simple Theoretical Analysis


The drag force is caused by the inward flow of gas past
the particle and acts radially inwards.

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Consider a particle of

The tangential velocity of the particle: Uq

Diameter: x

The radial inward velocity of the gas: Ur

Density: rp
Orbit of radius: r
Gas of density rf and
Viscosity

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If we assume that Stokes law applies under


these conditions then the drag force is given
by:

Consider a particle of
Diameter: x
Density: rp
Orbit of radius: r
Gas of density rf and
Viscosity

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Now for a rotating solid body

for a free vortex

For the confined vortex inside the cyclone body it is has been found experimentally

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assume uniform flow of gas towards the central outlet

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Flow Characteristics
Rotational flow in the forced vortex within the cyclone
body gives rise to a radial pressure gradient.

This pressure gradient, combined with the frictional


pressure losses at the gas inlet and outlet and losses
due to changes in flow direction, make up the total
pressure drop.

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Flow Characteristics

The Euler number represents the ratio of pressure forces to the inertial
forces acting on a fluid element.

Its value is practically constant for a given cyclone geometry, independent


of the cyclone body diameter.

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Cyclone Grade Efficiency in Practice


In practice, gas velocity fluctuations and particleparticle
interactions result in some particles larger than xcrit being
lost and some particles smaller than xcrit being collected.

Consequently, in practice the cyclone does not achieve


such a sharp cut-off as predicted by the theoretical
analysis above.

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Theoretical and actual grade efficiency curves

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Cut size
For such a curve, the particle size for which the grade
efficiency is 50%, x50, is often used as a single number
measurement of the efficiency of the cyclone.
It is also know as the equiprobable size since it is that
size of particle which has a 50% probability of appearing
in the coarse product.

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Problem

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Solution

Assuming that n cyclones in parallel are required and that the total
flow is evenly split, then for each cyclone the flow rate will be q=2/n

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Solution
We will therefore need two cyclones. Now, we recalculate the
cyclone diameter from

the actual cut size is 3.65 mm

Therefore, two 0.717 m diameter cyclones in parallel will give


a cut size of 3.65 m using a pressure drop of 1177 Pa.
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