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FUNCTIONAL HARDWARE OF PC
CONCEPT OF HARDWARE AND SOFTWARESOFTWARE- Software is set of instructions or data that can be store
electronically.
There are two types of softwares-1) System software (operating
systems)
2) Application software (programs)
HARDWARE- Hardware is the storage device and display device.

PC SPECIFICATIONMOTHERBOARD-

video adapter. 3) Basic input/output system. The computer components include in the motherboard are1) Microprocessor. .A motherboard is physical arrangement in computer that contains the computer’s basic circuitry and components. It also manages data flow between the computer's operating system and attached devices such as the hard disk.An opening in a computer where a circuit board can be inserted to add new capabilities to the computer. keyboard. mouse and printer.A flexible printed circuit interconnecting cable which includes a flexible circuitry assembly including an array of conductors mounted on a flexible substrate film and covered with a flexible covering film. 2) coprocessor. 4) Expansion slot. 5) Interconnecting circuitry. also known as the Central Processing Unit (CPU)is the brain of all computers and many household and electronics devices.A coprocessor is a computer processor used to supplement the functions of the primary processor (the CPU).BIOS (basic input/output system) is the program a personal computer's microprocessor uses to get the computer system started after you turn it on.The microprocessor.

It is the read-write memory directly addressable by the processor for use by the operating system and application programs. at least .CPU PROPERTIES1) CLOCK FREQUENCY.It specifies the execution speed of CPU it is operated with clock. 2)EXPANDED MEMORY. is the first 640 kilobytes (640 × 1024 bytes) of the memory on IBM PC or compatible systems. 2) BUS WIDTH.It specifies whether serial communication is provided or not.It specifies the word size in number of lines available for carrying data at a time. 3) EXTENDED MEMORY. expanded memory is a system of bank switching that provided additional memory to DOS programs beyond the limit of conventional memory (640 KB).In DOS memory management. this design decision became a limitation in the use of large memory capacities until the introduction of operating systems and processors that made it irrelevant. because peripheral may require serial data transfer. As memory prices rapidly declined. 3) SERIAL PORT.Conventional memory. TYPES OF MEMORIES1) CONVENTIONAL MEMORY. also called base memory.Computer system having an extended memory which permits the running of a plurality of operating systems (OS) on one computer having main memory and at least one extended memory and which includes at least one virtual main memory which permits each of the plurality of OSs to reside on main memory.

due to mechanical limitations such as media rotation speeds and arm movement delays. A random-access memory device allows data items to be accessed (read or written) in almost the same amount of time irrespective of the physical location of data inside the memory.Read-only memory (ROM) is a class of storage medium used in computers and other electronic devices. Strictly. integrated circuits (ICs) cannot and are useless .eg.Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage. read-only memory refers to memory that is hard-wired. such as diode matrix and the later mask ROM. CD-RWs.one virtual extended memory (virtual ES) residing on the extended memory. In contrast. with difficulty. SEMICONDUCTOR MEMORIES1) ROM. Although discrete circuits can be altered (in principle). so it is mainly used to distribute firmware (software that is very closely tied to specific hardware and unlikely to need frequent updates). with other direct-access data storage media such as hard disks. Data stored in ROM can only be modified slowly. the time required to read and write data items varies significantly depending on their physical locations on the recording medium. physical memory refers to the RAM CHIPS installed in computer and virtual memory is an imaginary area used by programs. or not at all. DVD-RWs and the older drum memory.Physical refers to anything related to hardware. The opposite of physical is logical or virtual. 4) PHYSICAL AND LOGICAL MEMORY. 2)ROM. which describes softwares.

4)EPROM -EPROM (erasable programmable read-only memory) is programmable read-only memory (programmable ROM) that can be erased and re-used. The key difference from a standard ROM is that the data is written into a ROM during manufacture. The fact that such memory can never be changed is a large drawback. while PROMs are used to allow companies to test on a subset of the devices in an order before burning data into all of them. They are a type of ROM (read-only memory) meaning the data in them is permanent and cannot be changed. while with a PROM the data is programmed into them after manufacture. while reserving the fact of some possible way to change it. usually low level programs such as firmware (microcode). ROMs tend to be used only for large production runs with well-verified data. more recently. . Erasure is caused by shining an intense ultraviolet light through a window that is designed into the memory chip.if the data is bad. ROM commonly refers to memory that is read-only in normal operation. Thus. PROMs are used in digital electronic devices to store permanent data. 3)PROM-A programmable read-only memory (PROM) or field programmable read-only memory (FPROM) or one-time programmable non-volatile memory (OTP NVM) is a form of digital memory where the setting of each bit is locked by a fuse or antifuse.

high speed serial interface to which you can dynamically connect and disconnect . 2) ADRESS BUS.A bus is simply a channel over which information flows between two or more devices. .it is bidirectional bus. 4) UNIVERSAL SERIAL BUS.Address bus is the set of lines that carry information about where in memory the data is to be transferred. some control signals sent on this control bus used to identify the type of device.A two way. processor wants to interact with. write signals to the memory . 3) CONTROL BUS-Control bus is used to send different control signals like read. It is unidirectional bus. 1) DATA BUS-Data bus are the lines that actually carry the data being transferred .USB has been around for few years and USB port are fitted to just about every computer now.TYPES OF SYSYTEM BUSES.

4. 2) Keyboard available in two types1) 84 keys 2) 101 enhanced keys 2) MOUSEA computer mouse is a pointing device (hand control) that detects twodimensional motion relative to a surface. Physically. Mice often also feature other elements. This motion is typically translated into the motion of a pointer on a display. 1) Keyboard allows all alphanumeric set 0-9. which allows for fine control of a graphical user interface. a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches. interaction via teleprinter-style keyboards became the main input device for computers. INPUT DEVICESTHERE ARE FOLLOWING TYPES OF INPUT DEVICES: 1) KEYBOARDIn computing.Peripheral devices Introduction-Computer system mainly designed to accept input data through input device process it and display or print the results. with one or more buttons. such as touch . a mouse consists of an object held in one's hand. A to Z in small and capital. Following the decline of punch cards and paper tape.

where a flatbed design would be impractical. test and measurement. have evolved from text scanning "wands" to 3D scanners used for industrial design. and power supply.)—is a device that optically scans images. Hand-held scanners. etc. which enable additional control and dimensional input. reverse engineering. CAT scanner.surfaces and "wheels". where the device is moved by hand. handwriting. Commonly used in offices are variations of the desktop flatbed scanner where the document is placed on a glass window for scanning. Mechanically driven scanners that move the document are typically used for large-format documents. The display device in . an image scanner—often abbreviated to just scanner. and converts it to a digital image. circuitry. or an object. printed text. orthotics. ACTIONS RELATED TO MOUSE1) Single click 2) Double click 3) To move 4) Dragging 3) SCANNERIn computing. gaming and other applications. OUTPUT DEVICES1) VIDEO(MONITOR)A computer monitor or a computer display is an electronic visual display for computers. although the term is ambiguous out of context (barcode scanner. casing. A monitor usually comprises the display device.

3) HORIZONTAL SCAN FREQUENCY-The number of lines illuminated on a video screen in one second. Display Port. resolution is the number of pixels (individual points of color) contained on a display monitor. For example. 2) DOT PITCH. a resolution of 400 lines refreshed 60 times per second requires a scan rate of 24 kHz (60 x 400) plus time to bring the beam back to the beginning of the next line. HDMI. while televisions have implemented some computer functionality. computers (and their monitors) have been used for both data processing and entertainment." is a measurement that defines the sharpness of a display.In computers.Dot pitch. LVDS (Low-voltage differential signaling) or other proprietary connectors and signals. From the 1980s onwards. VIDEO MONITOR/BOARD CHARACTERISTICS1)RESOLUTION. It can be connected to the computer via VGA. . The sharpness of the image on a display depends on the resolution and the size of the monitor. Thunderbolt. It measures the distance between the dots used to display the image on the screen. Originally. The common aspect ratio of televisions. The smaller the dot pitch. expressed in terms of the number of pixels on the horizontal axis and the number on the vertical axis. while older monitors used a cathode ray tubes (CRT).modern monitors is typically a thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) or a flat panel LED display. This distance is very small and is typically measured in fractions of millimeters. computer monitors were used for data processing while television receivers were used for entertainment. the sharper the picture. or "pixel pitch. and computer monitors. DVI.

or in an up-and-down motion. much like the print mechanism on a typewriter. also called a "wire" or "pin". on the page and prints by impact. striking an ink-soaked cloth ribbon against the paper. varied fonts and arbitrary graphics can be produced. which is driven forward by the power of a tiny electromagnet or solenoid. sometimes also called butterfly for its typical shape. Each dot is produced by a tiny metal rod. LASER PRINTERLaser printing is an electrostatic digital printing process. either directly or through small levers (pawls).1 ) LASER PRINTER 2) INK-JET PRINTER DOT MATRIX PRINTER-Dot matrix printing or impact matrix printing is a type of computer printing which uses a print head that moves back-and-forth. Facing the ribbon and the paper is a small guide plate named ribbon mask holder or protector. and thus.4) MULTI-SYNC-The ability of monitor to handle multiple resolution automatically is called multyncing. This plate may be made of hard plastic. It produces high-quality text and graphics (and moderate-quality photographs) by .1) DOT-MATRIX PRINTER 2) NON-IMPACT PRINTER. It is pierced with holes to serve as guides for the pins. unlike a typewriter or daisy wheel printer. 2)PRINTERS-1) IMPACT PRINTER . letters are drawn out of a dot matrix. However.

However. .repeatedly passing a laser beam back and forth over a negatively charged cylindrical drum to define a differentially-charged image. and transfers the image to paper. Invented at Xerox PARC in the 1970s. Canon. As with digital photocopiers and multifunction/all-in-one inkjet printers. quality and speed have increased as price has fallen. INK-JET PRINTER. laser printers employ axerographic printing process. laser printers were introduced for the office and then home markets in subsequent years by IBM. which is then heated in order to permanently fuse the text and/or imagery. Apple. The drum then selectively collects electrically charged powdered ink (toner). Over the decades.Inkjet printing is a type of computer printing that recreates a digital image by propelling droplets of ink onto paper. and the once cutting-edge printing devices are now ubiquitous. laser printing differs from analog photocopiers in that the image is produced by the direct scanning of the medium across the printer's photoreceptor. Xerox. Hewlett-Packard and many others. This enables laser printing to copy images more quickly than most photocopiers.

a 1991 spin-off from IBM. Starting in the late 1970s inkjet printers that could reproduce digital images generated by computers were developed. HewlettPackard (HP). or other substrates. and range from small inexpensive consumer models to expensive professional machines. HP. typically print heads using piezoelectric crystals. In the worldwide consumer market. four manufacturers account for the majority of inkjet printer sales: Canon. . mainly by Epson. Epson. and the technology was first extensively developed in the early 1950s. and Lexmark. The concept of inkjet printing originated in the 20th century. and Canon.plastic. Inkjet printers are the most commonly used type of printer. The emerging ink jet material deposition market also uses inkjet technologies. to deposit materials directly on substrates.