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KAKATIYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE,WARANGAL-15

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

SEMINAR ON :

WIRELESS POWER
TRANSMISSION VIA SPS
SEMINAR SUPERVISOR:

PRESENTED BY

V.RAMAIAH

L.SAICHANDAR

Prof,Dept.of EEE

ROLL.NO:B14EE010

III/IV EEE-1
SAICHANDAR,KITSW

WIRELESS POWER
TRANSMISSION
THROUGH SPS (SOLAR POWER
SATELLITE)

Overview

History

Solar
power
satellite

Wireless
Power
transmissi
on

Components
of
transmission

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Application
s

Conclusio
n

Wireless Power Transmission(WPT)


HISTORY

1899

1973

2007

Nicola Tesla gave the idea of WPT.


His objective was to develop the technology for
transmitting electricity to anywhere in the world without
wires.
Designs For Space based solar power system were
First designed by US engineer PETER GLASER
The idea of Tesla is taken in to research after 100
years by a team led by Marin Soljai from MIT. The
project is named as WiTricity.
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Introduction to SPS
Solar power satellite(SPS) is a gigantic satellite
designed as an electric power plant orbiting the
geostationary orbit(GEO).
It consists of mainly three segments
Solar energy collector
DC to microwave converter
Large antenna array

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WHY TO USE SPS ?


More intense sunlight.
Unlimited energy resource.
Energy delivered anywhere in the world.
Zero fuel cost.
Zero co2 emission environment safe.
Waste heat is radiated back into space.
No air or water pollution is created during the generation.
Concept is simpler than the other most power systems here on the earth.

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HOW SPS WORKS ???

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WHY WPT ???


Reliable
Efficient
Fast
Low maintenance cost
Can be used for short range or long range
Reduction of losses during transmission and distribution of
electrical energy.
Need for grids, substations etc. are eliminated.
Noble alternative for electrical transmission.
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Classification of WPT
WIRELESS POWER
TRANSMISSION
SHORT
DISTANCE

MEDIUM
DISTANCE

LONG
DISTANCE

ELECTROMAGNETIC
INDUCTION

RADIATION

MICROWAVE

ELECTROMAGNETIC
RESONANCE

LASER
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LASER v/s MICROWAVES


When LASER is used, the antenna sizes can be much smaller.
Microwaves can face interference (two frequencies can be used for WPT are
2.45GHz and 5.4GHz).
LASER has high attenuation loss and also it gets diffracted by atmospheric
particles easily.
LASERs are impractical because theyd run into the same problems that solar
power does on Earth: they don't work through clouds.

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Transmission:
Four basic steps involved in the conversion of solar energy to
electricity and delivery are:
Step 1

Capture solar energy in space and convert it to electricity


Step 2

Transform the electricity to radio frequency energy and transmit it to Earth


Step 3

Receive the radio frequency energy on Earth and convert it back to electricity
Step 4

Provide the electricity to the utility grid


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STEP1: Solar to electrical energy


Photovoltaic cells are seldom used the conversion of solar
energy to electric energy.
Photovoltaic cells are of many types which may be:
single crystal silicon, poly crystalline, Gallium arsenide
Solar thermal turbine can also be used
for power conversion.

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STEP 2 AND STEP 3:Generation and


Transmission of Microwaves
Primary
components of
MPT

Microwave
generator

Transmitting
antenna
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Rectifying
antenna
(Rectenna)
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Microwave Power
Transmission(MPT) for SPS
.

Microwave Frequency
Within the limits of antenna size and atmospheric
attenuation microwave frequency has been taken in the
range of 1-6 GHz.
The microwave transmission often uses 2.45GHz or
5.8GHz of ISM band.
The highest efficiency over 90% is achieved at 2.45 GHz
among all the frequencies
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Microwave generator
The microwave transmitting devices are classified as:
Microwave Vacuum Tubes (magnetron, klystron etc )
Semiconductor Microwave transmitters (GaAs ,
InGaAS etc) :
Typical semiconductor devices are FET (Field Effect
Transistor), HBT (Hetero junction Bipolar Transistor),
and HEMT (High Electron Mobility Transistor).

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Continued.
The microwave tube is lighter than that of the
semiconductor amplifier.
The microwave tube can generate/amplify higher
power microwave than
that by the semiconductor amplifier.
A light weight phase controlled magnetron called
COMET, Compact
Microwave Energy Transmitter with a power-weight
ratio below 25g/W has been invented.
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Transmitting Antenna
Transmitting antenna is a gigantic antenna array.
They may be of many types, some are The slotted wave guide antenna,
Micro strip patch antenna
Parabolic dish antenna
The slotted waveguide antenna is ideal for power
transmission because of its high aperture efficiency (> 95%)
and high power handling capability.
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Antenna
Parabolic antenna

Phase array antenna


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Table 1
Model

Old
JAXA
Model

JAXA1
Model

JAXA2
Model

NASA/DO
E Model

Frequency

5.8GHz

5.8GHz

5.8GHz

2.45GHz

Diameter of transmitting
antenna

2.6km

1km

1.93km

1km

Amplitude taper

10dB
Gaussian

10dB
Gaussian

10dB
Gaussian

10dB
Gaussian

Output power
(beamed to earth)

1.3GW

1.3GW

1.3GW

6.72GW

114mW/c
m2

2.2mW/cm2

Maximum power density at


center

63mW/cm2 420mW/c
m2

Maximum power density at


edge

6.3mW/cm 42mW/cm 11.4mW/c 0.22mW/cm2


2
2
m2

Antenna spacing

0.75SAICHANDAR,KITSW0.75

0.75

0.75
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Table1 (continued)
Model

Old
JAXA
Model

JAXA1
Model

JAXA2
Model

NASA/
DOE
Model

Power per one antenna


(Number of elements)

Max.0.95W
(3.54
billion)

Max 6.1W
(540
million)

Max 1.7W
(1.950
million)

Max 185W
(97 million)

Rectenna Diameter

2.0km

3.4km

2.45km

1km

100mW/cm2

23mW/cm2

87%

89%

Maximum Power Density


Collection Efficiency

180mW/cm 26mW/cm2
2

96.5%

86%

JAXA : Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, NASA : National Aeronautics and Space
Administration, DOE : U.S. Department Of Energy.
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Rectenna
The word rectenna is derived from two individual words, namely
rectifier and antenna.
It is a special type of antenna that is used to directly convert
microwave energy into DC electricity.
A simple rectenna element consists of a dipole antenna with a
Schottky diode placed across the dipole elements.

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5,000 MW Receiving Station (Rectenna).This


Station is about a mile & a half long in US.

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Continued.
A typical rectenna has an efficiency of 85%.
The efficiency of a rectenna is affected by;
array connection loss
change of optimum operation point
any losses on the systems

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Complete WPT system via SPS

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FLOW CHART OF SOLAR POWER TRANSMISSION

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Advantages
Unlimited energy resource.
Solar radiation can be efficiently collected in the space.
Zero fuel cost.
Can delivers energy anywhere in the world.
Less CO2 emission.

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Continued..
Cost of transmission and distribution become less.
Power failure due to short circuit and fault on cables
would not be
possible.
Completely eliminates the existing high-tension power
transmission
line cables, towers and sub stations.
Long range environmental impact is minimum.
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Disadvantages
Launch costs is high
Requires a network of hundreds of satellites
Possible health hazards
The size of antennas and rectennas is quite large
Interference with communication satellites
Heat reduction is important problem in space, lost power
converts to heat
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Future Applications
Roadway powered electric vehicles for
charging electric batteries.
Solar power satellites in geosynchronous
orbit can supply terrestrial power
demands.

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Environmental issues
Interference to existent wireless system:
Harmonics of the MPT signal should be small to
avoid interference to other radio services in
operation.
Safety on ground:
MPT uses more intense microwaves than that in
wireless communication system hence MPT safety for
human is considered. Research results thatmicrowave
effect to human health is only heating problem.
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Continued.
Interaction with atmosphere:
Absorption and scatter by air, rain and irregularity of air refraction
ratio.
Attenuation by rain need to be considered.

Interaction with space plasmas:


Microwaves propagates through ionospheric plasmas, interaction
occurs.
Refraction, faraday rotation, scintillation and absorption occurs
between microwave used for satellite communication and the
plasma.
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Biological impacts

Health hazards:
Effects of long term exposure.
Exposure is equal to the amount that
people receive from cell phones and
microwaves
Public exposure to WPT fields would
be below existing safety guidelines.

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Conclusion

The concept of
WPT offers
possibilities of
transmitting
power with
negligible losses
and ease of
transmission.

There will be a
shift towards
renewable
sources and
solar will be a
major
contributor.

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SSP may seem


futuristic at present,
it is technological
feasible and, given
appropriate
conditions, can
become economically
viable.

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References
M.Muthupriya, S.Vinothini, Wireless Power Transmission Via Solar Power
Satellite, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4,
Issue 5, May-2013 ISSN 2229-5518.
P. E. Glaser, "An overview of the solar power satellite option," IEEE Transactions
on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1230-1238, June 1992.
James O. McSpadden, Space Solar Power Programs and Microwave Wireless
Power Transmission Technology, ISSN 1527-3342, Dec 2002 IEEE
Susumu Sasaki, Microwave Power Transmission Technologies for Solar Power
Satellites, proceedings of THE IEEE/ vol. 101, no.6, June 2013
Hiroshi Matsumoto, Satellites and Microwave Power Transmission in Japan,
H.Matsumoto is with Kyoto University in Kyoto, Japan.

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THANK YOU

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