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UniKL MICET

LABORATORY: PROCESS
CONTROL

EDITION:

EXPERIMENT: LEVEL FLOW


PROCESS CONTROL
(ELECTRONIC)

EFFECTIVE DATE:

REVISION NO:

1
1
29 SEPT
2014

AMENDMENT
DATE:

SECTION OF CHEMICAL PROCESS TECHNOLOGY


MALAYSIAN INTITUTE OF CHEMICAL & BIOENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

PROCESS CONTROL LABORATORY


LABORATORY INSTRUCTION SHEETS

COURSE CODE
EXPERIMENT NO.
EXPERIMENT TITLE

EXPERIMENT 7
Level Flow Process Control (Electronic)

DATE
GROUP NO.
LECTURER/INSTRUCTOR/TUTOR

1)
2)

DATE OF REPORT SUBMISSION

DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS FOR


LABORATORY REPORT:

ATTENDANCE/PARTICIPATION/DISIPLINE:

/5%

INTRODUCTION:

/5%

PROCEDURE:

/5%

RESULTS& CALCULATIONS
ANALYSIS
DISCUSSIONS:
ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS
CONCLUSION

/15%

SUGGESTIONS& RECOMMENDATIONS

/5%

REFERENCES:

/5%

TOTAL:
EXAMINER COMMENTS:

RECEIVED DATE AND STAMP:

/15%
/20%
/15%
/10%

/100%

UniKL MICET
LABORATORY: PROCESS
CONTROL

EDITION:

1
1

EXPERIMENT: LEVEL FLOW


PROCESS CONTROL
(ELECTRONIC)

EFFECTIVE DATE:

REVISION NO:

29 SEPT
2014

AMENDMENT
DATE:

STUDENT CODE OF ETHICS


SECTION OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL &


BIOENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
I hereby declare that I have prepared this report with my own efforts. I also admit to
not accept or provide any assistance in preparing this report and anything
that is in it is true.
1) Group Leader: ..
Name
:__________________________________
Matrix No. : __________________________________

(Signature)

2) Group Member 1:.


Name
:__________________________________
Matrix No
: __________________________________

(Signature)

3) Group Member 2:..


Name
:__________________________________
Matrix No. : __________________________________

(Signature)

4) Group Member 3:..


Name
:__________________________________
Matrix No. : __________________________________

(Signature)

1.0

2.0

UniKL MICET
LABORATORY: PROCESS
CONTROL

EDITION:

EXPERIMENT: LEVEL FLOW


PROCESS CONTROL
(ELECTRONIC)

EFFECTIVE DATE:

1
1

REVISION NO:

29 SEPT
2014

AMENDMENT
DATE:

OBJECTIVES
a)

To study level measurement using level capacitance probe transmitter.

b)

To study PID level control and PID tuning.


LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the end of the study, student will be able to:

a) To be familiar with the basic steps of machine from start-up to shut-down


with proper handling and setting.
b) To identify the important components of the level-flow (electronic) control
3.0

system.
INTRODUCTION
The a level-flow process control training system (Model WLF92E) consists of a

level tank, T82 and a collection tank, T81 connected with the appropriate pumps
and piping systems. Level is measured by capacitance probe element. Level tank,

UniKL MICET
LABORATORY: PROCESS
CONTROL

EDITION:

EXPERIMENT: LEVEL FLOW


PROCESS CONTROL
(ELECTRONIC)

EFFECTIVE DATE:

1
1

REVISION NO:

29 SEPT
2014

AMENDMENT
DATE:

T82 receives inflow from pump, P81. Its outflow is pumped by pump, P82 via level
control valve, LCV81 back into collection tank.
4.1
4.2

INSTRUMENTS /APPARATUS / CHEMICAL / REAGENTS


The PID level control loop is LE81/LT81-LIC81-LCY81/PP/LCV81.
LE81 : Capacitance level probe element.
LT81 : Capacitance level probe transmitter.
Calibrated range: 0 800 mm WG for 4 20 mA output.
LIC81 : PID level controller.
LCY81 : Current-to-Air converter (I/P)
PP : Pneumatic Positioner for LCV81.

4.3

LCV81 : Pneumatic level control valve, LCV81.


Apparatus
a) Level Flow (Electronic) process control training system. The schematic
diagram is shown in Figure 1.

5.0
5.1
1.
2.

PROCEDURE
STARTUP PROCEDURES
Turn on the main power supply switch. All panel instrument will lit up
Check the various manual valve as follow
All pumps (P81 & P82) suction, and discharge valves are fully

opened
Manual by-pass valve for each pumps is shut.
Control valve positioners (PP) must be selected.
Bottom drain valves of tank T81 and T82 always shut
Open overflow valves for Tank T82 and T81

Figure 1: Schematic diagram of Chemical and Analytical Process Control


Training System

UniKL MICET
LABORATORY: PROCESS
CONTROL

EDITION:

EXPERIMENT: LEVEL FLOW


PROCESS CONTROL
(ELECTRONIC)

EFFECTIVE DATE:

1
1

REVISION NO:

29 SEPT
2014

AMENDMENT
DATE:

3. There are two controller FIC81, LIC81 and recorder LFR81 in front of
the panel. Be familiar with their basic operation before proceed with
the experiment.
Make sure the two controllers VIC81, LIC81 are both in their

MANUAL (M) mode


Set the two controller FIC81, LIC81 at their DEFAULT values as
follows:
Table1: DEFAULT VALUE FOR FIC81 & LIC81

Setpoint
Proportional Band %
Intergral time, sec
Deriavetive time, sec
High Alarm
Low Alarm

FIC81 : YS 150 Yokogawa


SV
1.2m3/Hr
PB
200%
TI
5sec
TD
0sec
PH1
1.6m3/Hr
PL1
0.6m3/Hr

Lic81 : UY350
SP
400mm
1.P
20%
1.I
20sec
1.d for
OFF
A1(for AL 1)
600mm
A2(for AL 2)
100mm

With both controller in MANUAL (M) mode, set their control output
at 50%. Check the valve position at FCV81 and LCV 81 are both

about 50% opened.


Start the recorder LFR81 by pressing ON the RCD pushbutton.
4. Start pump P81 and verify there is a flow into T82. Otherwise, the
manual valves are not fully opened.Make sure pump by-pass valve
B81 fully shut to provide maximum flow to T82 only.

5. Please noted:
At tank T82, note the Level ruler and the Level: 0mm is just

above the bottom tip of thelevel probe LE81


When the level in tank T82 is about 50%, start the outflow
pump P82 and verify itsflow into T81. Otherwise the manual

UniKL MICET
LABORATORY: PROCESS
CONTROL

EDITION:

EXPERIMENT: LEVEL FLOW


PROCESS CONTROL
(ELECTRONIC)

EFFECTIVE DATE:

1
1

REVISION NO:

29 SEPT
2014

AMENDMENT
DATE:

valves are not fully opened. Shut fully pump bypassvalve B82

for maximum flow.


DO NOT START THE OUTFLOW PUMP P82 IF NO WATER IN

TANK T82
6. At the controller FIC81, set SV = 1.2 m3/Hr. Switch FIC81 to AUTO
(A) mode
7. Please noted:
Tank T82 is non-Self Regulating and can overflow if the inflow

rate exceeds theOutflow rate


With LIC81 in MANUAL (M) mode, manually adjust the control
output to LCV 81so that the level in T82 approaches set point

400mm. Switch LIC81 to AUTO (A)mode


8. Check the recorder LFR81 and examine the level and flow response
9. If recording is no longer required, OFF the recorder by pressing RCD
pushbutton

5.2
RESULT FOR LEVEL MEASUREMENT
1. Take the level reading at various set point at LIC 81 when:
a. Pumps P81, P82 are ON and LIC is AUTO mode. FIC is in
MANUAL mode and MV= 50%
b. Pumps P81, P82 are OFF and LCV81 and one of the adjacent
valve is fully shut

2. Take note of the following preset level measurement range in


LT82,LIC81 and LFR81

UniKL MICET
LABORATORY: PROCESS
CONTROL

EDITION:

EXPERIMENT: LEVEL FLOW


PROCESS CONTROL
(ELECTRONIC)

EFFECTIVE DATE:

1
1

REVISION NO:

29 SEPT
2014

AMENDMENT
DATE:

Calibrated range of LT81 : 0-800 mm water for 4-20 mA transmission


output
Level range set in LIC92 : 0-800 mm for 4-20 mA input representing: 0-800
mm Water
Level range set in LFR81 : 0-800 mm water / 0-100% for 4-20 mA input
3. Inter convert the reading from analog ( 0-100%) to Engineering unit (
0-800mm) or vice versa as follow:
% Reading x Max. calibrated range value = Reading Engineering Unit i.e
%Reading x 800mm = Reading in mm Water

5.3
LEVEL MEASUREMENT
1. Set FIC81 with MV = 50% so the control valve is opened to 50%
2. Please note that the experiment is conducted with LIC81 in AUTO (A)
mode using various setpoint (SP) of 200, 400, 500 and 700mM
PART A:
a) With the SP of LIC81 at 200mm in AUTO mode, wait till the level PV
in LICD81 is steady at its SP.
b) Take the level reading at LIC81 and LFR81. Also take the level
measurement at the tank ruler.
c) Mark on the chart paper on the RED color that SP=200
d) Take a second set of reading when the level is not fluctuating and PV
is

about 200mm asfollow:


Stop pump P81 and P82.
With LIC81 in MANUAL mode, shut LCV81 fully with MV= 0
Shut one of manual valve adjacent to LCV81.
Take the level reading again as in above state. Its does not matter
that the PV is not atits SP for this second set reading.

PART B

UniKL MICET
LABORATORY: PROCESS
CONTROL

EDITION:

EXPERIMENT: LEVEL FLOW


PROCESS CONTROL
(ELECTRONIC)

EFFECTIVE DATE:

1
1

REVISION NO:

29 SEPT
2014

AMENDMENT
DATE:

a)

REMEMBER TO OPEN FULLY ALL THE MANUAL VALVE ADJACENT TO

b)

LVC81 BEFORE PROCEEDING TO NEW SETPOINT VALUE


View the SP at LIC81. Change the SP = 400mm and push BLUE button once

c)

to register the new SP


Start pump P81 and P82. Make sure
LIC81 = Auto (A) mode with SP = 400mm
FIC81 = Manual (M) mode with MV = 50%
PART C

a)

b)
c)

Take the level readings as previously (SP=200mm) when;


the tank level PV is steady at its SP (view LIC81)
when pumps P81, P82 are OFF and LCV81 and one of the adjacent
manual valve are fully shut.
Repeat the procedure (PART B) with various other level set point (SP) at
LIC81, i.e SP=500 ,SP=700
Record all the result in the Table 2. in the Result Section 6
5.4
LEVEL CONTROL AND TUNNING
1. Do the following quick check:
Pumps P81 and P82 are pumping.
By-pass valve of for control valve FCV81 and level control valve

2.

LCV81 are shut.


Both controllers LIC81 and FIC81 in MANUAL (M) mode set with

the DEFAULT value ( Table 1 )


Check the IAS are set accordingly
The chart recorder LFR81 is running and indicate RCD at the

display panel.
Switch the flow controller FIC81 to Manual (M) mode and manually

adjust MV = 50% observe the Inflow in to tank T82


3. The experiment is to be conducted with LIC81 in AUTO mode using
various PID value and disturbances.

UniKL MICET
LABORATORY: PROCESS
CONTROL

EDITION:

EXPERIMENT: LEVEL FLOW


PROCESS CONTROL
(ELECTRONIC)

EFFECTIVE DATE:

1
1

REVISION NO:

29 SEPT
2014

AMENDMENT
DATE:

4. Check pump P82 is ON and pumping the outflow to T81.


With LIC81 in AUTO (A) mode, SP = 400mm and PID at Default value, and
apply of disturbance describe below:
i.
LIC81, SP = 400mm , 1.P = 20%, 1.I = 20sec, 1.D = OFF
a. Inflow load step change disturbance
LIC81 must be in AUTO mode with SP and PID value above
In AUTO mode, observe the level response until it is almost

steady or consistent at 400mm


Step decrease the inflow rate by shutting FCV81 from MV
=50% to MV = 70% . This is an inflow load step

disturbance test
Observe the level response of Red pen at LFR81 until it is
steady at it set point or continues to oscillate even after 3

cycles.
b. Outflow load step change or disturbance
LIC81 still in AUTO mode, SP = 400mm with same PID

value
Switch LIC81 to MANUAL mode, note that the SP value
display 0. Manually step increase or decrease the output
0 by about 30% and then switch back to AUTO mode. This

is outflow load step disturbance


Observe the level response (Red pen)

ii.
Level control with faster PI
LIC81 SP = 400mm, 1.P = 5%, 1I = 15 sec, 1. d = OFF
LIC81 still in AUTO mode, repeat test disturbance 4(I)(a)
and (b) with faster set of PID value than the DEFAULT
values, but without derivative control mode as follow:
o LIC81 , SP = 400mm , P = 5%, I = 15sec, d = OFF
o Observe the level response

UniKL MICET
LABORATORY: PROCESS
CONTROL

EDITION:

EXPERIMENT: LEVEL FLOW


PROCESS CONTROL
(ELECTRONIC)

EFFECTIVE DATE:

1
1

REVISION NO:

29 SEPT
2014

AMENDMENT
DATE:

5. Without a control valve positioner (PP) at LCV81


Restore LIC81 to its DEFAULTE PID values at SP = 400mm as follow:
LIC81 : SP = 400mm, P = 20%, I = 20 sec, d = OFF
Switch to AUTO mode.
a. When the level is steady, switch (PP) to No PP at the level control
valve LCV81. If observe, if the level response oscillates after 3
cycles. If not apply an outflow load step disturbance in 4(I)(b) and
observe similarity of the amplitude oscillation. Change the PID
value at LIC81 to the following at (a) and (b) below and observe
b. Detune the PID to a larger P (PB%) for higher damping of the
oscillation as follow:
SP = 400mm, P = 40%, I = 20 sec, d = OFF
If the oscillation cannot be damped, observe again for 2 cycles of
oscillations
c. Connect back the Positioners (PP) and observe again if limit cycling
is eliminated
Restore its PID value to DEFAULT PID values.
5.4
OPEN LOOP TEST
1. Check that LIC81 is in AUTO mode, its DEFAULT PID values. Check
the Positioner (PP) isconnected at LVC81. When the level is steady at
SP =400mm , switch LIC81 to MANUALmode and note its manual value is
0
2. Mark the chart at RED PEN trend, and manually step decrease LIC81
value 0 , by about 10%.
Note down the new % output and LIC81 is remaining in MANUAL mode
throughout his test.

UniKL MICET
LABORATORY: PROCESS
CONTROL

EDITION:

EXPERIMENT: LEVEL FLOW


PROCESS CONTROL
(ELECTRONIC)

EFFECTIVE DATE:

1
1

REVISION NO:

29 SEPT
2014

AMENDMENT
DATE:

3. The level remain unchanged over a very short Dead time and then rise
in straight line. Becautioned that the process is integrating and will
rise till level overflows.

4. The OPEN LOOP TEST is completed after a reasonable rise in level.


Switch back to AUTO mode. Extract the chart paper from the
recorder.
5. Determine the DEAD time (DT) and Response Rate (RR) from the
chart response.
Measure DT in mm along the time axis with ruler
Check the recorder chart speed
Convert DT in mm to time in seconds as follow

Timetaken, secs=

Distance , mm 3600 secs

500 mm/ Hr
1 Hr

To determine RR, the steepest tangent must be drawn on the

rising part of the level response curve.


6. Use the Ziegler and Nichols open loop test fformulae for a PI controller
to determine the approximate Propotional Band (PB % ) and Intergral
i.e

time ( TI,secs )

100
0.9

p
DTxRR

5.5

SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE

To shut-down the training system:

Set FIC81 to DEFAULT set point and PID values


Set LIC81 to DEFAULT set point and PID values

6.0

UniKL MICET
LABORATORY: PROCESS
CONTROL

EDITION:

EXPERIMENT: LEVEL FLOW


PROCESS CONTROL
(ELECTRONIC)

EFFECTIVE DATE:

1
1

REVISION NO:

29 SEPT
2014

AMENDMENT
DATE:

Switch off pumps P81 , P82


SHUT OFF external air supply valve to the system pipeline
Press OFF recorder RCD button to stop the chart
Switch off the main power supply at the front panel

RESULTS &CALCULATIONS

READINGS

LIC81 : PV

Setpoint (SP) at LIC81


A

a) 200mm
b) P81, P82 OFF
LCV81/Manual

valve shut
B
a) 400mm
b) P81,P82 OFF
LCV81/Manual valve
shut
C

a) 500mm
b) P81,P82 OFF
LCV81/Manual

valve shut
a) 600mm

Engineering Unit
mm

LFR81
Red Pen
Channel 1
%
mm

T82
Ruler
mm

UniKL MICET
LABORATORY: PROCESS
CONTROL

EDITION:

EXPERIMENT: LEVEL FLOW


PROCESS CONTROL
(ELECTRONIC)

EFFECTIVE DATE:

REVISION NO:

1
1
29 SEPT
2014

AMENDMENT
DATE:

b) P81,P82 OFF
LCV81/Manual
valve shut
Table 2: Level Measurement Result

7.0

ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS


Analysed critically each results obtain in section 6.0 by referring to the
theory/introduction parts. Find reasons (suggested reasons) on each
occurrence shown in the results.

8.0

DISCUSSIONS
Discuss the overall experiment on data obtain based on your understanding.
Discussion should relate reasons for the phenomena/results obtained,
theoretical parts, suggested reasons (if necessary but back with sound
theoretical knowledge) and your overview understanding.

9.0

ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS
i.

Discuss the principles of capacitance probe in measuring liquid level.

ii.

Write short essay on advantages and disadvantages of capacitance probe


over different types of liquid level sensors.

UniKL MICET
LABORATORY: PROCESS
CONTROL

EDITION:

EXPERIMENT: LEVEL FLOW


PROCESS CONTROL
(ELECTRONIC)

EFFECTIVE DATE:

1
1

REVISION NO:

29 SEPT
2014

AMENDMENT
DATE:

10.0 CONCLUSION
Conclusion is merely a summary of the important findings already reported
in the discussion section. It also relates to the objectives stated earlier.

9.0

SUGGESTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS


Your ideas of suggestion & recommendation to improve the learning process
for this experiment or anything related to the experimental procedure etc.

10.0 REFERENCES
Minimum of at least 5 references (with 3 of them are paper/book/chapter
based)