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Channel

The design of a good communication system begins with a thorough understanding

of the communication channel. The objective is to provide reliable communication

that meets the QoS objectives, without overdesigning the system. If the channel

model is not sufficiently accurate, the communication system is likely to be

ineffective in that it is either under- or overdesigned. An underdesigned system

will not be able to achieve and maintain the QoS requirements. Alternatively, an

overdesigned system will be unnecessarily complex and costly. This may be

especially true in the case of LMS systems, given the need for small, low-cost

terminals and practical limitations on processing power.

LMS communication systems must be capable of operation over a wide range

of channel conditions. An illustration of an LMS link is provided in Figure 3.1.

Due to a combination of terminal mobility and potential use under nonideal

conditions from a SATCOM perspective (e.g., low elevation angles), the LMS

channel is more susceptible to impairments, such as:

Multipath fading;

Shadowing;

Doppler shift;

Interference.

Scattering of the signal leads to multipath fading. Shadowing occurs when the

signal is blocked, for example, buildings, trees, and hills. It is common in urban

environments and mountain regions. The relative velocity between the satellite and

a mobile terminal (e.g. vehicular) induces a Doppler shift. Additionally,

interference is possible from terrestrial systems and other satellite systems and

from self-interference, in the form of multiple access environment (MAI). The

focus of this chapter is on channel effects related to signal propagation. Various

models have been proposed for LMS and will be considered.

39

40

vsatellite

S h ad o w in g

S c a t te r in g

LOS

vterminal

Figure 3.1 The LMS channel.

3.1

MULTIPATH FADING

signal scattering, which may occur for many reasons, such as reflections off

buildings, trees, hills, and other objects and from satellite motion and atmospheric

effects. As will be shown, the scattered signal components may combine either

constructively or destructively at the receiver. The severity of the multipath

channel is dependent on the carrier frequency, link geometry, and relative velocity

between the satellite and the mobile terminals. In addition to signal fading,

multipath can lead to delay spread, frequency spread, and angle of arrival

variations. Key waveforms design issues include the coherence bandwidth,

coherence time, and coherence length, which will be examined in Section 3.7.

As illustrated by Figure 3.1, the received signal at the mobile terminal may be

viewed as a combination of:

Additionally, the LOS and specular signal components are subject to the effects of

shadowing.

3.1.1

From the central limit theorem, a process may be modeled as a Gaussian random

process, as the number (N) of signal components becomes large. In this case, N is

41

the number of signal components and the process is a complex Gaussian random

process. As described in [1], the components are narrowband, provided that the

Doppler shift is much smaller than the carrier frequency and the process is wide

sense stationary over periods that are short relative to signal variations. Further, a

Gaussian process that is wide sense stationary is stationary [12].

Consider a complex Gaussian random process u(t):

()

u t =

n =1

cn exp j

t+

(3.1)

and cn, n and n are the amplitude, angular frequency, and phase of the nth signal

component, where the phase is uniformly distributed between 0 and 2.

3.1.2

The signal

s (t ) = cos (

t+

(3.2)

combination of many component signals (n = 1 to N) each with a complex random

amplitude attenuation and phase shift

() () (

r t = u t cos

t+

)

(3.3)

{ ()

()

r t = Re u t exp j c t +

)}

(3.4)

Given u(t) = a(t) + jb(t), where a(t) and b(t) are independent and identically

distributed narrowband Gaussian random processes:

()

{( ( )

( ))

r t = Re a t + jb t exp j c t +

)}

(3.5)

a ( t ) = Re

cn exp j (

t+

t+

n =1

=

n =1

cn cos (

t+

cn sin (

t+

(3.6)

(3.7)

and

b ( t ) = Im

cn exp j (

n =1

N

n =1

42

3.2

COMPONENTS

()

()

()

r t = a t cos c t b t sin c t

(3.8)

where ac(t) and as(t) are narrowband zero mean independent Gaussian random

variables with variance

()

()

= var b t

var a t

= 2

(3.9)

which represents the power of the diffuse signal and wc is the carrier frequency in

radians wc = 2fc.

We may define the envelope and phase of the received signal at any given

time as

()

()

t = a t

()

+b t

(3.10)

and

()

a (t )

b t

()

t = tan 1

(3.11)

r (t )

diffuse

=

N

n =1

cn cos (

t+

t+

) = (t ) cos (

t + (t )

(3.12)

over [0 to 2]. The Rayleigh probability density function is [3]

p (r ) =

r2

exp 2

2

r

2

(3.13)

2

=

N

n =1

cn 2

(3.14)

3.3

43

COMPONENTS

The Rayleigh distribution applies where the signal is scattered and there is no

direct or specular component. It is in fact a special case of a more general

distribution. In most cases, the LMS signal will be received with LOS and specular

components, as well as diffuse components.

3.3.1

r (t )

LOS

= A cos (

t+

t)

(3.15)

r (t )

specular

= B cos (

t+

t + 0 )

(3.16)

the amplitude of the LOS signal component, and B is the amplitude of the specular

component. Note that, unlike the multipath signal components, the relation

between the LOS and specular signal components is not necessarily random.

The LOS and specular signal components can be expressed in terms of inphase (c) and quadrature (s) contributions:

c

( t ) = A cos

t + B cos (

t + 0 )

(3.17)

( t ) = A cos

t + B sin (

t + 0 )

(3.18)

The composite received signal, in the absence of shadowing, can then be expressed

as

()

() ()

x t = c t + a t

= A cos d t + B cos d t + 0 +

()

N

n =1

(3.19)

(3.20)

cn cos n t + n

() ()

y t = s t + b t

= A cos d t + B sin d t + 0 +

where the envelope is given by

N

n =1

cn sin n t + n

44

(t ) = x (t )

+ y (t )

(3.21)

y (t )

( t ) = tan 1

x (t )

(3.22)

Again, for large N, x(t) and y(t) are Gaussian random variables.

The received signal with LOS, specular, and diffuse components can then be

expressed in narrowband form

r ( t ) = x ( t ) cos (

t +

) y ( t ) sin (

t +

(3.23)

This is identical to

r (t ) = r (t )

LOS

+ r (t )

specular

+ r (t )

diffuse

( t ) exp

j ( t )

(3.24)

It can be shown [1] that the received signal is a Rician distributed random variable.

3.3.2

Rician fading

Slow, flat fading in the LMS channel may be modeled using the Rician amplitude

fading distribution [1, 811].

The joint pdf of independent Gaussian random variable x(t) and y(t) is given

by

p ( x, y ) = p ( x ) p ( y ) =

1

x2

exp 2

2

2

2

y2

exp 2

2

(3.25)

Let

x (t ) =

(t ) cos (t )

(3.26)

y (t ) =

( t ) sin ( t )

(3.27)

and

p ( , ) =

exp

2

+ A2 2 cos

2 2

(3.28)

p(

)=

p ( , ) d =

exp

45

2

+ A2 2 cos

2 2

d

(3.29)

This becomes

A

+ A2

exp

I0 2

2 2

p(

)=

(3.30)

This is a zeroth order Bessel function of the first kind, and A is the amplitude of

the LOS component

I0 ( z ) =

1

2

exp 2cos (

)

(3.31)

Finally [1], the pdf for the Rician fading channel can be expressed in the form

()

2 1 + K exp K 2 1 + K

I0 2

K 1+ K

(3.32)

0; < 0

K, which is the ratio of the LOS and the specular signal power, to the diffuse signal

power

2

K=

2

A2 + B 2 + 2 AB cos 0

2 2

(3.33)

The LOS signal components arrive in-phase at the receiver. Intuitively, for

ease of discussion, we may consider that the LOS component of the signal consists

of all components that arrive within the 3-dB beamwidth (3dB) of the receive

antenna pattern. This is not a precise definition, but it serves to introduce the

relationship between signal fading and the antenna design. This point will be

considered further in Chapter 7. For now we note that when all of the signal energy

is received within 3dB, scattering is negligible, K = 0, and the channel is

equivalent to that of AWGN. If a fraction of the signal energy is received within

3dB and the remainder is scattered outside, 0 < K < is characterized by Rician

fading. K can be any value, dependent on the severity of the fading; however, K =

10 provides a nominal point of reference for the LMS channel [1, 10, 11]. The

limiting case, K = 0 is Rayleigh amplitude fading, which means that the LOS

component is negligible, as consistent with severe signal scattering and multipath

fading conditions.

46

3.4

form of the Nakagami m-distribution is [2, 12]

mr 2

2m m r 2 m 1

1

exp

, m

p (r ) =

m

2

(m)

(3.34)

The Nakagami m-distribution may be related to the Rician distribution through the

following translation [1, 12]:

m2 m

K=

3.5

(3.35)

m m2 m

Shadowing is the result of blockage from buildings, trees, and other factors. It is

often modeled using a lognormal distribution. A general form of the fading process

with shadowing m(t) is provided by [4, 5, 79, 13, 14]:

r (t ) = m (t )

r (t )

LOS

+ r (t )

specular

+ r (t )

(3.36)

diffuse

which becomes

r (t ) = m (t )

c + ac ( t ) + j m ( t )

s + as ( t ) =

( t ) exp

j ( t )

(3.37)

where

(t ) =

()

m t

()

+a t

()

+ m t

()

+b t

(3.38)

and

()

t = tan 1

()

m (t )

m t

s

c

()

+ b (t )

+a t

(3.39)

Similar to the analysis of the pdfs for Rayleigh and Rician fading, it can be shown

that the pdf for the case of slow shadowing is given by

p (r ) =

exp

r 2 d0

( ln r

2d 0

(3.40)

47

The effects of shadowing on the transmitted signal are typically longer-term

than those of multipath fading. Intuitively, trees or buildings can obstruct

communications over several seconds, whereas the phase and amplitude of the

multipath signal components may vary over fractions of a second, the time it takes

the vehicle to move a fraction of a wavelength [4, 5, 15].

3.6

A more detailed model of the combined effects of fading and shadowing in terms

of the signal envelope and phase is provided in [46]. The performance of DSCDMA is examined in [8, 16]. Additional information may be found in [1, 1719].

3.6.1

p ( ) =

b0

1

exp

2 d0 0 z

( ln z )2

2d 0

r2 + z2

2b0

) I ( rz b ) dz

(3.41)

where is again a Rayleigh distributed random variable, is the mean value due

to shadowing, d0 is the standard deviation due to shadowing, and b0 is the

multipath power.

3.6.2

[4, 5, 16]. By comparison, note that the phase distribution is uniform in Rayleigh

fading [3] where m and are the mean and standard deviations of the phase.

()

p =

exp

( m)

(3.42)

3.1 for light, average, and heavy shadowing at L-band. For additional information,

the reader is referred to [4].

48

Table 3.1

Typical LMS channel parameters (L-band)

3.7

3.7.1

Parameter

Light

Average

Heavy

b0

0.158

0.126

0.0631

0.115

-0.115

-3.91

d0

0.115

0.161

0.806

0.36

0.45

0.52

Coherence bandwidth (f0)

In multipath scattering, the components of the signal travel over paths of different

lengths to reach the receiver, as illustrated by Figure 3.2. The result is signal delay

spread, relative to the LOS component. As the severity of the multipath scattering

increases, so does the delay spread.

The channel may be viewed as a filter. The broader the impulse response in

the time domain, the narrower the bandwidth in the frequency domain. The

coherence, or frequency selective, bandwidth is proportional to the inverse of the

root mean square (rms) delay spread of the signal (td). From [20], f0 ~ (2td)-1. The

minimum f0 limits the maximum modulation rate (Rs) possible, without

experiencing frequency selective fading (Rs < f0).

The coherence bandwidth affects signal processing and tracking. Mitigation of

frequency selective fading may require adaptive equalization. Alternatively,

antenna directivity may be employed to compensate for the effects of delay spread,

at a cost in terms of the scattering loss. The coherence bandwidth also influences

the maximum DS-CDMA spread bandwidth and the potential utility of hybrid

FH/DS-CDMA.

3.7.2

The coherence length limits the useful antenna size (D < l0), beyond which

additional DSP is required (e.g., angular equalization through the use of a smart

array antenna). l0 is related to 3dB (3dB (180/)(D/)). The larger the antenna

aperture, the narrower the beamwidth, which increases the scattering loss, where

applicable. When the signal is scattered due to multipath, the portion of the energy

that is scattered outside of the 3dB is a measure of the scattering loss.

3.7.3

Motion-induced Doppler (Bd) in the frequency domain reduces the coherence time

of the signal. Bd = fc /c, where v is the velocity of the mobile, fc is the carrier

49

Multipath fading:

Results from signal scattering

Frequency and velocity dependant

Scattering loss

Delay spread

Frequency spread

Coherence bandwidth

Coherence length

Coherence time

to the inverse of Bd: 0 (2Bd)1 [20] .

Fading may be fast or slow relative to the ratio of the coherence time to the

channel symbol duration (0/Ts). The coherence time influences the selection of

modulation and coding, as well as processing techniques such as interleaving. The

minimum 0 limits the lowest modulation rate. Typically, 0 > 10Ts is required for

proper operation with PSK signals (i.e., phase coherence). The maximum 0

determines the interleaver requirements (e.g., the span and depth).

3.7.4

addition to scattering loss, it also contributes to deep fades and affects signal

processing and tracking.

3.8

( (t ))

c ( ,t ) =

N

n =1

( t ) exp j ( t )

n

(3.43)

the dirac delta function. The quantity (t) is the phase of the received signal.

50

(

) = E x (t ) x ( t + )

) cos

( ) sin

= E rx ( t ) rx ( t +

= (

) cos

E ry ( t ) rx ( t +

)

sin

(3.44)

It can be shown that (t) = () and that for isotropic scattering, () becomes [14]

) = 1 cos ( cos ) d

2 2

= J ( )

2

d

(3.45)

The Doppler power spectral density (PSD) of () is the Fourier transform of ():

S ( f ) = F ( )

f fd

2

( )

S f =

1 (

(3.46)

( ) G ( ) + p ( ) G ( )

f ( f f )

2

d

p

12

(3.47)

This expression is useful because it captures the dependence of the Doppler PSD

on the angle of incidence relative to the receive antenna, as well as the gain of the

receive antenna.

3.8.1

For the case of an omnidirectional vertical whip antenna with unity gain in all

directions G() = 1 and p()

p

S( f ) becomes

( ) = 21

(3.48)

S( f )=

1

f fc

fd

1

3.8.2

12

51

(3.49)

For the general case of an antenna with directivty (e.g., a directive beam antenna)

and peak gain G = G0 directed along the path of the vehicles motion

S( f ) =

2G0

fd

f fc

1

fd

3.9

(3.50)

distribution [13, 20]. It may also be modeled via other distributions, such as the

impulse, or a combination of impulse and exponential distributions [13, 21].

Antenna directivity can have a significant impact on the effective PDS seen by the

receiver. Two cases are examined in isotropic muiltipath scattering: (1) a general

model for the case of an omni antenna, and (2) a simple directive antenna.

3.9.1

Pi =

Ai +

2

i

(3.51)

An +

2

j

2

rms

=

P

2

n

Pn

(3.52)

delay path experiences complex Gaussian fading [21] in which case, there is no

LOS component (i.e., An 2 = 0 for all n). This is a Rayleigh fading channel.

However, Rayleigh fading is not necessarily the norm in all cases [21], and the

LMS channel may be modeled as a Rician [1, 4, 5], for example, with K = 10 [1].

Thus, both LOS, and diffuse or scattered, components are present. For the diffuse

52

components, isotropic scattering is assumed. This implies that - < < and the

phase distribution is uniform.

3.9.2

In the case of a directive antenna, the long delay paths are deemphasized relative

to the LOS components (i.e., components arriving within the 3dB beamwidth of

the antenna pattern). In principle, this reduces the delay spread, which results in an

increase in the effective coherence bandwidth, since the coherence bandwidth is

proportional to the inverse of the delay spread [20]. This potentially simplifies

receiver design (e.g., adaptive equalization may not be required, multiuser

detection may be simplified). It can also reduce the destructive combining due to

signal components arriving out of phase and, therefore, effectively increase the

direct to multipath signal power ratio. Essentially, the channel is less severe (i.e.,

AWGN or Rician instead of Rayleigh fading). This can have a significant impact

on performance and power, at a cost in terms of increased scattering loss (i.e., for

the signal scattered outside the antenna beamwidth).

The delay profile given a directive antenna can be modeled using the two

component method of [21]

P

( ) = A ( )+ B

exp n

n =0

(

n

(3.53)

determined from measurements. The parameter is the discrete spacing in the

delay profile. In the case of a DS-CDMA system, with spread bandwidth W, =

1/W.

The first term, A(), is the main component. It is analogous to the LOS

component(s) of the received signal. It may also be viewed as the components

received within the 3-dB beamwidth of the antenna. The second term is the

exponential delay component. The quantity A + B ( = 0) is the average path gain

(i.e., the average gain seen by the paths at the antenna). From [21], given that P()

is a density function

A = K 0 (1 + K 0 )

(3.54)

and

(1 exp

B=

(1 + K )

0

(3.55)

An illustration is provided in Figure 3.3. In this example, the peak path gain at

has been normalized, such that, A + B = 1 (i.e., A = 0.5 and B = 0.5). From the

relationship [21]

53

A = K0 1 + K0

(3.56)

it can be shown that K0 = 1 in this example. This means that the direct to diffuse

signal power ratio is equal, which corresponds to a Rayleigh fading channel. In

Chapter 7, the impact of antenna directivity will be examined further for more

general antenna designs.

3.10

FADING RATE

The frequency and duration of fading events are important statistical parameters.

Deep fades tend to occur less frequently and their duration tends to be shorter than

that of shallower fades.

3.10.1

The level crossing rate (LCR) is defined as the expected rate at which the fading

signal envelope crosses a specified signal level (r = R) in the positive direction [1,

8, 13, 14]. The average number of level crossings (NR) is given by

( )

N R = rp R, r dr

(3.57)

where r is the time derivative of r(t) the slope of the level crossing and p ( R, r )

is the joint pdf of r and at r = R.

1.20

1.00

0.80

0.60

0.40

0.20

0.00

0

Figure 3.3 The impact of antenna directivity relative gain versus delay.

54

3.10.2

p ( R, r ) =

R

exp R 2 2 p0

p0

exp r 2b2

2 b2

(3.58)

b2 = 2

f d2 p0

(3.59)

Thus, the LCR is related to the maximum Doppler shift fd and, therefore, to the

relative velocity between the transmitter and receiver (e.g., the LMS terminal and

the satellite). Finally, NR may be evaluated from the expression [22]

N R = 2 f d exp

(3.60)

where = R/Rrms and Rrms is the root mean square amplitude of the fading signal

(i.e., local to the level crossing), Rrms = 2b0 .

3.10.3

In the case of Rician fading, the expression for the average number of level

crossings remains the same, except that p(R, r ) becomes [13]

p r, r, ,

r2

exp 1 2 r 2 b0 + r 2 b2 + r 2

4 2 b0 b2

b2

)

(3.61)

in which case,

NR =

3.11

3.11.1

b2

b0

exp

2

(3.62)

Average fade duration

where

P (r R)

NR

(3.63)

( )

()

r

r2

dr = 1 exp

exp

2 p0

p0

P r R = p r dr =

0

55

(3.64)

such that

3.11.2

exp

( ) 1

(3.65)

fd

In addition to the average fade rate and the average fade duration, it is also useful

to understand the fraction of time that a signal level meets or exceeds a minimum

acceptable level (e.g., for the purposes of link availability, receiver sensitivity, or

automatic gain control threshold or quantization levels). As an example, the case

of Rayleigh fading will be considered.

The pdf for Rayleigh amplitude fading is

p (r ) =

r

2

r2

exp 2 dr

2

(3.66)

Rayleigh amplitude fading to be transformed into an expression for fading power

10

P( < x)

10-1

10

-2

10

-3

10

-4

-30

-25

-20

-15

-10

-5

x=10 log(/2 ) dB

2

10

56

p(

)=

exp

2

2

2

(3.67)

A plot of p( < x) is provided in Figure 3.4, where x denotes a given fading power

threshold.

Availability = 1 p (

(3.68)

3.12

SUMMARY

Due to mobility and location of the terminals, the LMS channel differs from that of

the common SATCOM channel. In addition to AWGN, LMS systems may

experience degradation due to factors including mutipath fading, shadowing, and

increased Doppler shift. These factors must be accounted for in the design of both

the ground segment (terminals) and the space segment (satellite).

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57

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[22] W. Jakes, Jr., (Ed.), Microwave Mobile Communications, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1982.

58

Law of sines and cosines

cos ( A + B ) = cos A cos B sin A sin B

sin ( A B ) = cos A sin B cos B sin A

Complex numbers

z = x + jy = r exp j t

r = x2 + y2

= tan

y

x

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