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Chapter 3

Land Mobile Satellite Communication


Channel
The design of a good communication system begins with a thorough understanding
of the communication channel. The objective is to provide reliable communication
that meets the QoS objectives, without overdesigning the system. If the channel
model is not sufficiently accurate, the communication system is likely to be
ineffective in that it is either under- or overdesigned. An underdesigned system
will not be able to achieve and maintain the QoS requirements. Alternatively, an
overdesigned system will be unnecessarily complex and costly. This may be
especially true in the case of LMS systems, given the need for small, low-cost
terminals and practical limitations on processing power.
LMS communication systems must be capable of operation over a wide range
of channel conditions. An illustration of an LMS link is provided in Figure 3.1.
Due to a combination of terminal mobility and potential use under nonideal
conditions from a SATCOM perspective (e.g., low elevation angles), the LMS
channel is more susceptible to impairments, such as:

Multipath fading;

Shadowing;

Doppler shift;

Interference.

Scattering of the signal leads to multipath fading. Shadowing occurs when the
signal is blocked, for example, buildings, trees, and hills. It is common in urban
environments and mountain regions. The relative velocity between the satellite and
a mobile terminal (e.g. vehicular) induces a Doppler shift. Additionally,
interference is possible from terrestrial systems and other satellite systems and
from self-interference, in the form of multiple access environment (MAI). The
focus of this chapter is on channel effects related to signal propagation. Various
models have been proposed for LMS and will be considered.

39

40

IP/ATM Mobile Satellite Networks

vsatellite

S h ad o w in g

S c a t te r in g
LOS

vterminal
Figure 3.1 The LMS channel.

3.1

MULTIPATH FADING

The LMS channel is characterized by multipath fading. Multipath results from


signal scattering, which may occur for many reasons, such as reflections off
buildings, trees, hills, and other objects and from satellite motion and atmospheric
effects. As will be shown, the scattered signal components may combine either
constructively or destructively at the receiver. The severity of the multipath
channel is dependent on the carrier frequency, link geometry, and relative velocity
between the satellite and the mobile terminals. In addition to signal fading,
multipath can lead to delay spread, frequency spread, and angle of arrival
variations. Key waveforms design issues include the coherence bandwidth,
coherence time, and coherence length, which will be examined in Section 3.7.
As illustrated by Figure 3.1, the received signal at the mobile terminal may be
viewed as a combination of:

Diffuse scattered components;

Direct or line-of-sight (LOS) components;

Indirect specular components.

Additionally, the LOS and specular signal components are subject to the effects of
shadowing.
3.1.1

Rayleigh fading and the diffuse multipath signal components

From the central limit theorem, a process may be modeled as a Gaussian random
process, as the number (N) of signal components becomes large. In this case, N is

Land Mobile Satellite Communication Channel

41

the number of signal components and the process is a complex Gaussian random
process. As described in [1], the components are narrowband, provided that the
Doppler shift is much smaller than the carrier frequency and the process is wide
sense stationary over periods that are short relative to signal variations. Further, a
Gaussian process that is wide sense stationary is stationary [12].
Consider a complex Gaussian random process u(t):

()

u t =

n =1

cn exp j

t+

(3.1)

and cn, n and n are the amplitude, angular frequency, and phase of the nth signal
component, where the phase is uniformly distributed between 0 and 2.
3.1.2

The signal

From [1, 37], a sinusoidal signal with power normalized to unity


s (t ) = cos (

t+


(3.2)

transmitted over a multipath fading channel arrives at the receiver as a linear


combination of many component signals (n = 1 to N) each with a complex random
amplitude attenuation and phase shift

() () (

r t = u t cos

t+

)


(3.3)

which can be expressed as

{ ()

()

r t = Re u t exp j c t +

)}

(3.4)

Given u(t) = a(t) + jb(t), where a(t) and b(t) are independent and identically
distributed narrowband Gaussian random processes:

()

{( ( )

( ))

r t = Re a t + jb t exp j c t +

)}

(3.5)

From the relationship in Appendix 3A, it can be shown that




a ( t ) = Re

cn exp j (

t+

t+

n =1

=


n =1

cn cos (

t+

cn sin (

t+

(3.6)

(3.7)

and


b ( t ) = Im

cn exp j (


n =1

N
n =1

42

3.2

IP/ATM Mobile Satellite Networks

RAYLEIGH FADING PROCESS AND THE DIFFUSE SIGNAL


COMPONENTS

The received signal can be expressed in the form

()

()

()

r t = a t cos c t b t sin c t

(3.8)

where ac(t) and as(t) are narrowband zero mean independent Gaussian random
variables with variance

()

()

= var b t

var a t

= 2

(3.9)

which represents the power of the diffuse signal and wc is the carrier frequency in
radians wc = 2fc.
We may define the envelope and phase of the received signal at any given
time as

()

()

t = a t

()

+b t

(3.10)

and

()
a (t )
b t

()

t = tan 1

(3.11)

Finally, the diffuse component of the received can be expressed as


r (t )

diffuse

=


N
n =1

cn cos (

t+

t+


) = (t ) cos (


t + (t )

(3.12)

This is a Rayleigh distributed random variable with uniformly distributed phase


over [0 to 2]. The Rayleigh probability density function is [3]


p (r ) =


r2
exp 2
2

r
2

(3.13)

The power of the received multipath signal is


2


=


N
n =1

This is also the quantity b0 in [4, 5].

cn 2

(3.14)

Land Mobile Satellite Communication Channel

3.3

43

RICIAN FADING AND THE LOS AND SPECULAR SIGNAL


COMPONENTS

The Rayleigh distribution applies where the signal is scattered and there is no
direct or specular component. It is in fact a special case of a more general
distribution. In most cases, the LMS signal will be received with LOS and specular
components, as well as diffuse components.
3.3.1

LOS and specular components

Let us define the direct LOS component as

r (t )

LOS

= A cos (

t+

t)

(3.15)

and the specular component as


r (t )

specular

= B cos (

t+

t + 0 )

(3.16)

where 0 is an arbitrary phase, d = 2fd and fd is the Doppler frequency shift, A is


the amplitude of the LOS signal component, and B is the amplitude of the specular
component. Note that, unlike the multipath signal components, the relation
between the LOS and specular signal components is not necessarily random.
The LOS and specular signal components can be expressed in terms of inphase (c) and quadrature (s) contributions:
c

( t ) = A cos

t + B cos (

t + 0 )

(3.17)

( t ) = A cos

t + B sin (

t + 0 )

(3.18)

The composite received signal, in the absence of shadowing, can then be expressed
as

()

() ()

x t = c t + a t

= A cos d t + B cos d t + 0 +

()

N
n =1

(3.19)

(3.20)

cn cos n t + n

() ()

y t = s t + b t

= A cos d t + B sin d t + 0 +
where the envelope is given by

N
n =1

cn sin n t + n

44

IP/ATM Mobile Satellite Networks

(t ) = x (t )

+ y (t )

(3.21)


 y (t ) 

( t ) = tan 1 
 x (t ) 

(3.22)

Again, for large N, x(t) and y(t) are Gaussian random variables.
The received signal with LOS, specular, and diffuse components can then be
expressed in narrowband form
r ( t ) = x ( t ) cos (

t +

) y ( t ) sin (

t +

(3.23)

This is identical to
r (t ) = r (t )


LOS

+ r (t )

specular

+ r (t )

diffuse

( t ) exp

j ( t )


(3.24)

It can be shown [1] that the received signal is a Rician distributed random variable.
3.3.2

Rician fading

Slow, flat fading in the LMS channel may be modeled using the Rician amplitude
fading distribution [1, 811].
The joint pdf of independent Gaussian random variable x(t) and y(t) is given
by


p ( x, y ) = p ( x ) p ( y ) =

1
x2
exp 2
2
2 


2


y2
exp 2
2

(3.25)

Let
x (t ) =

(t ) cos (t )

(3.26)

y (t ) =

( t ) sin ( t )

(3.27)

and

The joint pdf of and is given by




p ( , ) =

exp


2 

+ A2 2 cos
2 2

(3.28)

Land Mobile Satellite Communication Channel

p(

)=

p ( , ) d =

exp


45

2 

+ A2 2 cos
2 2

d


(3.29)

This becomes



 A 
+ A2
exp
I0  2 
2 2



p(

)= 

(3.30)

This is a zeroth order Bessel function of the first kind, and A is the amplitude of
the LOS component
I0 ( z ) =

1
2

exp 2cos (


)


(3.31)


Finally [1], the pdf for the Rician fading channel can be expressed in the form

()

2 1 + K exp K 2 1 + K

I0 2

K 1+ K

(3.32)

0; < 0

where is a Rayleigh distributed random variable characterized by the parameter


K, which is the ratio of the LOS and the specular signal power, to the diffuse signal
power
2


K=

2


A2 + B 2 + 2 AB cos 0
2 2

(3.33)

The LOS signal components arrive in-phase at the receiver. Intuitively, for
ease of discussion, we may consider that the LOS component of the signal consists
of all components that arrive within the 3-dB beamwidth (3dB) of the receive
antenna pattern. This is not a precise definition, but it serves to introduce the
relationship between signal fading and the antenna design. This point will be
considered further in Chapter 7. For now we note that when all of the signal energy
is received within 3dB, scattering is negligible, K = 0, and the channel is
equivalent to that of AWGN. If a fraction of the signal energy is received within
3dB and the remainder is scattered outside, 0 < K < is characterized by Rician
fading. K can be any value, dependent on the severity of the fading; however, K =
10 provides a nominal point of reference for the LMS channel [1, 10, 11]. The
limiting case, K = 0 is Rayleigh amplitude fading, which means that the LOS
component is negligible, as consistent with severe signal scattering and multipath
fading conditions.

46

3.4

IP/ATM Mobile Satellite Networks

NAKAGAMI FADING MODEL

Nakagami m-distribution is an alternative to the Rician fading model. The general


form of the Nakagami m-distribution is [2, 12]


mr 2
2m m r 2 m 1
1
exp

, m
p (r ) =
m

2
(m)


(3.34)

The Nakagami m-distribution may be related to the Rician distribution through the
following translation [1, 12]:
m2 m

K=
3.5

(3.35)

m m2 m

SHADOWING AND THE LOGNORMAL MODEL

Shadowing is the result of blockage from buildings, trees, and other factors. It is
often modeled using a lognormal distribution. A general form of the fading process
with shadowing m(t) is provided by [4, 5, 79, 13, 14]:
r (t ) = m (t )

r (t )


LOS

+ r (t )

specular

+ r (t )

(3.36)

diffuse

which becomes
r (t ) = m (t )


c + ac ( t ) + j m ( t )


s + as ( t ) =


( t ) exp


j ( t )


(3.37)

where


(t ) =

()

m t

()

+a t

()

+ m t

()

+b t

(3.38)

and

()

t = tan 1

()
m (t )
m t

s
c

()
+ b (t )

+a t

(3.39)

Similar to the analysis of the pdfs for Rayleigh and Rician fading, it can be shown
that the pdf for the case of slow shadowing is given by


p (r ) =

exp


r 2 d0


( ln r
2d 0

(3.40)

Land Mobile Satellite Communication Channel

47

which is a lognormal distribution, where is the mean and d0 is the variance.


The effects of shadowing on the transmitted signal are typically longer-term
than those of multipath fading. Intuitively, trees or buildings can obstruct
communications over several seconds, whereas the phase and amplitude of the
multipath signal components may vary over fractions of a second, the time it takes
the vehicle to move a fraction of a wavelength [4, 5, 15].
3.6

SHADOWING AND FADING (LOOS MODEL)

A more detailed model of the combined effects of fading and shadowing in terms
of the signal envelope and phase is provided in [46]. The performance of DSCDMA is examined in [8, 16]. Additional information may be found in [1, 1719].
3.6.1

Shadowing and fading (Loos model)

From [4, 5], the signal envelope is


p ( ) =

b0

1
exp
2  d0 0 z

 ( ln z )2



2d 0

r2 + z2
2b0

)  I ( rz b ) dz


(3.41)

where is again a Rayleigh distributed random variable, is the mean value due
to shadowing, d0 is the standard deviation due to shadowing, and b0 is the
multipath power.
3.6.2

The signal phase

The received signal phase may be approximated using a Gaussian distribution


[4, 5, 16]. By comparison, note that the phase distribution is uniform in Rayleigh
fading [3] where m and are the mean and standard deviations of the phase.

()

p =

exp

( m)

(3.42)

A summary of typical LMS channel model parameters is provided in Table


3.1 for light, average, and heavy shadowing at L-band. For additional information,
the reader is referred to [4].

48

IP/ATM Mobile Satellite Networks


Table 3.1
Typical LMS channel parameters (L-band)

3.7
3.7.1

Parameter

Light

Average

Heavy

b0

0.158

0.126

0.0631

0.115

-0.115

-3.91

d0

0.115

0.161

0.806

0.36

0.45

0.52

FREQUENCY, TIME, AND SPACE SELECTIVE FADING


Coherence bandwidth (f0)

In multipath scattering, the components of the signal travel over paths of different
lengths to reach the receiver, as illustrated by Figure 3.2. The result is signal delay
spread, relative to the LOS component. As the severity of the multipath scattering
increases, so does the delay spread.
The channel may be viewed as a filter. The broader the impulse response in
the time domain, the narrower the bandwidth in the frequency domain. The
coherence, or frequency selective, bandwidth is proportional to the inverse of the
root mean square (rms) delay spread of the signal (td). From [20], f0 ~ (2td)-1. The
minimum f0 limits the maximum modulation rate (Rs) possible, without
experiencing frequency selective fading (Rs < f0).
The coherence bandwidth affects signal processing and tracking. Mitigation of
frequency selective fading may require adaptive equalization. Alternatively,
antenna directivity may be employed to compensate for the effects of delay spread,
at a cost in terms of the scattering loss. The coherence bandwidth also influences
the maximum DS-CDMA spread bandwidth and the potential utility of hybrid
FH/DS-CDMA.
3.7.2

Coherence length (l0)

The coherence length limits the useful antenna size (D < l0), beyond which
additional DSP is required (e.g., angular equalization through the use of a smart
array antenna). l0 is related to 3dB (3dB (180/)(D/)). The larger the antenna
aperture, the narrower the beamwidth, which increases the scattering loss, where
applicable. When the signal is scattered due to multipath, the portion of the energy
that is scattered outside of the 3dB is a measure of the scattering loss.
3.7.3

Coherence time (0)

Motion-induced Doppler (Bd) in the frequency domain reduces the coherence time
of the signal. Bd = fc /c, where v is the velocity of the mobile, fc is the carrier

Land Mobile Satellite Communication Channel

49

Multipath fading:
Results from signal scattering
Frequency and velocity dependant

Multipath fading leads to:


Scattering loss
Delay spread
Frequency spread

Key design issues:


Coherence bandwidth
Coherence length
Coherence time

Figure 3.2 The impact of multipath fading.

frequency, and c = 3108 m/s. The coherence, or decorrelation, time is proportional


to the inverse of Bd: 0 (2Bd)1 [20] .
Fading may be fast or slow relative to the ratio of the coherence time to the
channel symbol duration (0/Ts). The coherence time influences the selection of
modulation and coding, as well as processing techniques such as interleaving. The
minimum 0 limits the lowest modulation rate. Typically, 0 > 10Ts is required for
proper operation with PSK signals (i.e., phase coherence). The maximum 0
determines the interleaver requirements (e.g., the span and depth).
3.7.4

Angle of arrival deviation (0)

The angle of arrival deviation is inversely proportional to the coherence length. In


addition to scattering loss, it also contributes to deep fades and affects signal
processing and tracking.
3.8

POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY

 
( (t ))

Consider a channel described by the time variant impulse response


c ( ,t ) =

 
N

n =1

( t ) exp  j ( t )
n

(3.43)

where c(,t) is the channel response at time t to an impulse at time t = and () is


the dirac delta function. The quantity (t) is the phase of the received signal.

50

IP/ATM Mobile Satellite Networks

From [1, 7, 14, 20],


(

) = E  x (t ) x ( t + )



) cos
( ) sin

= E rx ( t ) rx ( t +
= (

) cos



E ry ( t ) rx ( t +

)

sin

(3.44)

It can be shown that (t) = () and that for isotropic scattering, () becomes [14]

 ) = 1  cos (   cos ) d 
2 2 

= J (  )
2
d

(3.45)

The Doppler power spectral density (PSD) of () is the Fourier transform of ():

 
S ( f ) = F  (  )

f fd

2 

( )

S f =

1 (



(3.46)

( ) G ( ) + p ( ) G ( )
f ( f f )
2
d

From [13, 14], the PSD can also be expressed as


p

12

(3.47)

This expression is useful because it captures the dependence of the Doppler PSD
on the angle of incidence relative to the receive antenna, as well as the gain of the
receive antenna.
3.8.1

Case 1 (omni antenna)

For the case of an omnidirectional vertical whip antenna with unity gain in all
directions G() = 1 and p()
p

S( f ) becomes

( ) = 21

  

(3.48)

Land Mobile Satellite Communication Channel

S( f )=

1


f fc
fd

1


3.8.2

12

51

(3.49)

Case 2 (directive antenna)

For the general case of an antenna with directivty (e.g., a directive beam antenna)
and peak gain G = G0 directed along the path of the vehicles motion
S( f ) =

2G0


fd

f fc
1
fd


3.9

(3.50)

POWER DELAY SPECTRUM

The power delay spectrum (PDS) is typically modeled via an exponential


distribution [13, 20]. It may also be modeled via other distributions, such as the
impulse, or a combination of impulse and exponential distributions [13, 21].
Antenna directivity can have a significant impact on the effective PDS seen by the
receiver. Two cases are examined in isotropic muiltipath scattering: (1) a general
model for the case of an omni antenna, and (2) a simple directive antenna.
3.9.1

Case 1 (omni antenna)

From [21], the delay profile of a wireless channel may be expressed as


Pi =

Ai +

2
i

(3.51)

An +

2
j

and the rms delay spread is




2
rms


=


P

2
n

Pn

(3.52)


Traditionally, a wireless channel is modeled based on the assumption that each


delay path experiences complex Gaussian fading [21] in which case, there is no
LOS component (i.e., An 2 = 0 for all n). This is a Rayleigh fading channel.
However, Rayleigh fading is not necessarily the norm in all cases [21], and the
LMS channel may be modeled as a Rician [1, 4, 5], for example, with K = 10 [1].
Thus, both LOS, and diffuse or scattered, components are present. For the diffuse

52

IP/ATM Mobile Satellite Networks

components, isotropic scattering is assumed. This implies that - < < and the
phase distribution is uniform.
3.9.2

Case 2 (directive antenna)

In the case of a directive antenna, the long delay paths are deemphasized relative
to the LOS components (i.e., components arriving within the 3dB beamwidth of
the antenna pattern). In principle, this reduces the delay spread, which results in an
increase in the effective coherence bandwidth, since the coherence bandwidth is
proportional to the inverse of the delay spread [20]. This potentially simplifies
receiver design (e.g., adaptive equalization may not be required, multiuser
detection may be simplified). It can also reduce the destructive combining due to
signal components arriving out of phase and, therefore, effectively increase the
direct to multipath signal power ratio. Essentially, the channel is less severe (i.e.,
AWGN or Rician instead of Rayleigh fading). This can have a significant impact
on performance and power, at a cost in terms of increased scattering loss (i.e., for
the signal scattered outside the antenna beamwidth).
The delay profile given a directive antenna can be modeled using the two
component method of [21]
P

( ) = A ( )+ B


exp n


n =0

(


n


(3.53)

where A, B, and 0 are constants, dependent on the channel, which may be


determined from measurements. The parameter is the discrete spacing in the
delay profile. In the case of a DS-CDMA system, with spread bandwidth W, =
1/W.
The first term, A(), is the main component. It is analogous to the LOS
component(s) of the received signal. It may also be viewed as the components
received within the 3-dB beamwidth of the antenna. The second term is the
exponential delay component. The quantity A + B ( = 0) is the average path gain
(i.e., the average gain seen by the paths at the antenna). From [21], given that P()
is a density function
A = K 0 (1 + K 0 )

(3.54)

and

(1 exp


B=

(1 + K )
0

(3.55)

An illustration is provided in Figure 3.3. In this example, the peak path gain at
has been normalized, such that, A + B = 1 (i.e., A = 0.5 and B = 0.5). From the
relationship [21]

Land Mobile Satellite Communication Channel

53

A = K0 1 + K0

(3.56)

it can be shown that K0 = 1 in this example. This means that the direct to diffuse
signal power ratio is equal, which corresponds to a Rayleigh fading channel. In
Chapter 7, the impact of antenna directivity will be examined further for more
general antenna designs.
3.10

FADING RATE

The frequency and duration of fading events are important statistical parameters.
Deep fades tend to occur less frequently and their duration tends to be shorter than
that of shallower fades.
3.10.1

Level crossing rate

The level crossing rate (LCR) is defined as the expected rate at which the fading
signal envelope crosses a specified signal level (r = R) in the positive direction [1,
8, 13, 14]. The average number of level crossings (NR) is given by

( )

N R = rp R, r dr

(3.57)

where r is the time derivative of r(t) the slope of the level crossing and p ( R, r )
is the joint pdf of r and at r = R.

1.20

Relative path gain

1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00
0

Figure 3.3 The impact of antenna directivity relative gain versus delay.

54

3.10.2

IP/ATM Mobile Satellite Networks

Case 1 (Rayleigh fading)

For the case of a Rayleigh fading channel [8, 22],

p ( R, r ) =

R
exp R 2 2 p0
p0


exp r 2b2

2 b2

(3.58)

where b2 is the second moment

b2 = 2

f d2 p0

(3.59)

Thus, the LCR is related to the maximum Doppler shift fd and, therefore, to the
relative velocity between the transmitter and receiver (e.g., the LMS terminal and
the satellite). Finally, NR may be evaluated from the expression [22]


N R = 2 f d exp

(3.60)

where = R/Rrms and Rrms is the root mean square amplitude of the fading signal
(i.e., local to the level crossing), Rrms = 2b0 .
3.10.3

Case 2 (Rician fading)

In the case of Rician fading, the expression for the average number of level
crossings remains the same, except that p(R, r ) becomes [13]


p r, r, ,


r2
exp 1 2 r 2 b0 + r 2 b2 + r 2
4 2 b0 b2


b2

)


(3.61)

in which case,

NR =
3.11
3.11.1

b2
b0

exp


2


(3.62)

RAYLEIGH FADE STATISTICS


Average fade duration

The average fade duration D of a fade below r = R is [8]




where

P (r R)
NR

(3.63)

Land Mobile Satellite Communication Channel

( )

()

r
r2
dr = 1 exp
exp
2 p0
p0

P r R = p r dr =
0

55

(3.64)

such that

3.11.2

exp

( ) 1

(3.65)

fd


Availability in multipath fading

In addition to the average fade rate and the average fade duration, it is also useful
to understand the fraction of time that a signal level meets or exceeds a minimum
acceptable level (e.g., for the purposes of link availability, receiver sensitivity, or
automatic gain control threshold or quantization levels). As an example, the case
of Rayleigh fading will be considered.
The pdf for Rayleigh amplitude fading is
p (r ) =

r
2

r2
exp 2 dr
2


(3.66)

Let = r , then dr dp = 1 2 1 2 . This substitution allows the equation for


Rayleigh amplitude fading to be transformed into an expression for fading power

10

P( < x)

10-1

10

-2

10

-3

10

-4

-30

-25

-20

-15

-10

-5

x=10 log(/2 ) dB
2

Figure 3.4 Availability in Rayleigh fading. Probability P( < x) versus level x.

10

56

IP/ATM Mobile Satellite Networks

p(

)=

exp


2


2


2


(3.67)

A plot of p( < x) is provided in Figure 3.4, where x denotes a given fading power
threshold.

Availability = 1 p (

(3.68)

3.12

SUMMARY

Due to mobility and location of the terminals, the LMS channel differs from that of
the common SATCOM channel. In addition to AWGN, LMS systems may
experience degradation due to factors including mutipath fading, shadowing, and
increased Doppler shift. These factors must be accounted for in the design of both
the ground segment (terminals) and the space segment (satellite).

REFERENCES
[1] E. Biglieri, D. Divsalar, P. McLane, and M. Simon, Introduction to Trellis-Coded Modulation
with Applications, Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, 1991.
[2] A. Papoulis, Probability of Random Variables and Stochastic Processes, McGraw-Hill, New
York 1984.
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58

IP/ATM Mobile Satellite Networks

APPENDIX 3A: Useful Equations


Law of sines and cosines
cos ( A + B ) = cos A cos B sin A sin B

cos ( A B ) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B

sin ( A + B ) = cos A sin B + cos B sin A


sin ( A B ) = cos A sin B cos B sin A
Complex numbers
z = x + jy = r exp j t



  


r = x2 + y2
= tan

y
x

r exp + j t = cos t + j sin t




r exp j t = cos t j sin t